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Mālinīvijayottaratantra continues. This second chapter consists of 60 stanzas. I am adding my explanation under every stanza or group of stanzas.
Read Mālinīvijayottaratantra and experience Supreme Delight, dear Śiva.
Important: All that is in brackets and italicized within the translation has been added by me in order to complete the sense of a particular phrase or sentence. In turn, all that is between double hyphen (--...--) constitutes clarifying further information also added by me.
And now (atha) the second (dvitīyaḥ) chapter (adhikāraḥ)|
अथैषामेव तत्त्वानां धरादीनामनुक्रमात्।
प्रपञ्चः कथ्यते लेशाद्योगिनां योगसिद्धये॥१॥
Athaiṣāmeva tattvānāṁ dharādīnāmanukramāt|
Prapañcaḥ kathyate leśādyogināṁ yogasiddhaye||1||
And now (atha) the manifestation (prapañcaḥ) of these tattva-s --categories-- which begin with the earth element --category 36-- (eṣām eva tattvānām dharādīnām) in succession (anukramāt) is briefly described (kathyate leśāt) for the yogī-s to succeed in Yoga (yoginām yogasiddhaye)||1||
The second chapter of this crucial scripture in Trika Shaivism starts. Śiva is here, in the first stanza, announcing that he will describe the universal manifestation —from the category 36 up to the first one— in His very special style. It is a very brief description indeed. If you want a more traditional explanation of the 36 categories, you can check Ṣaṭtriṁśattattvasandoha. Additionally, you can check the full scheme of the 36 categories in the Tattvic Chart.
शक्तिमच्छक्तिभेदेन धरातत्त्वं विभिद्यते।
स्वरूपसहितं तच्च विज्ञेयं दशपञ्चधा॥२॥
Śaktimacchaktibhedena dharātattvaṁ vibhidyate|
Svarūpasahitaṁ tacca vijñeyaṁ daśapañcadhā||2||
The earth element --tattva or category 36-- (dharā-tattvam) is divided (vibhidyate) into (two) portions (bhedena): Śaktimān --Possessor of Śakti-- and Śakti (śaktimat-śakti). That --the earth element-- (tad), together with its own form --the form of the earth element-- (sva-rūpa-sahitam), is to be certainly known as (ca vijñeyam) fifteenfold (daśapañcadhā)||2||
Śiva (the Śaktimān or Possesor of Śakti) lives with His Power (with Śakti) in every tattva or category of the universal manifestation as pramātā (knower) and his respective śakti or power. It is said that this earth element (tattva or category 36) is fifteenfold (and in fact, all the tattva-s up to Prakṛti —category 13— are also fifteenfold, which Śiva will announce in the stanza 4) as it contains 7 pramātā-s (knowers), their 7 śakti-s and the svarūpa or the essential form (the tattva itself here, and the same thing will be valid with each of the tattva-s up to Prakṛti). So, 7+7+1 = 15. By 'it contains pramātā-s and their śakti-s', I mainly meant that the tattva-s (all of them except for the first and the second ones) are perceived by a pramātā. For example, from the viewpoint of a mere Sakala (the lowest knower), Pṛthivītattva is merely the solidity in all the objects of this universe, but in the eyes of any of the superior experients, e.g. Mantreśvara, the earth element is the Supreme Goddess (the Wonder) being revealed in the form of that object. Therefore, what is just solid matter to the Sakala is a Source of Bliss and never-ending Delight to the Mantreśvara. I will show all this in a didactic table when Śiva finishes His description, i.e. under the stanza 7.
शिवादिसकलात्मान्ताः शक्तिमन्तः प्रकीर्तिताः।
तच्छक्तयश्च विज्ञेयास्तद्वदेव विचक्षणैः॥३॥
Śivādisakalātmāntāḥ śaktimantaḥ prakīrtitāḥ|
Tacchaktayaśca vijñeyāstadvadeva vicakṣaṇaiḥ||3||
The Śaktimān-s --the Possessors of Śakti-- (śaktimantaḥ) are said (prakīrtitāḥ) to start with Śiva --Śivapramātā-- and end with Sakala --Sakalapramātā-- (śiva-ādi-sakala-ātma-antāḥ). And likewise (ca... tadvat eva), their śakti-s (tad-śaktayaḥ) are to be regarded (as sevenfold) (vijñeyāḥ) by the wise (vicakṣaṇaiḥ)||3||
Now Śiva is expressing what I explained under the stanza 2. Anyway, the names of the 7 experients/knowers are as follows: (1) Śivapramātā (categories 1 and 2), (2) Mantramaheśvarapramātā (category 3), (3) Mantreśvarapramātā (category 4), (4) Mantrapramātā (category 5), (5) Vijñānākalapramātā (between categories 5 and 6) together with (6 and 7) Pralayākalapramātā and Sakalapramātā (categories 7 to 36). Later Śiva will show you that the things are not so simple regarding the sphere of every experient/knower. Also, these are their respective śakti-s or powers, viz. the powers who enable the respective pramātā-s to stay in their states: (1) Śivapramātāśakti (i.e. the Supreme Śakti), (2) Mantramaheśvarapramātāśakti, (3) Mantreśvarapramātāśakti, (4) Mantrapramātāśakti, (5) Vijñānākalapramātāśakti, (6) Pralayākalapramātāśakti and (7) Sakalapramātāśakti.
Now, to be completely clear and avoid a possible confusion: I add the word 'pramātā' (knower/experient) at the end of the name of every experient/knower but I am speaking about the same experients/knowers. For example:
'Sakalapramātā' means 'the experient/knower called Sakala'. And the same for the rest of the pramātā-s. So:
- Sakala = Sakalapramātā
- Pralayākala = Pralayākalapramātā
- Vijñānākala = Vijñānākalapramātā
- Mantra = Mantrapramātā
- Mantreśvara = Mantreśvarapramātā
- Mantramaheśvara = Mantramaheśvarapramātā
- Śiva = Śivapramātā
Yes, I may look like captain 'Obvious', but considering how weak most intellects are in this world, it is better to prevent than sorry.
एवं जलादिमूलान्तं तत्त्वव्रातमिदं महत्।
पृथग्भेदैरिमैर्भिन्नं विज्ञेयं तत्फलेप्सुभिः॥४॥
Evaṁ jalādimūlāntaṁ tattvavrātamidaṁ mahat|
Pṛthagbhedairimairbhinnaṁ vijñeyaṁ tatphalepsubhiḥ||4||
In this way (evam), this (idam) big (mahat) group of tattva-s --categories-- (tattva-vrātam) from the water element --tattva or category 35-- up to Prakṛti --tattva or category 13-- (jala-ādi-mūla-antam) is to be regarded (vijñeya) by the ones desiring (to get) their fruit (tad-phala-īpsubhiḥ) as divided (pṛthak... bhinnam) in these (fifteen) portions (bhedaiḥ imaiḥ)||4||
Now Śiva specifies that the fifteenfold nature of Pṛthivītattva (earth element) is also applicable to all the categories from Āpastattva (category 35 also called Jalatattva) up to Prakṛtitattva (category 13). Why is the division like this? In other worlds, why only the tattva-s between the 36th and the 13th are fifteenfold? This will be clear when Śiva explains the division of the tattva-s into eggs (aṇḍa-s) later on.
अनेनैव विधानेन पुंस्तत्त्वात्तु कलान्तिकम्।
त्रयोदशविधं ज्ञेयं रुद्रवत्प्रलयाकलाः॥५॥
Anenaiva vidhānena puṁstattvāttu kalāntikam|
Trayodaśavidhaṁ jñeyaṁ rudravatpralayākalāḥ||5||
By this method (anena eva vidhānena), (the group of tattva-s or categories) from Puruṣatattva --category 12-- (puṁs-tattvāt tu) up to Kalātattva --category 7-- (kalā-antikam) is to be regarded as (jñeyam) thirteenfold (trayodaśavidham). And the Pralayākala-s --specifically speaking, the Savedyapralayākala-s here-- (pralayākalāḥ) (are to be regarded as elevenfold,) as the (number) of Rudra-s (rudra-vat)||5||
By the method of removing 2 (the lowest pramātā and his respective śakti), Śiva is now affirming that all the tattva-s between the 12th and the 7th have a thirteenfold nature. Here the lowest pramātā is Sakala. This pramātā is removed along with his śakti, which generates a reduction in the number 15 into 13 (six pramātā-s, six śakti-s of these pramātā-s, plus the svarūpa or object, i.e. 6+6+1 = 13). The svarūpa here is not the tattva like in the previous case, but the pramātā or knower himself who was removed from the list. So, in this case, Sakala is the svarūpa. What does it mean? That in this portion including the tattva-s 12 to 7, the Sakalapramātā is an object to the other pramātā-s. But what is the meaning of this? Listen up: There is in Trika Shaivism the division of (1) pramātā (knower or perceiver), (2) pramāṇa (knowing or perceiving, which of course includes the power for knowing or perceiving) and (3) prameya (knowable or object being known or perceived). Pramātā is the experient (knower or perceiver). Another name for him is: śaktimān (possessor of śakti). Pramāṇa is the śakti or power of each of the pramātā-s, while prameya is the svarūpa in this context. All in all, every pramātā (except for the Śivapramātā) is an object (prameya) to the next pramātā/pramātā-s. For example, Sakala is an object to the higher six pramātā-s. If you keep this in mind, the method of reduction by 2 here will be appropriately understood.
Anyway, it is interesting to understand what exactly is 'śakti of a pramātā'. Abhinavagupta explains this very well in the chapter 10 of his Tantrāloka. I will create a table for you to understand better:
|Nº||PRAMĀTĀ||ŚAKTI or POWER||Brief explanation|
|1||Sakala||Sakalapramātāśakti = Distinct Vidyā and Kalā (distinct limited knowing and doing) as there are objects||Sakala is the most limited experient and consequently he is in full possession of these ridiculously limited powers of knowledge and action. He has no real Knowledge anyway, and his doership is just nothing in comparison to the original Power of Action belonging to the Great Lord. In him these limited powers of knowledge and action are completely active indeed due to the presence of objects around.|
(Savedyapralayākala and Apavedyapralayākala)
|Pralayākalapramātāśakti = Indistinct Vidyā and Kalā (indistinct limited knowing and doing) as there are no objects||This experient is the same Sakala but sleeping. So, the same miserable powers accompany him. Anyway, in the Pralayākala these powers are indistinct, i.e. not completely operative like in the Sakala, as there are no objects around.
And there is the division into Savedyapralayākala and Apavedyapralayākala. The former is the state of Pralayākala with some impression of objectivity in it (e.g. when, after waking up, you can remember that you were sleeping very peacefully without any dreaming). The latter is the state of Pralayākala without any impression of objectivity in it (e.g. when, after waking up, you cannot remember any associate experience, i.e. you just wake up and have no idea about what happened other than 'I was just sleeping')
|3||Vijñānākala||Vijñānākalapramātāśakti = Fading Vidyā and Kalā (fading limited knowing and doing) but still persisting due to the residual traces||While the previous experients are 'rejectable', as taught by Śiva in the first chapter of this scripture, the experient known as Vijñānākala is 'acceptable'. In comparison to the other two (Sakala and Pralayākala) is almost like a god. Why? Because in him the limited powers of knowing and doing are fading for sure.|
|4||Mantra||Mantrapramātāśakti = Arising Śuddhavidyā or Pure Knowledge
(Vidyā and Kalā are latent)
|This experient is 'about to awake' due to the emergence of Pure Knowledge (the Knowledge that 'I am Śiva'). Anyway, this experience is not yet fully stable in him. Traces of limited knowing and doing are still in him. For example, he considers the universe to be unreal due to the presence of limited knowing even though in a tiny proportion.|
|5||Mantreśvara||Mantreśvarapramātāśakti = Arisen Śuddhavidyā or Pure Knowledge
(absence of Vidyā and Kalā)
|This lord of the Mantra (I-consciousness or Aham) is 'awakened'. In him there is no presence of the limited powers of knowing and doing.|
|6||Mantramaheśvara||Mantramaheśvarapramātāśakti = Arisen Śuddhavidyā or Pure Knowledge which is becoming Icchāśakti or Power of Will
(absence of Vidyā and Kalā)
|This great lord of the Mantra is 'awakened' too. Śuddhavidyā is eager to turn into Icchāśakti here. And of course, there is absolute absence of the limited powers of knowing and doing.|
|7||Śiva||Śivapramātāśakti = Svātantryaśakti (Power of Absolute Freedom)||And this is the Lord Himself. When one attains this level of Experience, one becomes Him. Here Icchāśakti, Jñānaśakti and Kriyāśakti (Powers of Will, Knowledge and Action) turn into Svātantryaśakti.|
Now Śiva starts to sound confusing, because instead of speaking about tattva-s or categories (He will do it in the next stanza) being elevenfold, He says that the Pralayākalapramātā is elevenfold. No problem, because you surely know that this pramātā is generally associated with Māyātattva. So, the sphere of tattva-s is now only one tattva: Māyātattva (category 6). And this stage is elevenfold because Pralayākalapramātā and Sakalapramātā are excluded, which leaves only 5 higher pramātā-s (Śivapramātā, Mantramaheśvarapramātā, Mantreśvarapramātā, Mantrapramātā and Vijñānākalapramātā) and their respective śakti-s. And the object or svarūpa is now the Pralayākalapramātā himself (which is not any more a pramātā or knower here). So, 5+5+1 = 11. Śiva did not mention this number specifically but He rather said that the number is like the number of Rudra-s. According to my present knowledge, He was speaking about these 11 Rudra-s: Śambhu, Pinākī, Girīśa, Sthāṇu, Bharga, Sadāśiva, Śiva, Hara, Śarva, Kapālī and Bhava.
