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Learning Sanskrit - Declension (2)
Declension of nouns and adjectives ending in vowels - Part 2
Hi, Gabriel Pradīpaka again. Now, we will keep studying declension of nouns and adjectives ending in vowels. The mechanics of declension is always the same, but the set of terminations may be somewhat different. Remember that there is an standard set of terminations which may be used as a group of "pattern" case endings. However, some modifications are likely to be made according to which vowel a particular noun or adjective is ending in. In the previous document, you could see that the difference between the "real" terminations of nouns and adjectives ending in "a" and that set of pattern case ending was abysmal. Still, in nouns and adjectives ending in "i", "ī", "u" and "ū", the gap is not so immense. Well, let us get down to work.
As a gift, you have also a document with many examples and another one with a list of terminations so that you may fully understand Sanskrit declension.
A final advise: Go deep into the Sandhi rules in order to fully understand the declensions and the rest. Also, have always a printed copy of all Rules of Sandhi at hand.
Nouns and adjectives ending in "I"
First of all, here you are the table with the Kinds of Vowel Terminations:
Masculine nouns and adjectives
Feminine nouns and adjectives
Neuter nouns and adjectives
|अ (a)||आ (ā)||--||आ (ā)||अ (a)|
|इ (i)||--||इ (i)||ई (ī)||इ (i)|
|उ (u)||--||उ (u)||ऊ (ū)||उ (u)|
|ऋ (ṛ)||--||ऋ (ṛ)||--||ऋ (ṛ)|
As you can see, the nouns and adjectives ending in "i" may be masculine, feminine or neuter. Before undertaking our study of the masculine ones, here you are the Patter Case Endings:
PATTERN CASE ENDINGS (MASCULINE AND FEMININE NOUNS)
|Nominative||स् / :||औ||अस् / अः|
|Vocative||It sometimes coincides with the prātipadika or crude form of the noun, sometimes with the Nominative case, at others it differs from both of them.||औ||अस् / अः|
|Accusative||अम्||औ||अस् / अः|
PATTERN CASE ENDINGS (NEUTER NOUNS)
|Vocative||It sometimes coincides with the prātipadika or crude form of the noun, sometimes with the Nominative case, at others it differs from both of them.||ई||इ|
|The rest is like the masculine and feminine nouns|
As you surely know, this set of pattern case endings is not always used to the letter in declension of nouns and adjectives ending in vowel. Therefore, use it wisely and carefully.
And now the "real" set of case terminations for masculine nouns and adjectives ending in "i":
ENDINGS FOR MASCULINE NOUNS AND ADJECTIVES ENDING IN "I"
An example of declension by using "Hari" --an epithet of Viṣṇu--:
|Hari||The two Hari-s||The Hari-s|
|O Hari! / Eh Hari!||O both of Hari-s! / Eh both of Hari-s!||O Hari-s! / Eh Hari-s!|
|To Hari||To the two Hari-s||To the Hari-s|
|By/through/along with/etc. Hari||
the two Hari-s
|To/for/etc. Hari||To/for/etc. the two Hari-s||To/for/etc. the Hari-s|
|From/on account of/etc. Hari||
From/on account of/etc.
the two Hari-s
From/on account of/etc.
|Of Hari / Hari's||Of the two Hari-s||Of the Hari-s / Hari-s'|
|In/on/etc. Hari||In/on/etc. the two Hari-s||In/on/etc. the Hari-s|
* The original termination "inā" is to be changed to "iṇā" because of "r" in "Hari". See 18th Rule of Consonant Sandhi for more information.
** The original termination "īnām" is to be changed to "īṇām" because of "r" in "Hari". See 18th Rule of Consonant Sandhi for more information.
To use this endings you have merely to substitute any of them for the final "i" of a masculine noun or adjective. A few examples now by using "Hari" again:
हरिणा विश्वं रक्ष्यते -- Hariṇā viśvaṁ rakṣyate
The universe (viśvam) is protected (rakṣyate) by Hari (hariṇā).
हरौ विश्वं स्थाप्यते -- Harau viśvaṁ sthāpyate
The universe (viśvam) is established (sthāpyate) in Hari (harau).
हरेर्विश्वमुत्पन्नम् -- Harerviśvamutpannam
The universe (viśvam) has arisen (utpannam) from Hari (hareḥ). (Note that the original termination "eḥ" changed to "er" because "v" --a soft consonant-- is following. See the 7th Rule of Visarga Sandhi for more information)
to be continued
This document was conceived by Gabriel Pradīpaka, one of the two founders of this site, and spiritual guru conversant with Sanskrit language and Trika philosophy.
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