Parāprāveśikā (Para Praveshika) - Non-dual Shaivism of Kashmir
A scripture dealing with the Supreme Śakti or Power and the 36 tattva-s or categories
Hi, Gabriel Pradīpaka --wrongly-written Pradipaka-- once more. "Parāprāveśikā" --wrongly-written Para Praveshika-- literally means "inherent (prāveśikā) in the Supreme (Power) (parā)" or "penetrating/entering (prāveśikā) into the Supreme (Power) (parā)". I chose to translate the title of this scripture in a more descriptive way: "A scripture entering into the mysteries of the Supreme Śakti --wrongly-written Shakti or Sakti-- or Power". This text was composed by the sage Kṣemarāja --wrongly-written Kshemaraja or Ksemaraja--, a disciple of the great Abhinavagupta. Kṣemarāja is the same author who wrote Spandanirṇaya --wrongly-written Spanda Nirnaya--, Pratyabhijñāhṛdayam --wrongly-written Pratyabhijnahridayam--, Śivasūtravimarśinī --wrongly-written Shiva Sutra Vimarshini-- and many other crucial scriptures of Trika (Non-dual Shaivism of Kashmir - See the respective section of this site if you wish more information about Trika).
The present scripture consists of a main introductory aphorism, which is followed by a short gloss in prose. I wished to translate this scripture because in it the sage speaks of the tattva-s or categories of universal manifestation. I teach you tattva-s in the Trika section of this site... sure... but I wanted you to read the original writings in Sanskrit so that you have a first hand encounter with that kind of knowledge. This is not the most important scripture speaking of tattva-s, as Ṣaṭtriṁśattattvasandoha --wrongly-written Shattrimshattattvasandoha-- (by Amṛtānandanātha) describes them in full detail, specially when read along with the Rājānakānanda's commentary. Anyway, Parāprāveśikā is an easier way to introduce you to the subject "tattva-s" directly from the Sanskrit source.
Even though there will be plenty of explanatory notes, I specially recommend you consult the Tattvic Chart while reading this scripture, in order to have a summarized knowledge of the tattva-s. Obviously, the subsection "Overview" [Trika 1 (English), Trika 2 (English), etc.] within the Trika section is "a must" to have knowledge in depth about them.
Parāprāveśikā mainly deals with Śakti in Her aspect Parā or Supreme. Śakti is the divine Power of Śiva --wrongly-written Shiva or Siva--, according to the Trika system. She shines forth in three manners: Parā (Supreme), Parāparā (Supreme|non-Supreme) and Aparā (non-Supreme). The former is full of unity, the second is a mixture of unity and diversity, and the latter brings about cease of unity. Another way to describe this is as follows: Abheda (unity), Bhedābheda (unity in diversity) and Bheda (diversity). This is one of the reason why "Trika" (triple) is the name by which Non-dual Shaivism of Kashmir is generally known. People know the Aparā aspect of Her, don't they? In turn, they experience Parāparā Śakti in deep sleep. Still, the Parā aspect, albeit ever present as the root of all, is practically unknown to most people. A paradox!
Well, Kṣemarāja will do away with such ignorance through his exquisite Parāprāveśikā. Enjoy it!
Important: All that is in parentheses and italicized within the translation has been added by me in order to complete the sense of a particular phrase or sentence. In turn, all that is between double hyphen (--...--) constitutes clarifying further information also added by me. Note that I have a Sanskrit-only version of Parāprāveśikā, i.e. no previous translation, transliteration, etc. Thus, I will have to trust in the Grace of Śiva and my own scanty knowledge of Sanskrit and Trika. However, if you are a Sanskrit scholar proficient in the Trika system and find some possible errors or misinterpretations, please let me know via a simple email. Thanks in advance!
विश्वात्मिकां तदुत्तिर्णां हृदयं परमेशितुः।
परादिशक्तिरूपेण स्फुरन्तीं संविदं नुमः॥
Viśvātmikāṁ taduttirṇāṁ hṛdayaṁ parameśituḥ|
Parādiśaktirūpeṇa sphurantīṁ saṁvidaṁ numaḥ||
(A scripture) entering into (the mysteries of) the Supreme (Śakti or Power)
We praise (numaḥ) the Heart (hṛdayam)1 of the Supreme (parama) Master or Īśitā (īśituḥ)2 , (also) known (saṁvidam)3 as Sphurantī (sphurantīm)4 appearing in the form (rūpeṇa) of Śakti or Power (śakti) in Her aspects Parā --Supreme-- (parā), etc. (ādi), (who is both) immanent (ātmikām) (and) transcendent (uttīrṇām) (in respect to) the universe (viśva... tad)5 ||
1 By "Heart", the sage Kṣemarāja is referring to the Kernel or Core of all, i.e. the Supreme Śakti or divine Power of the Lord .
2 By "Master" (Īśitā), the author is pointing out the "Owner or Proprietor" of all, to wit, the Lord .
3 It refers to the Heart, not the Supreme Master .
4 "Sphurantī" is a technical term to designate Śakti or the divine Power of the Supreme Lord. As it derives from the root "sphur" (to throb, flash), it may be translated as "the One who throbs and flashes". Sphurantī is therefore the throbbing Power that flashes in the form of this universe. This is the best translation I can figure out right now. I left the term untranslated in the stanza because the translation would be too long and "still" somewhat inaccurate, in my humble opinion. Some words are very difficult to accurately translate from Sanskrit into English since the former is much more complex, rich and spiritually-oriented than the latter .
5 Śakti is the divine Power of Śiva (the Lord). She is both immanent within the universe (i.e. the universe is made of Her) and transcendent of it (i.e. She is also beyond the universe manifested by Herself). According to Trika or Non-dual Shaivism of Kashmir, Śakti has three aspects: Parā, Parāparā and Aparā. Parā is Her Supreme aspect manifesting unity, while Aparā is Her inferior one showing the opposite, i.e. cease of unity. In turn, Parāparā (Parā-Aparā) is a mixture of Parā and Aparā, that is, unity in diversity. Therefore, by "ādi" or "etc.", Kṣemarāja refers to the Parāparā and Aparā aspects of Śakti .
इह खलु परमेश्वरः प्रकाशात्मा प्रकाशश्च विमर्शस्वभावः विमर्शो नाम विश्वाकारेण विश्वप्रकाशेन विश्वसंहरणेन चाकृत्रिमाहमिति विस्फुरणम्। यदि निर्विमर्शः स्यादनीश्वरो जडश्च प्रसज्येत। एष एव च विमर्शः - चित् चैतन्यं स्वरसोदितापरावाक्स्वातन्त्र्यं परमात्मनो मुख्यमैश्वर्यं कर्तृत्वं स्फुरत्ता सारो हृदयं स्पन्द इत्यादिशब्दैरागमेषूद्घोष्यतेऽत एवाकृत्रिमाहमिति-सतत्त्वः स्वयम्प्रकाशरूपः परमेश्वरः पारमेश्वर्या शक्त्या शिवादिधरण्यन्तजगदात्मना स्फुरति प्रकाशते च। एतदेवास्य जगतः कर्तृत्वमजडत्वं च जगतः कार्यत्वमपि एतदधीनप्रकाशत्वमेवैवम्भूतं जगत् प्रकाशरूपात् कर्तुर्महेश्वरादिभिन्नमेव भिन्नवेद्यत्वेऽप्रकाशमानत्वेन प्रकाशनायोगाद्न किञ्चित्स्यादनेन च जगतास्य भगवतः प्रकाशात्मकं रूपं न कदाचिद्निरोधीयत एतत्प्रकाशनेन प्रतिष्ठां लब्ध्वा प्रकाशमानमिदं जगदात्मनः प्राणभूतं कथं निरोद्धुं शक्नुयात्कथं च तन्निरुध्य स्वयमवतिष्ठेतातश्चास्य वस्तुनः साधकमिदं वाधकमिदं प्रमाणमित्यनुसन्धानात्मकसाधकवाधकप्रमातृरूपतया चास्य सद्भावस्तत्सद्भावे किं प्रमाणम् - इति वस्तुसद्भावमनुमन्यतां तादृक्स्वभावे किं प्रमाणम् - इति प्रष्टृरूपतया च पूर्वसिद्धस्य महेश्वरस्य स्वयम्प्रकाशत्वं सर्वस्य स्वसंवेदनसिद्धम्। किञ्च प्रमाणमपि यमाश्रित्य प्रमाणं भवति तस्य प्रमाणस्य तदधीनशरीरप्राणनीलसुखादिवेद्यं चातिशय्य सदा भासमानस्य वेदकैकरूपस्य सर्वप्रमितिभाजः सिद्धावभिनवार्थप्रकाशस्य प्रमाणवराकस्य कश्चोपयोगः। एवं च शब्दराशिमयपूर्णाहन्तापरामर्शसारत्वात् परमशिव एव षट्त्रिंशत्तत्त्वात्मकः प्रपञ्चः। षट्त्रिंशत्तत्त्वानि च - १ शिव २ शक्ति ३ सदाशिव ४ ईश्वर ५ शुद्धविद्या ६ माया ७ कला ८ विद्या ९ राग १० काल ११ नियति १२ पुरुष १३ प्रकृति १४ बुद्धि १५ अहङ्कार १६ मनः १७ श्रोत्र १८ त्वक् १९ चक्षुः २० जिह्वा २१ घ्राण २२ वाक् २३ पाणि २४ पाद २५ पायु २६ उपस्थ २७ शब्द २८ स्पर्श २९ रूप ३० रस ३१ गन्ध ३२ आकाश ३३ वायु ३४ वह्नि ३५ सलिल ३६ भूमय इत्येतानि।