Finally, though Śiva did not mention it specifically, He was speaking about the Savedyapralayākala-s here (check the chart above for clarification).
तद्वन्मायापि विज्ञेया नवधा ज्ञानकेवलाः।
मन्त्राः सप्तविधास्तद्वत्पञ्चधा मन्त्रनायकाः॥६॥
Tadvanmāyāpi vijñeyā navadhā jñānakevalāḥ|
Mantrāḥ saptavidhāstadvatpañcadhā mantranāyakāḥ||6||
Similarly (tadvat), Māyātattva --category 6, the abode of the Apavedyapralayākala-s-- (māyā) is also to be regarded (as elevenfold) (api vijñeyā). The Vijñānākala-s (jñāna-kevalāḥ) are ninefold (navadhā). Likewise (tadvat), the Mantra-s (mantrāḥ) (are) sevenfold (saptavidhāḥ), (and) the Mantreśvara-s (mantra-nāyakāḥ) fivefold (pañcadhāḥ)||6||
And now, Śiva mentions the Māyātattva finally. And, of course, it is elevenfold as Pralayākalapramātā. Anyway, despite He does not mention it specifically, He is speaking about the dwelling-place of the Apavedyapralayākala-s or Apavedyapralayākalapramātā-s here. In the above chart, as I said before, I shed light on these two kinds of Pralayākala-s.
And the Vijñānākalapramātā-s are ninefold due to the method of remove 2 from the last number: 11-2 = 9. Śiva is not mentioning the tattvic area here as He did in the case of Pralayākala-s, but it is between tattva-s 5 and 6. You can succinctly call it: Māyordhva (above Māyātattva), i.e. the region called 'Mahāmāyā'. Here the Vijñānākalapramātā is excluded from the group of pramātā-s and assigned as svarūpa or object. In this way, four pramātā-s stay (Śivapramātā, Mantramaheśvarapramātā, Mantreśvarapramātā and Mantrapramātā) along with their śakti-s. So, 4 knowers plus their 4 śakti-s plus svarūpa equals 9 (4+4+1 = 9).
And the Mantra-s (i.e. Mantrapramātā-s) are sevenfold. In a nutshell: 3 knowers + 3 śakti-s + svarūpa (Mantrapramātā here) = 7. And the Mantreśvara-s are fivefold, because 2 knowers + 2 śakti-s +svarūpa (Mantreśvarapramātā here) = 5 (2+2+1 =5). I continue to use all the time the same method of removing the last pramātā and his śakti as specified before.
त्रिधा मन्त्रेश्वरेशानाः शिवः साक्षान्न भिद्यते।
भेदः प्रकथितो लेशादनन्तो विस्तरादयम्॥७॥
Tridhā mantreśvareśānāḥ śivaḥ sākṣānna bhidyate|
Bhedaḥ prakathito leśādananto vistarādayam||7||
The Mantramaheśvara-s (mantra-īśvara-īśānāḥ) (are) threefold (tridhā). Śiva (śivaḥ) really (sākṣāt) cannot be divided (na bhidyate). (When) He (ayam) is briefly described (prakathitaḥ leśāt), there is division in Him (bhedaḥ), (but when He is described) in full detail (vistarāt), He is infinite (anantaḥ)||7||
The Mantramaheśvara-s are threefold because: 1 knower + 1 śakti + svarūpa (Mantramaheśvarapramātā here) = 3 (1+1+1 =3). And the Great Lord cannot be divided at all. Śiva cannot be divided because He is the Subject and cannot be perceived by anyone. There is no subsequent division of the Supreme Lord then. He is always One. Nonetheless, He can be divided but only briefly in the minds of the ones who are proficient in enumerating. However, when He is tried to be described at great length, the one describing realizes that He is infinite as He is One. Variations only happen in the other experients for the sake of the continuance of the Play called 'the universe', since if there were no variations in the universe, it would become immediately like its Lord, i.e. 'One'. In the stanza 35, Śiva will show the way in which the Highest Knower can be divided into 5 despite being 1. OK, enough of this.
Now a full chart showing all the things taught by Śiva in the first 7 stanzas:
|TATTVIC STAGES||PRAMĀTĀ or KNOWER||PRAMĀṆA or KNOWING/KNOWLEDGE||PRAMEYA OR SVARŪPA (KNOWABLE/OBJECT)||NUMBER OF ASPECTS OR VARIATIONS|
|1||FROM THE EARTH ELEMENT (CATEGORY 36) UP TO PRAKṚTI (CATEGORY 13)||Sakala||Sakalapramātāśakti||The tattva itself||15|
|2||FROM PURUṢA (CATEGORY 12) UP TO KALĀ (TATTVA 7)||Pralayākala||Pralayākalapramātāśakti||Sakalapramātā (or Sakala, plainly)||13|
|3||MĀYĀ (CATEGORY 6) containing Savedyapralayākala-s and Apavedyapralayākala-s (the two kinds of Pralayākala-s)||Vijñānākala||Vijñānākalapramātāśakti||Pralayākalapramātā (or Pralayākala, plainly)||11|
|4||MAHĀMĀYĀ (REGION BETTWEN CATEGORIES 6 AND 5)||Mantra||Mantrapramātāśakti||Vijñānākalapramātā (or Vijñānākala, plainly)||9|
|5||SADVIDYĀ (CATEGORY 5)||Mantreśvara||Mantreśvarapramātāśakti||Mantrapramātā (or Mantra, plainly)||7|
|6||IŚVARA (CATEGORY 4)||Mantramaheśvara||Mantramaheśvarapramātāśakti||Mantreśvarapramātā (or Mantreśvara, plainly)||5|
|7||SADĀŚIVA (CATEGORY 3)||Śiva||Śivapramātāśakti (Svātantryaśakti)||Mantramaheśvarapramātā (or Mantramaheśvara, plainly)||3|
|8||ŚIVA-ŚAKTI (CATEGORIES 1 AND 2)||Śiva||Śivapramātāśakti (Svātantryaśakti)||Śivapramātā (or Śiva, plainly)||1
(because pramātā, pramāṇa and prameya are all dissolved in Parapramātā, in the Supreme Subject)
Hopefully, now this topic is a little bit clearer.
एवं भुवनमालापि भिन्ना भेदैरिमैः स्फुटम्।
विज्ञेया योगसिद्ध्यर्थं योगिभिर्योगपूजिता॥८॥
Evaṁ bhuvanamālāpi bhinnā bhedairimaiḥ sphuṭam|
Vijñeyā yogasiddhyarthaṁ yogibhiryogapūjitā||8||
Thus (evam), the garland of worlds (bhuvana-mālā api) which is divided into these portions (bhinnā bhedaiḥ imaiḥ) should be clearly known (vijñeyā) (and) worshiped during the Yoga (practice) (yoga-pūjitā) by the yogī-s (yogibhiḥ) in order to succeed in Yoga (yoga-siddhi-artham)||8||
The meaning is that, as I wrote in the title of the above Chart 2, from the division of pramātā, pramāṇa and prameya into all those portions, a garland of worlds of experience is brought about. The practitioners of Yoga should perfectly know and worship this garland full of wonderful realities so as to attain accomplishment in Yoga. In other words, in order to achieve Liberation from Saṁsāra replete with misery.
एतेषामेव तत्त्वानां भुवनानां च शाङ्करि।
य एकमग्नि जानाति सोऽपि योगफलं लभेत्॥९॥
Eteṣāmeva tattvānāṁ bhuvanānāṁ ca śāṅkari|
Ya ekamagni jānāti so'pi yogaphalaṁ labhet||9||
Oh Śāṅkarī --the Śakti of Śaṅkara, i.e. Pārvatī-- (śāṅkari)! He who (yaḥ... saḥ) knows (jānāti) even (api) one (ekam) of these tattva-s and worlds (eteṣām eva tattvānām bhuvanānām ca) obtains (labhet) the fruit of Yoga (yoga-phalam)||9||
And the fruit of Liberation from Saṁsāra is gotten by a yogī who at least knows well one of these tattva-s and worlds.
यः पुनः सर्वतत्त्वानि वेत्त्येतानि यथार्थतः।
स गुरुर्मत्समः प्रोक्तो मन्त्रवीर्यप्रकाशकः॥१०॥
Yaḥ punaḥ sarvatattvāni vettyetāni yathārthataḥ|
Sa gururmatsamaḥ prokto mantravīryaprakāśakaḥ||10||
However (punar), he (saḥ) (is) said to be (proktaḥ) a Guru (guruḥ) equal (samaḥ) to Me (mad) who (yaḥ) knows (vetti) all these tattva-s --categories-- (sarva-tattvāni... etāni) as they really are (yathārthataḥ), (and consequently) reveals (prakāśakaḥ) the virility or potency (vīrya) of mantra-s (mantra)||10||
When a yogī is fully proficient with reference to all these tattva-s (and related worlds) since he knows them as they really are, and as a result, he is able to reveal the glorious essential Aham (I-consciousness) to all the living beings who are ready to receive such a revelation, then it can be affirmed without a doubt that he is a Guru equal to Śiva.
स्पृष्टाः सम्भाषितास्तेन दृष्टाश्च प्रीतचेतसा।
नराः पापैः प्रमुच्यन्ते सप्तजन्मकृतैरपि॥११॥
Spṛṣṭāḥ sambhāṣitāstena dṛṣṭāśca prītacetasā|
Narāḥ pāpaiḥ pramucyante saptajanmakṛtairapi||11||
The men (narāḥ) who are touched (spṛṣṭāḥ), talked (sambhāṣitāḥ) and (ca) seen (dṛṣṭāḥ) by him whose mind is pleased --i.e. by this Guru equal to Him-- (tena... prīta-cetasā) are liberated (pramucyante) even from the sins (pāpaiḥ... api) committed in their (last) seven births (sapta-janma-kṛtaiḥ)||11||
People who are merely in contact with this genuine Guru —i.e. people whom he talk to or people he touches or people he only see— are liberated from all the sins they committed even in their last seven lifetimes. Such is the glory of being in contact with him.
ये पुनर्दीक्षितास्तेन प्राणिनः शिवचोदिताः।
ते यथेष्टं फलं प्राप्य पदं गच्छन्त्यनामयम्॥१२॥
Ye punardīkṣitāstena prāṇinaḥ śivacoditāḥ|
Te yatheṣṭaṁ phalaṁ prāpya padaṁ gacchantyanāmayam||12||
Nonetheless (punar), those (te) living beings (prāṇinaḥ) impelled and inspired by Śiva (śiva-coditāḥ) who (ye) are initiated (dīkṣitāḥ) by him --by the Guru equal to Śiva-- (tena), after obtaining (prāpya) the desired fruit (yathā-īṣṭam phalam), go (gacchanti) to the State (padam) where there is no unhappiness --lit. where there is no sickness-- (anāmayam)||12||
But the real disciples of this Sadguru (genuine Guru) get it all. In a nutshell, they get Liberation from Saṁsāra (they stop moving from one birth to the next birth) and go to the Supreme State of Śiva. It is not going somewhere with their bodies, minds, etc. They just experience an expansion of his essential Powers.
