Mālinīvijayottaratantra (Malini Vijaya Uttara Tantra) - Chapter 3 - Sanskrit & Trika Shaivism
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 Mālinīvijayottaratantra (Malini Vijaya uttara Tantra): Chapter 3 - Non-dual Shaivism of Kashmir

Normal translation


 Introduction

photo 2 - candlesMālinīvijayottaratantra continues. This third chapter consists of 68 stanzas. I am adding my explanation under every stanza or group of stanzas. Most of the time my explanation is based on glorious Tantrāloka composed by the eminent Abhinavagupta (the Greatest Trika Master). I may also include now and then quotes from other important scriptures in order to shed more light on a certain subject. Additionally, every time I can I am trying to include didactic charts to make the things much more understandable. To understand long enumerations is always difficult from mere text. So, I take the trouble, after assimilating all the teachings Śiva displays by text, to exhibit the same teachings but in a chart format. All in all, my work explaining these cryptic stanzas is always a heavy one. I need to read many scriptures at the same time (not only Tantrāloka) and explore the viewpoints of numerous scholars as well. To translate a scripture in Sanskrit is always something more artistic than scholarly.

There are three sources of Śiva's Grace: (1) Śiva Himself, (2) His scriptures (e.g. Mālinīvijayottaratantra) and (3) the human Guru. So, consider the present scripture to be a quite a powerhouse of Grace. Even mere reading without understanding much will prove a source of wonders for you. This is like this because He revealed all these teachings only for the elevation of the humankind.

I offer my efforts to the unfathomable Śiva who brought to light this exquisite Mālinīvijayottaratantra, the greatest Tantra in the Trika Shaivism's tradition according to venerable Abhinavagupta. Read Mālinīvijayottaratantra and experience Supreme Delight, dear Śiva.

Important: All that is in brackets and italicized within the translation has been added by me in order to complete the sense of a particular phrase or sentence. In turn, all that is between double hyphen (--...--) constitutes clarifying further information also added by me.

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 Chapter 3

अथ
तृतीयोऽधिकारः।

Atha
Tṛtīyo'dhikāraḥ|

And now (atha) the third (tṛtīyaḥ) chapter (adhikāraḥ)|


एवमुक्ता महादेवी जगदानन्दकारिणा।
प्रणिपत्य पुनर्वाक्यमिदमाह जगत्पतिम्॥१॥

Evamuktā mahādevī jagadānandakāriṇā|
Praṇipatya punarvākyamidamāha jagatpatim||1||

The Great Goddess --Śakti-- (mahā-devī) was thus spoken (evam uktā) by the One who produces Jagadānanda --Śiva-- (jagat-ānanda-kāriṇā). After bowing down (praṇipatya) to the Lord of the world --to Śiva-- (jagat-patim), She again said (punar... āha) these words (vākyam idam)||1||

After the Great Lord spoke to the Great Goddess so in the second chapter, She opens here the third chapter called 'Mantroddhāra' (The selection or extraction of mantra-s) with more questions for Him. He produces Jagadānanda because gives the viewpoint in which the entire universe is perceived only as being Himself.


एवमेतन्महादेव नान्यथा समुदाहृतम्। -
यथाख्यातं तथा ज्ञातमादितः समनुक्रमात्॥२॥

Evametanmahādeva nānyathā samudāhṛtam|
Yathākhyātaṁ tathā jñātamāditaḥ samanukramāt||2||

Oh Great God (mahā-deva)! This (etad) which has been declared (by You) (samudāhṛtam) is like this (evam) (and) not otherwise (na anyathā). I have understood --lit. understood-- (jñātam) exactly (yathā... tathā) what You have said --lit. said-- (ākhyātam) in succession (samanukramāt), from the (very) beginning (āditaḥ) --i.e. I have understood all you said in the previous two chapters, from beginning to end--||2||

Now Śakti confirms the Śiva's teachings in the previous chapter. Not only that, She says that She has understood everything from beginning to end.


शिवादिवस्तुरूपाणां वाचकान्परमेश्वर।
साम्प्रतं श्रोतुमिच्छामि प्रसादाद्वक्तुमर्हसि॥३॥

Śivādivasturūpāṇāṁ vācakānparameśvara|
Sāmprataṁ śrotumicchāmi prasādādvaktumarhasi||3||

Oh Supreme Lord (parama-īśvara)! Now (sāmpratam) I wish (icchāmi) to listen (śrotum) about the 'vācaka-s' or 'denoters' --lit. to the 'vācaka-s' or 'denoters'-- (vācakān) of the forms of realities such as Śiva, etc. (śiva-ādi-vastu-rūpāṇām). Please, kindly speak (about this subject-matter) (prasādāt vaktum arhasi)||3||

Now She wants to receive teachings about the 'mantra-s', which are always denoters (subjects) and never something being denoted (objects). She wants to know about the mantra-s of Śiva, the three goddesses (Parā, Parāparā and Aparā), etc.


इत्युक्तः स महेशान्या जगदार्तिहरो हरः।
वाचकानवदन्मन्त्रान्पारम्पर्यक्रमागतान्॥४॥

Ityuktaḥ sa maheśānyā jagadārtiharo haraḥ|
Vācakānavadanmantrānpāramparyakramāgatān||4||

He (saḥ), Hara --Śiva-- (haraḥ) —the Destroyer of pain in the world (jagat-ārtiharo)—, having been so said (iti-uktaḥ) by the Great Mistress (mahā-īśānyā), started to speak --lit. spoke-- (avadat) about the 'vācaka-s' or 'denoters' (vācakān), i.e. about the mantra-s (mantrān) which come through an uninterrupted succession (of Guru-s and disciples) (pāramparya-krama-āgatān)||4||

And Śiva is then going to please the Great Goddess by means of a long dissertation about mantra-s. These mantra-s come, without any interruption, from immemorial time, through the eternal relationship of Guru-disciple. In other words, the Guru passes a mantra over to his disciple and the latter gets Liberation with this mantra. Next, this disciple becomes a Guru and hands the same mantra over to his own disciple, and so on and on.


या सा शक्तिर्जगद्धातुः कथिता समवायिनी।
इच्छात्वं तस्य सा देवि सिसृक्षोः प्रतिपद्यते॥५॥

Yā sā śaktirjagaddhātuḥ kathitā samavāyinī|
Icchātvaṁ tasya sā devi sisṛkṣoḥ pratipadyate||5||

The Power (sā śaktiḥ) who (yā) belongs to the Creator (dhātuḥ) of the world (jagat) is said to be (kathitā) inherent in (Him) (samavāyinī). Oh Goddess (devi), She (sā) changes into the Will (icchātvam... pratipadyate) of that (Creator) (tasya) (when) He is desirous to manifest (sisṛkṣoḥ) (the universe)||5||

I explain the whole set of 12 stanzas from the 5th one to the 16th one under the 16th stanza.


सैकापि सत्यनेकत्वं यथा गच्छति तच्छृणु।
एवमेतदिति ज्ञेयं नान्यथेति सुनिश्चितम्॥६॥
ज्ञापयन्ती जगत्यत्र ज्ञानशक्तिर्निगद्यते।
एवम्भूतमिदं वस्तु भवत्विति यदा पुनः॥७॥
जाता तदैव तत्तद्वत्कुर्वत्यत्र क्रियोच्यते।
एवं सैषा द्विरूपापि पुनर्भेदैरनेकताम्॥८॥
अर्थोपाधिवशाद्याति चिन्तामणिरिवेश्वरी।
तत्र तावत्समापन्ना मातृभावं विभिद्यते॥९॥
द्विधा च नवधा चैव पञ्चाशद्धा च मालिनी।
बीजयोन्यात्मकाद्भेदाद्द्विधा बीजं स्वरा मताः॥१०॥

Saikāpi satyanekatvaṁ yathā gacchati tacchṛṇu|
Evametaditi jñeyaṁ nānyatheti suniścitam||6||
Jñāpayantī jagatyatra jñānaśaktirnigadyate|
Evambhūtamidaṁ vastu bhavatviti yadā punaḥ||7||
Jātā tadaiva tattadvatkurvatyatra kriyocyate|
Evaṁ saiṣā dvirūpāpi punarbhedairanekatām||8||
Arthopādhivaśādyāti cintāmaṇiriveśvarī|
Tatra tāvatsamāpannā mātṛbhāvaṁ vibhidyate||9||
Dvidhā ca navadhā caiva pañcāśaddhā ca mālinī|
Bījayonyātmakādbhedāddvidhā bījaṁ svarā matāḥ||10||

Listen (tad śṛṇu) how (yathā) She (sā) becomes (gacchati) many (anekatvam) even though (api) She is (satī) one (ekā):

By announcing (jñāpayantī) with determination (suniścitam) that 'This (etad) knowable or object (jñeyam) (is) like this (evam... iti), (and) not (na) otherwise (anyathā... iti)!', She is called (nigadyate) Power of Knowledge (jñāna-śaktiḥ) in this world (jagati atra).

However (punar), when (yadā) She appears (jātā) (like this:) 'Let this thing become (idam vastu bhavatu) so (evam-bhūtam... iti)!', then (tadā eva), by making (kurvatī) that --the aforesaid thing-- (tad) in this way (tad-vat) here --in this world-- (atra), She is said to be (ucyate) (the Power of) Action (kriyā).

Thus (evam), though (api) this very (Goddess) (sā eṣā) has two (main) forms (dvi-rūpā), She nevertheless undergoes (punar... yāti) many (anekatām) changes (bhedaiḥ), according to (vaśāt) the characteristics (upādhi) of the (desired) objects (artha). (Consequently, this) Mistress (īśvarī) (is) like (iva) a thought-gem (cintā-maṇiḥ) --which yields its possessor all desires--.

Then (tatra), (when the Mistress) firstly assumes the condition (tāvat samāpannā... bhāvam) of Mother (mātṛ), She is divided (vibhidyate) into two ways (dvidhā) and (ca... ca eva) in nine ways (navadhā), and (ca) (when such a Mistress is divided) in fifty ways (pañcāśaddhā), (She becomes) a wearer of a garland (mālinī) (made out of the fifty letters of the Sanskrit alphabet).

With the division consisting (ātmakāt bhedāt) of bīja (bīja) (and) yoni (yoni), She appears in two ways (dvidhā). The vowels (svarāḥ) are considered as (matāḥ) bīja or seed (bījam)||6-10||

I explain the whole set of 12 stanzas from the 5th one to the 16th one under the 16th stanza.

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 Stanzas 11 to 24

कादिभिश्च स्मृता योनिर्नवधा वर्गभेदतः।
प्रतिवर्णविभेदेन शतार्धकिरणोज्ज्वला॥११॥

Kādibhiśca smṛtā yonirnavadhā vargabhedataḥ|
Prativarṇavibhedena śatārdhakiraṇojjvalā||11||

Beginning with ka, etc. (ka-ādibhiḥ), She is said to be (smṛtā) yoni or womb (yoniḥ) --i.e. the consonants are regarded as yoni--. (Therefore,) according to the division (bhedatas) of the varga-s or groups of letters (varga), (She appears) in nine ways (navadhā). (And) according to the division (vibhedena) of each of letters (prati-varṇa), She shines (ujjvalā) as fifty (śata-ardha) rays (kiraṇa) --since there are fifty letters in the Sanskrit alphabet--||11||

I explain the whole set of 12 stanzas from the 5th one to the 16th one under the 16th stanza.


बीजमत्र शिवः शक्तिर्योनिरित्यभिधीयते।
वाचकत्वेन सर्वापि शम्भोः शक्तिश्च सस्यते॥१२॥

Bījamatra śivaḥ śaktiryonirityabhidhīyate|
Vācakatvena sarvāpi śambhoḥ śaktiśca śasyate||12||

In this (context) (atra), bīja --vowel-- (bījam) (and) yoni --consonant-- (yoniḥ) are called --lit. is called-- (iti abhidhīyate) Śiva (śivaḥ) (and) Śakti (śaktiḥ). And (ca) the Śakti --the Power-- (śaktiḥ) of Śambhu (śaṁbhoḥ), who --i.e. the Śakti-- is the Totality (sarvā api), is praised (in the scriptures) (śasyate) as the denoting One (vācakatvena)||12||

I explain the whole set of 12 stanzas from the 5th one to the 16th one under the 16th stanza.


वर्गाष्टकमिह ज्ञेयमघोराद्यमनुक्रमात्।
तदेव शक्तिभेदेन माहेश्वर्यादि चाष्टकम्॥१३॥

Vargāṣṭakamiha jñeyamaghorādyamanukramāt|
Tadeva śaktibhedena māheśvaryādi cāṣṭakam||13||

The set of eight (aṣṭakam) groups of letters (varga) here (iha) is known as (jñeyam) Aghora, etc. (aghora-ādyam), in succession (anukramāt). And (ca) that (tad) very (eva) (set of eight groups of letters), according to the division (bhedena) of śakti-s or powers (śakti), has a set of eight (deities) (aṣṭakam) (such as) Māheśvarī, etc. (māheśvarī-ādi)||13||

I explain the whole set of 12 stanzas from the 5th one to the 16th one under the 16th stanza.


माहेशी ब्राह्मणी चैव कौमारी वैष्णवी तथा।
ऐन्द्री याम्या च चामुण्डा योगीशी चेति ता मताः॥१४॥

Māheśī brāhmaṇī caiva kaumārī vaiṣṇavī tathā|
Aindrī yāmyā ca cāmuṇḍā yogīśī ceti tā matāḥ||14||

They --i.e. the eight deities of the eight groups of letters-- (tāḥ) are believed to be (the following ones) (matāḥ): 'Māheśī --also called Māheśvarī-- (māheśī) and (ca eva) Brāhmaṇī --also called Brāhmī-- (brāhmaṇī), as well as (tathā) Kaumārī (kaumārī) (and) Vaiṣṇavī (vaiṣṇavī); (and also) Aindrī --also called Indrāṇī-- (aindrī) and (ca) Yāmyā --also called Vārāhī-- (yāmyā), (along with) Cāmuṇḍā (cāmuṇḍā) and (ca) Yogīśī --also called Yogīśvarī or Mahālakṣmī-- (yogīśī... iti)'||14||

I explain the whole set of 12 stanzas from the 5th one to the 16th one under the 16th stanza.


शतार्धभेदभिन्नानां तत्सङ्ख्यानां वरानने।
रुद्राणां वाचकत्वेन कल्पिताः परमेष्ठिना॥१५॥

Śatārdhabhedabhinnānāṁ tatsaṅkhyānāṁ varānane|
Rudrāṇāṁ vācakatvena kalpitāḥ parameṣṭhinā||15||

Oh lovely-faced One (vara-ānane)!, She has been manufactured (kalpitā) by the Highest Lord (parameṣṭhinā) as being indicator (vācakatvena) of the Rudra-s (rudrāṇām), whose number amounts (saṅkhyānām) to that (tad), i.e. to the fifty different divisions (śata-ardha-bheda-bhinnānām) (that She assumed in the form of fifty letters of the Sanskrit alphabet)||15||

I explain the whole set of 12 stanzas from the 5th one to the 16th one under the 16th stanza.