अथैषां लक्षणानि। तत्र शिवतत्त्वं नाम इच्चाज्ञानक्रियात्मककेवलपूर्णानन्दस्वभावरूपः परमशिव एव। अस्य जगत् स्रष्टुमिच्छां परिगृहीतवतः परमेश्वरस्य प्रथमस्पन्द एवेच्छा शक्तितत्त्वमप्रतिहतेच्छत्वात्सदेवाङ्कुरायमाणमिदं जगत् स्वात्मनाहन्तयाच्छाद्य स्थितं रूपं सदाशिवतत्त्वमङ्कुरितं जगदहन्तयावृत्य स्थितमीश्वरतत्त्वमहन्तेदन्तयोरैक्यप्रतिपत्तिः शुद्धविद्या स्वस्वरूपेषु भावेषु भेदप्रथा माया यदा तु परमेश्वरः पारमेश्वर्या मायाशक्त्या स्वरूपं गृहयित्वा सङ्कुचितग्राहकतामश्नुते तदा पुरुषसञ्ज्ञोऽयमेव मायामोहितः कर्मबन्धनः संसारी परमेश्वरादभिन्नोऽप्यस्य मोहः परमेश्वरस्य न भवेत् - इन्द्रजालमिव ऐन्द्रजालिकस्य स्वेच्छया सम्पादितभ्रान्तेर्विद्याभिज्ञापितैश्वर्यस्तु चिद्घनो मुक्तः परमशिव एव। अस्य सर्वकर्तृत्वं सर्वज्ञत्वं पूर्णत्वं नित्यत्वं व्यापकत्वं च शक्तयोऽसङ्कुचिता अपि सङ्कोचग्रहणेन कलाविद्यारागकालनियतिरूपतया भवन्ति। अत्र कलानामास्य पुरुषस्य किञ्चित्कर्तृताहेतुर्विद्या किञ्चिज्ज्ञत्वकारणं रागो विषयेष्वभिष्वङ्गः कालो हि भावानां भासनाभासनात्मकानां क्रमोऽवच्छेदको भूतादिर्नियतिर्ममेदं कर्तव्यं नेदं कर्तव्यमिति नियमनहेतुरेतत्पञ्चकमस्य स्वरूपावरकत्वात्कञ्चुकमित्युच्यते महदादिपृथिव्यन्तानां तत्त्वानां मूलकारणं प्रकृतिरेषा च सत्त्वरजस्तमसां साम्यावस्थाविभक्तरूपा निश्चयकारिणी विकल्पप्रतिबिम्बधारिणी बुद्धिरहङ्कारो नाम - ममेदं न ममेदमित्यभिमानसाधनं मनः सङ्कल्पसाधनमेतत्त्रयमन्तःकरणम्। शब्दस्पर्शरूपरसगन्धात्मकानां विषयाणां क्रमेण ग्रहणसाधनानि श्रोत्रत्वक्चक्षुर्जिह्वाघ्राणानि पञ्च ज्ञानेन्द्रियाणि। वचनादानविहरणविसर्गानन्दात्मक्रियासाधनानि परिपाठ्य वाक्पाणिपादपायूपस्थानि पञ्च कर्मेन्द्रियाणि। शब्दस्पर्शरूपरसगन्धाः सामान्याकाराः पञ्च तन्मात्राणि। आकाशमवकाशप्रदं वायुः सञ्जीवनमग्निर्दाहकः पाचकश्च सलिलमाप्यायकं द्रवरूपं च भूमिर्धारिका
यथा न्यग्रोधबीजस्थः शक्तिरूपो महाद्रुमः।
तथा हृदयबीजस्थं जगदेतच्चराचरम्॥
इत्याम्नायनीत्या पराभट्टारिकारूपे हृदयबीजेऽन्तर्भूतमेतज्जगत्। कथं - यथा घटशरावादीनां मृद्विकाराणां पारमार्थिकं रूपं मृदेव यथा वा जलादिद्रवजातीनां विचार्यमाणं व्यवस्थितं रूपं जलादिसामान्यमेव भवति तथा पृथिव्यादिमायान्तानां तत्त्वानां सतत्त्वं मीमांस्यमानं सदित्येव भवेदस्यापि पदस्य निरूप्यमाणं धात्वर्थव्यञ्जकं प्रत्ययांशं विसृज्य प्रकृतिमात्ररूपः सकार एवावशिष्यते तदन्तर्गतमेकत्रिंशत्तत्वं ततः परं शुद्धविद्येश्वरसदाशिवतत्त्वानि ज्ञानक्रियासाराणि शक्तिविशेषत्वादौकारेऽभ्युपगमरूपेऽनुत्तरशक्तिमयेऽन्तर्भूतानि। अतः परमूर्ध्वाधः सृष्टिरूपो विसर्जनीय एवम्भूतस्य हृदयबीजस्य महामन्त्रात्मको विश्वमयो विश्वोत्तीर्णः परमशिव एवोदयविश्रान्तिस्थानत्वान्निज स्वभावः। ईदृशं हृदयबीजं तत्त्वतो यो वेद समाविशति च स परमार्थतो दीक्षितः प्राणान् धारयन् लौकिकवद्वर्तमानो जीवन्मुक्त एव भवति देहपाते परमशिवभट्टारक एव भवति॥
Iha khalu parameśvaraḥ prakāśātmā prakāśaśca vimarśasvabhāvaḥ vimarśo nāma viśvākāreṇa viśvaprakāśena viśvasaṁharaṇena cākṛtrimāhamiti visphuraṇam| Yadi nirvimarśaḥ syādanīśvaro jaḍaśca prasajyeta| Eṣa eva ca vimarśaḥ - cit caitanyaṁ svarasoditāparāvāksvātantryaṁ paramātmano mukhyamaiśvaryaṁ kartṛtvaṁ sphurattā sāro hṛdayaṁ spanda ityādiśabdairāgameṣūdghoṣyate'ta evākṛtrimāhamiti-satattvaḥ svayamprakāśarūpaḥ parameśvaraḥ pārameśvaryā śaktyā śivādidharaṇyantajagadātmanā sphurati prakāśate ca| Etadevāsya jagataḥ kartṛtvamajaḍatvaṁ ca jagataḥ kāryatvamapi etadadhīnaprakāśatvamevaivambhūtaṁ jagat prakāśarūpāt karturmaheśvarādabhinnameva bhinnavedyatve'prakāśamānatvena prakāśanāyogādna kiñcitsyādanena ca jagatāsya bhagavataḥ prakāśātmakaṁ rūpaṁ na kadācidnirodhīyata etatprakāśanena pratiṣṭhāṁ labdhvā prakāśamānamidaṁ jagadātmanaḥ prāṇabhūtaṁ kathaṁ niroddhuṁ śaknuyātkathaṁ ca tannirudhya svayamavatiṣṭhetātaścāsya vastunaḥ sādhakamidaṁ bādhakamidaṁ pramāṇamityanusandhānātmakasādhakabādhakapramātṛrūpatayā cāsya sadbhāvastatsadbhāve kiṁ pramāṇam - iti vastusadbhāvamanumanyatāṁ tādṛksvabhāve kiṁ pramāṇam - iti praṣṭṛrūpatayā ca pūrvasiddhasya maheśvarasya svayamprakāśatvaṁ sarvasya svasaṁvedanasiddham| Kiñca pramāṇamapi yamāśritya pramāṇaṁ bhavati tasya pramāṇasya tadadhīnaśarīraprāṇanīlasukhādivedyaṁ cātiśayya sadā bhāsamānasya vedakaikarūpasya sarvapramitibhājaḥ siddhāvabhinavārthaprakāśasya pramāṇavarākasya kaścopayogaḥ| Evaṁ ca śabdarāśimayapūrṇāhantāparāmarśasāratvāt paramaśiva eva ṣaṭtriṁśattattvātmakaḥ prapañcaḥ| Ṣaṭtriṁśattattvāni ca - 1 Śiva 2 Śakti 3 Sadāśiva 4 Īśvara 5 Śuddhavidyā 6 Māyā 7 Kalā 8 Vidyā 9 Rāga 10 Kāla 11 Niyati 12 Puruṣa 13 Prakṛti 14 Buddhi 15 Ahaṅkāra 16 Manaḥ 17 Śrotra 18 Tvak 19 Cakṣuḥ 20 Jihvā 21 Ghrāṇa 22 Vāk 23 Pāṇi 24 Pāda 25 Pāyu 26 Upastha 27 Śabda 28 Sparśa 29 Rūpa 30 Rasa 31 Gandha 32 Ākāśa 33 Vāyu 34 Vahni 35 Salila 36 Bhūmaya ityetāni|
Athaiṣāṁ lakṣaṇāni| Tatra śivatattvaṁ nāma icchājñānakriyātmakakevalapūrṇānandasvabhāvarūpaḥ paramaśiva eva| Asya jagat sraṣṭumicchāṁ parigṛhītavataḥ parameśvarasya prathamaspanda evecchā śaktitattvamapratihatecchatvātsadevāṅkurāyamāṇamidaṁ jagat svātmanāhantayācchādya sthitaṁ rūpaṁ sadāśivatattvamaṅkuritaṁ jagadahantayāvṛtya sthitamīśvaratattvamahantedantayoraikyapratipattiḥ śuddhavidyā svasvarūpeṣu bhāveṣu bhedaprathā māyā yadā tu parameśvaraḥ pārameśvaryā māyāśaktyā svarūpaṁ gṛhayitvā saṅkucitagrāhakatāmaśnute tadā puruṣasañjño'yameva māyāmohitaḥ karmabandhanaḥ saṁsārī parameśvarādabhinno'pyasya mohaḥ parameśvarasya na bhavet - indrajālamiva aindrajālikasya svecchayā sampāditabhrāntervidyābhijñāpitaiśvaryastu cidghano muktaḥ paramaśiva eva| Asya sarvakartṛtvaṁ sarvajñatvaṁ pūrṇatvaṁ nityatvaṁ vyāpakatvaṁ ca śaktayo'saṅkucitā api saṅkocagrahaṇena kalāvidyārāgakālaniyatirūpatayā bhavanti| Atra kalānāmāsya puruṣasya kiñcitkartṛtāheturvidyā kiñcijjñatvakāraṇaṁ rāgo viṣayeṣvabhiṣvaṅgaḥ kālo hi bhāvānāṁ bhāsanābhāsanātmakānāṁ kramo'vacchedako bhūtādirniyatirmamedaṁ kartavyaṁ nedaṁ kartavyamiti niyamanaheturetatpañcakamasya svarūpāvarakatvātkañcukamityucyate mahadādipṛthivyantānāṁ tattvānāṁ mūlakāraṇam prakṛtireṣā ca sattvarajastamasāṁ sāmyāvasthāvibhaktarūpā niścayakāriṇī vikalpapratibimbadhāriṇī buddhirahaṅkāro nāma - mamedaṁ na mamedamityabhimānasādhanaṁ manaḥ saṅkalpasādhanametattrayamantaḥkaraṇam| Śabdasparśarūparasagandhātmakānāṁ viṣayāṇāṁ krameṇa grahaṇasādhanāni śrotratvakcakṣurjihvāghrāṇāni pañca jñānendriyāṇi| Vacanādānaviharaṇavisargānandātmakriyāsādhanāni paripāṭhya vākpāṇipādapāyūpasthāni pañca karmendriyāṇi| Śabdasparśarūparasagandhāḥ sāmānyākārāḥ pañca tanmātrāṇi| Ākāśamavakāśapradaṁ vāyuḥ sañjīvanamagnirdāhakaḥ pācakaśca salilamāpyāyakaṁ dravarūpaṁ ca bhūmirdhārikā
Yathā nyagrodhabījasthaḥ śaktirūpo mahādrumaḥ|
Tathā hṛdayabījasthaṁ jagadetaccarācaram||
Ityāmnāyanītyā parābhaṭṭārikārūpe hṛdayabīje'ntarbhūtametajjagat| Katham - Yathā ghaṭaśarāvādīnāṁ mṛdvikārāṇāṁ pāramārthikaṁ rūpaṁ mṛdeva yathā vā jalādidravajātīnāṁ vicāryamānaṁ vyavasthitaṁ rūpaṁ jalādisāmānyameva bhavati tathā pṛthivyādimāyāntānāṁ tattvānāṁ satattvaṁ mīmāṁsyamānaṁ sadityeva bhavedasyāpi padasya nirūpyamāṇaṁ dhātvarthavyañjakaṁ pratyayāṁśaṁ visṛjya prakṛtimātrarūpaḥ sakāra evāvaśiṣyate tadantargatamekatriṁśattattvaṁ tataḥ paraṁ śuddhavidyeśvarasadāśivatattvāni jñānakriyāsārāṇi śaktiviśeṣatvādaukāre'bhyupagamarūpe'nuttaraśaktimaye'ntarbhūtāni| Ataḥ paramūrdhvādhaḥ sṛṣṭirūpo visarjanīya evambhūtasya hṛdayabījasya mahāmantrātmako viśvamayo viśvottīrṇaḥ paramaśiva evodayaviśrāntisthānatvānnija svabhāvaḥ| Īdṛśaṁ hṛdayabījaṁ tattvato yo veda samāviśati ca sa paramārthato dīkṣitaḥ prāṇān dhārayan laukikavadvartamāno jīvanmukta eva bhavati dehapāte paramaśivabhaṭṭāraka eva bhavati||