रुद्रशक्तिसमावेशस्तत्र नित्यं प्रतिष्ठितः।
सति तस्मिंश्च चिह्नानि तस्यैतानि विलक्षयेत्॥१३॥
Rudraśaktisamāveśastatra nityaṁ pratiṣṭhitaḥ|
Sati tasmiṁśca cihnāni tasyaitāni vilakṣayet||13||
In the one who is (sati tasmin... tasya) always (nityam) established (pratiṣṭhitaḥ) in that (tatra), i.e. in an absorption in the Power of Rudra --Śiva-- (rudra-śakti-samāveśaḥ), one should perceive (vilakṣayet) these marks or characteristics (cihnāni... etāni)||13||
Regarding Grace bestowal by Śiva, there are multiple levels from combining the three basic levels of 'intense, middle, weak'. For example: intense-intense, intense-middle, intense-weak, middle-intense, middle-middle, etc. Now, with respecto to the three first levels:
Intense-intense — This is the strongest form of Śaktipāta (Grace bestowal). The descent of the Power of Śiva on him --on the yogī-- is so massive that he immediately becomes conscious of his inherent unity with the Great Lord. This also generates the collapse of the physical body as the intensity of the discharge is just intolerable to it. After leaving the body, this Great Being lives secretly here, in the Self, but without being noticed by anyone but the ones who are very advanced in spirituality. He continues to work for the elevation of sincere disciples but always from the shadows, as it were.
Intense-middle — This the second intensity of Śaktipāta. The discharge of Śakti is also enormous but not enough to kill the physical body. This great being is called 'Prātibhaguru' because he became a genuine Guru by his own Guruhood, i.e. by the Light of his own Self (Pratibhā). He did not need another Guru to attain Guruhood.
Intense-weak — This is the third intensity of Śaktipāta. And this is the yogī mentioned in the current stanza ('In the one who is always established in that, i.e. in an absorption in the Power of Rudra...'). So, this type of elevated yogī has the wish to find a Guru, and the Guru for him will be the one of the second intensity of Śaktipāta (a Prātibhaguru). He does not receive initiation from such a Guru but this Guru rather touches him or stares at him, etc. By this mere contact, the yogī attains Liberation without performing any spiritual practice. It is this kind of yogī then who bears the five marks described in the next three stanzas.
तत्रैतत्प्रथमं चिह्नं रुद्रे भक्तिः सुनिश्चला।
द्वितीयं मन्त्रसिद्धिः स्यात्सद्यः प्रत्ययकारिका॥१४॥
Tatraitatprathamaṁ cihnaṁ rudre bhaktiḥ suniścalā|
Dvitīyaṁ mantrasiddhiḥ syātsadyaḥ pratyayakārikā||14||
In him (tatra), this (etad) (is) the first (prathamam) mark (cihnam): Very firm (suniścalā) devotion (bhaktiḥ) to Rudra --Śiva-- (rudre). The second (dvitīyam) (mark is the following:) There is (syāt) Mantrasiddhi --success with the mantra-s-- (mantra-siddhiḥ), which immediately awakens (in him) confidence (sadyas pratyaya-kārikā)||14||
This mark of very firm devotion to the Great Śiva is shared by all the great śaiva-s. The difference lies then in the other marks. And what is Mantrasiddhi?: It is to repeat a mantra and immediately have the vision of the deity of such a mantra. All in all, the deity of any mantra will be immediately pleased with this kind of great Yogī.
सर्वसत्त्ववशित्वं च तृतीयं लक्षणं स्मृतम्।
Sarvasattvavaśitvaṁ ca tṛtīyaṁ lakṣaṇaṁ smṛtam|
And (ca) the third (tṛtīyam) mark (lakṣaṇam) is said to be (smṛtam) dominion over all the living beings (sarva-sattva-vaśitvam). (The sages) say (āhuḥ) that the fourth (caturthakam) mark (cihnam) (is) completion of the work which has been begun (prārabdha-kārya-niṣpattiḥ)||15||
All the living beings are under the sway of a Yogī like this. Besides, there is this special mark too: What he starts, he finishes. This mark is an important one and a sign of total control over his mind.
कवित्वं पञ्चमं ज्ञेयं सालङ्कारं मनोहरम्।
Kavitvaṁ pañcamaṁ jñeyaṁ sālaṅkāraṁ manoharam|
Attractive (manas-haram) poetic skill (kavitvam) furnished with ornaments (sa-alaṅkāram) is regarded as (jñeyam) the fifth (mark) (pañcamam). And (ca) suddenly (akasmāt) rises (jāyate) in him --in the one having this mark-- (tasya) knowledge about the meaning of all the scriptures (sarva-śāstra-artha-vettṛtvam)||16||
With the development of the skill regarding poetics, the other skill having to do with knowledge about the meaning of all the scriptures is subsequently developed too.
रुद्रशक्तिसमावेशः पञ्चधा परिपठ्यते।
Rudraśaktisamāveśaḥ pañcadhā paripaṭhyate|
Oh lovely-faced One (vara-ānane), according to the division of bhūta, tattva, ātmā, mantra and śakti (bhūta-tattva-ātma-mantreśa-śakti-bhedāt), the absorption in the Power of Rudra --Śiva-- (rudra-śakti-samāveśaḥ) is said to be (paripaṭhyate) fivefold (pañcadhā)||17||
This is easy to understand. The difficult to understand thing will occur in the next stanza.
पञ्चधा भूतसञ्ज्ञस्तु तथा त्रिंशतिधा परः।
आत्माख्यस्त्रिविधः प्रोक्तो दशधा मन्त्रसञ्ज्ञकः॥१८॥
Pañcadhā bhūtasañjñastu tathā triṁśatidhā paraḥ|
Ātmākhyastrividhaḥ prokto daśadhā mantrasañjñakaḥ||18||
(The absorption) called 'bhūta' (bhūta-sañjñaḥ) (is) fivefold (pañcadhā... tu). Similarly (tathā), the other (absorption called 'tattva') (paraḥ) (is) thirtyfold (triṁśatidhā). (The absorption) whose name is 'ātmā' (ātmā-ākhyaḥ) (is) said to be (proktaḥ) threefold (trividhaḥ). (And the absorption) called 'mantra' (mantra-sañjñakaḥ) (is) tenfold (daśadhā)||18||
I will explain all this under the next stanza, when Śiva finishes describing the five stages of bhūta, tattva, ātmā, mantra and śakti.
द्विविधः शक्तिसञ्ज्ञोऽपि ज्ञातव्यः परमार्थतः।
पञ्चाशद्भेदभिन्नोऽयं समावेशः प्रकीर्तितः॥१९॥
Dvividhaḥ śaktisañjño'pi jñātavyaḥ paramārthataḥ|
Pañcāśadbhedabhinno'yaṁ samāveśaḥ prakīrtitaḥ||19||
(The absorption) called 'śakti' (śakti-sañjñaḥ api) must really be regarded as (jñātavyaḥ paramārthataḥ) twofold (dvividhaḥ). (Therefore,) this (ayam) absorption (of five kinds --bhūta, tattva, ātmā, mantra and śakti--) (samāveśaḥ) is said to be (prakīrtitaḥ) divided in fifty portions (pañcāśat-bheda-bhinnaḥ)||19||
Abhinavagupta explains this in his Tantrāloka I.186 (briefly, by the way) and subsequent aphorisms. I will try to elucidate to a certain extent (because I do not want to generate even more confusion for now) what Śiva expressed: (1) The absorption (samāveśa) called 'bhūta' is fivefold because it has to do with the five gross elements (tattva-s 32 to 36). (2) The absorption called 'tattva' is thirtyfold because it has to do with the tattva-s (categories) extending from Gandhatanmātra (category 31) up to Śaktitattva (category 2), by excluding the five gross elements (included in the previous absorption) and Śivatattva. (3) The absorption whose name is 'ātmā' is threefold because it has to do with Puruṣa, Vidyā —i.e. Śuddhavidyā— and Śakti (in turn, these three realities of Puruṣa, Vidyā and Śakti) pervading everything are subdivided in 4, 10 and 3 respectively). (4) The absorption going by the name of 'mantra' is tenfold as it has to do with the first ten stages of Aum̐ from the letter A (first stage) up to Vyāpinī or Vyāpikā (stage 10). I wrote a full document explaining this: Meditation 6. (5) Finally, the absorption known as 'śakti' is twofold because it has to do with Śakti and Śiva. Therefore: 5+30+3+10+2 = 50 (fifty portions).
In this way, you have now a better understanding of the Śiva's words here. I did not explain the subdivisions of Puruṣa, Vidyā and Śakti for not adding extra confusion.
आणवोऽयं समाख्यातः शाक्तोऽप्येवंविधः स्मृतः।
एवं शाम्भवमप्येभिर्भेदैर्भिन्नं विलक्षयेत्॥२०॥
Āṇavo'yaṁ samākhyātaḥ śākto'pyevaṁvidhaḥ smṛtaḥ|
Evaṁ śāmbhavamapyebhirbhedairbhinnaṁ vilakṣayet||20||
(In turn,) it --the absorption-- (ayam) is declared to be (samākhyātaḥ... smṛtaḥ) 'āṇava' (āṇavaḥ) and also (api) 'śākta' (śāktaḥ) with similar qualities (evaṁvidhaḥ). Thus (evam), one should note (vilakṣayet) that even the 'śāmbhava' (absorption) (śāmbhavam api) is divided (bhinnam) in these portions --in the fifty portions mentioned in the previous stanza-- (ebhiḥ bhedaiḥ)||20||
So, this fiftyfold division is pervading each of the three main divisions of the absorption in the Power of Rudra. This group of three consists of: āṇava, śākta and śāmbhava. And these three kinds of absorption are again only śāmbhava, because the three ones have to do with Śiva even though the first two do so indirectly. This adds a layer of extra confusion, obviously, but it needed to be clarified.
Besides, it is interesting to note that Śiva divides the absorption in the Power of Rudra in this way: āṇava, śākta and śāmbhava, in this order, while Abhinavagupta uses the opposite order, i.e. 'śāmbhava, śākta and āṇava'. In other words, according to Abhinavagupta, one should start with the highest type of absorption (śāmbhava), and if one cannot do it, so one should proceed to the second one (śākta), and if one cannot do it, so his last refuge is the third kind of absorption (āṇava). This order given by Abhinavagupta points to saving time in one's own spiritual path then.
Each of these three types of absorption will be described by Śiva starting with the next stanza.
यो भवेत्स समावेशः सम्यगाणव उच्यते॥२१॥
Yo bhavetsa samāveśaḥ samyagāṇava ucyate||21||
The complete (saḥ... samyak) absorption into one's essential nature (samāveśaḥ) that (yaḥ) occurs (bhavet) by means of Uccāra, Karaṇa, Dhyāna, Varṇa and Sthānakalpanā (uccāra-karaṇa-dhyāna-varṇa-sthānaprakalpanaiḥ), is known as (ucyate) āṇava (āṇavaḥ)||21||
This āṇava absorption is generally known as 'Āṇavopāya' or the means pertaining to the Aṇu or Puruṣa (the limited individual). It deals with absorptions in which the yogī uses visualizations, breathing, body, etc. to be successful. I explain all this in Meditation 4 an Meditation 5.