तद्वदेव च शक्तीनां तत्सङ्ख्यानमनुक्रमात्।
सर्वं च कथयिष्यामि तासां भेदं यथा शृणु॥१६॥

Tadvadeva ca śaktīnāṁ tatsaṅkhyānamanukramāt|
Sarvaṁ ca kathayiṣyāmi tāsāṁ bhedaṁ yathā śṛṇu||16||

And (ca), in the same way (tad-vat eva), (She was made fiftyfold by the Highest Lord again, as being indicator) of the śakti-s (of such Rudra-s) --viz. the celebrated Rudrāṇī-s-- (śaktīnām)(whose quantity amounts) to that number --i.e. to fifty-- (tad-saṅkhyānam) --Sanskrit structure here is a little far-fetched anyway--— in succession (anukramāt). (Now,) I will mention (kathayiṣyāmi) (the names of) all (the Rudra-s) (sarvam ca) in accordance with (yathā) their --of the śakti-s or powers-- (tāsām) division (bhedam). Listen (śṛṇu)!||16||

The Power of the Great Lord (i.e. Śakti) is inherent in Him (i.e. in Śiva), viz. She 'naturally' belongs to Him. There is nothing artificial in this. If you get Him, you get Her, and if you get Her then you get Him too. When He wishes to manifest the universe, She becomes His Icchāśakti (Power of Will) in order to proceed to such universal manifestation. Next, She becomes His Jñānaśakti (Power of Knowledge) by feeling: 'This knowable or object is like this and not otherwise!'. Finally, when She is trying to actualize the universe which was only an idea in the Mind of the Supreme Self, She becomes His Kriyāśakti (Power of Action) in the process. So, She feels: 'Let this thing become so!'.

And after this first creative movement, She has to assume all the aspects of the creation. In this way, She becomes a gazillion of things. But anyway, She never became anything, because She is totally one with Her Lord (with Śiva). She is called 'thought-gem' since She fulfills all the desires Her Master has, i.e. She manifests for Him all the objects which He desired, as it were.

Next, when She becomes Mātṛkā (the mysterious un-understood Mother of all the letters), She is divided in two ways, viz. into vowel and consonant. A vowel is called 'bīja' or 'seed' because it fertilizes the 'yoni' (lit. womb, uterus), that is, the consonant. This is clearly understood if you consider the consonants in this light: You cannot pronounce them without the help of a vowel. For example, 'k'... how to pronounce it properly without the help of a vowel? It is not possible to adequately utter it without the support of a vowel. For instance: 'ka'... now it is easily utterable. So, vowels are seeds which make the consonants or wombs fruitful. Without vowels, the consonants would be just like barren women, unable to procreate. But anyway, the vowels can be pronounced by themselves, that is, without the help of any consonant. All in all, vowels are divine while consonants (in general) are not divine.

Śiva is vowel and Śakti is consonant in this scheme. Yes, everything is Śiva in the end, because Śiva and Śakti are one. This one Reality is divided into two only for the purpose of being studied then.

The Sanskrit alphabet in its traditional form contains 8 varga-s or groups of letters:

  1. A-varga (Vowels), whose presiding deity is Yogīśī or Yogīśvarī or Mahālakṣmī
  2. Ka-varga (Gutturals), whose presiding deity is Brāhmaṇī or Brāhmī
  3. Ca-varga (Palatals), whose presiding deity is Māheśī or Māheśvarī
  4. Ṭa-varga (Cerebrals), whose presiding deity is Kaumārī
  5. Ta-varga (Dentals), whose presiding deity is Vaiṣṇavī
  6. Pa-varga (Labials), whose presiding deity is Yāmyā or Vārāhī
  7. Ya-varga (Semivowels), whose presiding deity is Aindrī or Indrāṇī
  8. Śa-varga (Sibilants, Sonant Aspirate + Kūṭabīja --the conjunct kṣa formed from 'ka + sa' but very often considered to be a letter in itself--), whose presiding deity is Cāmuṇḍā

Now, the alphabet presented in its traditional form 'does not' include Kūṭabīja (the letter kṣa), but when it does, Kūṭabīja is usually assigned to the eighth varga or group (Śa-varga). See:

Chart 1: Traditional Mātṛkā arrangement of the Sanskrit alphabet plus the letter 'kṣa' and the respective presiding deities
Vowels
Yogīśī or Yogīśvarī or Mahālakṣmī A-varga अं अः
a ā i ī u ū e ai o au aṁ aḥ
Consonants
First Group
Subgroups Hard Soft
Unaspirate Aspirate Unaspirate Aspirate Nasals
Brāhmaṇī or Brāhmī Ka-varga
ka kha ga gha ṅa
Māheśī or Māheśvarī Ca-varga
ca cha ja jha ña
Kaumārī Ṭa-varga
ṭa ṭha ḍa ḍha ṇa
Vaiṣṇavī Ta-varga
ta tha da dha na
Yāmyā or Vārāhī Pa-varga
pa pha ba bha ma
Second Group
Aindrī or Indrāṇī Ya-varga
ya ra la va
Third Group
Cāmuṇḍā Śa-varga क्ष
śa ṣa sa ha kṣa

Well, the question of the million is: If there are 8 varga-s or groups, why did the Lord say this above twice?: 'She is divided... in nine ways', and also '... (Therefore,) according to the division of the varga-s or groups of letters, (She appears) in nine ways'. Simple: Kūṭabīja sometimes is regarded as forming its own separate varga, i.e. a Kṣa-varga. In this special case, the total of varga-s would be 9 and not 8. Now that portion of the text should be clear. Look at this:

Chart 2: What the last portion of the previous alphabet looks like when 'kṣa' is isolated and forms its own varga or group
Consonant 'kṣa' abandons the Śa-varga and forms its own 'varga' or 'group'
Śa-varga (eighth one) śa ṣa sa ha
Kṣa-varga (ninth one) kṣa

Now the Kṣa-varga constitutes the brand-new 9th varga. When Śakti appears in this way, a new deity arises: Śiva-Śakti. This goddess will become the presiding deity of the A-varga (the group of vowels), and the other goddess (the one previously presiding over the A-varga) becomes the presiding deity of the new Kṣa-varga. Look again at the previous arrangement (if the Sanskrit alphabet is divided in 8 varga-s):

  1. Yogīśī or Yogīśvarī or Mahālakṣmī (presiding over the A-varga)
  2. Brāhmaṇī or Brāhmī (presiding over the Ka-varga)
  3. Māheśī or Māheśvarī (presiding over the Ca-varga)
  4. Kaumārī (presiding over the Ṭa-varga)
  5. Vaiṣṇavī (presiding over the Ta-varga)
  6. Yāmyā or Vārāhī (presiding over the Pa-varga)
  7. Aindrī or Indrāṇī (presiding over the Ya-varga)
  8. Cāmuṇḍā (presiding over the Śa-varga)

But if the Kṣa-varga (the ninth group of letters) is created, then the order slightly changes (I highlighted in bold letters the change):

  1. Śiva-Śakti (presiding over the A-varga)
  2. Brāhmaṇī or Brāhmī (presiding over the Ka-varga)
  3. Māheśī or Māheśvarī (presiding over the Ca-varga)
  4. Kaumārī (presiding over the Ṭa-varga)
  5. Vaiṣṇavī (presiding over the Ta-varga)
  6. Yāmyā or Vārāhī (presiding over the Pa-varga)
  7. Aindrī or Indrāṇī (presiding over the Ya-varga)
  8. Cāmuṇḍā (presiding over the Śa-varga)
  9. Yogīśī or Yogīśvarī or Mahālakṣmī (presiding over the Kṣa-varga)

And because She shines as 50 rays, these 9 varga-s or groups of letters contain 50 letters. This is the sense.

Śakti, the Power of Śiva or Śambhu, is called the denoting One in the scriptures. This is because She is the Source of all the mantra-s (the denoters or subjects). That is why when one repeats a mantra, his goal is Śakti and not Śiva. But again, when you get Śakti you get Śiva. So, in the end, the mantra method ends in formless Śiva. Śakti is the Face of Śiva, i.e. She makes Him have a form which can be realized by the sincere spiritual aspirants.

Now, in the stanza 13, Śiva analyzes the last 8 varga-s or groups of letters out of the 9 varga-s already enunciated (the vowels are excluded here). And not only this but He also says that the set of eight groups of letters is known as Aghora, etc. in succession. What is this? I will explain it to you:

Śiva is referring to the male consorts of the śakti-s mentioned in the upcoming Parāparā's mantra (which will be explained later in this chapter). These male consorts, if my memory serves me well, are the 8 Vijñānākala-s awakened by Śiva (see Mālinīvijayottaratantra I, 18-21). In turn, these male consorts have eight associate deities, which were already mentioned above (i.e. Māheśī or Māheśvarī, Brāhmaṇī or Brāhmī, etc.) but the goddesses Brāhmaṇī or Brāhmī and Māheśī or Māheśvarī along with Yāmyā or Vārāhī and Aindrī or Indrāṇī exchange their respective positions now. So, according to this teaching, the eight groups of letters would look like this:

  1. Śiva-Śakti (presiding over the A-varga - Vowels) ------> Śambhu (this group is excluded in the stanza 13)
  2. Māheśī or Māheśvarī (presiding over the Ka-varga) ------> Aghora
  3. Brāhmaṇī or Brāhmī (presiding over the Ca-varga) ------> Paramaghora
  4. Kaumārī (presiding over the Ṭa-varga) ------> Ghorarūpa (or Ghora, plainly)
  5. Vaiṣṇavī (presiding over the Ta-varga) ------> Ghoramukha
  6. Aindrī or Indrāṇī (presiding over the Pa-varga) ------> Bhīma
  7. Yāmyā or Vārāhī (presiding over the Ya-varga) ------> Bhīṣaṇa
  8. Cāmuṇḍā (presiding over the Śa-varga) ------> Vamana
  9. Yogīśī or Yogīśvarī or Mahālakṣmī (presiding over the Kṣa-varga) ------> Pibana (or Pivana)

Now this should look a little more clear for you.

Regarding the stanza 14, I want to make this point very clear:

The order given in the stanza 14 for the 8 groups of letters (not the 9 ones in this case) is not the real order of the deities with reference to the respective varga-s or groups of letters. In the stanza, the author (Śiva) arranged the names of the goddesses in a way which meets the meter requirements. What do I mean by all this? First, the order given in the stanza is as follows:

  1. Māheśī or Māheśvarī
  2. Brāhmaṇī or Brāhmī
  3. Kaumārī
  4. Vaiṣṇavī
  5. Aindrī or Indrāṇī
  6. Yāmyā or Vārāhī
  7. Cāmuṇḍā
  8. Yogīśī or Yogīśvarī or Mahālakṣmī

But the real order, according to the traditional way, is like this:

  1. Yogīśī or Yogīśvarī or Mahālakṣmī
  2. Brāhmaṇī or Brāhmī
  3. Māheśī or Māheśvarī
  4. Kaumārī
  5. Vaiṣṇavī
  6. Yāmyā or Vārāhī
  7. Aindrī or Indrāṇī
  8. Cāmuṇḍā

The Power of God also became 50 letters of the Sanskrit alphabet, each of them having two special presiding deities (Rudra and Rudrāṇī). There are 16 Rudra-s and 16 Rudrāṇī-s for the vowels and 34 Rudra-s (plus 34 Rudrāṇī-s) for the consonants. Śiva is about to mention their names next.


अमृतोऽमृतपूर्णश्च अमृताभोऽमृतद्रवः।
अमृतौघोऽमृतोर्मिश्च अमृतस्यन्दनोऽपरः॥१७॥
अमृताङ्गोऽमृतवपुरमृतोद्गार एव च।
अमृतास्योऽमृततनुस्तथा चामृतसेचनः॥१८॥
तन्मूर्तिरमृतेशश्च सर्वामृतधरोऽपरः।
षोडशैते समाख्याता रुद्रबीजसमुद्भवाः॥१९॥

Amṛto'mṛtapūrṇaśca amṛtābho'mṛtadravaḥ|
Amṛtaugho'mṛtormiśca amṛtasyandano'paraḥ||17||
Amṛtāṅgo'mṛtavapuramṛtodgāra eva ca|
Amṛtāsyo'mṛtatanustathā cāmṛtasecanaḥ||18||
Tanmūrtiramṛteśaśca sarvāmṛtadharo'paraḥ|
Ṣoḍaśaite samākhyātā rudrabījasamudbhavāḥ||19||

These (ete) sixteen (Rudra-s) (ṣoḍaśa) are proclaimed (samākhyātāḥ) as having been produced from the seeds --the vowels-- of Rudra --Śiva-- (rudra-bīja-samudbhavāḥ):

Amṛta (amṛtaḥ), Amṛtapūrṇa (amṛtapūrṇaḥ), Amṛtābha (amṛtābhaḥ), Amṛtadrava (amṛtadravaḥ), Amṛtaugha (amṛtaughaḥ), Amṛtormi (amṛtormiḥ), Amṛtasyandana (amṛtasyandanaḥ), Amṛtāṅga (amṛtāṅgaḥ), Amṛtavapu (amṛtavapuḥ), Amṛtodgāra (amṛtodgāraḥ), Amṛtāsya (amṛtāsyaḥ), Amṛtatanu (amṛtatanuḥ), Amṛtasecana (amṛtasecanaḥ), Amṛtamūrti --lit. the 'mūrti' or 'personification' of that, i.e. of 'Amṛta'-- (tad-mūrti), Amṛteśa (amṛteśaḥ) and --lit. and... and... latter... and... as well as... and... latter-- (ca... ca... aparaḥ... eva ca... tathā ca... ca... aparaḥ) Sarvāmṛtadhara (sarvāmṛtadharaḥ)||17-19||

I explain the whole set of 8 stanzas from the 17th one to the 24th one under the 24th stanza.