Here (iha), the essence or self (ātmā) (of) the Supreme (parama) Lord (īśvaraḥ) (is) certainly (khalu) Prakāśa or Śiva (prakāśa); and (ca) Prakāśa (prakāśaḥ) (is) the essential nature (sva-bhāvaḥ) (of) Vimarśa or Śakti (vimarśa)6 . That is called (nāma) Vimarśa (vimarśaḥ) (who, while acting) as the one who manifests (ākāreṇa), displays --i.e. maintains-- (prakāśena) and (ca) dissolves (saṁhāraṇena) the universe (viśva... viśva... viśva), flashes (visphuraṇam) (as) "the natural (akṛtrima) I-ness" (aham iti)7 |
If (yadi) (the Supreme Consciousness) were to be (syāt) without Vimarśa or Śakti (nirvimarśaḥ), It would be consequently (prasajyeta) powerless (anīśvaraḥ) and(, as a result,) (ca) inert (jaḍaḥ)8 |
Also (ca), this (eṣaḥ) very (eva) Vimarśa (vimarśaḥ) is proclaimed (udghoṣyate) in the Āgama-s or Revealed Scriptures (āgameṣu)9 by means of the words (śabdaiḥ): (1) Cit or Consciousness (cit), (2) Caitanya or Consciousness in complete Freedom to do and know all (caitanyam), (3) Parāvāk or Supreme Speech (parā-vāk) being spoken (uditā) from Her own (sva) Rasa or Nectarean Essence (rasa), (4) Svātantrya or Absolute Freedom (svātantryam), (5) the Main (mukhyam) Supremacy or Sovereignty (aiśvaryam) of the Supreme (parama) Self --ātmā-- (ātmanaḥ), (6) Kartṛtva or the State of Being a Doer or Performer (kartṛtvam), (7) Sphurattā or Flashing Consciousness (sphurattā), (8) Sāra or Essence (sāraḥ), (9) Hṛdaya or Heart (hṛdayam), (10) Spanda or (Supreme) Vibration (spandaḥ), etc. (iti-ādi)10 . For this very reason (atas eva), the Supreme (parama)Lord (īśvaraḥ) whose real essence (satattvaḥ) (consists of) "the natural (akṛtrima) I-ness (aham iti)" --i.e. Vimarśa--, (and) whose nature (rūpaḥ) (is) Prakāśa (prakāśa) Itself (svayam)11 , throbs (sphurati) and (ca) shines (prakāśate) through the Mistress or Īśvarī (īśvaryā) of Parama --the Supreme Self-- (pārama), i.e. Śakti or divine Power (śaktyā) appearing in the form (ātmanā) of the world (jagat) (which is composed of thirty-six tattva-s or categories) beginning (ādi) with Śiva (śiva) (and) ending (anta) in Dharaṇī or earth (dharaṇī)12 |
This (etad) (is) Kartṛtva --lit. the condition of being a doer or author-- (kartṛtvam) of this (asya) world (jagataḥ) indeed (eva), and (ca) (such a Kartṛtva) is not an inert state (ajaḍatvam)13 . Even (api) the manifestation (kāryatvam) of the world (jagataḥ) becomes perceivable (prakāśatvam) because of (adhīna) this (Kartṛtva or Vimarśa) (etad) indeed (eva)14 . Such (evam-bhūtam) a world (jagat) (is) really (eva) not different (abhinnam) from the Great (mahā) Lord (īśvarāt), the Doer or Kartā (kartuḥ) whose essence (rūpāt) is Prakāśa (prakāśa). Should it be regarded (vedyatve) as different (from Him) (bhinna), (then,) being devoid of Prakāśa or Light (aprakāśamānatvena), nothing (na kiñcid) would take place --i.e. no universe would appear-- (syāt) due to the absence of association (ayogāt) with That which gives Light --i.e. the Lord Himself-- (prakāśana)15 . And (ca) the nature (rūpaḥ) consisting (ātmakaḥ) of Prakāśa (prakāśa) belonging to this (asya) Fortunate One --i.e. the Lord-- (bhagavataḥ) is never obstructed or confined (na kadācid nirodhīyate) by this (anena) world (jagatā). Having become established (pratiṣṭhām labdhvā) from His (etad) giving Light (to it) (prakāśanena), this (idam) world (jagat) becomes perceivable (prakāśamānam); (thus,) being (such a world) (bhūtam) His (ātmanaḥ) breath of life (prāṇa), how (katham) might it (śaknuyāt) obstruct or confine (Him) (niroddhum)?16 . On the other hand (ca), (even) having obstructed or confined (nirudhya) Him (tad) --i.e. even if the world could obstruct or confine the Lord--, how (katham) would it remain or exist (svayam avatiṣṭheta)?17 Therefore (atas), though (ca) "pramāṇa" --a means of acquiring Pramā or right knowledge-- (pramāṇam iti) (is) this (idam... idam) which proves (sādhakam) (or) annuls (bādhakam) His (asya) Vastu or Reality --i.e. the existence of the Lord-- (vastunaḥ), yet (ca) His (asya) Real Being (sat-bhāvaḥ) appears in the form (rūpatayā) of the Pramātā or Subject --i.e. the Experient-- (pramātṛ) who proves (sādhaka) (or) annuls (bādhaka) based (ātmaka) on anusandhāna --i.e. close inspection or inquiry-- (anusandhāna)18 . (Then,) what (kim) pramāṇa (pramāṇa) (might be used) regarding His (tad) Sadbhāva or Real Being (sat-bhāve)? Thus (iti), (as the Lord is) the Real Being (sadbhāvam) (or) Vastu --Reality-- (vastu) of those who inferring (anumanyatām)19 , what (kim) pramāṇa (pramāṇam) (might one apply) as regards such (tādṛk) a Svabhāva or Essential Nature (sva-bhāve)? So (iti), by appearing in the form (rūpatayā ca) of the one who inquires (praṣṭṛ), the very (svayam) state of Prakāśa or Light (prakāśatvam) of the Great (mahā) Lord --Īśvara-- (īśvarasya) (or) Pūrvasiddha (pūrva-siddhasya) is proved (siddham) from own (sva) everyone's (sarvasya) perception (saṁvedana)20 |
Besides (kiñca), even (api) pramāṇa (pramāṇam), by resting (āśritya) on Him --i.e. in Pramātā or Subject-- (yam), becomes (bhavati) a means of acquiring right knowledge (pramāṇam)21 . What is the use (kaḥ ca upayogaḥ) of a miserable (varākasya) pramāṇa (pramāṇa), which appears (the whole time) (prakāśasya) as a quite new (abhinava) thing (artha), as regards proving (siddhau) (the existence of) the One who possesses (bhājaḥ) all (sarva) "pramiti-s" --knowledges gained or established by pramāṇa-- (pramiti), whose only form (eka-rūpasya) is the Knower (vedaka), who is ever-present (sadā bhāsamanasya) and (ca) (thus) surpasses (atiśayya) that which is a knowable (vedyam) (such as) body (śarīra), vital energy (prāṇa), blue color (nīla), pleasure (sukha),etc. (ādi), which are dependant (adhīna) upon it (tad), (i.e.) of that (tasya) pramāṇa (pramāṇasya)?22 |
Thus (evam ca), the Supreme (parama) Śiva (śivaḥ), because of His being the Essence (sāratvāt) of the remembrance (parāmarśa) of the Perfect (pūrṇa) I-consciousness (ahantā) consisting (maya) of a multitude (rāśi) of sounds (śabda), is the universal manifestation (prapañcaḥ) composed (ātmakaḥ) of thirty-six (ṣaṭ-triṁśat) tattva-s or categories (tattva)23 |
And (ca) these (etāni) (are) the thirty-six (ṣaṭ-triṁśat) tattva-s or categories (tattvāni):
(1) Śiva (1 Śiva), (2) Śakti (2 Śakti), (3) Sadāśiva --also known as "Sādākhya"-- (3 Sadāśiva), (4) Īśvara (4 Īśvara), (5) Śuddhavidyā --also known as "Sadvidyā"-- (5 Śuddhavidyā); (6) Māyā (6 Māyā), (7) Kalā (7 Kalā), (8) Vidyā (8 Vidyā), (9) Rāga (9 Rāga), (10) Kāla (10 Kāla), (11) Niyati (11 Niyati), (12) Puruṣa (12 Puruṣa), (13) Prakṛti --also known as "Pradhāna"-- (13 Prakṛti), (14) Buddhi --also known as "Mahat"-- (14 Buddhi), (15) Ahaṅkāra --also known as "Asmitā"-- (15 Ahaṅkāra), (16) Manas (16 Manaḥ), (17) Śrotra --also known as "Śravaṇa"-- (17 Śrotra), (18) Tvak (18 Tvak), (19) Cakṣus (19 Cakṣuḥ), (20) Jihvā --also known as "Rasanā"-- (20 Jihvā), (21) Ghrāṇa (21 Ghrāṇa), (22) Vāk (22 Vāk), (23) Pāṇi (23 Pāṇi), (24) Pāda (24 Pāda), (25) Pāyu (25 Pāyu), (26) Upastha (26 Upastha), (27) Śabda (27 Śabda), (28) Sparśa (28 Sparśa), (29) Rūpa (29 Rūpa), (30) Rasa (30 Rasa), (31) Gandha (31 Gandha), (32) Ākāśa (32 Ākāśa), (33) Vāyu (33 Vāyu), (34) Vahni --also known as "Agni" or "Tejas"-- (34 Vahni), (35) Salila --also known as "Āpas", "Udaka" or "Vāri"-- (35 Salila), (36) Bhūmi --also known as "Pṛthivī", "Kṣiti" or "Dharaṇī"-- (36 Bhūmayaḥ iti)24 |
And now (atha) the characteristics (laksaṇāni) of these (tattva-s or categories) (eṣām):