उच्चाररहितं वस्तु चेतसैव विचिन्तयन्।
यं समावेशमाप्नोति शाक्तः सोऽत्राभिधीयते॥२२॥
Uccārarahitaṁ vastu cetasaiva vicintayan|
Yaṁ samāveśamāpnoti śāktaḥ so'trābhidhīyate||22||
The one who ponders (vicintayan) by (his) mind (cetasā eva) over the Reality (vastu) which is not within the range (rahitam) of utterance (uccāra) obtains (āpnoti) an absorption (in the Supreme Self) (yam samāveśam). Here (atra), that (absorption) (saḥ) is to be considered (abhidhīyate) as śākta (śāktaḥ)||22||
This śākta absorption is usually called 'Śāktopāya' —the means pertaining to Śakti, the Power of Rudra (Śiva)— in Trika Shaivism. It deals with absorptions in which the yogī concentrates on the Reality that is impossible to be pronounced, i.e. on Aham (I-consciousness). This Reality is to be found in the middle point of all movements (e.g. between breaths, between thoughts, etc.). I explain all this in Meditation 3.
अकिञ्चिच्चिन्तकस्यैव गुरुणा प्रतिबोधतः।
जायते यः समावेशः शाम्भवोऽसावुदाहृतः॥२३॥
Akiñciccintakasyaiva guruṇā pratibodhataḥ|
Jāyate yaḥ samāveśaḥ śāmbhavo'sāvudāhṛtaḥ||23||
It is said that (udāhṛtaḥ) the śāmbhava absorption (samāveśaḥ śāmbhavaḥ) (is) this (asau) which (yaḥ) takes place (jāyate) only (eva) in one who thinks of nothing (a-kiñcid-cintakasya) through an awakening (pratibodhataḥ) (bestowed) by the Guru (guruṇā)||23||
This śāmbhava absorption is generally known as 'Śāmbhavopāya' —the means pertaining to Śiva Himself— in Trika Shaivism. It deals with an absorption in which one just removes all his thoughts at will and just waits for the Grace of Lord Śiva in order to attain Liberation from Saṁsāra. It is the last part of the spiritual path, in general. I say 'in general' because a very few lucky ones can directly start with Śāmbhavopāya and quickly get Liberation after that. In their case, Śāmbhavopāya is not only the last part but also the starting point of their spiritual path. I explain all this in Meditation 2.
सार्धमेतच्छतं प्रोक्तं भेदानामनुपूर्वशः।
सङ्क्षेपाद्विस्तरादस्य परिसङ्ख्या न विद्यते॥२४॥
Sārdhametacchataṁ proktaṁ bhedānāmanupūrvaśaḥ|
Saṅkṣepādvistarādasya parisaṅkhyā na vidyate||24||
Concisely described (saṅkṣepāt), this --the three types of absorption-- (etad) is said to (proktam) (reach the number of) one hundred and fifty (sārdham... śatam) portions (bhedānām) successively (anupūrvaśaḥ), (but) described in detail (vistarāt), there is no (na vidyate) enumeration (parisaṅkhyā) in its case (asya) --i.e. the portions of the three kinds of absorption are innumerable--||24||
If one keeps in mind that there are fifty types of absorption in each one of these three main absorptions (in Āṇavopāya, Śāktopāya and Śāmbhavopāya), then it is easy to understand why Śiva said that there are 150 portions (i.e. 50x3 = 150) in those three means. But this is a concise description indeed. If one goes into detail, so there is no final quantity for the number of possible absorptions, viz. they are innumerable.
संवित्तिफलभेदोऽत्र न प्रकल्प्यो मनीषिभिः।
Saṁvittiphalabhedo'tra na prakalpyo manīṣibhiḥ|
Though (api) succinctly (saṅkṣepāt) different portions or divisions (bhedaḥ aparaḥ) are spoken about (kathyamānaḥ), (anyway,) here (atra) portions or divisions regarding the fruit called Saṁvitti --Consciousness, i.e. Śiva-- (saṁvitti-phala-bhedaḥ) should not be conceived or imagined (na prakalpyaḥ) by the wise people (manīṣibhiḥ). This should be (fully) understood (avadhāryatām)||25||
As I said under the previous stanza, they are innumerable. Nonetheless, the fruit of all this effort performed by the yogī, i.e. Śiva, has no portions or divisions. In other words, He is only One and Undivided. The wise people should fully understand this simple truth.
जाग्रत्स्वप्नादिभेदेन सर्वावेशक्रमो बुधैः।
पञ्चभिस्तु परिज्ञेयः स्वव्यापारात्पृथक् पृथक्॥२६॥
Jāgratsvapnādibhedena sarvāveśakramo budhaiḥ|
Pañcabhistu parijñeyaḥ svavyāpārātpṛthak pṛthak||26||
The series of all the types of absorption (sarva-āveśa-kramaḥ) should be recognized (parijñeyaḥ) —separately (pṛthak pṛthak) according to their functions and activities (sva-vyāpārāt)— by the wise people (budhaiḥ) as consisting of five divisions (bhedena... pañcabhiḥ tu), i.e. as wakefulness, dreaming, etc. (jāgrat-svapna-ādi)||26||
All these types of absorption have five divisions: The five states of consciousness, viz. jāgrat (wakefulness), svapna (dreaming), suṣupti or suṣupta (deep sleep), Turya (Fourth State) and Turyātīta (the State beyond the Fourth One). In other words, these five divisions pervade everything, from Sakala (the lowest experient/knower) up to Mantramaheśvara (the great lord of the Mantra who is only second to Śiva Himself). The Great Lord has no division, of course, as He is 'One'. However, through the deep intelligence of wise scholars, He can also get endowed with five divisions. This just happens in their own rich imagination since Śiva is infinite and exists everywhere as a compact mass of Consciousness, and therefore He really cannot be divided at all.
This teaching will be much easier to understand by reading my below explanation about the stanzas 27 to 35 as I include a didactic chart.
तत्र स्वरूपं शक्तिश्च सकलश्चेति तत्त्रयम्।
इति जाग्रदवस्थेयं भेदे पञ्चदशात्मके॥२७॥
अकलौ द्वौ परिज्ञेयौ सम्यक् स्वप्नसुषुप्तयोः।
मन्त्रादितत्पतीशानवर्गस्तुर्य इति स्मृतः॥२८॥
शक्तिशम्भू परिज्ञेयौ तुर्यातीते वरानने।
त्रयोदशात्मके भेदे स्वरूपमकलावुभौ॥२९॥
मन्त्रमन्त्रेश्वरेशानाः शक्तिशम्भू च कीर्तितौ।
प्रलयाकलभेदेऽपि स्वं विज्ञानाकलावुभौ॥३०॥
मन्त्रमन्त्रेश्वरेशानाः शक्तीशावपि पूर्ववत्।
नवधा कीर्तिते भेदे स्वं मन्त्राः मन्त्रनायकाः॥३१॥
तदीशाः शक्तिशम्भू च पञ्चावस्थाः प्रकीर्तिताः।
पूर्ववत्सप्तभेदेऽपि स्वं मन्त्रेशेशशक्तयः॥३२॥
शिवश्चेति परिज्ञेयाः पञ्चैव वरवर्णिनि।
स्वं शक्तिः स्वनिजेशाना शक्तिशम्भू च पञ्चके॥३३॥
त्रिके स्वं शक्तिशक्तीच्छाशिवभेदं विलक्षयेत्।
इच्छानिवृत्तेः स्वस्थत्वादभिन्नमपि पञ्चधा।
इति पञ्चात्मके भेदे विज्ञेयं वस्तु कीर्तितम्॥३५॥
Tatra svarūpaṁ śaktiśca sakalaśceti tattrayam|
Iti jāgradavastheyaṁ bhede pañcadaśātmake||27||
Akalau dvau parijñeyau samyak svapnasuṣuptayoḥ|
Mantrāditatpatīśānavargasturya iti smṛtaḥ||28||
Śaktiśambhū parijñeyau turyātīte varānane|
Trayodaśātmake bhede svarūpamakalāvubhau||29||
Mantramantreśvareśānāḥ śaktiśambhū ca kīrtitau|
Pralayākalabhede'pi svaṁ vijñānākalāvubhau||30||
Mantramantreśvareśānāḥ śaktīśāvapi pūrvavat|
Navadhā kīrtite bhede svaṁ mantrāḥ mantranāyakāḥ||31||
Tadīśāḥ śaktiśambhū ca pañcāvasthāḥ prakīrtitāḥ|
Pūrvavatsaptabhede'pi svaṁ mantreśeśaśaktayaḥ||32||
Śivaśceti parijñeyāḥ pañcaiva varavarṇini|
Svaṁ śaktiḥ svanijeśānā śaktiśambhū ca pañcake||33||
Trike svaṁ śaktiśaktīcchāśivabhedaṁ vilakṣayet|
Icchānivṛtteḥ svasthatvādabhinnamapi pañcadhā|
Iti pañcātmake bhede vijñeyaṁ vastu kīrtitam||35||
There (tatra), in the fifteenfold portion --from the earth element (category 36) up to Prakṛti (category 13)-- (bhede pañcadaśa-ātmake), that triad (tad-trayam iti) (constituted by) svarūpa --the tattva itself, from tattva 36 up to tattva 13--, sakala and (his) śakti (sva-rūpam śaktiḥ ca sakalaḥ ca iti) (is) this (iyam) state of waking (jāgrat-avasthā). (The other) powerless two (knowers) --Pralayākala and Vijñānākala-- (akalau dvau) are to be regarded (parijñeyau) as completely (residing) (samyak) in the states of dreaming and deep sleep (svapna-suṣuptayoḥ). (In turn,) it is said that (iti smṛtaḥ) the group of Mantra, Mantreśvara and Mantramaheśvara (mantra-ādi-tat-pati-īśāna-vargaḥ) (dwells) in Turya --in the Fourth State-- (turye). (Finally,) oh lovely-faced One --i.e. Pārvatī-- (vara-ānane), Śakti and Śambhu --Śakti and Śiva-- (śakti-śambhū) are to be regarded (parijñeyau) as (residing) in Turyātīta --the State beyond Turya-- (turyātīte).
In the thirteenfold portion --from Puruṣa (category 12) up to Kalā (category 7)-- (trayodaśa-ātmake bhede) (dwell) svarūpa --Sakala here-- (sva-rūpam), both powerless (knowers) --Pralayākala and Vijñānākala-- (akalau ubhau), Mantra, Mantreśvara, Mantramaheśvara (mantra-mantreśvara-īśānāḥ), and also (ca) Śakti and Śambhu --Śakti and Śiva-- (śakti-śambhū) are said (to be found here) (kīrtitau).
In the Pralayākala portion --i.e. in the elevenfold portion situated in Māyātattva (category 6)-- (pralayākala-bhede api) (reside) svarūpa --Pralayākala here-- (svam), both Vijñānākala and his śakti (vijñānākalau ubhau), Mantra, Mantreśvara, Mantramaheśvara (mantra-mantreśvara-īśānāḥ) as well as (api) Śakti and the Lord --Śakti and Śiva-- (śakti-īśau), as before (pūrva-vat).
In the portion mentioned as ninefold --between Māyātattva (category 6) and Sadvidyātattva (category 5)-- (navadhā kīrtite bhede) (are positioned) svarūpa --Vijñānākala here-- (svam), Mantra-s (mantrāḥ), Mantreśvara-s (mantra-nāyakāḥ), Mantramaheśvara-s --lit. lords of those, i.e. lords of the Mantreśvara-s-- (tad-īśāḥ) as well as (ca) Śakti and Śambhu --Śakti and Śiva-- (śakti-śambhū), (and) as before (pūrva-vat), the five states --viz. jāgrat, svapna, suṣupta or suṣupti, Turya and Turyātīta (wakefulness, dreaming, deep sleep, the Fourth State and the One beyond the Fourth State)-- (pañca-avasthāḥ) are stated (to be here, in this portion) (prakīrtitāḥ).
In the sevenfold portion --in Sadvidyātattva (category 5)-- (sapta-bhede api) (are situated) the five (entities) (pañca eva) to be known (parijñeyāḥ) as svarūpa --Mantra here-- (svam), Mantreśvara, Mantramaheśvara, Śakti (mantreśa-īśa-śaktayaḥ) and (ca) Śiva (śivaḥ... iti), oh Fair One --i.e. Pārvatī-- (vara-varṇini).
In the fivefold (portion) --in Īśvaratattva (category 4)-- (pañcake) (reside) svarūpa --Mantreśvara here-- (svam), śakti of Mantramaheśvara (śaktiḥ), Mantramaheśvara (sva-nija-īśānā) as well as (ca) Śakti and Śambhu --Śakti and Śiva-- (śaktiśambhū).