जयश्च विजयश्चैव जयन्तश्चापराजितः।
सुजयो जयरुद्रश्च जयकीर्तिर्जयावहः॥२०॥
जयमूर्तिर्जयोत्साहो जयदो जयवर्धनः।
बलश्चातिबलश्चैव बलभद्रो बलप्रदः॥२१॥
बलावहश्च बलवान् बलदाता बलेश्वरः।
नन्दनः सर्वतोभद्रो भद्रमूर्तिः शिवप्रदः॥२२॥
सुमनाः स्पृहणो दुर्गो भद्रकालो मनोनुगः।
कौशिकः कालविश्वेशौ सुशिवः कोप एव च॥२३॥
एते योनिसमुद्भूताश्चतुस्त्रिंशत्प्रकीर्तिताः।
स्त्रीपाठवशमापन्ना एत एवात्र शक्तयः॥२४॥

Jayaśca vijayaścaiva jayantaścāparājitaḥ|
Sujayo jayarudraśca jayakīrtirjayāvahaḥ||20||
Jayamūrtirjayotsāho jayado jayavardhanaḥ|
Balaścātibalaścaiva balabhadro balapradaḥ||21||
Balāvahaśca balavān baladātā baleśvaraḥ|
Nandanaḥ sarvatobhadro bhadramūrtiḥ śivapradaḥ||22||
Sumanāḥ spṛhaṇo durgo bhadrakālo manonugaḥ|
Kauśikaḥ kālaviśveśau suśivaḥ kopa eva ca||23||
Ete yonisamudbhūtāścatustriṁśatprakīrtitāḥ|
Strīpāṭhavaśamāpannā eta evātra śaktayaḥ||24||

These (Rudra-s) (ete) produced from the wombs --i.e. the consonants-- (yoni-samudbhūtāḥ) are said to be (prakīrtitāḥ) thirty-four (catustriṁśat):

Jaya (jayaḥ), Vijaya (vijayaḥ), Jayanta (jayantaḥ), Aparājita (aparājitaḥ), Sujaya (sujayaḥ), Jayarudra (jayarudraḥ), Jayakīrti (jayakīrtiḥ), Jayāvaha (jayāvahaḥ), Jayamūrti (jayamūrtiḥ), Jayotsāha (jayotsāhaḥ), Jayada (jayadaḥ), Jayavardhana (jayavardhanaḥ), Bala (balaḥ), Atibala (atibalaḥ), Balabhadra (balabhadraḥ), Balaprada (balapradaḥ), Balāvaha (balāvahaḥ), Balavān (balavān), Baladātā (baladātā), Baleśvara (baleśvaraḥ), Nandana (nandanaḥ), Sarvatobhadra (sarvatobhadraḥ), Bhadramūrti (bhadramūrtiḥ), Śivaprada (śivapradaḥ), Sumanāḥ (sumanāḥ), Spṛhaṇa (spṛhaṇaḥ), Durga (durgaḥ), Bhadrakāla (bhadrakālaḥ), Manonuga (manonugaḥ), Kauśika (kauśikaḥ), Kāla and Viśveśa (kāla-viśveśau), Suśiva (suśivaḥ) as well as --lit. and... and... and... and... and... and... and... and-- (ca... ca eva... ca... ca... ca... ca eva... ca... eva ca) Kopa (kopaḥ).

(And when the names of) these (50 Rudra-s) (ete) are read in feminine gender --lit. become subject to a reading in feminine gender-- (strī-pāṭha-vaśam āpannāḥ), (then) here --in this context-- (atra) (they are the names of the 50) powers --i.e. the 50 Rudrāṇī-s or consorts of the 50 Rudra-s-- (śaktayaḥ)||20-24||

I will only give the names of the Rudra-s, because the names of their consorts (the Rudrāṇī-s) are easily created by transforming the masculine noun being assigned as a name into its feminine form (e.g. Jaya ---> Jayā). These Rudra-s and their wives are eternally liberated, i.e. they never got Liberation but they were created like this, liberated from the start:

Chart 3: The famous 50 Rudra-s assigned to the vowels and the consonants of the Sanskrit alphabet
The group of fifty Rudra-s
Assigned to the 16 vowels Amṛta, Amṛtapūrṇa, Amṛtābha, Amṛtadrava, Amṛtaugha, Amṛtormi, Amṛtasyandana, Amṛtāṅga, Amṛtavapu, Amṛtodgāra, Amṛtāsya, Amṛtatanu, Amṛtasecana, Amṛtamūrti, Amṛteśa and Sarvāmṛtadhara
Assigned to the 34 consonants Jaya, Vijaya, Jayanta, Aparājita, Sujaya, Jayarudra, Jayakīrti, Jayāvaha, Jayamūrti, Jayotsāha, Jayada, Jayavardhana, Bala, Atibala, Balabhadra, Balaprada, Balāvaha, Balavān, Baladātā, Baleśvara, Nandana, Sarvatobhadra, Bhadramūrti, Śivaprada, Sumanāḥ, Spṛhaṇa, Durga, Bhadrakāla, Manonuga, Kauśika, Kāla, Viśveśa, Suśiva and Kopa

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 Stanzas 25 to 30

बीजयोनिसमुद्भूता रुद्रशक्तिसमाश्रयाः।
वाचकानामनन्तत्वात्परिसङ्ख्या न विद्यते॥२५॥

Bījayonisamudbhūtā rudraśaktisamāśrayāḥ|
Vācakānāmanantatvātparisaṅkhyā na vidyate||25||

(Since the vācaka-s or denoters, i.e. the mantra-s) have arisen from the seeds and the wombs --the vowels and the consonants-- (bīja-yoni-samudbhūtāḥ), they reside in Rudra --Śiva-- and (His) Power --Śakti-- (rudra-śakti-samāśrayāḥ). (Therefore,) there is no (na vidyate) limit to the number (parisaṅkhyā) of vācaka-s or denoters --mantra-s-- (vācakānām) as they are infinite (anantatvāt)||25||

Since Śiva and Śakti are the residences of all these mantra-s, there is no limit to their number. This is very simple to understand.


सर्वशास्त्रार्थगर्भिण्या इत्येवं विधयानया।
अघोरं बोधयामास स्वेच्छया परमेश्वरः॥२६॥

Sarvaśāstrārthagarbhiṇyā ityevaṁ vidhayānayā|
Aghoraṁ bodhayāmāsa svecchayā parameśvaraḥ||26||

Thus (iti-evam), the Supreme Lord (parama-īśvaraḥ), of His own Free Will (sva-icchayā), awakened (bodhayāmāsa) Aghora (aghoram) by means of this method (vidhayā anayā) which is replete with the meaning of all the scriptures (sarva-śāstra-artha-garbhiṇyā)||26||

By means of this method, i.e. by means of His teachings. Aghora is another name for Anantabhaṭṭhāraka, the chief of all the Mantra-s (experients or knowers of Sadvidyā --tattva or category 5--) who manifested 70 million mantra-s.


स तया सम्प्रबुद्धः सन्योनिं विक्षोभ्य शक्तिभिः।
तत्समानश्रुतीन्वर्णांस्तत्सङ्ख्यानसृजत्प्रभुः॥२७॥

Sa tayā samprabuddhaḥ sanyoniṁ vikṣobhya śaktibhiḥ|
Tatsamānaśrutīnvarṇāṁstatsaṅkhyānasṛjatprabhuḥ||27||

He --Aghora-- (saḥ), the powerful lord (of the Mantra-s) (prabhuḥ), being completely awakened (samprabuddhaḥ san) by it --by the method of Śiva-- (tayā), after agitating (vikṣobhya) the Womb --the Śakti or Power of Śiva, i.e. His Svātantryaśakti or Power of Absolute Freedom-- (yonim) with the (very Śiva's) powers (śaktibhiḥ), brought about (asṛjat) the letters (varṇān) of the same number --viz. 50, as the number of the Rudra-s-- (tad-saṅkhyān) (and) the (respective) sounds (of such letters, which are also) of the same number --i.e. 50-- (tat-samāna-śrutīn)||27||

So, it was Aghora who made Śakti become the 50 letters of the Sanskrit alphabet along with their respective sounds. He did so by agitating the Power of the Lord, i.e. His Svātantryaśakti or Power of Absolute Freedom.


ते तैरालिङ्गिताः सन्तः सर्वकामफलप्रदाः।
भवन्ति साधकेन्द्राणां नान्यथा वीरवन्दिते॥२८॥

Te tairāliṅgitāḥ santaḥ sarvakāmaphalapradāḥ|
Bhavanti sādhakendrāṇāṁ nānyathā vīravandite||28||

Oh You who are extolled by the Heroes (vīra-vandite), those (50 letters) (te), being embraced (āliṅgitāḥ santaḥ) by them --by Aghora and the rest of Mantra-s (the knowers themselves)-- (taiḥ), become (bhavanti) the bestowers of the fruits of all the desires (sarva-kāma-phala-pradāḥ) with reference to the best adepts (sādhaka-indrāṇām), (and) this is not otherwise (na anyathā)||28||

Mātṛkā (the mysterious un-understood Mother) is Śakti as the source of all letters. When the disciple finally understands this point, viz. that all his thoughts and words are just the manifestation of the Power of Śiva (His Śakti), when he finally realizes that all these things are not different from Śakti, then at that time, Mātṛkā stops being Mātṛkā (the un-understood Mother) and becomes Mātṛ (the Mother) or the One who provides him with infinite Bliss. And this is not otherwise. According to Trika Shaivism there are three means to the attainment of Liberation: Śāmbhavopāya, Śāktopāya and Āṇavopāya. This process of finally understanding the un-understood Mother happens at the end of Śāktopāya, which directly sends the disciple to Śāmbhavopāya. When Śāmbhavopāya is attained, then Liberation is practically at hand.


तैरिदं सन्ततं विश्वं सदेवासुरमानुषम्।
तेभ्यः शास्त्राणि वेदाश्च सम्भवन्ति पुनः पुनः॥२९॥

Tairidaṁ santataṁ viśvaṁ sadevāsuramānuṣam|
Tebhyaḥ śāstrāṇi vedāśca sambhavanti punaḥ punaḥ||29||

This (idam) universe (viśvam) containing gods, demons and human beings (sa-deva-asura-mānuṣam) (is) uninterruptedly (santatam) (pervaded) by them --by such letters-- (taiḥ). (In the same way, Tantric) scriptures (śāstrāṇi) and (ca) Veda-s (vedāḥ) arise (sambhavanti) from them (tebhyaḥ) over and over again (punar punar)||29||

All the living beings in this universe are pervaded by such letters. What does it mean? It means this, for example: 'You are so intelligent!', and you feel very well, or 'You are such a fool!', and you feel very bad. When someone can stay undisturbed in the face of this kind of phrases, that person is not pervaded by letters, i.e. he is liberated. So, can you use this method to detect liberated people? Not really, because that divine person knows what you are doing and can cheat you back by behaving himself like a common person, i.e. acting as if pervaded by praises or insults. Liberated ones are then known by other liberated ones and not otherwise.

And all the scriptures, which consist of letters forming words, sentences, etc., are obviously arising from letters again and again. This is very easy to understand.


अनन्तस्यापि भेदस्य शिवशक्तेर्महात्मनः।
कार्यभेदान्महादेवि त्रैविध्यं समुदाहृतम्॥३०॥

Anantasyāpi bhedasya śivaśaktermahātmanaḥ|
Kāryabhedānmahādevi traividhyaṁ samudāhṛtam||30||

Oh Great Goddess (mahā-devi), according to the divisions of effects (kārya-bhedāt), it is said (samudāhṛtam) that there are three portions --lit. threefold-- (traividhyam) in the Great Being (mahā-ātmanaḥ) of the Śakti --Power-- of Śiva (śiva-śakteḥ), even if (api) It --the Great Being of the Śakti of Śiva-- contains infinite divisions (anantasya... bhedasya)||30||

According to the divisions of 'kārya' (effects), i.e. according to the divisions of the three kinds of effects (non-dualism, non-dualism/dualism and dualism). These three portions are the three celebrated Aghorā-s, Ghorā-s and Ghoratarī-s powers, which are nothing else than Parā, Parāparā and Aparā powers. So, despite the Power of the Great Lord contains innumerable divisions, it is said that there are three main manifestations of Hers.

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 Stanzas 31 to 41

विषयेष्वेव संलीनानधोऽधः पातयन्त्यणून्।
रुद्राणून्याः समालिङ्ग्य घोरतर्योऽपराः स्मृताः॥३१॥

Viṣayeṣveva saṁlīnānadho'dhaḥ pātayantyaṇūn|
Rudrāṇūnyāḥ samāliṅgya ghorataryo'parāḥ smṛtāḥ||31||

The Ghoratarī-s --lit. very terrible-- (ghorataryaḥ) who (yāḥ), by embracing (samāliṅgya) the Rudra souls --liberated souls-- (rudra-aṇūn), throw (pātayanti) the individual souls (aṇūn) who are clung to (saṁlīnān) objects (viṣayeṣu eva) down and down (adhas adhas), are called (smṛtāḥ) Aparā-s or non-supreme ones (aparāḥ)||31||

These are Aparā powers --non-supreme powers as they create only duality--. They only love liberated people but hate the rest. They are extremely dangerous if you lack knowledge about the Self, because they will throw you down and down if your Śiva's viewpoint (i.e. 'All is Śiva!') fails or is completely absent (as in the case of the ignorant people).


मिश्रकर्मफलासक्तिं पूर्ववज्जनयन्ति याः।
मुक्तिमार्गनिरोधिन्यस्ताः स्युर्घोराः परापराः॥३२॥

Miśrakarmaphalāsaktiṁ pūrvavajjanayanti yāḥ|
Muktimārganirodhinyastāḥ syurghorāḥ parāparāḥ||32||

The Ghorā-s --lit. terrible ones-- (tāḥ... ghorāḥ) who (yāḥ), by generating (janayanti), as before (pūrvavat), attachment (āsaktim) to the fruits (phala) of mixed actions --mixture of good and bad actions-- (miśra-karma), block (nirodhinyaḥ) the path (mārga) to Liberation (mukti), are (syuḥ) Parāparā-s --partly supreme and partly non-supreme-- (parā-aparāḥ)||32||

These are Parāparā powers as they are a mixture of supreme and non-supreme, i.e. they are partly non-dualistic and partly dualistic. These powers are specially dangerous in the case of spiritual aspirants since they generate attachment to the fruits of good and bad actions (e.g. 'I am not advancing in Yoga', in this case, the aspirant is attached to his actions and respective fruits, hence he is worried about the final outcome of his efforts). In this smart way, they block the path to Liberation very effectively.


पूर्ववज्जन्तुजातस्य शिवधामफलप्रदाः।
पराः प्रकथितास्तज्ज्ञैरघोराः शिवशक्तयः॥३३॥

Pūrvavajjantujātasya śivadhāmaphalapradāḥ|
Parāḥ prakathitāstajjñairaghorāḥ śivaśaktayaḥ||33||

The Aghorā-s --lit. not terrible ones-- (aghorāḥ) (are) the powers of Śiva (śiva-śaktayaḥ) (who) bestow (pradāḥ), as before (pūrvavat), the fruit (phala) of the State of Śiva (śiva-dhāma) on the multitude (jātasya) of limited beings --lit. insects-- (jantu). They are eminently called (prakathitāḥ) Parā-s or supreme ones (parāḥ) by the Knowers of That --i.e. by the Knowers of the Supreme Principle-- (tad-jñaiḥ)||33||

These are the powers who bestow, in His name, Liberation on the multitude of conditioned individuals who are all the time afflicted by the massive sickness known as Saṁsāra (Transmigration full of misery). The sages call them Parā powers as they are supreme.