Of those (tatra), the tattva or category (tattvam) called (nāma) Śiva (śiva) (is) truly (eva) Paramaśiva --the Supreme Śiva-- (parama-śivaḥ) whose form (rūpaḥ) is the essential nature (sva-bhāva) of the only (kevala) Perfect (pūrṇa) Ānanda or Bliss (ānanda) consisting (ātmaka) of Will (icchā), Knowledge (jñāna) (and) Action (kriyā)25 |
The first (prathama) Vibration (spandaḥ) of this (asya) Supreme (parama) Lord --Īśvara-- (īśvarasya) who desires (icchām parigṛhītavataḥ) to manifest (sraṣṭum) the world (jagat) (is) certainly (eva) Icchā or Will (icchā), i.e. the category (tattvam) known as Śakti (śakti), because (such a category) is an uninterrupted and unobstructed (apratihata) Desire (icchātvāt)26 . The Sadāśiva (sadāśiva) category (tattvam) (is) the form (rūpam) which remains (sthitam) (when) this (idam) world (jagat), that is always as if a sprout (sadā iva aṅkurāyamāṇam), is hidden or covered (ācchādya) by I-consciousness (ahantayā), i.e. by one's own Self (sva-ātmanā)27 . The Īśvara (īśvara) category (tattvam) (is) that which abides (sthitam) (when) this (idam) sprouted (aṅkuritaḥ) world (jagat) is turned round (āvṛtya) by I-consciousness --Śakti-- (ahantayā)28 . When there is unity (aikya-pratipattiḥ) between Aham --I-consciousness-- and Idam --the world or universe-- (ahantā-idantayoḥ), (that is) the Śuddhavidyā (category) (śuddha-vidyā)29 . Māyā --the sixth tattva or category-- (māyā) scatters (prathā) difference or duality (bheda) regarding own (sva) essential natures (sva-bhāveṣu) of the bhāva-s --i.e. the tattva-s or categories from Kalā (the seventh tattva) down to Bhūmi (the last one)-- (bhāveṣu)30 . However (tu), when (yadā) the Supreme (parama) Lord (īśvaraḥ), by taking hold (gṛhayitvā) of (His own) essential nature (sva-rūpam) through the Highest Mistress (pārama-īśvaryā) or Māyāśakti (māyā-śaktyā)31 , assumes (aśnute) the state of contracted experient (saṅkucita-grāhakatām), then (tadā) He is called (sañjñaḥ) Puruṣa --tattva or category 12-- (puruṣa)32 . This (ayam) very (Puruṣa) (eva), fettered (bandhanaḥ) by actions (karma) (and) deluded (mohitaḥ) by Māyā (māyā), (becomes) a transmigratory soul (saṁsārī)33 . Even though (api) (Puruṣa) is not different (abhinnaḥ) from the Supreme (parama) Lord --Īśvara-- (īśvarāt), his (asya) delusion or infatuation (mohaḥ) is not (na) of the Supreme (parama) Lord --Īśvara-- (īśvarasya)34 , (but it takes place), as in the case of (iva) an act of magic (indrajālam), due to the confusion (bhrānteḥ) produced (sampādita) according to the magician's own will (aindrajālikasya sva-icchayā) --this was a mere analogy to explain something which is indescribable, of course--. (It is) the liberated (muktaḥ) Paramaśiva --Supreme Śiva-- (parama-śivaḥ) Himself (eva) (who) doubtless (tu) has Aiśvarya --Supremacy or Sovereignty-- (aiśvaryaḥ) made known (abhijñāpita) by Vidyā --i.e. Śuddhavidyā or Pure Knowledge35 -- (vidyā) (since He is) a compact mass (ghanaḥ) of Consciousness (cit)|
His (asya) śakti-s or powers (śaktayaḥ), (viz.) Omnipotence (sarvakartṛtvam), Omniscience (sarvajñatvam), Perfection or Fullness (pūrṇatvam), Eternity (nityatvam) and (ca) Omnipresence (vyāpakatvam), though (api) (essentially) uncontracted (asaṅkucitāḥ), by accepting (grahaṇena) contraction (saṅkoca), they assume the forms (rūpatayā bhavanti) of Kalā (kalā), Vidyā (vidyā), Rāga (rāga), Kāla (kāla) (and) Niyati (niyati), (respectively, i.e. the five Kañcuka-s or Sheaths)36 |
Of these (five Kañcuka-s) (atra), the one called (nāma) Kalā (kalā) (is) the cause (hetuḥ) of the limited (kiñcid) capacity for action (kartṛtā) of this (asya) Puruṣa --tattva or category 12-- (puruṣasya). Vidyā (vidyā) (is) the reason (kāraṇam) for (his) limited (kiñcid) knowledge (jñatvam). Rāga (rāgaḥ) (is) intense attachment (abhiṣvaṅgaḥ) to objects (viṣayeṣu). Kāla (kālaḥ) (is) no doubt (hi) a succession (kramaḥ) of states or bhāva-s (bhāvānām) appearing and disappearing (bhāsana-abhāsana-ātmakānām), (as well as that which) distinguishes or divides (them) (avacchedakaḥ) into past (bhūta), etc. (ādiḥ) --i.e. into past, present and future--37 . Niyati (niyatiḥ) (is) the cause (hetuḥ) of restrictions (niyamana) (such as) "I must do (mama... kartavyam) this (idam), I must not do (mama... na... kartavyam) this (idam... iti)". It is said (ucyate) that this (etad) group of five (tattva-s or categories) (pañcakam) (is called) "Kañcuka or Sheath" (kañcukam iti) because it covers (and thus conceals) (āvarakatvāt) His (asya) Essential Nature (sva-rūpa) --i.e. the Essential Nature of the Lord--. Prakṛti --the thirteenth tattva or category-- (prakṛtiḥ) (is) the first or original cause (mūla-kāraṇam) of the tattva-s (tattvānām) beginning (ādi) with Mahat --i.e. Buddhi or intellect, the fourteenth category-- (mahat) (and) ending (antānām) in Pṛthivī --i.e. Bhūmi or earth, the last category-- (pṛthivī). And (ca) this (Prakṛti) (eṣā) (is) a state (avasthā) of equipoise (sāmya) among Sattva (sattva), Rajas (rajas) (and) Tamas (tamasām). (Therefore,) the nature (of Prakṛti) (rūpā) is undivided (avibhakta)38 . Buddhi or intellect --tattva 14, the first tattva after Prakṛti-- (buddhiḥ) (is) that which determines (niścaya-kāriṇī) (and) holds or bears (dhāriṇī) the reflections (brought about by the Light of the Supreme Self) (pratibimba) (that shine forth) as vikalpa-s or thoughts (vikalpa)39 . That (category) which is known by the name (nāma) of Ahaṅkāra or ego --tattva 15-- (ahaṅkāra) denotes or is expressive of (sādhanam) conceptions (abhimāna) (such as) "This (idam) (is) mine (mama), this (idam) (is) not (na) mine (mama... iti)". Manas or mind --tattva 16-- (manas) denotes or is expressive of (sādhanam) notions and ideas (saṅkalpa)40 . This (etad) triad (trayam) (constitutes) the inner (antar) (psychic) organ or instrument (karaṇam)41 |
The five (pañca) Jñānendriya-s or Powers of Perception (jñāna-indriyāṇi) (are:) Śrotra --power of hearing-- (śrotra), Tvak --power of feeling by touch-- (tvak), Cakṣus --power of seeing-- (cakṣus), Jihvā --power of tasting-- (jihvā) (and) Ghrāṇa --power of smelling-- (ghrāṇāni). They denote (sādhanāni) perception (grahaṇa) of objects (viṣayāṇām) consisting (ātmakānām) of sound (śabda), touch (sparśa), form (rūpa), taste (rasa) (and) odor (gandha), according to the respective order (krameṇa)|
The five (pañca) Karmendriya-s or Powers of Action (karma-indriyāṇi) which have been enumerated in detail (paripāṭhyā) (are:) Vāk --power of speaking-- (vāk), Pāṇi --power of handling-- (pāṇi), Pāda --power of locomotion-- (pāda), Pāyu --power of excreting-- (pāyu) (and) Upastha --power of sexual activity and restfulness-- (upasthāni). They denote (sādhanāni) activity (kriyā) characterized (ātma) by the acts of speaking (vacana), taking (ādāna), moving to and fro (viharaṇa), evacuating (visarga) (and experiencing) happiness (ānanda), (respectively)42 |
The five (pañca) Tanmātra-s or Subtle Elements (tanmātrāṇi) (are:) generic (sāmānya) forms (ākārāḥ) (called) Śabda --Sound as such-- (śabda), Sparśa --Touch as such-- (sparśa), Rūpa --Color as such-- (rūpa), Rasa --Flavor as such-- (rasa) (and) Gandha --Odor as such-- (gandhāḥ)43 |
(And finally the five Mahābhūta-s or Gross Elements:) Ākāśa or Space --also known as Ether-- (ākāśam) makes (pradam) room (avakāśa), (as it were), Vāyu or Air (vāyuḥ) makes alive or animates (sañjīvanam), Agni or Fire (agniḥ) burns (dāhakaḥ) and (ca) cooks (pācakaḥ), Salila or Water (salilam) satiates (āpyāyakam) and (ca) is fluid (drava-rūpam), (while) Bhūmi or Earth (bhūmiḥ) is the prop (dhārikā)44 .