In the threefold (portion) --in Sadāśivatattva (category 3)-- (trike), one should perceive (vilakṣayet) svarūpa --Mantramaheśvara here-- (sva) (and) the division formed by Kriyāśakti, Jñānaśakti, Icchāśakti and Śiva (śakti-śakti-icchā-śiva-bhedam).
Though (api) (Śivapramātā, the Highest Knower,) has no division (abhinnam), (He becomes) fivefold (pañcadhā) due to the (divisions of) Kriyāśakti and Jñānaśakti --lit. lords engaged in (all) the activities, or in Turya-- (sa-vyāpāra-adhipatvena), Icchāśakti --lit. devoid of that (devoid of activity and knowledge) and impelling-- (tad-hīna-prerakatvataḥ), Ānandaśakti --lit. cessation of Will-- (icchā-nivṛtteḥ) (and) Cicchakti --Cit-śakti, lit. remaining in her own Self-- (sva-sthatvāt).
Thus (iti), in this division consisting of five (pañca-ātmake bhede), it is said (kīrtitam) that Reality (vastu) should be known (vijñeyam)||27-35||
Of course, when Śiva speaks about 'Śakti and Śiva' He is speaking about 'Śivapramātāśakti and Śivapramātā'; and when Śiva mentions 'Śiva', He means 'Śivapramātā' only. Well, I guess that now the whole thing is much clearer.
I am adding a complete chart in which it is easy to see the five divisions of jāgrat (wakefulness), svapna (dreaming), suṣupti or suṣupta (deep sleep), Turya (Fourth State) and Turyātīta (the State beyond the Fourth One). This Chart 3 is easier to understand when it is watched along with the Chart 2 under the stanza 7. A last thing, I add 'pramātā' after the usual name of the experient/knower, but the final meaning does not change really: Sakala = Sakalapramātā, Pralayākala = Pralayākalapramātā, etc. (the word 'pramātā' simply means 'experient/knower' and just produces the meaning of, e.g. 'Sakala experient/knower' or 'the experient/knower called Sakala', etc. OK, I suppose that all this is very clear. One does not need to be a Sanskrit scholar to understand it:
|TATTVIC STAGES||STATES OF CONSCIOUSNESS||WHAT EACH STATE OF CONSCIOUSNESS IS||PRAMEYA OR SVARŪPA (KNOWABLE/OBJECT)||NUMBER OF ASPECTS OR VARIATIONS (PROCESSES)|
|1||FROM THE EARTH ELEMENT (CATEGORY 36) UP TO PRAKṚTI (CATEGORY 13)||jāgrat||the tattva itself + Sakalapramātā + Sakalapramātāśakti||The tattva itself||15|
|suṣupta or suṣupti||Vijñānākalapramātā|
|Turya||Mantrapramātā, Mantreśvarapramātā and Mantramaheśvarapramātā|
|Turyātīta||Śakti and Śiva|
|2||FROM PURUṢA (CATEGORY 12) UP TO KALĀ (TATTVA 7)||jāgrat||Sakalapramātā||Sakalapramātā (or Sakala, plainly)||13|
|suṣupta or suṣupti||Vijñānākalapramātā|
|Turya||Mantrapramātā, Mantreśvarapramātā and Mantramaheśvarapramātā|
|Turyātīta||Śakti and Śiva|
|3||MĀYĀ (CATEGORY 6) containing Savedyapralayākala-s and Apavedyapralayākala-s (the two kinds of Pralayākala-s)||jāgrat||Pralayākalapramātā||Pralayākalapramātā (or Pralayākala, plainly)||11|
|suṣupta or suṣupti||Vijñānākalapramātā|
|Turya||Mantrapramātā, Mantreśvarapramātā and Mantramaheśvarapramātā|
|Turyātīta||Śakti and Śiva|
|4||MAHĀMĀYĀ (REGION BETTWEN CATEGORIES 6 AND 5)||jāgrat||Vijñānākalapramātā||Vijñānākalapramātā (or Vijñānākala, plainly)||9|
|suṣupta or suṣupti||Mantreśvarapramātā|
|Turyātīta||Śakti and Śiva|
|5||SADVIDYĀ (CATEGORY 5)||jāgrat||Mantrapramātā||Mantrapramātā (or Mantra, plainly)||7|
|suṣupta or suṣupti||Mantramaheśvarapramātā|
|6||IŚVARA (CATEGORY 4)||jāgrat||Mantreśvarapramātā||Mantreśvarapramātā (or Mantreśvara, plainly)||5|
|suṣupta or suṣupti||Mantramaheśvarapramātā|
|7||SADĀŚIVA (CATEGORY 3)||jāgrat||Mantramaheśvarapramātā||Mantramaheśvarapramātā (or Mantramaheśvara, plainly)||3|
|suṣupta or suṣupti||Jñānaśakti|
|8||ŚIVA-ŚAKTI (CATEGORIES 1 AND 2)||jāgrat||Kriyāśakti||Śivapramātā (or Śiva, plainly)||1|
|suṣupta or suṣupti||Icchāśakti|
Now all this complicated stuff is easier to understand, I guess. Nevertheless, the reader could wonder: What does this teaching really mean in practice? I will try to clarify this point for you to have an idea of the importance of this complete Yoga taught by the Great Śiva. I will use simple terms in order to make it all easier. Let us take the first stage in the above chart (the one extending from tattva 36 up to tattva 13):
- There are four categories of knower or perceiver: Parapramātā (the Supreme Knower, i.e. Śiva), pramātā (knower, perceiver, subject), pramāṇa (knowing, perceiving), prameya (knowable, object).
- Jāgrat (wakefulness) is the state where a living being is completely engrossed in the 'prameya' (object) only. Though his subjectivity (his 'I', the 'pramātā') is still there, he practically forget it the whole time.
- Svapna (dreaming) is the state where a living being is completely engrossed in the 'pramāṇa' (knowing, perceiving), i.e. in the saṁskāra-s or impressions left by the objects. And again he practically forgets the pramātā all the time.
- Suṣupta or suṣupti (deep sleep) is the state where a living being is completely engrossed in the 'pramātā' but without being conscious of that. This lack of consciousness about the pramātā creates a massive void.
- Turya (Fourth State) is the State where a living being is completely engrossed in the Parapramātā and is totally conscious that he is Śiva but without being yet fully established in this identity/unity with Him.
- Turyātīta (the State beyond the Fourth One) is the State where a living being is completely engrossed and established in the Parapramātā. This is the Highest State.
These 5 states of consciousness can be attained in every stage (i.e. in the fifteenfold stage, in the thirteenfold stage, etc.), but obviously, the fifteenfold stage is just a massive obstacle to everyone in Yoga. Most yogī-s just move in the state of the fifteenfold aspects or variations. What do I mean by all this? I will explain it below, but before a synopsis of the 7 experients/knowers and their location in the tattvic scheme:
- Sakalapramātā resides in all the tattva-s from tattva 7 down to tattva 36 (according to Jayaratha, the commentator of Tantrāloka, the Sakalapramātā is Puruṣatattva).
- Pralayākalapramātā dwells in the Māyātattva (tattva 6), but penetrates all the tattva-s from tattva 6 down to tattva 36.
- Vijñānākalapramātā lives in the Mahāmāyā (between tattva-s 5 and 6), but penetrates all the tattva-s from Mahāmāyā down to tattva 36.
- Mantrapramātā is located in tattva 5, but penetrates all the tattva-s from tattva 5 down to tattva 36.
- Mantreśvarapramātā resides in tattva 4, but penetrates all the tattva-s from tattva 4 down to tattva 36.
- Mantramaheśvarapramātā dwells in tattva 3, but penetrates all the tattva-s from tattva 3 down to tattva 36.
- Śivapramātā dwells everywhere (He penetrates all the 36 tattva-s), but in this context you can say that He lives in tattva-s 1 and 2.
I will show in practice the Yoga of the different aspects or variations such as exhibited in the above chart (keep the chart on sight to check as I explain):
- Fifteenfold portion (from tattva 36 up to tattva 13): Here the svarūpa or object is the tattva itself. To understand this consider the process of meditation, in which you take an object for concentration, e.g. an earthen pot representing the earth element --tattva 36-- (though you can take any tattva between the 36th and the 13th, e.g. the Jñānendriya-s or Powers of Perception, anyway, it is in general more difficult so than with an earthen pot, obviously). Next you start to concentrate and continues doing so till you even forget the subject (the Sakalapramātā) and the object is the only thing in your perception (this is called samādhi by Patañjali in his Yogasūtra-s). This is 'jāgrat' or 'wakefulness' here because the svarūpa is very clearly manifest, plus the Sakalapramātā and his śakti (though they seem to be absent due to the extreme concentration on the object, they are anyway present here). When you are in this state of samādhi, you are in the svarūpa or object (the first portion in the fifteen aspects or variations). From here you have to begin ascending to the subject by using the Sakalapramātāśakti. How? By paying more and more attention to the subject or Sakalapramātā who is watching the object. While in the process of moving to the subject, you experience impressions of the earthen pot in front of you (i.e. you do not see that pot anymore because you closed your eyes and only remember its form, color, etc.). This is 'svapna' or 'dreaming' here. Finally, you arrived at the subject (at the Sakalapramātā) and are totally aware of your state as the witness to the earthen pot. Afterward, you must forget this limited subject (the knower or perceiver called Sakala) and make efforts to ascend even more, toward the Vijñānākalapramātā. But before reaching this pramātā, you enter into a void. This void is the state in which the Pralayākalapramātā lives ('suṣupta' or 'suṣupti' — 'deep sleep'). If you stay here and do not strive to ascend to the next subject or pramātā, you will descend to the state of Sakala later, as most human beings in the morning, when they wake up from deep sleep. You do not want this, obviously, so you force yourself to be conscious of the void while you stay in the void. This requires an enormous effort on your part and a big portion of Śiva's Grace too or your efforts will prove futile. By 'Śiva's Grace' I do not indicate only the supernatural Grace coming directly from your own Self who is Śiva, but I also include the Favor of your own Guru and the Favor of the Śiva's scriptures.
So, finally, you can rise from the state of Pralayākalapramātā and enter into the state of Vijñānākalapramātā. From here you can experience an entry into 'Turya' ('the Fourth State', the State of Śiva in his different aspects). Here it is not about making efforts but about Grace only. When you can cross the borderline of Āṇavamala between tattva-s 5 and 6 due to His causeless Compassion, you successively penetrate into the states of Mantrapramātā, Mantreśvarapramātā, Mantramaheśvarapramātā and Śivapramātā automatically. And yes, you attain the State of Śiva and the fruit of Liberation (i.e. you attain 'Turyātīta' or 'the State beyond the Fourth One' here), but it is just temporary. You do not have the necessary strength to stay in the Highest State. So, you must proceed to do it all again but from the next level: The thirteenfold aspect or variation. All the sequence of the five states (wakefulness, dreaming, etc.) will appear again for all the remaining stages but in a successively higher level each time.
- Thirteenfold portion (from tattva 12 up to tattva 7): Only yogī-s with more power can enter this round of concentrations. To master this process you must have mastered the previous fifteenfold process. Here the object cannot be an earthen pot, Jñānendriya-s, etc. (none of the tattva-s between the 36th and the 13th). The object or svarūpa is here the Sakalapramātā himself (and his power is included too). Here the pramātā (the subject) is Pralayākalapramātā, while his śakti is what enables him to concentrate on Sakalapramātā. If you did not master the fifteenfold process, you will not understand what concentrating on Sakalapramātā really is. So, you start to perceive the Sakalapramātā first till he fills all the field of your perception. Next, you move little by little to the subject or Pralayākalapramātā. When you are finally conscious of this knower, you enter into a void. From this void you have to elevate yourself by the force of your efforts and Grace (in reality, everything is Grace always). Your goal is now to attain the Vijñānākalapramātā in which the void is not any more overpowering you. Finally, you attain the state of the Vijñānākalapramātā and you are sure of this because you can be conscious of the void without being overpowered by it. This is the mark of an advanced yogī. Afterward, to enter into the remaining higher experients/knowers is automatic and powered by Śiva's Grace only. So, you attain Turya and Turyātīta again but through the thirteenfold process this time. Now you have more strength to stay in your own nature, i.e. in the State of Śiva. Anyway, this is again temporary and you are led to the next process (to the elevenfold one).