एताः सर्वाणुसङ्घातमपि निष्ठा यथा स्थिताः।
तथा ते कथिताः शम्भोः शक्तिरेकैव शाङ्करी॥३४॥

Etāḥ sarvāṇusaṅghātamapi niṣṭhā yathā sthitāḥ|
Tathā te kathitāḥ śambhoḥ śaktirekaiva śāṅkarī||34||

As (yathā) these (three kinds of śakti-s) (etāḥ) are devoted (niṣṭhāḥ... sthitāḥ) to the whole collection of aṇu-s --i.e. words in first, second and third persons-- (sarva-aṇu-saṅghātam api), therefore (tathā) they have been spoken (kathitāḥ) to You (te) (by Me. Nevertheless,) Śāṅkarī (śāṅkarī), the Power (śaktiḥ) of Śambhu --of Śiva-- (śambhoḥ) (is) only (eva) one (ekā)||34||

The term 'words in first person' indicates 'Śiva' (Śivatattva and Śaktitattva - categories 1 and 2). The term 'words in second person' indicates 'Śakti' (Sadāśivatattva, Īśvaratattva and Sadvidyātattva - categories 3, 4 and 5). Finally, the term 'words in third person' indicates 'nara' (from Māyātattva down to Pṛthivītattva - categories 6 to 36). Abhinavagupta explains this very well in his Parātrīśikāvivaraṇa here and here. Anyway, in spite of all Her never-ending divisions and expansions, one should always remember that Śakti is only 'one'.


अस्या वाचकभेदेन भेदोऽन्यः सम्प्रचक्ष्यते।
यथेष्टफलसंसिद्ध्यै मन्त्रातन्त्रानुवर्तिनाम्॥३५॥

Asyā vācakabhedena bhedo'nyaḥ sampracakṣyate|
Yatheṣṭaphalasaṁsiddhyai mantrātantrānuvartinām||35||

In order to achieve (siddhyai) the desired (yathā-iṣṭa) fruit (phala) in the case of the unrestrained followers (atantra-anuvartinām) of Mantra (mantra), another (anyaḥ) division (bhedaḥ) of these (śakti-s) (asyāḥ) is explained (sampracakṣyate) according to the division of vācaka or denoter --i.e. mantra-- (vācaka-bhedena)||35||

This division into the three abovementioned śakti-s will undergo even another division soon.


विशेषविधिहीनेषु न्यासकर्मसु मन्त्रवित्।
न्यसेच्छाक्तशरीरार्थं भिन्नयोनिं तु मालिनीम्॥३६॥

Viśeṣavidhihīneṣu nyāsakarmasu mantravit|
Nyasecchāktaśarīrārthaṁ bhinnayoniṁ tu mālinīm||36||

With reference to the acts of 'nyāsa' devoid of (any) particular method (viśeṣa-vidhi-hīneṣu nyāsa-karmasu), the knower of the mantra-s --or 'the knower of the Mantra, i.e. of I-consciousness'-- (mantravit) should certainly perform the nyāsa (nyāset... tu) of Mālinī (mālinīm), which contains consonants (and vowels) mixed (bhinna-yoni), for the sake of (artham) the Body (śarīra) of Śakti (śākta... iti)||36||

Nyāsa is the act of placing one's own hands on different parts of body while repeating mantra-s. The purpose in this has to do with attaining identification with particular deities, or else, with achieving full identification between the macrocosm and the microcosm, etc. Here Mālinīnyāsa (the nyāsa in which you place the hands on different parts of your own body while repeating the letters of the Sanskrit alphabet arranged in the Mālinī way, i.e. with vowels and consonants mixing with each other) is recommended. While the well-known Mātṛkā arrangement of the Sanskrit alphabet is based on separating vowels from consonants as shown in my explanation under the stanza 16 in this chapter, i.e. like this:

a ā i ī u ū ṛ ṝ ḷ ḹ e ai o au aṁ aḥ
ka kha ga gha ṅa ca cha ja jha ña ṭa ṭha ḍa ḍha ṇa ta tha da dha na pa pha ba bha ma ya ra la va śa ṣa sa ha kṣa

the Mālinī arrangement joins vowels and consonants together, i.e. it mixes them like this:

na ṛ ṝ ḷ ḹ tha ca dha ī ṇa u ū ba ka kha ga gha ṅa i a va bha ya ḍa ḍha ṭha jha ña ja ra ṭa pa cha la ā sa aḥ ha ṣa kṣa ma śa aṁ ta e ai o au da pha

In a nutshell, in the explanation of Mālinīnyāsa starting in the next stanza, each of these letters in this specific order will be associated with different areas of the body.

And all this is always for the sake of the Body of Śakti, viz. the final goal in doing nyāsa is to attain the Śakti aspect (Sadāśivatattva, Īśvaratattva and Sadvidyā tattva-s) and not to attain either the Śiva aspect (Śivatattva and Śaktitattva) or the nara aspect (tattva-s from Māyā down to Pṛthivī). This is so because the root of all mantra-s is Śakti and not Śiva or nara. This root is Aham or I-consciousness. All in all, when one repeats a mantra, the attention is always going in the end to the root of the mantra, i.e. I-consciousness. In other words, the goal in repeating mantra-s is to realize this Śakti aspect or I-consciousness. This is the meaning.


न शिखा ऋॠ ऌॡ च शिरोमाला थ मस्तकम्।
नेत्राणि च ध वै नासा ई समुद्रे णु णू श्रुती॥३७॥

Na śikhā ṛṝ ḷḹ ca śiromālā tha mastakam|
Netrāṇi ca dha vai nāsā ī samudre ṇu ṇū śrutī||37||

(The letter) 'Na' (na) (is assigned to) the śikhā --lit. flame-- (śikhā) and (ca) 'ṛ', 'ṝ', 'ḷ' (and) 'ḹ' (ṛṝ ḷḹ) (to) the headband --lit. garland of skulls-- (śiras-mālā). 'Tha' (tha) (is assigned to) the (top of the) head (mastakam). 'Ca' (and) 'dha' (ca dha) (are assigned to) the eyes --right and left, respectively-- (netrāṇi) indeed (vai), 'ī' (ī) (to) the nose (nāsā) (and) 'ṇa', 'u' and 'ū' (ṇu ṇū) (to) the ears (śrutī), oh You who are endowed with mudrā-s or seals (samudre)||37||

My explanation of the stanzas 37 to 41 will occur under the stanza 41.


बकवर्गैआ वक्त्रदन्तजिह्वासु वाचि च।
वभयाः कण्ठदक्षादिस्कन्धयोर्भुजयोर्डढौ॥३८॥

Bakavargaiā vaktradantajihvāsu vāci ca|
Vabhayāḥ kaṇṭhadakṣādiskandhayorbhujayorḍaḍhau||38||

'Ba', the ka-varga (consisting of) 'ka, kha, ga, gha and ṅa' (plus) 'i' (and) 'a' (bakavargaiāḥ) (are to be positioned) in mouth, teeth, tongue and speech (vaktra-danta-jihvāsu vāci ca). 'Va', 'bha' (and) 'ya' (vabhayāḥ) (are to be positioned) in throat, right shoulder and left shoulder (kaṇṭha-dakṣa-ādi-skandhayoḥ), (while) 'ḍa' and 'ḍha' (ḍaḍhau) in the arms (bhujayoḥ)||38||

My explanation of the stanzas 37 to 41 will occur under the stanza 41.


ठो हस्तयोर्झञौ शाखा ज्रटौ शूलकपालके।
पहृच्छलौ स्तनौ क्षीरमा स जीवो विसर्गयुक्॥३९॥
तत्परः कथितः प्राणः षक्षावुदरनाभिगौ।
मशांताः कटिगुह्योरुयुग्मगा जानुनी तथा॥४०॥
एऐकारौ तथा जङ्घे तत्परौ चरणौ दफौ।
अतो विद्याश्च मन्त्राश्च समुद्धार्या यथा शृणु॥४१॥

Ṭho hastayorjhañau śākhā jraṭau śūlakapālake|
Pahṛcchalau stanau kṣīramā sa jīvo visargayuk||39||
Tatparaḥ kathitaḥ prāṇaḥ ṣakṣāvudaranābhigau|
Maśāṁtāḥ kaṭiguhyoruyugmagā jānunī tathā||40||
Eaikārau tathā jaṅghe tatparau caraṇau daphau|
Ato vidyāśca mantrāśca samuddhāryā yathā śṛṇu||41||

(The letter) 'ṭha' (ṭhaḥ) (is positioned) in both hands (hastayoḥ), 'jha' and 'ña' (jha-ñau) (are assigned) to the fingers (of the right and left hands) (śākhāḥ), 'ja', 'ra' and 'ṭa' (jraṭau) (are positioned) in śūlaśikhā, śūladaṇḍa and kapāla (śūlakapālake). 'Pa' (is assigned) to the heart (pa-hṛd), 'cha' and 'la' (cha-lau) (are assigned) to both portions of the chest --right and left ones-- (stanau), 'ā' (ā) (is assigned) to the milk (kṣīram), 'sa' (sa) (is assigned) to Self (jīvaḥ), (and) visarga --i.e. 'aḥ'-- (is assigned) to the general prāṇa (visarga-yuk). The next one --i.e. 'ha'-- (tatparaḥ) is said to be (kathitaḥ) (assigned to) the (special) prāṇa (prāṇaḥ). 'Ṣa' and 'kṣa' (ṣa-kṣau) remain in belly and navel (udara-nābhi-gau). 'Ma', 'śa', 'aṁ' and 'ta' (ma-śa-aṁ-tāḥ) remain in buttocks, genitals --and anus too--, and both thighs (kaṭi-guhya-ūru-yugma-gāḥ). Likewise (tathā... tathā), the letters 'e' and 'ai' (e-ai-kārau) (are assigned) to the knees (jānunī). (And) the two next (letters) --i.e. 'o' and 'au'-- (tad-parau) (are assigned) to the shanks --right and left, respectively-- (jaṅghe), (while the final two letters,) viz. 'da' and 'pha' (da-phau) (are assigned) to the feet (caraṇau). For this reason (atas), listen (now) (śṛṇu) how (yathā) Vidyā-s (vidyāḥ) and (ca... ca) Mantra-s (mantrāḥ) are drawn out (samuddhāryāḥ)!||39-41||

Now the aṅganyāsa (the act of placing the hands on different areas of the body while repeating various mantra-s). This practice has as its goal the transformation of the gross physical body into a divine reality by means of assigning sacred sounds to different parts of such physical body. The final result is the promotion of the owner of this physical body to higher states of consciousness. Hence all the effort and time invested in this special practice.

In this case, the aṅganyāsa will be accompanied by the repetition of the Sanskrit alphabet in its Mālinī arrangement:

na ṛ ṝ ḷ ḹ tha ca dha ī ṇa u ū ba ka kha ga gha ṅa i a va bha ya ḍa ḍha ṭha jha ña ja ra ṭa pa cha la ā sa aḥ ha ṣa kṣa ma śa aṁ ta e ai o au da pha

This teaching given from the stanza 37 to the first half of the stanza 41 here, in Mālinīvijayottaratantra, is also given by Abhinavagupta in the chapter 15 of his venerable Tantrāloka (from stanza 121 to the first half of the stanza 125). I will write these stanza-s of Tantrāloka right now. Anyway, even with the Abhinavagupta's exposition, it is not enough to understand five confusing things in this aṅganyāsa: The meanings of 'garland of skulls, śūlaśikhā, śūladaṇḍa, kapāla and milk'. To explain these mysterious terms, I have to resort to the commentary that Jayaratha wrote on Abhinavagupta's Tantrāloka. There is no warranty that this topic will be elucidated anyway, but I do not see another way of shedding light on the meanings of these five words. But first the stanzas in Tantrāloka (chapter 15), which are very similar to the ones in Mālinīvijayottaratantra here:

न शिखा ऋ ॠ ऌ ॡ च शिरोमाला थ मस्तकम्।
नेत्राणि चोर्ध्वे धोऽन्ये ई घ्राणं मुद्रे णु णू श्रुती॥१२१॥
बकवर्गैआ वक्त्रदन्तजिह्वागिरि क्रमात्।
वभया कण्ठदक्षादिस्कन्धयोर्भुजयोर्डढौ॥१२२॥
ठो हस्तयोर्झञौ शाखा ज्रटौ शूलकपालके।
प हृच्छलौ स्तनौ क्षीरमा स जीवो विसर्गयुक्॥१२३॥
प्राणो हवर्णः कथितः षक्षावुदरनाभिगौ।
मशान्ता कटिगुह्योरुयुग्मगा जानुनी तथा॥१२४॥
एऐकारौ तत्परौ तु जङ्घे चरणगौ दफौ।

Na śikhā ṛ ṝ ḷ ḹ ca śiromālā tha mastakam|
Netrāṇi cordhve dho'nye ī ghrāṇaṁ mudre ṇu ṇū śrutī||121||
Bakavargaiā vaktradantajihvāgiri kramāt|
Vabhayā kaṇṭhadakṣādiskandhayorbhujayorḍaḍhau||122||
Ṭho hastayorjhañau śākhā jraṭau śūlakapālake|
Pa hṛcchalau stanau kṣīramā sa jīvo visargayuk||123||
Prāṇo havarṇaḥ kathitaḥ ṣakṣāvudaranābhigau|
Maśāntā kaṭiguhyoruyugmagā jānunī tathā||124||
Eaikārau tatparau tu jaṅghe caraṇagau daphau|

(The letter) 'Na' (na) (is assigned to) the śikhā --lit. flame-- (śikhā) and (ca) 'ṛ', 'ṝ', 'ḷ' (and) 'ḹ' (ṛṝ ḷḹ) (to) the headband --lit. garland of skulls-- (śiras-mālā). 'Tha' (tha) (is assigned to) the (top of the) head (mastakam). And on the forehead (ūrdhve), on the right and on the left (anye), 'ca' (and) 'dha' (ca dha) (are assigned to) the eyes --right and left, respectively-- (netrāṇi), 'ī' (ī) (to) the nose (ghrāṇam) (and) 'ṇa', 'u' and 'ū' (ṇu ṇū) (to) the ears (śrutī), oh You who are endowed with mudrā-s or seals (mudre).

'Ba', the ka-varga (consisting of) 'ka, kha, ga, gha and ṅa' (plus) 'i' (and) 'a' (bakavargaiāḥ) (are to be positioned) in mouth, teeth, tongue and speech (vaktra-danta-jihvā-giri), in succession (kramāt). 'Va', 'bha' (and) 'ya' (vabhayāḥ) (are to be positioned) in throat, right shoulder and left shoulder (kaṇṭha-dakṣa-ādi-skandhayoḥ), (while) 'ḍa' and 'ḍha' (ḍaḍhau) in the arms (bhujayoḥ).