According to the precept (nītyā) (stated by) the sacred tradition (āmnāya) (in the stanza 24 of Parātriṁśikā)45 , this (etad) world (jagat) is (bhūtam) within (antar) the Seed (bīje) of the Heart (hṛdaya), (which --i.e. the Seed--) is (rūpe) the Highest (parā) Tutelary Deity --the Supreme Śakti-- (bhaṭṭārikā):
"Just as (yathā) a large (mahā) tree (drumaḥ) lies (sthaḥ) potentially (śakti-rūpaḥ) in the seed (bīja) of the banyan tree (nyagrodha), so (tathā) this (etad) world (jagat), (both) animate (cara) (and) inanimate (acaram), lies (stham) in the Seed (bīja) of the Heart (hṛdaya... iti)."||
How (katham)? Just as (yathā) in water pots (ghaṭa), dishes (śarāva), etc. (ādīnām), which are modifications or transformations --vikāra-- (vikārāṇām) of clay (mṛd), only (eva) clay (mṛd) (is) the true (pāramārthikam) essence or nature (rūpam); or (vā) just as (yathā) in (different) types (jātīnām) of fluids (drava) (such as) water (jala), etc. (ādi), only (eva) the constant (vyavasthitam) essence or nature (rūpam) under consideration (vicāryamāṇam) exists (bhavati) (in the form of) the generic property (sāmānyam) of water (jala), etc. (ādi) --i.e. liquidity--46 ; so (tathā) "Sat" --i.e. Being-- (sat iti) alone (eva), that is (right now) being investigated (mīmāṁsyamāṇam), constitutes (bhavet) the real nature (satattvam) of the tattva-s or categories (tattvānām) beginning with (ādi) Pṛthivī or Earth --tattva 36-- (pṛthivī) (and) ending in (antānām) Māyā --tattva 6-- (māyā). Even (api) after removing (visṛjya) from this (asya) word --i.e. "Sat"-- (padasya) the portion (aṁśam) of the affix (pratyaya) which makes clear (vyañjakam) the meaning (artha) of the verbal root (dhātu) under examination (nirūpyamāṇam), just (eva) the letter (kāraḥ) "Sa" (sa) is left (avaśiṣyate) merely (mātra-rūpaḥ) as prakṛti --not the thirteenth tattva, careful!-- or primary nature (prakṛti)47 . The thirty-one (eka-triṁśat) tattva-s or categories (tattvam) are (gatam) within (antar) that (letter "Sa") (tad)48 . After that (tataḥ param), the tattva-s or categories (tattvāni) Śuddhavidyā --tattva 5-- (śuddhavidyā), Īśvara --tattva 4-- (īśvara) (and) Sadāśiva --tattva 3-- (sadāśiva), whose essences (sārāṇi) are Jñāna --Power of Knowledge-- (jñāna) (and) Kriyā --Power of Action-- (kriyā)49 , because of the differences and peculiarities (viśeṣatvāt) among (these) Śakti-s or Powers (śakti), reside (bhūtāni) within (antar) of Anuttara-śakti (anuttara-śakti-maye)50 which arrives at (abhyupagama-rūpe) (the stage of) the letter (kāre) "Au" (au)51 |
After this (atas param), (appears) Visarjanīya --i.e. Visarga-- (visarjanīyaḥ) in the form (rūpaḥ) of the Manifestation (sṛṣṭi) which is (both) above (ūrdhva) (and) below (adhas)52 . Paramaśiva (paramaśivaḥ) Himself (eva), consisting (ātmakaḥ) of the Great Mantra --i.e. Aham or I (am)-- (mahā-mantra) (and) being immanent (mayaḥ) (as well as) transcendent (uttīrṇa) with reference to the universe (viśva... viśva), is the innate (nija) nature (sva-bhāvaḥ) of such (evam-bhūtasya) a Seed (bījasya) of the Heart (hṛdaya) since He is the place (sthānatvāt) of repose (viśrānti) (and) emergence (udaya) (of all, i.e. all rests and emerges from Him)|
He (saḥ) is (bhavati) a Jīvanmukta (jīvat-muktaḥ) indeed (eva), (or one who) continues to exist (vartamānaḥ) like (vat) an ordinary man (laukika) while living (prāṇān dhārayan), (and is) initiated (dikṣitaḥ) in the truest sense of the word (paramārthatas), who (ātmanaḥ) really (tattvatas) knows (veda) and (ca) penetrates (samāviśati) such (īdṛśam) a Seed (bījam) of the Heart (hṛdaya). When (his) body falls (deha-pāte), he becomes (eva bhavati) the worshipful (bhaṭṭārakaḥ) Paramaśiva --the Supreme Śiva-- (paramaśiva)||53
Note of the translator - For want of a formal conclusion of the scripture, I will create one now in the same way as the sage Kṣemarāja generally writes at the end of his writings:
इति महामाहेश्वरश्रीमदभिनवगुप्तोपजीविक्षेमराजविरचिता पराप्रावेशिका समाप्ता॥
Iti mahāmāheśvaraśrīmadabhinavaguptopajīvikṣemarājaviracitā parāprāveśikā samāptā||
Thus (iti), Parāprāveśikā --the Scripture entering into the mysteries of the Supreme Śakti or Power-- (parāprāveśikā), composed (viracitā) by Kṣemarāja (kṣemarāja), who depends (upajīvi) upon venerable (śrīmat) Abhinavagupta --the Kṣemarāja's master-- (abhinavagupta), the great (mahā) worshiper of Maheśvara --Śiva, the Great Lord-- (māheśvara), is (now) finished (samāptā)||
6 Prakāśa literally means "light, brightness, splendor, clearness", while Vimarśa is "examination". Prakāśa and Vimarśa are the technical terms to name Śiva and Śakti, respectively. Read Trika 2 (English) if you wish information in depth .
7 Vimarśa or Śakti (the divine Power of Śiva), while carries out the processes of manifestation, maintenance and dissolution of the universe, remains as the natural I-consciousness. The word "akṛtrima" means "natural", i.e. it is not "kṛtrima" or artificial. Thus, while oneself manifests, maintains and dissolves this universe constantly, Vimarśa or Śakti is That which abides like the spontaneous "I am" in the backstage. It is immanent in the universe as Śakti does participate in the acts of universal manifestation, maintenance and dissolution, but at the same time She is beyond them all, i.e. She is transcendental, such as has been indicated previously by Kṣemarāja himself. This is the meaning .
8 If the Supreme Consciousness, also known as Paramaśiva or Saṁvid, had no Vimarśa or Śakti, It would be without "Īśvara" or Power, and thus inert. Mere Prakāśa (Light) or Śiva cannot bring about manifestation, maintenance and dissolution of the universe. The term "Īśvara" is generally interpreted as "Lord", but it also means "able to do, capable of, etc.". Therefore, the Supreme Consciousness with no Vimarśa might not be the "Lord" as It would be without any Power.
So, according to Trika, Vimarśa or Power is needed to make something appears. Look around right now: if you were a mere Witness (Prakāśa) without Vimarśa or Power, you would not be even a Witness because there would not be anything to witness, got it? Always remember that Prakāśa (Śiva) and Vimarśa (Śakti) are You Yourself. If you fail to grasp this truth, and start thinking that Prakāśa and Vimarśa are realities beyond you and so on, you will never fully understand Trika however deep your intellectual knowledge of this philosophical system may be. And there is no doubt about it, be sure. Prakāśa is mere "I-ness" and Vimarśa makes "I-ness" conscious of Its existence. Thus, Prakāśa and Vimarśa are "I am". This "I am" is your real essence underlying all that is manifested, maintained and dissolved. This is the sense .
9 Āgama-s or Revealed Scriptures are those whose author is not a human being. They have come down from the Lord Himself. For example: Śivasūtra-s .
10 It would take several volumes to describe in full detail the meanings of the many epithets for Vimarśa or Śakti. Anyway, now I will try to describe them in a concise manner as the translation had to be as brief as possible:
(1) Vimarśa (Śakti) is Cit because She is pure Consciousness making Prakāśa (Śiva) conscious of His own existence. Afterward, She makes Him conscious of the universe produced by Herself;
(2) Vimarśa (Śakti) is Caitanya because She enjoys complete Freedom to do and know all, that is, Vimarśa or Śakti is omnipotent and omniscient;
(3) Vimarśa (Śakti) is Svarasoditāparāvāk because She is the Supreme Speech being spoken from Her own Rasa or Essence, i.e. Her Speech is unobstructed and arises from the core of the Absolute;
(4) Vimarśa (Śakti) is Svātantrya because She is endowed with Absolute Freedom. Nobody can control Her, and thus She is free to do whatever She whishes;
(5) Vimarśa (Śakti) is the Main Supremacy or Sovereignty of the Supreme Self because there is no other Power controlling Her. She is the Main Power presiding over the whole universe that is manifested, maintained and dissolved by Herself;
(6) Vimarśa (Śakti) is Kartṛtva because She is the real Doer or Author of everything. Although the individuals seem to be independent doers or authors, they are not so since they are dependant on Her always. Without Her Will supporting them, none of those reputed authors might do anything;
(7) Vimarśa (Śakti) is Sphurattā because is Flashing Consciousness who spontaneously emerges on Her own. No individual can force Vimarśa to reveal Her innermost nature. She just flashes in a natural way whenever She decides to do so;
(8) Vimarśa (Śakti) is Sāra or Essence because She is the Reality underlying the universe;
(9) Vimarśa (Śakti) is Hṛdaya or Heart because She is the Core or Kernel of all;
(10) and Vimarśa (Śakti) is Spanda or Supreme Vibration because She is the eternal Pulsation of the Divine by means of which the entire manifestation is over and over again displayed, maintained for a little while and then withdrawn .
11 In other words, the Supreme Lord, also known as Paramaśiva, is "Prakāśavimarśamaya", i.e. He consists of both Prakāśa and Vimarśa. This is confirmed by what Kṣemarāja is about to state in the text .
12 The thirty-sixth tattva or category is known as "earth", which is expressed by several words in Sanskrit: Dharaṇī, Pṛthivī, Kṣiti, Bhūmi, etc. Note that in the Tattvic Chart, and in fact, in every document I have written about tattva-s, I chose to call "earth" Pṛthivī, but the other aforesaid terms are also valid .
13 As I said in my above tenth explanatory note, Śakti or Vimarśa is named "Kartṛtva" because She is the real Doer or Author of everything. And She is not inert at all but full of vibration and light. Always remember that Prakāśa and Vimarśa (Śiva and Śakti) are one and the same thing. They can be only separated for the sake of studying them in a better way. However, as a matter of fact They are never separated from each other. That is why Śiva is not ever without Śakti and vice versa. Both of them are heads and tails, as it were, of the Coin called Paramaśiva, the Absolute Reality .
14 Vimarśa or Śakti makes Śiva (You!) conscious of Himself and the universe. For example, if there would be no Śakti here, you might not read what I am writing, let alone understand it. Śakti is That which gives the support or "ālambana" for you to perceive the manifestation of this world. The word "adhīna" literally means "situated in, dependant upon, etc.", but I preferred to translate it as "because of" for the sake of convenience and easy reading. The final purport is that the perception of this world depends upon Śakti. Without Her help, no universe would be perceived. This is the sense .
15 If the universe is considered as different from the Great Lord who is endowed with Prakāśa or Light, then this universe would have never become perceivable because of lack of association with the One who gives Light, i.e. the Lord Himself. How might such a universe appear at all if it were not illuminated by Prakāśa? This is the meaning .
16 When this world has obtained support and foundation to become perceivable and manifest from His act of giving Light to it; in other words, when the Light of the Lord is what gives support and foundation to this world; then, how might such a world get in the way of Him? This world is His Prāṇa or breath of life, and consequently it cannot obstruct or restrain the Supreme Lord at all. This is the conclusion Kṣemarāja arrives at .
17 Even if the world could obstruct or restrain the Supreme Lord, on its being completely dependant on Him, such a world would be obstructing and restraining itself. So, it would not be able to continue to exist .
18 Pramāṇa or means of acquiring right knowledge consists in proving (i.e. establishing as truth) or annulling (i.e. invalidating). When applied to prameya-s or objects, Pramāṇa holds good. Nevertheless, when Pramāṇa is used to prove or annul existence of the Lord, it does not hold good. Why? Because the Real Being or Existence of the Supreme Self, i.e. His "sadbhāva", appears in the form of that Pramātā or Experient attempting to prove or annul by means of anusandhāna or close inspection. The word "anusandhāna" also means in Trika or Non-dual Shaivism of Kashmir: "repeated intensive awareness of Self or Reality; as well as to join the succeeding experience to the previous one". Then, Pramāṇa is useless to prove or annul His "sadbhāva" such as Kṣemarāja is on the point of expressing .