- Elevenfold portion (in tattva 6): To master this process you must have mastered the previous thirteenfold process. Here the object is the Pralayākalapramātā himself (and his power too, of course). Here the pramātā (the subject) is Vijñānākalapramātā, while his śakti enables him to concentrate on Pralayākalapramātā. So first you concentrate on Pralayākalapramātā till he fills all the field of your perception. After this, you gradually move upward, toward the subject or Vijñānākalapramātā. You confirm that you have achieved this experient/knower when you are able to be a witness to the void of Māyātattva (tattva 6). In other words, when you can witness the void of deep sleep and never be overpowered by it, so you attain the Vijñānākalapramātā stage. And from here, all is automatic because Vijñānākalapramātā is the doorway to the State of Śiva. Therefore, the states of Mantrapramātā, Mantreśvarapramātā, Mantramaheśvarapramātā and Śivapramātā are spontaneously achieved by force of His Grace alone. In this way, you attain the Highest State again, but your power to get yourself established in the State of Śiva is still not strong enough. So, you are naturally led to the next process (to the ninefold one).
- Ninefold portion (in Mahāmāyā, between tattva-s 5 and 6): It is obvious that to master this process you must have mastered the previous one. Here the object is the Vijñānākalapramātā himself (and his power is included as well). Here the pramātā (subject) is Mantrapramātā, while his śakti allows him to be one-pointed on Vijñānākalapramātā. As ascending from Vijñānākalapramātā up to Śivapramātā is automatic and powered by Grace only, there is no effort on your part in this ninefold process. But even after reaching the Highest State again, it is not enough for consolidating your achievement of Turyātīta. You are automatically conduced to the next process (to the sevenfold one).
- Sevenfold portion (in tattva 5): All here is totally automatic. The object is Mantrapramātā (with his power), and the subject is Mantreśvarapramātā. The śakti or power of Mantreśvarapramātā permits him to focus his attention on Mantrapramātā. The rest happens as before, automatically by the Grace of Śiva. But again you cannot firmly get established in the Highest State. So you are led to the next process (to the fivefold) without any effort on your part.
- Fivefold portion (in tattva 4): All automatic again. The object is Mantreśvarapramātā (and his own śakti or power) and the subject is Mantramaheśvarapramātā. The śakti of Mantramaheśvarapramātā enables him to be concentrated on Mantreśvarapramātā. The elevation to higher states will occur by itself, due to the Grace of the Supreme Lord. However, you fail once more to get firmly established in the Highest State. Therefore, you are carried on to the next process (to the threefold one) without doing nothing at all.
- Threefold portion (in tattva 3): The whole thing is also automatic again. The object is Mantramaheśvarapramātā (and his śakti) and the subject is Śivapramātā. The Śakti (the Supreme Power) allows Him to be completely focused on Mantramaheśvarapramātā. But this division into Śiva and Śakti is only for the sake of studying these topics. In practice, both are the same Reality and there is no difference between them. The entry into the Śiva State is spontaneous due to the Massive Power of the Great Lord. Now you find yourself firmly established in Your State. This is the final achievement of Liberation.
There is no 'onefold process', to call it some way, because in Śiva the object and the subject are one and the same. Therefore, there cannot be any concentration on an object since subject and object are merged into the divine Consciousness. Anyway, Śiva Himself is dividing His own State here in five due to the presence of His main śakti-s (Kriyāśakti, Jñānaśakti, Icchāśakti, Ānandaśakti and Cicchakti - Power of Action, Power of Knowledge, Power of Will, Power of Bliss and Power of Consciousness, respectively.
That is why you may listen to Guru-s saying something like this: 'I attained Liberation but I needed more time to get stabilized on the Highest State'. In other words, such a Guru got Liberation in the fifteenfold process but, because he did not have the strength to get firmly established in the State of Śiva, he needed to move through all the remaining processes (thirteenfold, elevenfold, etc.).
Very well, maybe now this complex topic is more understandable to you.
भूयोऽप्यासामवस्थानां सञ्ज्ञाभेदः प्रकाश्यते।
पिण्डस्थः सर्वतोभद्रो जाग्रन्नाम द्वयं मतम्॥३६॥
Bhūyo'pyāsāmavasthānāṁ sañjñābhedaḥ prakāśyate|
Piṇḍasthaḥ sarvatobhadro jāgrannāma dvayaṁ matam||36||
Again (bhūyas api), (another) division regarding the names (sañjñā-bhedaḥ) of these states --i.e. of wakefulness, dreaming, deep sleep, Fourth State and the State beyond the Fourth One-- (āsām avasthānām) is brought to light (prakāśyate) (here). The name of wakefulness (jāgrat-nāma) is considered to be (matam) twofold (dvayam): Piṇḍastha (piṇḍa-sthaḥ) (and) sarvatobhadhra (sarvatas-bhadraḥ)||36||
And Śiva is now giving alternative names for the five states of consciousness according to ordinary people, yogī-s and jñānī-s. This will be very clear by watching the Charts 4 and 5 under the stanza 46.
द्विसञ्ज्ञं स्वप्नमिच्छन्ति पदस्थं व्याप्तिरित्यपि।
रूपस्थं तु महाव्याप्तिः सुषुप्तस्यापि तद्द्वयम्॥३७॥
Dvisañjñaṁ svapnamicchanti padasthaṁ vyāptirityapi|
Rūpasthaṁ tu mahāvyāptiḥ suṣuptasyāpi taddvayam||37||
(The sages) proclaim (icchanti) that the dreaming (svapnam) has two names (dvi-sañjñam): Padastha (pada-stham) (and) vyāpti (vyāptiḥ iti) as well (api). The two names (tad-dvayam) of deep sleep (suṣuptasya api) (are): Rūpastha (rūpa-stham tu) (and) mahāvyāpti (mahā-vyāptiḥ)||37||
See Charts 4 and 5 under stanza 46.
प्रचयं रूपातीतं च सम्यक् तुर्यमुदाहृतम्।
महाप्रचयमिच्छन्ति तुर्यातीतं विचक्षणाः॥३८॥
Pracayaṁ rūpātītaṁ ca samyak turyamudāhṛtam|
Mahāpracayamicchanti turyātītaṁ vicakṣaṇāḥ||38||
Turya --the Fourth State-- (turyam) is rightly said to be (samyak turyam udāhṛtam): Pracaya (pracayam) and (ca) Rūpātīta (rūpātītam); (while) the sages (vicakṣaṇāḥ) proclaim (icchanti) that Turyātīta --the State beyond the Fourth One-- (turya-atītam) (is) Mahāpracaya (mahā-pracayam)||38||
See Charts 4 and 5 under stanza 46.
पृथक्तत्त्वप्रभेदेन भेदोऽयं समुदाहृतः।
सर्वाण्येव हि तत्त्वानि पञ्चैतानि यथा शृणु॥३९॥
Pṛthaktattvaprabhedena bhedo'yaṁ samudāhṛtaḥ|
Sarvāṇyeva hi tattvāni pañcaitāni yathā śṛṇu||39||
This (ayam) division (bhedaḥ) is (in turn) said to be (samudāhṛtaḥ) separately (pṛthak) subdivided (prabhedena) in tattva-s or principles --not the 36 categories here-- (tattva). Listen (śṛṇu), to the best of your power (yathā), all (sarvāṇi eva hi) these (etāni) five (pañca) tattva-s --principles-- (tattvāni)||39||
See Charts 4 and 5 under stanza 46.
भूततत्त्वाभिधानानां योगोऽधिष्ठेय इष्यते।
पिण्डस्थमिति तं प्राहुः पदस्थमपरं विदुः॥४०॥
Bhūtatattvābhidhānānāṁ yogo'dhiṣṭheya iṣyate|
Piṇḍasthamiti taṁ prāhuḥ padasthamaparaṁ viduḥ||40||
The combination (yogaḥ) of living beings, tattva-s --principles of manifestation-- and expressions (bhūta-tattva-abhidhānānām) is regarded as (iṣyate) objectivized --lit. conquerable-- (adhiṣṭheyaḥ). (The sages) affirm (prāhuḥ) that that --the bhūtatattvābhidhāna-s or living beings, tattva-s and expressions-- (tam) (is) the state of wakefulness (piṇḍa-stham iti). They consider (viduḥ) the other --the one not being like this, i.e. absorbed in the 'objectivized'-- (aparam) to be the state of dreaming (pada-stham)||40||
See Charts 4 and 5 under stanza 46.
मन्त्रास्तत्पतयः सेशा रूपस्थमिति कीर्त्यते।
रूपातीतं परा शक्तिः सव्यापाराप्यनामया॥४१॥
Mantrāstatpatayaḥ seśā rūpasthamiti kīrtyate|
Rūpātītaṁ parā śaktiḥ savyāpārāpyanāmayā||41||
Mantra-s (mantrāḥ), Mantreśvara-s (tad-patayaḥ) along with Mantramaheśvara-s (sa-īśāḥ) are said to be (kīrtyate) the state of deep sleep --rūpastha-- (rūpa-stham iti). The Fourth State --Rūpātīta or Turya-- (rūpātītam) (is) the Supreme Śakti (parā śaktiḥ) which, though (api) endowed with activity --i.e. She is immanent in the universe-- (sa-vyāpārā) is transcendental --lit. free from sickness-- (anāmayā)||41||
See Charts 4 and 5 under stanza 46.
निष्प्रपञ्चो निराभासः शुद्धः स्वात्मन्यवस्थितः।
सर्वातीतः शिवो ज्ञेयो यं विदित्वा विमुच्यते॥४२॥
Niṣprapañco nirābhāsaḥ śuddhaḥ svātmanyavasthitaḥ|
Sarvātītaḥ śivo jñeyo yaṁ viditvā vimucyate||42||
(The tattva or principle) which is without any manifoldness (niṣprapañcaḥ), without any manifestation (nirābhāsaḥ), which is pure (śuddhaḥ), which remains (avasthitaḥ) in His own Self (sva-ātmani) (and) which is beyond all (sarva-atītaḥ), knowing which (yam viditvā) one is completely liberated (vimucyate), is called (jñeyaḥ) Śiva (śivaḥ)||42||
And He is Turyātīta. See Charts 4 and 5 under stanza 46.
चतुर्विधं तु पिण्डस्थमबुद्धं बुद्धमेव च।
प्रबुद्धं सुप्रबुद्धं च पदस्थं च चतुर्विधम्॥४३॥
गतागतं सुविक्षिप्तं सङ्गतं सुसमाहितम्।
चतुर्धा रूपसञ्ज्ञं तु ज्ञातव्यं योगचिन्तकैः॥४४॥
उदितं विपुलं शान्तं सुप्रसन्नमथापरम्।
मनोन्मनमनन्तं च सर्वार्थं सततोदितम्॥४५॥
Caturvidhaṁ tu piṇḍasthamabuddhaṁ buddhameva ca|
Prabuddhaṁ suprabuddhaṁ ca padasthaṁ ca caturvidham||43||
Gatāgataṁ suvikṣiptaṁ saṅgataṁ susamāhitam|
Caturdhā rūpasañjñaṁ tu jñātavyaṁ yogacintakaiḥ||44||
Uditaṁ vipulaṁ śāntaṁ suprasannamathāparam|
Manonmanamanantaṁ ca sarvārthaṁ satatoditam||45||
Piṇḍastha --wakefulness-- (piṇḍa-stham) (is) fourfold (caturvidham tu): Abuddha, buddha, prabuddha and suprabuddha (abuddham buddham eva ca prabuddham suprabuddham ca).
Padastha --dreaming-- (padastham) (is) also fourfold (ca caturvidham): Gatāgata, suvikṣipta, saṅgata (and) susamāhita (gatāgatam suvikṣiptam saṅgatam susamāhitam).
The one whose name is rūpastha --deep sleep-- (rūpa-sañjñam) must be certainly regarded as (tu jñātavyam) fourfold (caturdhā) by the ones who are familiar with Yoga (yoga-cintakaiḥ): Udita, vipula, śānta (and) suprasanna (uditam vipulam śāntam suprasannam).