(The letter) 'ṭha' (ṭhaḥ) (is positioned) in both hands (hastayoḥ), 'jha' and 'ña' (jha-ñau) (are assigned) to the fingers (of the right and left hands) (śākhāḥ), 'ja', 'ra' and 'ṭa' (jraṭau) (are positioned) in śūlaśikhā, śūladaṇḍa and kapāla (śūlakapālake). 'Pa' (is assigned) to the heart (pa-hṛd), 'cha' and 'la' (cha-lau) (are assigned) to both portions of the chest --right and left ones-- (stanau), 'ā' (ā) (is assigned) to the milk (kṣīram), 'sa' (sa) (is assigned) to the Self (jīvaḥ), (and) visarga --i.e. 'aḥ'-- (is assigned) to the general prāṇa (visarga-yuk). The letter 'ha'-- (ha-varṇaḥ) is said to be (kathitaḥ) (assigned to) the (special) prāṇa (prāṇaḥ). 'Ṣa' and 'kṣa' (ṣa-kṣau) remain in belly and navel (udara-nābhi-gau). 'Ma', 'śa', 'aṁ' and 'ta' (ma-śa-aṁ-tāḥ) remain in buttocks, genitals --and anus too--, and both thighs (kaṭi-guhya-ūru-yugma-gāḥ). Likewise (tathā), the letters 'e' and 'ai' (e-ai-kārau) (are assigned) to the knees (jānunī). (And) the two next (letters) --i.e. 'o' and 'au'-- (tad-parau) (are assigned) to the shanks --right and left, respectively-- (tu jaṅghe), (while the final two letters,) viz. 'da' and 'pha' (da-phau) remain in the feet (caraṇa-gau)||121-125a||

Now, I will analyze the commentary by Jayaratha on these stanzas in his Tantrālokaviveka (the scholarly commentary on Tantrāloka) in order to trace an satisfactory interpretation about the abovementioned five mysterious terms. And in the process, I will explain other things too:

Regarding the first mysterious word ('śiromālā', lit. garland of skulls), Jayaratha specifies this: 'शिरोमाला कपालारम्भिका।' - Śiromālā kapālārambhikā|' - 'The garland of skulls (śiras-mālā) (is) what holds skulls (kapāla-ārambhikā)|'. Well, this adds nothing really. My translation as 'headband', i.e. as the area of the head covered by a headband looks more useful here.

With respect to the next three mysterious words, 'śūlaśikhā, śūladaṇḍa, kapāla', contained in the expression 'śūlakapālake' in the stanza 39 of Mālinīvijayottaratantra, Jayaratha specifies this: 'ज्रेति दण्डेन सह शूलं तेन शूलस्य दण्डे रेफः शिखासु जकारः। स च उत्तानो येन साक्षात्शूलत्वं स्यात्।' - 'Jreti daṇḍena saha śūlaṁ tena śūlasya daṇḍe rephaḥ śikhāsu jakāraḥ| Sa ca uttāno yena sākṣātśūlatvaṁ syāt|' - '(The letters) ja and ra (jra iti) (are) the trident (śūlam) together with the shaft (daṇḍena saha). Therefore (tena), in the shaft (daṇḍe) of the trident (śūlasya) the letter ra (remains) (rephaḥ) (and) in (its) prongs (śikhāsu) the letter ja (remains) (ja-kāraḥ). By means of placing the (right hand) turned upward (saḥ ca uttānaḥ yena), the form of the trident (śūlatvam) appears (syāt) before one's very eyes (sākṣāt)|'.

Next Jayaratha quotes a stanza from Siddhātantra, in which the trident and its shaft are assigned to the right hand (hence I translated like this above). Nothing is said about the 'kapāla' (skull) and the letter 'ṭa'. But Jayaratha quotes later a stanza of venerable Triśirobhairava, in which it is clearly stated that the letter 'ṭa' is in the left hand. Really, Jayaratha did not expand a lot about this topic of the trident and the skull in the right and left hands.

With reference to the last mysterious word, 'milk', which is connected with the letter 'ā', Jayaratha is not commenting anything at all. Nevertheless, Abhinavagupta, in other portions of his Tantrāloka, considers 'milk' to be 'Amṛta' or the Nectar of Immortality, i.e. the Highest Consciousness.

Very well, these five mysterious words are now elucidated to a certain extent. But there is still the explanation of certain things: I translated "... 'sa' (sa) (is assigned) to the Self (jīvaḥ), (and) visarga --i.e. 'aḥ'-- (is assigned) to the general prāṇa (visarga-yuk). The next one --i.e. 'ha'-- (tatparaḥ) is said to be (kathitaḥ) (assigned to) the (special) prāṇa (prāṇaḥ)...". In this I was following the commentary by Jayaratha to the letter. See: 'जीव इति आत्मा सामान्यप्रानात्मा च। तयोश्च अभेदादेकतया निर्देशस्तेन साक्षादात्मनि सकारः प्राणात्मनि तु विसर्गः। प्राण इति विशिष्टः।' - 'Jīva iti ātmā sāmānyaprānātmā ca| Tayośca abhedādekatayā nirdeśastena sākṣādātmani sakāraḥ prāṇātmani tu visargaḥ| Prāṇa iti viśiṣṭaḥ|' - "'Jīva' (jīvaḥ iti) (is connected with) Self (ātmā) as well as (ca) (with) general prāṇa (sāmānya-prāna-ātmā)| Due to (their) close union (abhedāt), (there is) indication (nirdeśaḥ) of those two --viz. of Self and general prāṇa-- (tayoḥ ca) as being one (ekatayā) --i.e. Self and general prāṇa, because of their close union, are indicated as being one and the same thing--. For that reason (tena), the letter 'sa' (sa-kāraḥ) (is positioned) in the Self in person (sākṣāt ātmani) while (tu) visarga --i.e. 'aḥ'-- (visargaḥ) (is positioned) in the (general) prāṇa (prāṇa-ātmani)| (And) the letter 'ha' --called 'prāṇa' here-- (prāṇaḥ iti) (represents) special (prāṇa) (viśiṣṭaḥ)|". Now it is very clear!

To translate all these things which are so cryptic is always super complicated. I have done my best here in attempting to explain in simple words all this which is so complex and difficult always. And now, to finish this elucidation, a complete chart with the letters following the Mālinī arrangement plus their respective assigned realities:

Chart 4: Aṅganyāsa of Mālinī or placing the hands on various parts of the body while uttering Sanskrit letters following the Mālinī arrangement

of stage
SANSKRIT LETTER IN THE MĀLINĪ ARRANGEMENT
(in Sanskrit)
SANSKRIT LETTER IN THE MĀLINĪ ARRANGEMENT
(transliterated)
ASSIGNED REALITIES
(in Sanskrit)
ASSIGNED REALITIES
(transliterated)
ASSIGNED REALITIES
(translated)
1 na शिखा śikhā flame
(in the position of the famous tuft on the head, read the last three stages in Meditation 6 for clarification)
2 ऋ ॠ ऌ ॡ ṛ ṝ ḷ ḹ शिरोमाला śiromālā lit. garland of skulls
(it is the area around the skull occupied by a headband)
3 tha मस्तकम् mastakam (top of the) head
4 ca दक्षनेत्र dakṣanetra right eye
5 dha वामनेत्र vāmanetra left eye
6 ī नासा nāsā nose
7 ण उ ऊ ṇa u ū श्रुती śrutī ears
8 ba वक्त्र vaktra mouth
9 क ख ग घ ङ ka kha ga gha ṅa दन्ताः dantāḥ teeth
10 i जिह्वा jihvā tongue
11 a वाक् vāk speech
12 va कण्ठ kaṇṭha throat
13 bha दक्षस्कन्ध dakṣaskandha right shoulder
14 ya वामस्कन्ध vāmaskandha left shoulder
15 ḍa दक्षभुज dakṣabhuja right arm
16 ḍha वामभुज vāmabhuja left arm
17 ṭha हस्ताः hastāḥ both hands
18 jha दक्षशाखाः dakṣaśākhāḥ fingers of the right hand
19 ña वामशाखाः vāmaśākhāḥ fingers of the left hand
20 ja शूलशिखा śūlaśikhā the three prongs of the trident
(in the right hand)
21 ra शूलदण्ड śūladaṇḍa the shaft of the trident
(in the right hand)
22 ṭa कपाल kapāla skull
(in the left hand)
23 pa हृत् hṛt heart
24 cha दक्षस्तन dakṣastana right portion of the chest
25 la वामस्तन vāmastana left portion of the chest
26 ā क्षीर kṣīra milk
27 sa जीवः jīvaḥ Self
28 अः aḥ सामान्यप्राण sāmānyaprāṇa general vital energy
29 ha विशिष्टप्राण viśiṣṭaprāṇa special vital energy
30 ṣa उदर udara belly
31 क्ष kṣa नाभि nābhi navel
32 ma कटि kaṭi buttocks
33 śa गुह्य guhya genitals and anus
34 अं aṁ दक्षोरु dakṣoru right thigh
35 ta वामोरु vāmoru left thigh
36 e दक्षजानु dakṣajānu right knee
37 ai वामजानु vāmajānu left knee
38 o दक्षजङ्घ dakṣajaṅgha right shank
39 au वामजङ्घ vāmajaṅgha left shank
40 da दक्षचरण dakṣacaraṇa right foot
41 pha वामचरण vāmacaraṇa left foot

Now, these stanzas have been more or less elucidated, I think.

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 Stanzas 42 to 50

सबिन्दुकां दक्षजङ्घां ततो वाचं प्रकल्पयेत्।
तथैव जङ्घया युक्तं चतुर्थं दशनं ततः॥४२॥

Sabindukāṁ dakṣajaṅghāṁ tato vācaṁ prakalpayet|
Tathaiva jaṅghayā yuktaṁ caturthaṁ daśanaṁ tataḥ||42||

One should arrange (prakalpayet) (the letter assigned to) the right shank --i.e. 'o'-- (dakṣa-jaṅghām) —along with bindu --i.e. 'ṁ'-- (sa-bindukām)—, (and) after that (tatas) (one should add the letter assigned to) the speech --i.e. 'a'-- (vācam). In the same way (tathā eva), (one should add) afterward (tatas) (the letter for) the fourth tooth --i.e. 'gha'-- (caturtham daśanam) joined with (yuktam) (the letter for) the (right) shank --i.e. 'o'-- (jaṅghayā) --all in all, one has so far formed this portion of the mantra: 'Oṁ agho'--||42||

To understand all this one should resort to the Chart 4 under stanzas 39 to 41. I will explain the stanzas 42 to 50 under the 50th stanza.


दक्षजानुयुतं दण्डं प्राणं दण्डस्थमीर्युतम्।
पृथग् घृद्दण्डकटिगा द्विजदण्डौ च पूर्ववत्॥४३॥

Dakṣajānuyutaṁ daṇḍaṁ prāṇaṁ daṇḍasthamīryutam|
Pṛthag ghṛddaṇḍakaṭigā dvijadaṇḍau ca pūrvavat||43||

(After that, one should add the letter for) the śūladaṇḍa --i.e. 'ra'-- (daṇḍam) united with (the letter assigned to) the right knee --i.e. 'e'-- (dakṣa-jānu-yutam). (Afterward, you should join the letter for the special) prāṇa --i.e. 'ha'-- (prāṇam) (and the letter) residing in śūladaṇḍa --i.e. 'ra'-- (daṇḍa-stham) together with (yutam) 'īḥ' (īḥ). (And now,) separately (pṛthak), (one should join the letters) residing in the heart --i.e. 'pa'--, in śūladaṇḍa --i.e. 'ra'-- and in buttocks --i.e. 'ma'-- (hṛd-daṇḍa-kaṭi-gāḥ) (along with the letters for) the (fourth) tooth --i.e. 'gha'-- and śūladaṇḍa --i.e. 'ra'-- (dvija-daṇḍau ca) (but) as before --viz. not like 'ghara' but like 'ghore'-- (pūrva-vat) --summing it up, one has in this stanza formed this portion of the mantra: '(agho)re hrīḥ paramaghore'--||43||

To understand all this one should resort to the Chart 4 under stanzas 39 to 41. I will explain the stanzas 42 to 50 under the 50th stanza.


उत्थितं बिन्दुयुक्प्राणं पूर्ववद्दशनं ततः।
दण्डं केवलमुद्धृत्य वाममुद्रान्वितं पुनः॥४४॥
दक्षजानुयुतं हृच्च प्राणं जीवात्मना युतम्।
दशनं पूर्ववन्न्यस्य दण्डं केवलमेव च॥४५॥
नितम्बं दक्षमुद्रेतं द्वितीयं जिह्वया द्विजम्।
सनासं दक्षशिखरं नितम्बं केवलं ततः॥४६॥

Utthitaṁ binduyukprāṇaṁ pūrvavaddaśanaṁ tataḥ|
Daṇḍaṁ kevalamuddhṛtya vāmamudrānvitaṁ punaḥ||44||
Dakṣajānuyutaṁ hṛcca prāṇaṁ jīvātmanā yutam|
Daśanaṁ pūrvavannyasya daṇḍaṁ kevalameva ca||45||
Nitambaṁ dakṣamudretaṁ dvitīyaṁ jihvayā dvijam|
Sanāsaṁ dakṣaśikharaṁ nitambaṁ kevalaṁ tataḥ||46||

(Now, one should add the letter for special) prāṇa --i.e. 'ha'-- (prāṇam) accompanied by 'u' and 'bindu' (utthitaṁ bindu-yuk). After that (tatas), (one should add the letter for the fourth) tooth --i.e. 'gha'-- (daśanam) (but) as before --viz. not like 'gha' but like 'gho'-- (pūrva-vat), (and) after extracting (uddhṛtya) (the letter assigned to) śūladaṇḍa --i.e. 'ra'-- (daṇḍam) (and adding it to 'gho') only (kevalam), (one should) again (use this 'ra' but) endowed with 'vāmamudrā' --i.e. 'ū'-- (vāma-mudrā-anvitam punar). (Next, one has to add the letter for) the heart --i.e. 'pa'-- (hṛd ca) accompanied by (the letter assigned to) the right knee --i.e. 'e'-- (dakṣa-jānu-yuta). (Next, one should add the letter for special) prāṇa --i.e. 'ha'-- (prāṇam) furnished with (yutam) (the letter assigned to) the nature of the Self --i.e. the letter for the general prāṇa, viz. 'ḥ', usually written 'aḥ' in the alphabet-- (jīva-ātmanā). (Now,) after adding --lit. after placing-- (nyasya) (the letter for the fourth) tooth --i.e. 'gha'-- (daśanam)(but) as before --viz. not like 'gha' but like 'gho'-- (pūrva-vat)— to just (the letter for) śūladaṇḍa --i.e. 'ra'-- (daṇḍam kevalam eva ca), (one has to add now the letter for) the buttock(s) --i.e. 'ma'-- (nitambam) accompanied by 'dakṣamudrā' --i.e. 'u'-- (dakṣa-mudrā-itam). (After that, one should add the letter assigned to) the second teeth --i.e. 'kha'-- (dvitīyam... dvijam) together with the (letter for the) tongue --i.e. 'i'-- (jihvayā). (Later, one has to add the letter for) the right shoulder --lit. armpit-- --i.e. 'bha'-- (dakṣa-śikharam) plus (the letter for) nose --i.e. 'ī'-- (sa-nāsam). Afterward (tatas), (one should) just (add the letter for) the buttock(s) --i.e. 'ma'-- (nitambam kevalam) --in a nutshell, one has in these three stanzas formed the following portion of the mantra: 'huṁ ghorarūpe haḥ ghoramukhi bhīma'--||44-46||

To understand all this one should resort to the Chart 4 under stanzas 39 to 41. I will explain the stanzas 42 to 50 under the 50th stanza.