19 Pramāṇa or means of acquiring right knowledge is of three types: (1) Pratyakṣa or direct perception, i.e. direct experience; (2) Anumāna or inference, i.e. deduction; and (3) Āgama or testimony, i.e. scriptures, that which comes out from the mouth of a genuine Guru, etc. In this case, Kṣemarāja is referring to the second aspect of pramāṇa, to wit, Anumāna or inference. If you want to know more about pramāṇa, read the seventh aphorism (first Section) of the celebrated Pātañjalayogasūtra-s. In turn, there is more relevant information about pramāṇa in the Vyāsa's commentary on the Pātañjalayogasūtra-s .
20 The Great Lord is also known as "Pūrva-siddha" (lit. previously proved) because He is the first Reality being proved. If He was not proved in the first place, nobody might prove anything else. But His state of Prakāśa or Light cannot be proved by mere pramāṇa-s or means of acquiring right knowledge because the Lord is not a prameya or object, but the Supreme Subject or Experient. In short, He Himself is the one who inquires into His own essential nature or Prakāśa (Light), but being Prakāśa a Subject (the Lord Himself) and not an object, all pramāṇa-s are useless to prove such a essential nature. Thus, the sage Kṣemarāja specifies that Prakāśa or the essential nature of the Lord is proved from everyone's own perception and not by means of pramāṇa-s. In sum, the existence of "everyone" is already a solid proof that Prakāśa exists as the foundational Consciousness. Without the presence of Prakāśa or Light, nobody might appear, let alone prove the existence of something. That is why the sage calls the Lord Pūrvasiddha. It is that simple! Oh my God .
21 Pramāṇa becomes a means of acquiring right knowledge because it rests (i.e. it is based) on the Subject or Experient (Pramātā). Without Pramātā or the one inquiring, pramāṇa might not exist .
22 A miserable pramāṇa or means of acquiring right knowledge cannot be used to prove the existence of Pramātā or Subject, because pramāṇa is always a quite new thing (thoughts) arising in the mind of the one who inquires, i.e. in the mind of Pramātā. So, how might something which is quite new at every moment prove the existence of the One who produces it? Therefore, pramāṇa is ephemeral while Pramātā or Subject is the ever present Knower who contains all pramiti-s or knowledges gained by pramāṇa. Pramātā (the Subject or Experient) surpasses (i.e. transcends) knowables such as body, vital energy, blue color, pleasure, etc. and thus His existence cannot be proved by means of pramāṇa. By "which are dependant upon it, (i.e.) of that pramāṇa", the author points out that the scope of pramāṇa is exactly that: knowables, but never the Knower or Pramātā. As a result, to use pramāṇa-s to prove the reality of Pramātā or Subject (viz. the Supreme Lord... You!) is wasted time according to Kṣemarāja .
23 Kṣemarāja, the author, seems to be addicted to the long and complex compounds such as: "because of His being the Essence of the remembrance of the Perfect I-consciousness consisting of a multitude of sounds". Of course, the translators go mad as a result. What the sage means is as follows: "Since the Lord is the Essence of the remembrance of the Perfect I-consciousness also known as Vimarśa or Śakti" - The word "parāmarśa" or "remembrance" also means "seizing mentally, experience". So, it is just the Lord (You!) who experiences the Perfect I-consciousness or Śakti, and thus He is the Essence of Her remembrance. In turn: "Such a Perfect I-consciousness consists of numerous sounds" - The word "rāśi" means a "multitude". The inner purport of the phrase is that Pūrṇāhantā (the Perfect I-consciousness or Śakti) is formed from all letters from "a" to "ha", which constitute the entire Sanskrit alphabet, and consequently She (i.e. Śakti) vibrates as such an alphabet. In this manner, this Lord also called Paramaśiva (the Supreme Śiva), whose nature is Śiva (Prakāśa or Light) and Śakti (Vimarśa or the Perfect I-consciousness) is the only One who can become the whole universal manifestation. And "prapañca" or the universal manifestation is composed of thirty-six tattva-s or categories, which will be enumerated by Kṣemarāja shortly. This is the meaning .
24 "Bhūmayaḥ" is the plural of "Bhūmi". The plural is used in the last term of this list of tattva-s in order to indicate that other tattva-s or categories have been enumerated previously. And "iti" merely stands for "quotation marks" or something like that. Kṣemarāja will describe their characteristics in an abridged manner soon, but, as I told you before, check the Tattvic Chart and the "Overview" subsection within the Trika section if you want more in depth knowledge about tattva-s .
25 Well, the description of Kṣemarāja has just begun. Firstly, remember that Paramaśiva (the Supreme Śiva) is "Prakāśavimarśamaya", i.e. It consists of Prakāśa (Śiva) and Vimarśa (Śakti). Anyway, all these terms are just words to study a Reality which lies beyond words. Śiva is Śakti, and Śakti is Śiva. Śiva is Paramaśiva, and Paramaśiva is Śiva, and so on. Do not get confused by the terms as they all are very useful words as far as a good description of the tattva-s is concerned, but Reality is a compact mass of Consciousness and never can be properly described. Besides, all tattva-s from Śakti (tattva 2) down to Bhūmi (tattva 36) are "just" Śakti assuming different states. And Śakti is Śiva, and Śiva is Paramaśiva, and Paramaśiva is the entire aggregate of tattva-s or categories which are manifested, maintained and finally dissolved.
In short, the whole universe is the Body of Paramaśiva, the Great Lord (You!). Remember that Kṣemarāja said previously that "Pūrṇāhantā" or the Perfect I-consciousness (i.e. Śakti) consists of a multitude of sounds. If you lose sight of the unity of all tattva-s, to wit, if you lose sight of Paramaśiva as a whole, your study of them will be merely an intellectual one. Such a barren intellectual study is not conducive to a real experience of your essential nature and therefore it is as good as "useless". So, study the tattva-s, but never forget that all of them are Your own Body, Paramaśiva .
26 Śakti is the first Spanda or Vibration of the Supreme Lord when He is desirous to manifest the universe. She is a continuous and unobstructed creative Desire or Icchātva (i.e. Pure Will). Anyway, this first Vibration is not a sound yet, but the source of all sounds which will be manifested later. See Trika 2 (English) for more information .
27 In Sadāśiva-tattva (the category called Sadāśiva), the universe is always like a sprout. Its form appears as indistinct because it is being concealed or covered by the Aham (I) portion of the Supreme Self. There are two sides or portions: Aham (I) and Idam (This, i.e. the universe or world). The Sadāśiva category appears when the "I" portion is predominant. Of course, by "I-consciousness", the author is referring to Śakti, who is Śiva vibrating and manifesting the world. All tattva-s are brought about by Her alone. See Trika 3 (English) for more information .
28 In Sadāśiva-tattva the "Aham" ("I") portion is prevalent. Thus, "Idam" or "This" (the world or universe) is indistinct. But now, in Īśvara-tattva, the world is turned round, i.e. it becomes distinct and thus predominant, while the "Aham" portion remains eclipsed, as it were. Read Trika 3 (English) if you wish to understand this in depth .
29 Another possible translation for "pratipattiḥ" is "perception". Thus, an alternative translation would be: "Śuddhavidyā is the perception of unity between...". The "Aham" portion (also known as Ahantā or I-consciousness) is now in equilibrium with the "Idam" portion (also called Idantā or state of being This, i.e. the world or universe). In short, neither "Aham" nor "Idam" is predominant. This category in which both Aham and Idam are equally prevalent is named Śuddhavidyā or Sadvidyā, the fifth tattva. Read Trika 3 (English) for more relevant information .
30 If you consult a Sanskrit dictionary, you will probably find the following meanings for "bhāva": becoming, being, existing, state, condition, rank, nature, temperament, behavior, sentiment, affection, and a long etc. In this context, Kṣemarāja is using this term to point out those thirty tattva-s under Māyā, i.e. (7) Kalā, (8) Vidyā, (9) Rāga... (34) Vahni, (35) Salila and (36) Bhūmi. In turn, the word "prathā" literally means "one who scatters, spreads out, etc.", that is, Māyā forces a limited individual to consider the aforesaid thirty tattva-s as something different from the Supreme Self. That is why the author specifies that She scatters difference as regards own essential natures of those tattva-s. In other words, She inoculates duality and causes such tattva-s or categories to appear to be something different from the Lord (You!). This is the first part of the Cosmic Delusion .
31 Careful here! Do not mistake "Māyāśakti" for "Māyātattva" (or plainly, "Māyā"). On one hand, the latter is the sixth tattva or category which, according to the previous Kṣemarāja's teaching, scatters difference or duality affecting all tattva-s under Māyā, i.e. from tattva 7 down to tattva 36. On the other hand, the former is a "śakti" or power and not a tattva or category. Māyāśakti (lit. Mayic power) is the power by which the Lord is able to show difference or duality even where there is none. In sum, Māyāśakti displays diversity in unity, i.e. it causes the Infinite to become finite. Thus, Māyāśakti is the power which gives rise to the Māyātattva or simply "Māyā" .
32 Forget about the notion of an "evil" Māyā turning the Lord into a limited being. No, this is not true according to the Trika system. Such as Kṣemarāja puts it, it is the Great Lord (You!) who, by taking hold of His own essential nature through His own Māyāśakti, transforms Himself into a contracted experient, i.e. a limited being. By means of Māyāśakti He becomes a conditioned individual and thus He is ready for experiencing a series of additional limitations. Anyway, the Lord is always the Lord and never becomes anything else. In other terms, though He becomes a limited experient, He continues to be the Supreme Lord. Kṣemarāja will mention this mystery soon .
33 Apart from the 36 tattva-s, there are three mala-s or impurities: Āṇava, Māyīya and Kārma. The former makes such a Puruṣa feels "I am not perfect", the second mala forces him to experience "I am different and separated from everything else", and the latter inoculates into him the sensation of "I am a limited doer". Therefore, this very limited experient or Puruṣa, deluded by Māyā and all mala-s becomes a saṁsārī or a transmigratory soul. Saṁsāra means transmigration from body to body, i.e. to be born to die and to die to be reborn, etc. However, Saṁsāra is also the continuous mental transmigration in which a new thought emerges constantly. Although mind is still not manifest in the Puruṣa level (12th tattva), the seeds for its future emergence are already sown. In turn, that transmigratory soul is attached to the erroneous notion that actions affect the Supreme Self (his essential nature). When someone thinks that his good or bad actions tie up His own Self or Essence, he is named "karmabandhana" or "fettered by actions" .