And the other --i.e. Rūpātīta or Turya, and also Turyātīta-- (atha aparam) (is divided into): Manonmana, ananta, sarvārtha --the three divisions of Turya--; satatodita (is beyond Turya) --i.e. it is Turyātīta, which has no subdivision-- (manonmanam anantam ca sarvārtham satatoditam)||43-45||
See Charts 4 and 5 under stanza 46.
प्रचये तत्र सञ्ज्ञेयमेकं तन्महति स्थितम्।
इत्येवं पञ्चधाध्वानं त्रिधेदानीं निगद्यते॥४६॥
Pracaye tatra sañjñeyamekaṁ tanmahati sthitam|
Ityevaṁ pañcadhādhvānaṁ tridhedānīṁ nigadyate||46||
That --the Highest Reality or Paramaśiva-- (tad) which remains (sthitam) in Mahāpracaya --in Turyātīta, the State beyond Turya-- (pracaye tatra... mahati) is to be regarded as (sañjñeyam) one (ekam) --in other words, there is no division here--. Thus (iti evam), the fivefold (pañcadhā) course (adhvānam) (has been enumerated --the course of the five states of consciousness--). Now (idānīm), the threefold (course) --another way to divide the same thing-- (tridhā) is being described (in the next stanza) (nigadyate)||46||
With two complete charts now, the whole thing about the five states of consciousness will look much easier to understand:
|Nº||STATE OF CONSCIOUSNESS||NAME ACCORDING TO THE ORDINARY PEOPLE||A VERY BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE STATE||WHAT IS THE ESSENCE OF THIS STATE?||NAME ACCORDING TO THE YOGĪ-S (Yoga practitioners)||NAME ACCORDING TO THE JÑĀNĪ-S (enlightened beings)|
--the kingdom of prameya or object/knowable--
|A combination of living beings, tattva-s and expressions
(adhiṣṭheya or objectivized)
|Sakalapramātā and Pralayākalapramātā||piṇḍastha
(lit. remaining in the lump, i.e. becoming one with the object)
(lit. completely auspicious, i.e. everywhere full of Śiva)
--the kingdom of pramāṇa or knowing/perceiving--
|The work of the saṁskāra-s or impressions derived from contact with objects
(adhiṣṭhāna or objectivization)
(lit. standing on one's feet, i.e. remaining where you are)
(lit. pervasion, i.e. one totally pervades the dreams)
|3||Third state||suṣupta or suṣupti
--the kingdom of pramātā or subject/knower--
|Negation of objectivity and subjectivity
(adhiṣṭhātṛ or objectivizer)
|Mantrapramātā, Mantreśvarapramātā and Mantramaheśvarapramātā||rūpastha
(lit. remaining in one's own form, i.e. in one's own Self)
(lit. great pervasion, i.e. transcending the dreaming state --devoid of objects and impressions of objects--)
--the Kingdom of Parapramātā or Supreme Subject/Knower--
|The State of the Essential Nature or Self
(Saṁvid or Consciousness)
(the Supreme Śakti or Power)
(lit. Beyond form, i.e. beyond mere contact with the Self --in other words, 'establishment in one's own Self'--)
(lit. Totality, i.e. all the universal manifestation lies here)
(the State beyond the Fourth One)
--the Kingdom of Parapramātā or Supreme Subject/Knower in His Greatest Glory--
|The Highest State
(The State beyond the universe)
(lit. Constantly risen or active)
They had no name for this State as they could not practice Yoga here because there is no subject or object. So, they had to use their imagination to create this name for It
(lit. the Great Totality, i.e. it is even beyond the totality of the universal manifestation)
And now the Chart 5 showing the subdivisions of the states of consciousness (except Turyātīta, which mixes with no other state). In Mālinīvijayottaratantra, Śiva gives names for the combinations of states of consciousness, e.g. 'abuddha', 'buddha', etc., but I added the original name showing the combination, i.e. 'jāgrat-jāgrat' (wakefulness in wakefulness), 'jāgrat-svapna' (dreaming in wakefulness), etc. The same logic applies to the other combinations. Hopefully you understood me.
|Nº||STATE OF CONSCIOUSNESS||SUBDIVISIONS||A DESCRIPTION OF EVERY STATE|
--the kingdom of prameya or object/knowable--
(wakefulness in wakefulness)
|Complete absorption in objectivity, which amounts to a state of full ignorance. Constant identification with both external objects (e.g. the physical body) and internal objects (e.g. ego). The vast majority of humankind lives here during their waking state, as they call it. Obviously, it is like a joke because this is total obscurity and absolute lack of awareness about the divine essential nature (Parapramātā or Supreme Subject). Śiva called it 'abuddha' because here there is total unawareness.|
(dreaming in wakefulness)
|Absorption in the saṁskāra-s or impressions of objectivity while waking. This state is commonly known as 'daydreaming'. Śiva called it 'buddha' not because you are here enlightened or something but because you have a little awareness, i.e. you are not absorbed in objectivity as before but you are now absorbed in the impressions of such objectivity.|
(deep sleep in wakefulness)
|Absorption in subjectivity. Lack of awareness about objectivity and impressions of objectivity. Śiva called it 'prabuddha' because you are more awakened (lit. well-awakened) to your essential nature here. Though it is not full awareness about Parapramātā (Supreme Subject) during wakefulness, if you reach this state will be fully aware of Parapramātā at the beginning and at the end of wakefulness only.|
(Turya in wakefulness)
|Absorption in supreme subjectivity. This the state where you are fully aware of Parapramātā (Supreme Subject) during wakefulness. The difference with the previous state is that in this state you are aware of Parapramātā even during wakefulness and not only at the beginning and end of it. Śiva called it 'suprabuddha' because at this stage you are perfectly well-awakened.|
--the kingdom of pramāṇa or knowing/perceiving--
(wakefulness in dreaming)
(coming and going)
|It is an absorption in the impressions (svapna or dreaming) but mixed with an absorption in objectivity (jāgrat or wakefulness). For example, you are all the time only conscious of objects during the dream (this is wakefulness) but at the same time you do not care about inconsistencies in such objectivity. For example: You see now a car in your dream and next, all of a sudden, an elephant appears in its place. Anyway, you do not feel concerned with the sudden change, but you take it as 'normal'. Śiva called it 'gatāgata' (lit. coming and going) because things continue to change their form all the time in your dreaming but you do not care about it.|
(dreaming in dreaming)
|It is full absorption in the impressions so that one thing perceived in a dream is not connected with the next thing. For example: You are watching TV, but next you are a superhero, and later you are looking at a sheep, etc. There is total dispersion, i.e. an absolute lack of interconnection with reference to the objects in a dream. That is why Śiva called it 'suvikṣipta' or very dispersed. The difference with the previous state is that now you are only moving through impressions, so the objects you see are not really objects but impressions of the objects. This means that their form will be often distorted and sometimes will look just very crazy.|
(deep sleep in dreaming)
|There is some subjectivity in the middle of your experience of impressions of objects. For example: If suddenly your late mother appears in your dream, you realize that this is impossible and that the explanation for this incoherence is that you are actually dreaming. In the previous mixtures (wakefulness in dreaming and dreaming in dreaming) you do not notice the connection between the different objects during a dream. In other words, there is some awareness regarding the subject. That is why Śiva called it 'saṅgata' or associated, because you become associated with subjectivity to a certain degree.|
(Turya in dreaming)
(very absorbed or engrossed)
Absorption in supreme subjectivity again but while sleeping. This the state where you are fully aware of Parapramātā (Supreme Subject) during the state of dreaming. The difference with the previous state is that in this state you are aware of Parapramātā even during any dream, and not only that, but you can also remove all the dreams and enter into full absorption or samādhi, but temporarily because another dream will come and overpower you. And again you will remove this dream and enter into samādhi again, and so an on. Śiva called it 'susamāhita' because at this stage you are very absorbed in samādhi.
|3||suṣupta or suṣupti
--the kingdom of pramātā or subject/knower--
(wakefulness in deep sleep)
|All objectivity and impressions are completely absent here. It is a state of void where you are absolutely unaware of everything. So, when you wake up, you remember nothing. Śiva called it 'udita' because here you are rising from the impressions of objectivity and moving toward your essential nature which is pure Light and Joy.|
(dreaming in deep sleep)
|Here you somewhat (from time to time) know that you are in deep sleep (i.e. in subjectivity beyond objectivity and its impressions). In a nutshell, you are not completely unaware like in the previous state. Śiva called it 'vipula' because here your awareness that you are in subjectivity becomes more and more vivid.|
(deep sleep in deep sleep)
|Here the awareness that you are in the middle of subjectivity is continuous in the background. The difference with 'vipula' is that now the perception that you are in the subject persists throughout the state and is not only happening from time to time. Śiva called it 'śānta' because your constant perception of subjectivity here remains in a state free from agitation, i.e. you experience its peace during the time the state lasts.|
(Turya in deep sleep)
|This state is like the previous one but now you experience the bliss of subjectivity. This is the difference. Śiva called it 'suprasanna' because it is very auspicious, viz. it is replete with bliss as you get in touch with the Parapramātā or Supreme Subject.|
--the Kingdom of Parapramātā or Supreme Subject/Knower--
(wakefulness in Turya)
(beyond the mind)
|The Glory of the State of Turya (i.e. the experience of the Parapramātā or Supreme Subject full of Bliss) starts to appear but only slightly. Śiva called it 'manonmana' because at this time you completely abandon all the thoughts.|
(dreaming in Turya)
|The Glory of the State of Turya is now much more vividly manifest for you. Śiva called it 'ananta' because now you experience the infinite nature of your own Self (the Parapramātā).|
(deep sleep in Turya)
(all the things)
|The Glory of the State of Turya is here totally full. This is the highest level of Turya, no doubt about it. Śiva called it 'sarvārtha' because though you realize that Parapramātā is infinite, anyway you discover that even the entire group of limitations also exists in Him.|
(the State beyond the Fourth One)
--the Kingdom of Parapramātā or Supreme Subject/Knower in His Greatest Glory--
|no subdivision||This is the culminating point. There is nothing higher than this. In this State there is no objectivity or subjectivity. It is the Highest State teeming with massive Bliss appearing as Peace beyond human understanding. This State permeates all the other states. That is why when you realize Turyātīta you realize that you always realized It. It is absolutely universal and no word is able to define It. It is the Final Experience, it is merging into the essential nature of the Great Śiva who is your own Self.|
Hopefully, after my long exposition, you understand now all this complex topic a little better.
ईश्वरान्तं च विद्याह्नं शेषं शिवपदं विदुः॥४७॥
Īśvarāntaṁ ca vidyāhvaṁ śeṣaṁ śivapadaṁ viduḥ||47||
(The territory of) Ātmātattva (ātma-tattvam) is said (to extend) (udāhṛtam) up to Vijñānākala (vijñāna-akala-paryantam). (The area starting in Mantra and) ending in Īśvaratattva --category 4-- (īśvara-antam) is called (āhvam) (the territory of) Vidyātattva (vidyā). (The sages) regard (viduḥ) the rest (śeṣam) as the State of Śiva --i.e. as the Śivatattva, but not the category 1 in the well-known 36 tattva-s scheme, but the 'principle' including Mantramaheśvara and Śivapramātā knowers-- (śiva-padam)||47||
There is another way to divide all this reality. It was called the 'triple course' by Śiva in the stanza 46. (1) Ātmātattva —the principle of Ātmā— extending from tattva 36 up to Mahāmāyā (the region of Vijñānākalapramātā between tattva-s 5 and 6). (2) Vidyātattva —the principle of Vidyā (not the tattva 8)— extending from tattva 5 (the region of Mantrapramātā) up to Īśvaratattva (tattva 4). And (3) Śivatattva (not the tattva or category 1 here) —the principle of Śiva— extending from tattva-3 up to tattva-s 1 and 2 (the regions of Mantramaheśvarapramātā and Śivapramātā). Check the Tattvic Chart if you need to refresh your memory about the arrangement of the 36 tattva-s or categories.