पुनस्तथैव शिखरं जठरं केवलं ततः।
दक्षजानुयुतं कर्णं कण्ठं केवलमेव च॥४७॥
नितम्बं केवलं न्यस्य हृदयं जिह्वया युतम्।
वक्त्रं केवलमुद्धृत्य प्राणमाद्येन जानुना॥४८॥

Punastathaiva śikharaṁ jaṭharaṁ kevalaṁ tataḥ|
Dakṣajānuyutaṁ karṇaṁ kaṇṭhaṁ kevalameva ca||47||
Nitambaṁ kevalaṁ nyasya hṛdayaṁ jihvayā yutam|
Vaktraṁ kevalamuddhṛtya prāṇamādyena jānunā||48||

(And) again (punar) so (tathā eva), (one should add the letter for the right) shoulder --lit. armpit-- --i.e. 'bha'-- (śikharam) to just (the letter for) the belly --i.e. 'ṣa'-- (jaṭharam kevalam). After that (tatas), (one has to add the letter assigned to the) ear(s) --i.e. 'ṇa'-- (karṇam) accompanied by (the letter for) the right knee --i.e. 'e'-- (dakṣa-jānu-yutam). (Now, one should add) only (the letter for) the throat --i.e. 'va'-- (kaṇṭham kevalam eva ca). (Next,) after fixing (nyasya) just (the letter for) the buttock(s) --i.e. 'ma'-- (nitambam kevalam) (to the previous letter 'va', one must add the letter for) the heart --i.e. 'pa'-- (hṛdayam) along with (yutam) (the letter for) the tongue --i.e. 'i'-- (jihvayā). (Later on,) after extracting (uddhṛtya) just (the letter for) the mouth --i.e. 'ba'-- (vaktram kevalam), (one should add the letter for) the (special) prāṇa --i.e. 'ha'-- (prāṇam) together with (the letter for) the right knee --lit. the first knee-- --i.e. 'e'-- (ādyena jānunā) --in other words, one has in these two stanzas formed the following portion of the mantra: 'bhīṣaṇe vama piba he'--||47-48||

To understand all this one should resort to the Chart 4 under stanzas 39 to 41. I will explain the stanzas 42 to 50 under the 50th stanza.


शूलदण्डचतुष्कं च तत्राद्यं द्वयसंस्थितम्।
वामपादं च तस्यान्ते कपालं पतितं न्यसेत्॥४९॥

Śūladaṇḍacatuṣkaṁ ca tatrādyaṁ dvayasaṁsthitam|
Vāmapādaṁ ca tasyānte kapālaṁ patitaṁ nyaset||49||

(Now, one should add) śūla --i.e. 'u'-- and the group of four (letters for) '(śūla)daṇḍa' --i.e. 'ra, ra, ra, ra'-- (śūla-daṇḍa-catuṣkam ca). There --in that group-- (tatra), (one should repeat) the first (letter) --i.e. 'u'-- twice --viz. 'ru', 'ru'-- (ādyam dvaya-saṁsthitam). (Next, one has to add the letter for) the left foot --i.e. 'pha'-- (vāma-pādam ca), and at the end of that --i.e. of 'pha'-- (tasya ante), one should place (the letter assigned to) the śūlakapāla --i.e. 'ṭa'-- (kapālam patitam nyaset) --viz. one has in this stanza formed the following portion of the mantra: 'ru ru ra ra phaṭ'--||49||

To understand all this one should resort to the Chart 4 under stanzas 39 to 41. I will explain the stanzas 42 to 50 under the 50th stanza.


ततः परमघोरान्तं पाद्यकाद्ये च पूर्ववत्।
परापरा समाख्याता अपरा च प्रकथ्यते॥५०॥

Tataḥ paramaghorāntaṁ pādyakādye ca pūrvavat|
Parāparā samākhyātā aparā ca prakathyate||50||

After that (tatas), (one should add the bījamantra-s) which are at the end of 'paramaghore' (in this mantra) --i.e. 'huṁ' and 'haḥ'-- (paramaghora-antam). (Next, one should add) the letters 'pha' and 'ṭa' --i.e. 'phaṭ'-- (pādya-kādye ca) as before (pūrva-vat). (Thus, it has been) proclaimed (samākhyātā) the Parāparā's mantra (parā-aparā) --viz. the mantra 'Oṁ aghore hrīḥ paramaghore huṁ ghorarūpe haḥ ghoramukhi bhīma bhīṣaṇe vama piba he ru ru ra ra phaṭ huṁ haḥ phaṭ'--. And (ca) (now) the Aparā's mantra (aparā) is announced (prakathyate)||50||

What Śiva did is the following: He encoded the mantra of the Parāparā (the goddess Parāparā who is the aspect of Śakti generating unity in diversity) by mentioning the different realities associated with Sanskrit letters instead of 'directly' mentioning the letters themselves. But before continuing with my analysis, what is the Parāparā goddess really? This goddess is one of the three main aspects of the Goddess (Śakti, the Power of Śiva).

At first, this Śakti remains only as Icchāśakti (Power of Will) in Śaktitattva (category 2). She is only Will to manifest, but there is no plan yet, let alone an actual manifestation. This first aspect of Hers is called Parā (Supreme). The only Knowledge here is Knowledge about Śiva Himself. There is no universe being known at all. Another name for this pure Will of Śiva is Svātantrya or Absolute Freedom. Freedom for what? Freedom to manifest whatever thing at Will.

Later, in order to perform the development of the 'universal plan', Jñānaśakti (Power of Knowledge) appears and mixes with Icchāśakti (Power of Will). This is the category 3 (Sadāśivatattva). This mixture of Will and Knowledge is the second aspect of Hers (of Śakti). She is then called Parāparā (Supreme-nonSupreme). Here Knowledge is about Śiva as well as about the universe who has been determined or planned. There is Will to manifest and a determination or plan too carried out by the Power of Knowledge. That is why Śiva defined Jñānaśakti before (in the stanza 6 of this chapter) like this: "By announcing with determination that 'This knowable or object is like this and not otherwise!'". All in all, Jñānaśakti determines or plans the universe.

Finally, in order to actualize the aforesaid determination or plan regarding the universe, Kriyāśakti (Power of Action) appears and mixes with Icchāśakti and Jñānaśakti. This is the category 4 (Īśvaratattva). This mixture of Will, Knowledge and Action is the third aspect of Hers (of Śakti). She is then called Aparā (nonSupreme). Here Knowledge is only about the universe who has been produced. There is Will to manifest, a determination or plan plus an actual production of such universe (i.e. Icchāśakti, Jñānaśakti and Kriyāśakti). That is why Śiva defined Kriyāśakti before (in the stanza 7 of this chapter) like this:"'Let this thing become so!'". All in all, Kriyāśakti actually brings about the universe.

Now I will explain this Parāparā's mantra. First I will put the mantra both in Devanāgarī and IAST:

ॐ अघोरे ह्रीः परमघोरे हुं घोररूपे हः घोरमुखि भीम भीषणे वम पिब हे रु रु र र फट् हुं हः फट्

Oṁ aghore hrīḥ paramaghore huṁ ghorarūpe haḥ ghoramukhi bhīma bhīṣaṇe vama piba he ru ru ra ra phaṭ huṁ haḥ phaṭ

'Oṁ (oṁ), oh Aghorā (aghore... he), hrīḥ (hrīḥ), oh Paramaghorā (paramaghore... he), huṁ (huṁ), oh Ghorarūpā (ghorarūpe... he), haḥ (haḥ), oh Ghoramukhī (ghoramukhi... he), oh Bhīmā (bhīma... he), oh Bhīṣaṇā (bhīṣaṇe... he), oh Vamanī (vama... he), oh Pibanī (piba... he), ru ru ra ra phaṭ huṁ haḥ phaṭ (ru ru ra ra phaṭ huṁ haḥ phaṭ)'

The mantra contains 39 syllables. Apart from bījamantra-s (one-syllabic mantra-s), it contains the Vocative cases of eight deities: Aghorā, Paramaghorā, Ghorarūpā, Ghoramukhī, Bhīmā, Bhīṣaṇā, Vamanī and Pibanī. So, if you have some knowledge about Sanskrit declension, you would say that the Vocative cases of those eight words are like this: Aghore, Paramaghore, Ghorarūpe, Ghoramukhi, Bhīme, Bhīṣaṇe, Vamani and Pibani. Anyway, you read in the mantra: Aghore, Paramaghore, Ghorarūpe, Ghoramukhi, Bhīma, Bhīṣaṇe, Vama and Piba. What happened here? Abhinavagupta explains very well why 'Bhīme, Vamani and Pibani' were written by Śiva as 'Bhīma, Vama and Piba'. He does so in the chapter 30 (stanzas 21 and 22) of his famous Tantrāloka. After this, Abhinavagupta explains more things about this mantra. Also, this mantra is used to purify (to make a person conscious of) the 36 tattva-s by assigning the different words to specific tattva-s. This is again explained by Abhinavagupta in the chapter 16 (from stanza 213 up to stanza 216).

Besides, the first portion, from 'Oṁ' up to 'he', is Śākta (pertains to Śakti) while the second portion, from 'ru ru' right to the end, i.e. right to the final 'phaṭ', is Śaiva (pertains to Śiva). This Parāparāmantra is used in rituals related to the deities of the Parāparā aspect of the Goddess. The eight deities invoked (Aghorā, Paramaghorā, etc.) are the śakti-s of the eight Vijñānākala-s awakened by Śiva, which are mentioned in the stanza 21 of the first chapter of this Mālinīvijayottaratantra. Other names for these 8 deities are: Māheśī (or Māheśvarī), Brāhmaṇī (or Brāhmī), Skāndī (Kaumārī), Vaiṣṇavī, Aindrī (or Indrāṇī), Yāmyā (or Vārāhī), Cāmuṇḍā and Yogīśī (or Yogīśvarī or Mahālakṣmī), who are the abovementioned deities of the varga-s or groups of letters (see stanza 14 in this chapter). OK, it is enough for now.

And at the end of the stanza 50 the Aparā's mantra is announced. It will be developed in the stanza 51.

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 Stanzas 51 to 61

अघोरान्तं न्यसेदादौ प्राणं बिन्दुयुतं पुनः।
वाममुद्रान्वितं न्यस्य पाद्यं काद्येन पूर्ववत्॥५१॥

Aghorāntaṁ nyasedādau prāṇaṁ binduyutaṁ punaḥ|
Vāmamudrānvitaṁ nyasya pādyaṁ kādyena pūrvavat||51||

One should place (nyaset) at first (ādau) the word to be found at the end of Aghora (in the Parāparā's mantra) --i.e. 'hrīḥ'-- (aghora-antam). (Next,) after placing (nyasya) (special) prāṇa --i.e. 'ha'-- (prāṇam) accompanied by 'vāmamudrā' --i.e. 'ū'-- (vāma-mudrā-anvitam) (and) again (punar) furnished with bindu (bindu-yutam), (one should finish the Aparā's mantra by adding) 'pha' along with 'ṭa' --i.e. 'phaṭ'-- (pādyam kādyena) as before (pūrva-vat) --all in all, the Aparā's mantra is 'Hrīḥ hūṁ phaṭ'--||51||

What Śiva did is the following: He encoded the mantra of the Aparā (the goddess Aparā who is the aspect of Śakti generating diversity) by mentioning the different realities associated with Sanskrit letters instead of 'directly' mentioning the letters themselves. This goddess is one of the three main aspects of the Goddess (Śakti, the Power of Śiva). These aspects were already described by me under the 50th stanza.

Now I will explain this Aparā's mantra. First I will put the mantra both in Devanāgarī and IAST:

ह्रीः हूं फट्

Hrīḥ hūṁ phaṭ

No meaning. Just three bījamantra-s.

The mantra contains 3.5 syllables as phaṭ contains 1.5 syllables (pha + ṭ = 1 + 0.5). This Aparā mantra is used in rituals related to the deities of the Aparā aspect of the Goddess.

Short explanation but meaningful.


अपरेयं समाख्याता रुद्रशक्तिं परां शृणु।
मन्त्राः संमुखतां यान्ति ययोच्चारितमात्रया॥५२॥

Apareyaṁ samākhyātā rudraśaktiṁ parāṁ śṛṇu|
Mantrāḥ saṁmukhatāṁ yānti yayoccāritamātrayā||52||

This (iyam) Aparā's mantra (aparā) has been (so) proclaimed (in the previous stanza) (samākhyātā). (Now) listen to (śṛṇu) the Parā's mantra (parām) who is the Power of Rudra --viz. Śiva-- (rudra-śaktim), by merely pronouncing which (yayā uccārita-mātrayā) the mantra-s (mantrāḥ) become propitious (saṁmukhatām yānti)||52||

Here Śiva simply announces that the Aparā's mantra has been taught in the stanza 51 and that the Parā's mantra is about to be proclaimed in the upcoming stanzas. Anyway, He said something very important about the Parā's mantra: That the rest of mantra-s become propitious when combined with the Parā's mantra. That is why the Parā's mantra is abundantly used in conjunction with other mantra-s during rituals and invocations.


कम्पते गात्रयष्टिश्च द्रुतं चोत्पतनं भवेत्।
मुद्राबन्धं च गेयं च शिवारुदितमेव च॥५३॥

Kampate gātrayaṣṭiśca drutaṁ cotpatanaṁ bhavet|
Mudrābandhaṁ ca geyaṁ ca śivāruditameva ca||53||

The slender body (of the knower of Parā's mantra) (gātrayaṣṭiḥ) trembles (kampate) and (ca... ca) quickly (drutam) rises up (utpatanam bhavet), assumes (various) mudrā-s and bandha-s (mudrā-bandham), sings (geyam) and (ca... ca... eva ca) howls like a jackal (śivā-ruditam)||53||

Śiva just describes what happens to the great Yogī who is perfectly aware of this mantra, i.e. of its meaning and of its being rooted in Aham or I-consciousness full of Absolute Freedom.