34 Despite Kṣemarāja has expressed by words that though the limited being or Puruṣa is not different from Parameśvara or the Supreme Lord, his moha or māyā (delusion, infatuation, perplexity, i.e. ignorance) does not belong to the Supreme Lord, this topic is beyond words. Now, Kṣemarāja is about to describe the process by means of an example, but remember that words will always fail to describe what is indescribable. As these categories or tattva-s (Māyā, Puruṣa, etc.) are manifested before one's mind (tattva-s 14 through 16), a person can understand them by his own mind, got it? Anyway, the sage will attempt to describe the process to a certain extent so that you can catch a glimpse of it .
35 Śuddhavidyā "is not" in this context the "Śuddhavidyā-tattva" (the fifth one), but the Śakti or Power who reveals Your own Essential Nature. Read my respective explanation in Meditation 3 (Trika section) .
36 Those five śakti-s of His are also known as Kriyāśakti (Power of Action), Jñānaśakti (Power of Knowledge), Icchāśakti (Power of Will), Ānandaśakti (Power of Bliss) and Cicchakti (Power of Consciousness), respectively. In turn, the five tattva-s or categories: (7) Kalā, (8) Vidyā, (9) Rāga, (10) Kāla and (11) Niyati, are the five Kañcuka-s or Sheaths of ignorance. Read Trika 3 (English) and Trika 4 (English) for more information .
37 Kāla is not Time, formally speaking, but the notion which is its root. Kāla is a series of states or bhāva-s appearing and disappearing, but it is also the tattva dividing such states into past, present and future. For example, the cognitions: "I knew", "I know" and "I will know" are produced by Kāla. These cognitions are indeed a succession of states appearing and disappearing in an appropriate order. Kāla manifests such a succession of cognitions, and additionally divides it into past (I knew), present (I know) and future (I will know), i.e. it puts the succession in order. Go read Trika 4 (English) if you wish knowledge in depth about Kāla, and in fact, the rest of Kañcuka-s .
38 Sattva, Rajas and Tamas are the three Guṇa-s or qualities. In Trika, their state of equipoise, i.e. when no Guṇa predominates, is known as "Prakṛti" or tattva 13. However, in other systems, the three Guṇa-s are constituents of Prakṛti. But in Trika, they are not at all. As I said, Prakṛti is simply the state where the three Guṇa-s are in equipoise. That is why the author states that the nature of Prakṛti is "avibhakta" or undivided. Though in Prakṛti no Guṇa prevails over the other, anyway, from Mahat or Buddhi (tattva or category 14) down to Pṛthivī (tattva 36), one of those Guṇa-s will be predominant always. Yes, the topic is a little complicated. Read Trika 5 (English) to get more knowledge about Guṇa-s and Prakṛti .
39 As Buddhi or intellect is predominantly sattvic, it works like a mirror capturing the reflections produced by the Light of the Supreme Lord. These reflections appear as vikalpa-s or thoughts in the mind. The more transparent the mirror (i.e. Buddhi), the sharper its reflections. For this reason, practically all philosophical system look to create a "clear like crystal" Buddhi in the seekers, so that they can realize the Light of their own Self. For example, while you study the present scripture, your Buddhi is made subtler and subtler. Thus, when you finish reading it, your intellect will be more than capable to understand some aspects which were previously unknown to it. Hey, you can even attain final Liberation indeed. The reason is that Buddhi became a better mirror to reflect the Light of the Lord. Of course, it is hard to keep it that "clean" because Māyā and her Kañcuka-s are here too... that is why, all seekers have to strive so much to attain complete Emancipation. If the things were otherwise, i.e. very easy, the entire earth would be full of liberated souls... but this is not the case, isn't it?. It is really difficult to find a true Guru, but it is much more difficult to find a genuine disciple, i.e. one whose intellect has been made transparent like a crystal due to his many virtues.
You may also make Buddhi as transparent as possible by Śuddhavikalpa-s or Pure Thoughts (Read Meditation 3). Besides, Buddhi is also the determinative faculty because through your intellect you resolve upon a course of action to follow. If you wish to know more about Buddhi, go to Trika 5 (English) .
40 Note that this word, i.e. "saṅkalpa" may also mean in the Trika's terminology: "resolution, determination" or "the synthetic activity of thought". I suppose that Kṣemarāja interpreted the term in its common meaning as "ideas, notions, etc." since Manas is generally described as a bundle of ideas and notions .
41 Antaḥkaraṇa is the well-known inner (psychic) organ or instrument formed of Buddhi, Ahaṅkāra and Manas .
42 Not enough information about Jñānendriya-s and Karmendriya-s? So, explore Trika 6 (English) .
43 By "generic forms", the author means "patterns". Well, go read Trika 6 (English) again or this explanatory note will be immense .
44 For a more detailed description of the five Mahābhūta-s, read Trika 6 (English) .
45 In this particular context, "āmnāya" is the sacred tradition composed of the uninterrupted succession of teachers and disciples from Śiva Himself through the latest teacher and disciple teaching and learning this kind of spiritual knowledge. Thus, right now you and me belong to the sacred tradition as we are learning and teaching this special type of holy wisdom. Of course, I also learn like you because a teacher never stops being a disciple too. Oh well, it is a long story.
Parātriṁśikhā is a celebrated Āgama or revealed scripture (no human being is its author), which was commented by the Kṣemarāja's guru, i.e. the great sage Abhinavagupta. The stanza 24 of such a scripture is about to be mentioned. Hence I added that information to the translation... keep reading .
46 The meaning is clear: In different kinds of liquids or fluids such as water, etc., only "liquidity" (their generic property) remains as their real nature .
47 Well, well, well, oh my God! Let me tell you a secret: When I translate scriptures, in general I read along with you, that is, I do not read the entire scripture before. And this was the case with this Parāprāveśikā. Now I learn that Kṣemarāja is presenting the complex subject of Prāsāda "right at the end of his scripture". Prāsāda is the celebrated Heart mantra, i.e. Sauḥ. By "Heart", I am not speaking of the physical heart but Śakti, the Supreme Power. This topic is completely explained by the Kṣemarāja's master, Abhinavagupta, in his Parātrīśikālaghuvṛtti (a short but extremely abstruse scripture). To find Prāsāda right at the end of my translation is a big surprise. It is like finding the Pacific ocean after having crossed a little lake, and I am not joking. Why? Because I will have to explain it to you to a certain extent, at least, or you will not understand an iota of these final paragraphs! OK, I will have to accept it and do the job... no way out! Anyway, this will be a mere outline as many volumes might be written on Prāsāda. And if after reading my "brief" explanation you think I am an insane person... you are right.
Firstly I have to make clear what Kṣemarāja said:
"Even after removing from this word --i.e. Sat-- the portion of the affix which makes clear the meaning of the verbal root under examination, just the 'Sa' letter is left merely as prakṛti --not the thirteenth tattva, careful!-- or the primary nature".
The sage considers "Sat" (Being) as a present participle derived from adding the Kṛt affix "at" to the root "as" (to be, exist). Thus, "Sat" (Being) is not looked upon a mere noun but a present participle in the sense of "one who is or exists", got it? Though I teach you Kṛt affixes in the "Affixes" subsection within the "Sanskrit" section, I will explain it to you again as regards the root "as". Now, the "general rule" to add Kṛt affixes to roots in order to form present participles:
"The Kṛt affix 'at' is to be added to the form that a 'Parasmaipadī' (careful!) root assumes before the termination for the 3rd Person plural of the Present Tense. If that form ends in 'a', this vowel is necessarily dropped".
Well, now we need to conjugate the root "as" (to be, exist) so that you can see "the form that this root assumes before the termination for the 3rd Person plural of the Present Tense". And it is only conjugated in Parasmaipada and not Ātmanepada. Do you not know what Parasmaipada and Ātmanepada are? So read "Sets of endings" in my introduction to Verbs. The root "as" (to be, exist) may be conjugated in both Parasmaipada and Ātmanepada, but since I just need the Parasmaipadī conjugation to add the Kṛt affix "at" in order to form the present participle, I will only conjugate the root in Parasmaipada, got my point? Besides, "as" is a root belonging to the Gaṇa (House 2) and as a result, its base is "changeable". In turn, the terminations are directly added to the root, i.e. no need to form an additional base, but the root itself will act as a verbal base. However, as it is "changeable", when I add the respective terminations, "as" will not remain the same thing the whole time. Of course, I do not need to add any "a" to form the base either as in the case of the Gaṇa-s 1, 4, 6 and 10. Do you not understand me?... Read again my introduction to Verbs. I will highlight the terminations in red color as an extra help for you:
|I am, exist||we both are, exist||we are, exist|
|you are, exist||you both are, exist||you are, exist|
|he/she/it is, exists||they both are, exist||they are, exist|
Now, pay attention to the 3rd Person plural: "santi". According to the abovementioned general rule to add Kṛt affixes:
"The Kṛt affix 'at' is to be added to the form that a 'Parasmaipadī' (careful!) root assumes before the termination for the 3rd Person plural of the Present Tense. If that form ends in 'a', this vowel is necessarily dropped".
Since the termination in this case is "anti", the form that the Parasmaipadī (in Parasmaipada) root "as" (to be, exist) assumes for the 3rd Person plural of the Present Tense is "s". Well done! Now, you simply have to "add" the Kṛt affix "at" to that "s": s + at = sat. Very good! The final word is therefore "Sat" (in uppercase and accentuated, i.e. polished by me). Sat means "one who is or exists", that is, Being. But what is Kṣemarāja saying in his Parāprāveśikā?: the opposite process. Listen up:
"Even after removing from this word --i.e. "Sat"-- the portion of the affix which makes clear the meaning of the verbal root under examination, just the 'Sa' letter is left merely as prakṛti --not the thirteenth tattva, careful!-- or the primary nature".
In other words, when you remove "at" from "Sat", just "s" is left. The sage did not say "s" letter but "sa" letter because in Sanskrit the letters of the alphabet are syllabic as you surely know. That portion of the affix, i.e. "at", makes clear the meaning of the verbal root under examination, to wit, "as" (to be, exist) in this case. "S" or letter "Sa" is merely prakṛti or primary nature. By "prakṛti", the author is not referring to the 13th tattva or category but the essential nature underlying the thirty-one tattva-s from Māyā (tattva 6) down to Pṛthivī (tattva 36). "S" or letter "Sa" is one of the sound forms of Sadāśiva such as is explained in Tattva-s and Sanskrit [I strongly recommend you read First Steps (4), First Steps (5) and First Steps - 1 to have in depth knowledge of this complex subject].
"S" in "Sat" (Being) is the first letter of the sacred mantra "Sauḥ" (also known as Prāsāda or Heat mantra). I will explain more about this mantra to you later on, do not worry. Now, Kṣemarāja will state that the letter "Sa" (or plainly "S") contains, as I said above, the thirty-one tattva-s from Māyā to Pṛthivī. Keep reading, please .