अतीतानागतार्थस्य कुर्याद्वा कथनादिकम्।
वामजङ्घान्वितो जीवः पारम्पर्यक्रमागतः॥५४॥

Atītānāgatārthasya kuryādvā kathanādikam|
Vāmajaṅghānvito jīvaḥ pāramparyakramāgataḥ||54||

(And a person like this) can give information, etc. (kuryāt... kathana-ādikam) about past or future things (atīta-anāgata-arthasya... vā). (The letter associated with) the individual soul --i.e. 'sa'-- (jīvaḥ) accompanied by (the letter for) the left shank --i.e. 'au'-- (vāma-jaṅghā-anvitaḥ) has come through an uninterrupted succession (of Guru-s and disciples) (pāramparya-krama-āgataḥ)||54||

A Yogī like this can inform about the past or the future.

What Śiva did is the following: He encoded the mantra of the Parā (the goddess Parā who is the aspect of Śakti generating unity) by mentioning the different realities associated with Sanskrit letters instead of 'directly' mentioning the letters themselves. This goddess is one of the three main aspects of the Goddess (Śakti, the Power of Śiva). These aspects were already described by me under the 50th stanza.

Now I will explain this Parā's mantra. First I will put the mantra both in Devanāgarī and IAST:

सौः

Sauḥ

No meaning.

The mantra contains 1 syllable. This Parāmantra is used in rituals related to the Parā aspect of the Goddess. The letter 'sa' covers all the 31 tattva-s from Pṛthivītattva (category 36) up to Māyātattva (category 6). The letter 'au' covers the categories 5, 4 and 3 (Sadvidyātattva, Īśvaratattva and Sadāśivatattva). Finally, the visarga 'ḥ' (which is not directly mentioned by Śiva) covers the first two categories: Śivatattva and Śaktitattva. This supreme mantra has been very well explained by Kṣemarāja in his Parāprāveśikā.

Another short but meaningful explanation.


परेयमनया सिद्धिः सर्वकामफलप्रदा।
नाशिष्याय प्रदेयेयं नाभक्ताय कदाचन॥५५॥

Pareyamanayā siddhiḥ sarvakāmaphalapradā|
Nāśiṣyāya pradeyeyaṁ nābhaktāya kadācana||55||

(So,) this (iyam) (is) the Parā's (mantra) (parā). By Her (anayā) (there is) a Siddhi or Accomplishment --viz. Liberation-- (siddhiḥ) which grants the fruits of all the desires (sarva-kāma-phala-pradā). This (Parā's mantra) (iyam) should never be given (na... pradeyā... na... kadācana) to someone who is not a disciple (aśiṣyāya) (or) a devotee (abhaktāya)||55||

This Great Mantra is like cintāmaṇi (the jewel which yields all desires) indeed. And, this is very important, the Parā's mantra must never be given to someone who is not a disciple or a devotee. I would add that this holds true for all the spiritual teachings in general, not only this mantra.


रुद्रश्च रुद्रशक्तिश्च गुरुश्चेति त्रयं समम्।
भक्त्या प्रपश्यते यस्तु तस्मै देया वरानने॥५६॥

Rudraśca rudraśaktiśca guruśceti trayaṁ samam|
Bhaktyā prapaśyate yastu tasmai deyā varānane||56||

Oh lovely-faced One (vara-ānane), (this Parā's mantra) should be certainly given (tu... deyā) to the one (tasmai) who (yaḥ), through devotion (bhaktyā), perceives (prapaśyate) in like manner (samam) (this) group of three (muestra): 'Rudra --Śiva-- (rudraḥ), the Power of Rudra --Śakti-- (rudra-śaktiḥ) and (ca... ca.. ca) Guru (guruḥ... iti)'||56||

The one receiving the Parā's mantra must consider Śiva, Śakti and Guru to be one Reality. If someone fails to do this, he should never receive this Great Mantra till he develops this attitude of triple unity.


शिष्येणापि तदा ग्राह्या यदा सन्तोषितो गुरुः।
शरीरद्रव्यविज्ञानशुद्धिकर्मगुणादिभिः॥५७॥

Śiṣyeṇāpi tadā grāhyā yadā santoṣito guruḥ|
Śarīradravyavijñānaśuddhikarmaguṇādibhiḥ||57||

When (yadā) the Guru (guruḥ) has been pleased (santoṣitaḥ) by the disciple (śiṣyeṇa api) through (his) body, substances, purification of his understanding, actions and good qualities (śarīra-dravya-vijñāna-śuddhi-karma-guṇādibhiḥ), then (tadā) (the aforesaid Parā's mantra) can be received (grāhyā) by him --lit. by the disciple-- (śiṣyeṇa api)||57||

The disciple can receive the Parā's mantra only when he has pleased his Guru by using his body (i.e. by using his body to serve his Guru), substances (i.e. by using different substances during his worship of his Guru, e.g. incense, camphor, ghee, etc.), purification of his understanding (i.e. by using his new understanding forged by the hard study of Śiva's scriptures), purification of his actions (i.e. by using his actions which are now carried out while there is at the same time a focus on the unity of all the things), good qualities (i.e. by using the good qualities he received from the Great Lord such acceptance, faith, patience, etc.).


बोधिता तु यदा तेन गुरुणा हृष्टचेतसा।
तदा सिद्धिप्रदा ज्ञेया नान्यथा वीरवन्दिते॥५८॥

Bodhitā tu yadā tena guruṇā hṛṣṭacetasā|
Tadā siddhipradā jñeyā nānyathā vīravandite||58||

Oh You who are extolled by the Heroes (vīra-vandite), when (yadā) She --the Parā's mantra-- is made known (bodhitā) indeed (tu) by that Guru who is very pleased (tena guruṇā hṛṣṭa-cetasā), then (tadā) She is known (jñeyā) as the Siddhi-bestower --as the One giving Accomplishment, viz. Liberation-- (siddhi-pradā) (and) not otherwise (na anyathā)||58||

When the Guru is that pleased with the diligent good disciple, then he will give the disciple this Parā's mantra which will bestow on the latter the fruit known as Liberation from Saṁsāra (transmigration replete with misery).


परापराङ्गसम्भूता योगिन्योऽष्टौ महाबलाः।
पञ्च षट् पञ्च चत्वारि द्वित्रिद्व्यर्णाः क्रमेण तु॥५९॥
ज्ञेयाः सप्तैकादशार्णा एकार्धार्णद्वयान्विताः।
जीवो दीर्घस्वरैः षड्भिः पृथग्जातिसमन्वितः॥६०॥
विद्यात्रयस्य गात्राणि ह्रस्वैर्वक्त्राणि पञ्चभिः।
ओङ्कारैः पञ्चभिर्मन्त्रो विद्याङ्गहृदयं भवेत्॥६१॥

Parāparāṅgasambhūtā yoginyo'ṣṭau mahābalāḥ|
Pañca ṣaṭ pañca catvāri dvitridvyarṇāḥ krameṇa tu||59||
Jñeyāḥ saptaikādaśārṇā ekārdhārṇadvayānvitāḥ|
Jīvo dīrghasvaraiḥ ṣaḍbhiḥ pṛthagjātisamanvitaḥ||60||
Vidyātrayasya gātrāṇi hrasvairvaktrāṇi pañcabhiḥ|
Oṅkāraiḥ pañcabhirmantro vidyāṅgahṛdayaṁ bhavet||61||

The very mighty (mahābalāḥ) Yoginī-s (yoginyaḥ) who have become (sambhūtāḥ) the limbs (aṅga) of the Parāparā(mantra) --i.e. of 'Oṁ aghore hrīḥ paramaghore huṁ ghorarūpe haḥ ghoramukhi bhīma bhīṣaṇe vama piba he ru ru ra ra phaṭ huṁ haḥ phaṭ', but only the 'Oṁ aghore hrīḥ paramaghore huṁ ghorarūpe haḥ ghoramukhi bhīma bhīṣaṇe vama piba he' portion is relevant here, because the remaining 'ru ru ra ra phaṭ huṁ haḥ phaṭ' portion pertains to Śiva-- (parā-aparā) are eight (aṣṭau) --viz. Brāhmī, Māheśvarī, Kaumārī, Vaiṣṇavī, Vārāhī, Indrāṇī, Cāmuṇḍā and Yogīśvarī--. (The sacred words assigned to them in the Parāparāmantra contain) in succession (krameṇa tu) five (letters) --i.e. 'Oṁ a-gho-re hrīḥ', for Brāhmī-- (pañca), six (letters) --i.e. 'pa-ra-ma-gho-re huṁ', for Māheśvarī-- (ṣaṭ), five (letters) --i.e. 'gho-ra-rū-pe haḥ', for Kaumārī-- (pañca), four (letters) --i.e. 'gho-ra-mu-khi', for Vaiṣṇavī-- (catvāri), (along with a sequence) of two and three (dvi-tri) letters (arṇāḥ) (occurring) twice (dvi) --i.e. 'bhī-ma', for Vārāhī; 'bhī-ṣa-ṇe', for Indrāṇī; 'va-ma', for Cāmuṇḍā; and 'pi-ba he', for Yogīśvarī, respectively--. (Besides,) they should be known (jñeyāḥ) as (constituted by the vocative cases containing the sum of) seven and eleven letters (sapta-ekādaśa-arṇāḥ) accompanied by (anvitāḥ) one (and) one and a half letters (ardha-arṇa) twice --viz. one and a half letters 'twice', i.e. three letters-- (dvaya) --the final number is 22 letters in all, which refers to the sum of letters belonging to the following vocative cases (plus the vocative particle 'he' = 'oh!') occurring in the abovementioned Parāparāmantra: a-gho-re, pa-ra-ma-gho-re, gho-ra-rū-pe, gho-ra-mu-khi, bhī-ma, bhī-ṣa-ṇe and he--.

(The letter for) the Self --i.e. 'sa'-- (jīvaḥ) together with the group of six long vowels --i.e. 'ā, ī, ū, ai and au' plus 'ṁ', along with 'aḥ'-- (dīrgha-svaraiḥ ṣaḍbhiḥ) (arranged) separately --sāṁ, sīṁ, sūṁ, saiṁ, sauṁ and saḥ being used separately-- (pṛthak), (and) accompanied by adverbs of the jāti class --e.g. svāhā, vaṣaṭ, vauṣaṭ, huṁ, namaḥ or phaṭ-- (jāti-samanvitaḥ) (are) the limbs (gātrāṇi) of the three Vidyā-s (vidyā-trayasya). (And when the letter 'sa') is furnished with the five short vowels --i.e. 'a, i, u, e and o' plus 'ṁ'-- (hrasvaiḥ... pañcabhiḥ), (the final result, viz. 'saṁ, siṁ, suṁ, seṁ and soṁ' are) the mouths (of those three Vidyā-s) (vaktrāṇi). (Finally,) the mantra(-s) (mantraḥ) endowed with five Oṁ (oṁ-kāraiḥ pañcabhiḥ) become --lit. becomes-- (bhavet) the heart in the bodies of the Vidyā-s (vidyā-aṅga-hṛdayam)||59-61||

To understand this complicated subject, it is better to use a table. See here:

Chart 5: The śākta portion of the Parāparā's mantra [Oṁ aghore hrīḥ paramaghore huṁ ghorarūpe haḥ ghoramukhi bhīma bhīṣaṇe vama piba he] which is assigned to the eight goddesses
NAME OF THE EIGHT YOGINĪ-S WHO ARE THE LIMBS OF THE PARĀPARĀ'S MANTRA
(in Sanskrit)
NAME OF THE EIGHT YOGINĪ-S WHO ARE THE LIMBS OF THE PARĀPARĀ'S MANTRA
(transliterated)
ASSIGNED PORTION OF THE PARĀPARĀ'S MANTRA
(in Sanskrit)
ASSIGNED PORTION OF THE PARĀPARĀ'S MANTRA
(transliterated)
VARGA BEING PRESIDED BY THE YOGINĪ
(in Sanskrit)
VARGA BEING PRESIDED BY THE YOGINĪ
(transliterated)
ब्राह्मी Brāhmī ॐ अघोरे ह्रीः Oṁ aghore hrīḥ
(5 letters/syllables)
क ख ग घ ङ
(क-वर्ग)
ka kha ga gha ṅa
(ka-varga)
माहेश्वरी Māheśvarī परमघोरे हुं paramaghore huṁ
(6 letters/syllables)
च छ ज झ ञ
(च-वर्ग)
ca cha ja jha ña
(ca-varga)
कौमारी Kaumārī घोररूपे हः ghorarūpe haḥ
(5 letters/syllables)
ट ठ ड ढ ण
(ट-वर्ग)
ṭa ṭha ḍa ḍha ṇa
(ṭa-varga)
वैष्णवी Vaiṣṇavī घोरमुखि ghoramukhi
(4 letters/syllables)
त थ द ध न
(त-वर्ग)
ta tha da dha na
(ta-varga)
वाराही Vārāhī भीम bhīma
(2 letters/syllables)
प फ ब भ म
(प-वर्ग)
pa pha ba bha ma
(pa-varga)
इन्द्राणी Indrāṇī भीषणे bhīṣaṇe
(3 letters/syllables)
य र ल व
(य-वर्ग)
ya ra la va
(ya-varga)
चामुण्डा Cāmuṇḍā वम vama
(2 letters/syllables)
श ष स ह क्ष
(श-वर्ग)
śa ṣa sa ha kṣa
(śa-varga)
योगीश्वरी Yogīśvarī पिब हे piba he
(3 letters/syllables)
अ आ इ ई उ ऊ ऋ ॠ ऌ ॡ ए ऐ ओ औ अं अः
(अ-वर्ग)
a ā i ī u ū ṛ ṝ ḷ ḹ e ai o au aṁ aḥ
(a-varga)
Eight goddesses of the Parāparā's mantra ॐ अघोरे ह्रीः परमघोरे हुं घोररूपे हः घोरमुखि भीम भीषणे वम पिब हे Oṁ aghore hrīḥ paramaghore huṁ ghorarūpe haḥ ghoramukhi bhīma bhīṣaṇe vama piba he
(30 letters/syllables)
The complete Sanskrit alphabet containing 50 letters

Next, Śiva mentioned the vocative cases (including 'he' whose meaning is 'oh!') of the goddesses of the Parāparā's mantra (with the exception of 'vama' and 'piba'). So, here I will put the names of these goddesses and the respective numbers of letters/syllables, which totals 22 letters/syllables as specified by Śiva:

  1. Aghore ---> A-gho-re ---> (3 letters/syllables)
  2. Paramaghore ---> Pa-ra-ma-gho-re ---> (5 letters/syllables)
  3. Ghorarūpe ---> Gho-ra-rū-pe ---> (4 letters/syllables)
  4. Ghoramukhi ---> Gho-ra-mu-khi ---> (4 letters/ syllables)
  5. Bhīma ---> Bhī-ma ---> (2 letters/syllables)
  6. Bhīṣaṇe ---> Bhī-ṣa-ṇe ---> (3 letters/syllables)
  7. He ---> He ---> (1 letter/syllable)

Next, Śiva joined the letter 'sa' with the group of long vowels (ā, ī, ū, ai and au plus ṁ, along with aḥ), so creating the sounds: sāṁ, sīṁ, sūṁ, saiṁ, sauṁ, saḥ. And according to His teachings, they should be used together with adverbs of the jāti class (e.g. svāhā, vaṣaṭ, vauṣaṭ, huṁ, namaḥ or phaṭ). These sounds are used in the rituals, obviously, as they constitute the limbs of the three Vidyā-s, i.e. the Parā, Parāparā and Aparā goddesses. As during the ritual one tries to get fully identification with all these higher realities, he should consider all these mantra-s to be the limbs of his own body. Additionally, when the same letter 'sa' is endowed with the five short vowels (a, i, u, e and o plus ṁ - and, though formally speaking, 'e' and 'o' are long vowels, in this context they must be considered to be short), the result of this combination (viz. saṁ, siṁ, suṁ, seṁ, soṁ) is the mouths of such goddesses, i.e. one's own mouth. All this is completely explained by Abhinavagupta in the chapter 30 of his Tantrāloka.

At the end of the stanza 61, Śiva announces the mantra-s furnished with five 'Oṁ'. Anyway, He will mention only four in the next stanzas. OK, this elucidation has been more than enough, I guess.

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 Stanzas 62 to 68

ॐ अमृते तेजोमालिनि स्वाहापदानि भूषितम्।
एकादशाक्षरं प्रोक्तमेतद्ब्रह्मशिरः प्रिये॥६२॥

Oṁ amṛte tejomālini svāhāpadāni bhūṣitam|
Ekādaśākṣaraṁ proktametadbrahmaśiraḥ priye||62||

(And now four out of the five mantra-s endowed with five Oṁ are enunciated:) (1) Oh dear One (priye), this (etad) eleven-syllabic (mantra) (ekādaśa-akṣaram) adorned (bhūṣitam) (with) the word 'svāhā' (svāhā-padāni) is said to be (proktam) 'Brahmaśiras' --lit. the head of Brahmā-- (brahma-śiraḥ): 'Oṁ amṛte tejomālini (svāhā)' (oṁ amṛte tejas-mālini)||62||

Abhinavagupta explains this mantra in the stanza 38 inside the chapter 30 of his Tantrāloka.


वेदवेदिनि हूँफट् च प्रणवादिसमन्विता।
रुद्राण्यष्टाक्षरा ज्ञेया शिखा विद्यागणस्य तु॥६३॥

Vedavedini hūm̐phaṭ ca praṇavādisamanvitā|
Rudrāṇyaṣṭākṣarā jñeyā śikhā vidyāgaṇasya tu||63||

(2) (This) eight-syllabic (mantra) pertaining of the Rudrāṇī --i.e. Śakti-- (rudrāṇī-aṣṭa-akṣarā) furnished with Praṇava at the beginning --Oṁ-- (ca praṇava-ādi-samanvitā) is regarded as (jñeyā) the Śikhā mantra --lit. crest-- (śikhā) of the group of Vidyā-s (vidyā-gaṇasya) indeed (tu): '(Oṁ) vedavedini hūm̐ phaṭ' (veda-vedini hūm̐phaṭ)||63||

This mantra is described by Abhinavagupta in the first half of the stanza 39 in the chapter 30 of his Tantrāloka. In my opinion, the length really is eight syllables and a half and not only eight, as phaṭ contains 1.5 syllables.


वज्रिणे वज्रधराय स्वाहान्तं प्रणवादिकम्।
एकादशाक्षरं वर्म पुरुष्टुतमिति स्मृतम्॥६४॥

Vajriṇe vajradharāya svāhāntaṁ praṇavādikam|
Ekādaśākṣaraṁ varma puruṣṭutamiti smṛtam||64||

(3) (This) eleven-syllabic (mantra) (ekādaśa-akṣaram) endowed with Praṇava --Oṁ-- at the beginning and with 'svāhā' at the end (svāhā-antaṁ praṇava-ādikam) is said to be (smṛtam) 'Varma puruṣṭutam' --lit. highly lauded armor (mantra)-- (varma puruṣṭutam iti): '(Oṁ) vajriṇe vajradharāya (svāhā)' (vajriṇe vajra-dharāya)||64||

This mantra is described by Abhinavagupta in the second half of the stanza 39 in the chapter 30 of his Tantrāloka.


श्लीपदं पशुशब्दं च हूँफडन्तं भवादिकम्।
एतत्पाशुपतं प्रोक्तमर्धसप्ताक्षरं परम्॥६५॥

Ślīpadaṁ paśuśabdaṁ ca hūm̐phaḍantaṁ bhavādikam|
Etatpāśupataṁ proktamardhasaptākṣaraṁ param||65||

(4) This (etad) (mantra) consisting of six syllables and a half (ardha-sapta-akṣaram) (formed from) the words 'ślī(ṁ)' and 'paśu' (ślī-padam paśu-śabdam ca) (along with) 'Oṁ' at the beginning and 'hūm̐ phaṭ' at the end (hūm-phaṭ-antaṁ bhava-ādikam) is said to be (proktam) 'Pāśupataṁ Param' --lit. the supreme (mantra) of the Lord of the limited beings-- (pāśupatam... param): ('Oṁ ślīṁ paśu hūm̐ phaṭ')||65||

This mantra is described by Abhinavagupta in the second half of the stanza 41 in the chapter 30 of his Tantrāloka. Anyway, the fifth mantra furnished with 'Oṁ' is absent here, in Mālinīvijayottaratantra (at least in the version I am using). However, Abhinavagupta mentions this missing fifth mantra called 'Netram' in the second half of the stanza 40 and the first half of the stanza 41 in the chapter 30 of his Tantrāloka. It looks like this: 'Oṁ juṁ saḥ'.


लरटक्षवयैर्दीर्घैः समायुक्तैः सबिन्दुकैः।
इन्द्रादीन्कल्पयेद्ध्रस्वैस्तदस्त्राणि विचक्षणः॥६६॥

Laraṭakṣavayairdīrghaiḥ samāyuktaiḥ sabindukaiḥ|
Indrādīnkalpayeddhrasvaistadastrāṇi vicakṣaṇaḥ||66||

One should imagine (kalpayet) Indra, etc. --viz. Indra, Viṣṇu and Brahmā-- (indra-ādīn) endowed with the letters 'la', 'ra', 'ṭa', 'kṣa', 'va' and 'ya' (laraṭakṣavayaiḥ) provided with (samāyuktaiḥ) long vowels (dīrghaiḥ) (and) with bindu --i.e. 'ṁ'-- (sa-bindukaiḥ). (And when they are provided with) short vowels (hrasvaiḥ), the wise one (vicakṣaṇaḥ) (considers them to be) their weapons (tad-astrāṇi)||66||

This is confirmed by the stanza 42 in the chapter 30 of Abhinavagupta's Tantrāloka. You must add these long vowels: 'ā, ī, ū, ai, au'. In this way, the first bījamantra-s would look like this: 'lāṁ, līṁ, lūṁ, laiṁ and lauṁ. The same procedure must be used with the other letters, i.e. with 'ra', 'ṭa', 'kṣa', 'va' and 'ya'.

And when the same consonants are provided with these short vowels, viz. 'a, i, u, e and o' (plus 'ṁ'), then the sounds arising from these combinations are regarded as the weapons of those three abovementioned gods: e.g. 'laṁ, liṁ, luṁ, leṁ and loṁ'.


तद्वन्नासापयोभ्यां तु कल्प्यौ विष्णुप्रजापती।
स्वरावाद्यतृतीयौ तु वाचकौ पद्मचक्रयोः॥६७॥
इति मातृगणः प्रोक्तः सर्वकामफलप्रदः।
योगिनां योगसिद्ध्यर्थं किमन्यत्परिपृच्छसि॥६८॥

Tadvannāsāpayobhyāṁ tu kalpyau viṣṇuprajāpatī|
Svarāvādyatṛtīyau tu vācakau padmacakrayoḥ||67||
Iti mātṛgaṇaḥ proktaḥ sarvakāmaphalapradaḥ|
Yogināṁ yogasiddhyarthaṁ kimanyatparipṛcchasi||68||

Likewise (tad-vat), Viṣṇu and Prajāpati (viṣṇu-prajāpatī) should be imagined (kalpyau) as endowed with (the letters for) nose and milk --i.e. 'ī' and 'ā'-- (nāsā-payobhyām tu). (And) the first and third vowels --i.e. 'a' and 'i'-- (svarau ādya-tṛtīyau tu) (are) the two denoters (vācakau) of the group of lotuses --the entire universe-- (padma-cakrayoḥ). Thus (iti), (this mantra) which bestows the fruits of all desires (sarva-kāma-phala-pradaḥ) is called (proktaḥ) 'Mātṛgaṇaḥ' --lit. the host of the Mother-- (mātṛ-gaṇaḥ).

What (kim) other (thing) (anyat) do you (want to) ask about (paripṛcchasi) so the yogī-s can get Yoga or Union (with Me) (yoginām yoga-siddhi-artham)?||67-68||

इति श्रीमालिनीविजयोत्तरे तन्त्रे मन्त्रोद्धाराधिकारस्तृतीयः॥३॥
Iti śrīmālinīvijayottare tantre mantroddhārādhikārastṛtīyaḥ||3||

Here ends (iti) the third chapter dealing with 'the selection or extraction of mantra-s' (mantra-uddhāra-adhikāraḥ tṛtīyaḥ) in venerable Mālinīvijayottaratantra (śrī-mālinī-vijaya-uttare tantre)||3||

Those combinations of vowels are described by Abhinavagupta in the stanzas 43, 44 and first half of the 45 in the chapter 30 of his Tantrāloka. Such vowels (ī, ā, a, i) must be repeated in conjunction with adverbs of the jāti class (viz. svāhā, vaṣaṭ, vauṣaṭ, hūm̐, namaḥ, phaṭ). All these six adverbs are used during the aṅganyāsa while placing the hands on six specific points: head, eyes, top of the head, shoulders, heart and arms.

Finally, Śiva, after his long and cryptic description of the mantra-s to be selected, asked His Consort (His Supreme Power) about other questions She can have. Obviously, all these questions bringing His profound answers are always for the yogī-s to be able to become fully liberated Yogī-s, i.e. fully conscious of their essential identity with the Great Lord. This is the purport.

And now a chart compiling all the mantra-s selected/extracted by Śiva, which are sacred to His followers:

Chart 6: All mantra-s selected/extracted by Śiva in this third chapter
SHORT EXPLANATION MANTRA-S
(in Sanskrit)
MANTRA-S
(transliterated)
Mantra of the Parāvidyā
(Supreme Level)
सौः Sauḥ
Mantra of the Parāparāvidyā
(Supreme - nonSupreme Level)
ॐ अघोरे ह्रीः परमघोरे हुं घोररूपे हः घोरमुखि भीम भीषणे वम पिब हे रु रु र र फट् हुं हः फट् Oṁ aghore hrīḥ paramaghore huṁ ghorarūpe haḥ ghoramukhi bhīma bhīṣaṇe vama piba he ru ru ra ra phaṭ huṁ haḥ phaṭ
Mantra of the Aparāvidyā
(nonSupreme Level)
ह्रीः हूं फट् Hrīḥ hūṁ phaṭ
Bījamantra-s
—i.e. one-syllabled mantra-s—
(first group)
सां सीं सूं सैं सौं सः sāṁ sīṁ sūṁ saiṁ sauṁ saḥ
Six adverbs of the jāti class स्वाहा वषट् वौषट् हुं नमः फट् svāhā vaṣaṭ vauṣaṭ huṁ namaḥ phaṭ

Bījamantra-s
—i.e. one-syllabled mantra-s—
(second group)

सं सिं सुं सें सों saṁ siṁ suṁ seṁ soṁ
Brahmaśiras: First mantra endowed with initial Oṁ ॐ अमृते तेजोमालिनि स्वाहा Oṁ amṛte tejomālini svāhā
Śikhā: Second mantra endowed with initial Oṁ ॐ वेदवेदिनि हूँ फट् Oṁ vedavedini hūm̐ phaṭ
Varma puruṣṭutam: Third mantra endowed with initial Oṁ ॐ वज्रिणे वज्रधराय स्वाहा Oṁ vajriṇe vajradharāya svāhā
Pāśupataṁ Param: Fourth mantra endowed with initial Oṁ ॐ श्लीं पशु हूँ फट् Oṁ ślīṁ paśu hūm̐ phaṭ
Netram: Fifth mantra endowed with initial Oṁ
(really not selected/extracted by Śiva in this third chapter, but mentioned as the missing mantra with initial Oṁ by Abhinavagupta in his Tantrāloka)
ॐ जुं सः Oṁ juṁ saḥ
Bījamantra-s of Indra, Viṣṇu and Brahmā
(third group)
लां लीं लूं लैं लौं
रां रीं रूं रैं रौं
टां टीं टूं टैं टौं
क्षां क्षीं क्षूं क्षैं क्षौं
वां वीं वूं वैं वौं
यां यीं यूं यैं यौं
lāṁ līṁ lūṁ laiṁ lauṁ
rāṁ rīṁ rūṁ raiṁ rauṁ
ṭāṁ ṭīṁ ṭūṁ ṭaiṁ ṭauṁ
kṣāṁ kṣīṁ kṣūṁ kṣaiṁ kṣauṁ
vāṁ vīṁ vūṁ vaiṁ vauṁ
yāṁ yīṁ yūṁ yaiṁ yauṁ
Bījamantra-s of Indra, Viṣṇu and Brahmā
—their weapons—
(fourth group)
लं लिं लुं लें लों
रं रिं रुं रें रों
टं टिं टुं टें टों
क्षं क्षिं क्षुं क्षें क्षों
वं विं वुं वें वों
यं यिं युं यें यों
laṁ liṁ luṁ leṁ loṁ
raṁ riṁ ruṁ reṁ roṁ
ṭaṁ ṭiṁ ṭuṁ ṭeṁ ṭoṁ
kṣaṁ kṣiṁ kṣuṁ kṣeṁ kṣoṁ
vaṁ viṁ vuṁ veṁ voṁ
yaṁ yiṁ yuṁ yeṁ yoṁ
Mātṛgaṇa: Mantra of Viṣṇu and Prajāpati ई आ अ इ ī ā a i

OK, it is enough. I stop from revealing what is so holy and secret for now!

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Gabriel Pradīpaka

This document was conceived by Gabriel Pradīpaka, one of the two founders of this site, and spiritual guru conversant with Sanskrit language and Trika philosophy.

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