48 Such as I stated previously, all categories or tattva-s from Māyā to Pṛthivī are within "S". How? Pay attention, because I will give an example "similar" (but much more detailed) to that which is given by Abhinavagupta in his Parātrīśikālaghuvṛtti (an important scripture). You may have the following experience provided you are an advanced yogī or yoginī. Theoretically, as everyone is the Supreme Self, everyone might experience it, but the things just do not seem to work like that in practice. That is to say, the experience might be there, but there is no realization of it. So, what is the use? Well, if you can do it despite you are not a great yogī or yoginī, my congratulations dear "Supreme Consciousness". But, whether or not you are able to have the experience, you can have knowledge of the process at least. Listen up:
- Place an object before you, say, a clay pot.
- Concentrate on it. What you see firstly is... a simple clay pot, of course. I am a genius.
- As you keep concentrating on the clay pot, you will realize that it is just a modification of clay. At this moment you are conscious of Pṛthivī (tattva 36), i.e. earth.
- Then, if your concentration continues, you do not perceive clay anymore but just a pattern odor, i.e. odor as such. You cannot say what that odor is like as it is without any quality. So, you are said you are realized Gandha (one of the five Tanmātra-s or Subtle elements) --tattva 31--.
- At the moment you stops smelling that pattern odor, that means the senses are being reabsorbed into Manas (tattva 16) from which they arose. There you realized the true nature of all Jñānendriya-s (tattva-s 17 to 21).
- Afterward, you "come closer" (I do not say "you go beyond", because in reality you are coming near your own Self and not going away from Him, got it?) and experience "I-ness". This "I-ness" is "ego" or tattva 15. It is experienced like a subject, apparently, but it is really an object.
- You realize that ego or Ahaṅkāra is an object when penetrating into the "pure I-ness". I am not speaking of Śiva Himself, of course, because this is the sphere of the last 31 tattva-s. No, by "pure I-ness" I refers to Buddhi or intellect (tattva 14).
- When you transcend Buddhi (i.e. when you come closer to the Self), only the three Guṇa-s or Prakṛti's qualities (Sattva, Rajas and Tamas) are left.
- Then, ensues the experience of limited knower (Puruṣa --tattva 12--) and knowable (Prakṛti --tattva 13--) in their pure state.
- After that experience, all is reabsorbed in Māyā, the Womb from which has arisen. Māyā is experienced like the profound darkness of deep sleep.
- The vast majority of yogī-s and yoginī-s reaches this point and does not go any further, i.e. they rest as mere Pralayākala-s or powerless (akala-s) experients of Pralaya or universal Dissolution (Māyā), viz. they remain as in deep sleep. But the great yogī-s and yoginī-s "come closer" and realize "Sat" or "Being" as the underlying Reality which resides within the thirty-one tattva-s from Māyā down to Pṛthivī.
- Even at this stage, the last two letters of "Sat" (i.e. "a" and "t") are discarded, and those supreme yogī-s or yoginī-s rest in "S" (the letter "Sa"). And this letter is the support of "All" (the entire manifestation from Māyā to Pṛthivī) alone, because All has emerged from "S". Thus, when such sublime beings have reached the state of "S", they are said to have attained a repose in "S" or Sadāśiva. And their repose is the repose of All, since they have become All, as it were, as they "always" were All but did not realize it. Well, what else might one say about such yogī-s and yoginī-s?
So, such a "S" is the first letter of "Sauḥ", the Heart mantra. Keep reading, because Kṣemarāja is about to explain the "au" portion of it .
49 It would seem that the author forgot to include Icchā or Will, i.e. "icchājñānakriyāsārāṇi" instead of "jñānakriyāsārāṇi", as Icchā is predominant in Sadāśiva (tattva 3), Jñāna in Īśvara (tattva 4) and Kriyā in Śuddhavidyā (tattva 5). Anyway, there is no error because "Jñāna" and "Kriyā" contain Icchā too. In fact, Icchā contains Jñāna and Kriyā; Jñāna contains Icchā and Kriyā; and Kriyā contains Icchā and Jñāna. The three śakti-s or powers of Icchā (Will), Jñāna (Knowledge) and Kriyā (Action) appear as "I will", "I know" and "I do". In the Absolute Reality there cannot be knowledge and action without a Desire behind, i.e. Will. This is the meaning .
50 "Anuttaraśakti" may denote several things: it literally means "the Power of Anuttara", being "Anuttara" That beyond Whom there is nothing, i.e. the Highest Reality. Thus, a first meaning of "Anuttaraśakti" would be "the Power of Highest Reality". The Highest Reality is also called "Paramaśiva" in Trika, as you surely know. A second possible meaning of "Anuttaraśakti" is "the Power of the vowel a". The vowel "a" is also known as "Anuttara" because is the sound embodiment of the Supreme Self .
51 "Au" is the well-known letter "Triśūla" or Trident as it contains the three Powers or Śakti-s of Icchā, Jñāna and Kriyā [Read First Steps (4) for more information]. "Au" is therefore the Power of knowing in the triad: Knower, knowing (or Power of knowing) and knowable. "S" is knowable or mere Sat. When one realizes the primary nature of all tattva-s from Māyā (6th) down to Pṛthivī (36th), he attains a repose in "S" or Sat. However, when one is "now" conscious of the Knower and "then" of the knowable, and vice versa, over and over again, so he is said to have attained a repose in "Au" or the Power of knowing.
Look at the objects in front of you right now: On one hand, all that your senses can perceive plus themselves (i.e. the senses), Karmendriya-s o Powers of action, your inner psychic organ (mind, ego, intellect), individual soul, Prakṛti, Māyā and Kañcuka-s (limitations)... well, all that bundle of multiple realities is lastly only one thing: "Sat" or mere "Being". And "S" is the final essence of such a "Sat". If you can "grasp" or "realize" that "S", you attain a repose in Sat. On the other hand, the Power who allows oneself to be conscious of both Sat (whether manifested as the entire world or appearing as mere Being or primary nature) and the Knower Himself, i.e. "I", well, this Power is "Au". When one realizes this "swing" or "fluctuation" performed by Au, so he is said to have attained a repose in the Power, i.e. in "Au" which is Will, Knowledge and Action. In turn, these three are merely a form assumed by Anuttaraśakti or the Supreme Power as Kṣemarāja has already stated.
Thus, the explanation of the Heart mantra (Sauḥ) composed of "S", "au" and "ḥ" is almost complete. Only Visarga or "ḥ" needs to be made clear for you by me. Keep reading, please .
52 The Sanskrit grammarians call Visarga (i.e. the vowel ḥ) "Visarjanīya". Those terrifying grammarians also speak of other two categories of a kind of "half" Visarga known as Upadhmānīya and Jihvāmūlīya... but you will not want to know anything about such horrors yet, will you? Oh well, with the present horror of having to explain the meaning of Visarjanīya to you is more than enough, I guess. Listen up, and if you understand nothing... do not worry because it is completely normal. The reason is simple: most yogī-s and yoginī-s cannot understand some complex subjects because they are without enough experience and power. If the vast majority of yogī-s and yoginī-s cannot grasp some subtleties, let alone the ordinary people who spend almost their entire life pleasing their senses. That is why, despite everyone is That (i.e. the Supreme Self), not everybody will understand all I tell on these pages.
Well, let us start anyway: Visarga or Emission is You, the Knower. "S" is knowable, i.e. the primary nature of all knowables. "Au" is the Power consisting of the three Śakti-s of Will, Knowledge and Action. Through "Au" You are able to get in touch with the "knowable". Hence, "Au" is named the Power. In turn, the Knower (You!) is Visarga or Emission because He emits Himself into "Sat" or Being (the essence of the thirty-one tattva-s from Māyā down to Pṛthivī) by means of "Au" (His own Power). Why does He emits Himself? Because there cannot be a "Knower" without any "knowable" available. And, as there is nobody else to do the job, He (You!) has to throw Himself into Sat, i.e. He becomes Sat or Being through Au in order to have a world to know.
When You (i.e. the Lord) emit Yourself into Sat or Being with the help of your own Anuttaraśakti appearing as the triad of Will, Knowledge and Action, You immediately are transformed into a Knower and thus attain a repose in Visarga or Visarjanīya (ḥ). When Kṣemarāja points out that Visarjanīya (You!) has the form of the Manifestation which is both above and below, he means that Visarjanīya is both Śiva, the Supreme Witnessing Self, and Śakti (His divine Power) appearing as the entire witnessed world. For that reason, Visarga or Visarjanīya is written in Sanskrit as two dots, one above the other: : . Therefore, when you realize that what you call "the world" is nothing but Your emitting|throwing Yourself into Sat or Being, you have attained a repose in Visarjanīya or the Knower. Your emitting Yourself into Sat through the Power (AU) does not occur in time and space, as time and space are in Sat (and not in either You or the Power). Moreover, Sat, the Power (Au) and Visarga are the same Reality. They are designated in different ways in order to attempt to explain something that is essentially indescribable. All descriptions will ultimately fall short as they (Sat, Au and Visarga) are "states" and not mere "gross objects" (e.g. table, house, forest, etc.) you can describe easily through a handful of terms.
Afterward, you have to unify the experience of the three reposes: (1) A first repose in "S" (derived from Sat or Being) or the primary nature of the manifested world from Māyā down to Pṛthivī; (2) a second repose in "Au" or Power; and (3) a final repose in Visarjanīya or You Yourself, the Knower. When you achieve to transform these three reposes into an unified experience, you have realized the true meaning of "Sauḥ" (the Heart mantra) and automatically you become a Jīvanmukta or Liberated while living. Congratulations on your attaining complete madness. Ah, just kidding!
Kṣemarāja is about to speak of this mad... eer... Jīvanmukta state, oh my God! Tell someone that all around is the result of Your throwing Yourself into Sat or Being, and write to me from the madhouse later. That is why, one should keep his lips sealed before people who cannot understand these things, got it? Everybody is the Self but there is a divine Drama and everyone has a role to play. Oh well, you may say: "Look at this guy, he is telling us to keep our lips sealed while he is telling everybody these mysteries". Hmmm, I am not telling everyone because "not everyone" will reach these pages. In fact, even if they reach, they will not understand properly. Only those who are spiritually mature will understand the core of this teaching. Besides, I am well hidden in my lair, and consequently nobody can come and take me to the madhouse yet. Thus, it is as if my lips were sealed... oh, I am so smart. Well, enough of joking for now. Keep reading, please .
53 A Jīvanmukta or Liberated while living appears to be an ordinary person. Nonetheless, he has attained such a sublime state because really knows (i.e. understands) and penetrates (i.e. enters into the mysteries) the Seed of the Heart. In other words, He has full knowledge of the Core or Nucleus of the Highest Reality. Only such a person is truly initiated, as initiation is essentially related to a modification of one's own state of consciousness and not mere rites. Although there might be a certain rite sometimes, it is not indispensable as the entire process occurs internally, as it were. If the rite is there but the inner process is not, the former is completely useless.
Afterward, when that Jīvanmukta leaves his mortal body, he remains as Paramaśivabhaṭṭāraka or the venerable Supreme Śiva. And there is no doubt about it .
This document was conceived by Gabriel Pradīpaka, one of the two founders of this site, and spiritual guru conversant with Sanskrit language and Trika philosophy.
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