एवं भेदैरिमैर्भिन्नस्तत्राध्वा परिकीर्तितः।
युगपत्सर्वमार्गाणां प्रभेदः प्रोच्यतेऽधुना॥४८॥
Evaṁ bhedairimairbhinnastatrādhvā parikīrtitaḥ|
Yugapatsarvamārgāṇāṁ prabhedaḥ procyate'dhunā||48||
In this way (evam), the course (containing three tattva-s or principles) (adhvā), which was divided (bhinnaḥ) there --in the previous stanza-- (tatra) in these portions (bhedaiḥ imaiḥ), has been mentioned (parikīrtitaḥ). Now (adhunā), the division (prabhedaḥ) of all the paths (sarva-mārgāṇām) simultaneously (yugapad) is proclaimed (procyate)||48||
Now that the simple explanation of the three courses is finished, Śiva proceeds to explain the four aṇḍa-s (eggs).
पार्थिवं प्राकृतं चैव मायीयं शाक्तमेव च।
इति सङ्क्षेपतः प्रोक्तमेतदण्डचतुष्टयम्॥४९॥
Pārthivaṁ prākṛtaṁ caiva māyīyaṁ śāktameva ca|
Iti saṅkṣepataḥ proktametadaṇḍacatuṣṭayam||49||
This (etad) group of four eggs (aṇḍa-catuṣṭayam) is briefly said (saṅkṣepataḥ proktam) (to consist of): 'Pṛthivī egg (pārthivam), Prakṛti egg (prākṛtam), Māyā egg (māyīyam) and (ca eva... eva ca) Śakti egg (śāktam... iti)'||49||
This division into four eggs coincides with the lower 4 Kalā-s in the division into five Kalā-s included in the 'ṣaḍadhvā' (the six courses of the universal manifestation). I have already given a mere glimpse of this extremely complex topic. On the one hand , there is the subjective side composed of 'varṇa', 'mantra' and 'pada', and on the other hand, there is the objective side consisting of 'kalā', 'tattva' and 'bhuvana'. Every category is counted in a special way, e.g. there are 36 tattva-s, etc. However, the number differs across the scriptures. For example, Abhinavagupta counts 118 bhuvana-s (worlds) by following Mālinīvijayottaratantra, while in the fourth chapter of Svacchandatantra, Śiva counts 224 bhuvana-s. This subject is absolutely complex and requires me to translate all the stanzas of Svacchandatantra dealing with this topic plus the commentaries by Kṣemarāja in his Svacchandoddyota. It is impossible here, of course. Anyway, I can quote a few stanzas in Svacchandatantra (chapter 4) only for you to have some idea about this:
षडध्वा चैकतो ज्ञेयः तस्य सङ्ख्यां पुनः शृणु।
कलाश्च पञ्च विज्ञेयास्तत्त्वषट्त्रिंशदेव तु॥१९८॥
सचतुर्विंशति ज्ञेयं भुवनानां शतद्वयम्।
एकाशीतिपदान्यत्र वर्णार्धशतिका स्मृता॥१९९॥
मन्त्रा एकादश ज्ञेया इत्येतच्चाध्वमण्डलम्।
एतस्मिञ्शुद्धिमापन्ने मुक्तिमाप्नोति दीक्षितः॥२००॥
Ṣaḍadhvā caikato jñeyaḥ tasya saṅkhyāṁ punaḥ śṛṇu|
Kalāśca pañca vijñeyāstattvaṣaṭtriṁśadeva tu||198||
Sacaturviṁśati jñeyaṁ bhuvanānāṁ śatadvayam|
Ekāśītipadānyatra varṇārdhaśatikā smṛtā||199||
Mantrā ekādaśa jñeyā ityetaccādhvamaṇḍalam|
Etasmiñśuddhimāpanne muktimāpnoti dīkṣitaḥ||200||
The six courses (ṣaṭ-adhvā ca) are to be regarded (jñeyaḥ) one by one (ekatas). Listen --Śiva says to Pārvatī-- (śṛṇu) its --of the six courses-- (tasya) number (saṅkhyām) again and again (punar). (In the vācya side --in the objective side--,) the kalā-s (kalāḥ ca) are to be regarded as (vijñeyāḥ) 5 (pañca) (while the number of) tattva-s is 36 indeed (tattva-ṣaṭtriṁśat eva tu)||198||
(The next course) is to be considered to be (jñeyam) (consisting of) 224 (sa-caturviṁśati... śata-dvayam) worlds (bhuvanānām). (And) here --in the vācaka or subjective side-- (atra) (there are) 81 pada-s --lit. words-- (ekāśīti-padāni) (and also) a group of 50 varṇa-s --lit. letters-- (varṇa-ardha-śatikā) is mentioned (smṛtā)||199||
(And) the mantra-s (mantrāḥ) are regarded as (jñeyāḥ) 11 (ekādaśa). Thus (iti), this (etad ca) (is) the circle of the (six) courses (adhva-maṇḍalam). When he --the initiated one-- attains Purity (etasmin śuddhim āpanne), the initiated one (dīkṣitaḥ) obtains (āpnoti) Liberation (muktim)||200||
The Kṣemarāja's commentary on these stanzas is surprisingly very short, only he knows why. Besides, Kṣemarāja usually writes in his Svacchandoddyota (the great commentary on Svacchandatantra) the number of the last stanza being commented in a group of stanzas (in this case 200), but he comments on them all always, of course. One would expect in this case something like this at the end of the commentary: ||198-200||, but unfortunately it is not happening. OK, now his extremely short commentary:
Purity (śuddhiḥ) (in this context) is said to be (uktam) 'the revelation of Paramaśiva' (parama-śivasya-abhivyaktiḥ iti) to him --to the initiated one-- (asya)||200||
Fortunately, Abhinavagupta elucidates ṣaḍadhvā in the chapters 11 and 12 of his celebrated Tantrāloka. Yes, it is a massive and abstruse elucidation really but elucidation anyway.
And now, regarding the four eggs or enclosures, this topic is mentioned by Abhinavagupta in his Paramārthasāra (stanza 4). I gave full explanation under that stanza, of course. So, I do not need to write a long explanation here.
पृथग्द्वयमसङ्ख्यातमेकमेकं पृथक् पृथक्।
आद्यं धारिकया व्याप्तं तत्रैकं तत्त्वमिष्यते॥५०॥
एकमेकं पृथक् क्षार्णं पदार्णमनुषु स्मरेत्।
पुरषोडशकं ज्ञेयं षड्विधोऽध्वा प्रकीर्तितः।
आप्यायिन्या द्वितीयं च तत्र तत्त्वानि लक्षयेत्॥५२॥
त्रयोविंशत्यवादीनि तद्वट्टाद्यक्षराणि च।
पदानि पञ्च मन्त्राश्च षट्पञ्चाशत्पुराणि च॥५३॥
Pṛthagdvayamasaṅkhyātamekamekaṁ pṛthak pṛthak|
Ādyaṁ dhārikayā vyāptaṁ tatraikaṁ tattvamiṣyate||50||
Ekamekaṁ pṛthak kṣārṇaṁ padārṇamanuṣu smaret|
Puraṣoḍaśakaṁ jñeyaṁ ṣaḍvidho'dhvā prakīrtitaḥ|
Āpyāyinyā dvitīyaṁ ca tatra tattvāni lakṣayet||52||
Trayoviṁśatyavādīni tadvaṭṭādyakṣarāṇi ca|
Padāni pañca mantrāśca ṣaṭpañcāśatpurāṇi ca||53||
(Though) the two (eggs called Pṛthivī and Prakṛti) (dvayam) (are) separate (pṛthak), they are not counted (asaṅkhyātam) separately (pṛthak pṛthak), one by one (ekam ekam). The first (egg) --Pṛthivī egg-- (ādyam) is pervaded (vyāptam) by the Dhārikā(kalā) (dhārikayā). In that (egg) (tatra), (only) one (ekam) tattva or category --i.e. tattva or category 36-- (tattvam) is acknowledged (iṣyate) --viz. Pṛthivī or earth, the lowest gross element--. With reference to the (group of) word, letter and mantra (pada-arṇa-manuṣu), one should think of (them) (smaret) separately (pṛthak), one by one (ekam ekam), as being the "kṣa" letter (kṣa-arṇam), (which also takes the form of the 'kṣa' word --pada-- and the 'kṣa' mantra). It should be known (jñeyam) that sixteen worlds (pura-ṣoḍaśakam) —from the world (called) Kālāgni (kālāgni bhuvanāt) up to Vīrabhadra (yāvat vīrabhadrapura-uttamam) (are present in this Pṛthivī egg. This) is said to be (prakīrtitaḥ) the Sixfold Course --or Six Courses-- (ṣaḍvidhaḥ adhvā). The second (egg) --Prakṛti egg-- (dvitīyam ca) (is pervaded) by the Āpyāyinī(kalā) (āpyāyinyā). There --in this egg-- (tatra), one perceives (lakṣayet) twenty-three peaceful tattva-s --categories-- (tattvāni... trayoviṁśati-avādīni), the same number of letters beginning with 'ṭa' --i.e. 23 letters-- (tadvat ṭādi-akṣarāṇi ca), five words, five mantra-s (padāni pañca mantrāḥ) and (ca... ca) fifty-six bhuvana-s or worlds (ṣaṭpañcāśat-purāṇi)||50-53||
It is good to have the Tattvic Chart at hand in order to follow my explanation:
The scope of the Pṛthivī egg is only one tattva: Pṛthivītattva (category 36). It is pervaded by the Dhārikākalā (in my opinion, this is another name for the Nivṛttikalā). Not only there is 1 tattva here but also 1 pada (lit. word), 1 varṇa (lit. letter) and 1 mantra, and all of them are only 'kṣa'. Remember that the total number of pada-s, varṇa-s and mantra-s is 81, 50 and 11, according to Svacchandatantra. According to Mālinīvijayottaratantra, there are then 16 bhuvana-s or worlds (from Kālāgni --the lowest world existing at the end of the fire of time-- up to Vīrabhadra --the highest one in this egg--. According to Svacchandatantra, there are 224 worlds, but according to Mālinīvijayottaratantra (and Abhinavagupta, the great admirer of Mālinīvijayottaratantra), there are 118 worlds. The six realities of kalā, tattva, bhuvana, varṇa, mantra and pada as a whole are the mysterious ṣaḍadhvā (Six Courses).
The scope of the Prakṛti egg is 23 tattva-s: From Āpastattva (category 35) up to Prakṛtitattva (category 13). It is pervaded by the Āpyāyinīkalā (in my opinion, this is another name for the Pratiṣṭhākalā). One perceives here, not only 23 tattva-s but also 23 varṇa-s beginning with 'ṭa', 5 pada-s, 5 mantra-s and 56 bhuvana-s. At the end of the current chapter (chapter 2), I will place a chart summarizing all these important teachings about these four eggs of Brahmā.
तत्त्वानि सप्त बोधिन्या तच्चतुर्धा पुराणि च।
तृतीये सप्त वर्णाः स्युः पदमन्त्रद्वयं द्वयम्॥५४॥
Tattvāni sapta bodhinyā taccaturdhā purāṇi ca|
Tṛtīye sapta varṇāḥ syuḥ padamantradvayaṁ dvayam||54||
In the third (egg) --Māyā egg-- (tṛtīye) (pervaded) by Bodhinī(kalā) (bodhinyā) there are (syuḥ) seven tattva-s or categories (tattvāni sapta) and (ca) twenty-eight --lit. four times that, i.e. four times seven-- worlds (tad-caturdhā purāṇi), (together with) seven letters (sapta varṇāḥ) (plus) two words and two mantra-s --lit. a couple of two-- (pada-mantra-dvayaṁ dvayam)||54||
The scope of the Māyā egg is 7 tattva-s: From Puruṣatattva (category 12) up to Māyātattva (category 6). It is pervaded by the Bodhinīkalā (in my opinion, this is another name for the Vidyākalā). One detects here not only 7 tattva-s but also 28 bhuvana-s, 7 varṇa-s, 2 pada-s and 2 mantra-s.
उत्पूयिन्या चतुर्थं तु तत्र तत्त्वत्रयं विदुः।
वर्णत्रयं मन्त्रमेकं पदमेकं च लक्षयेत्॥५५॥
अष्टादश विजानीयाद्भुवनानि समासतः।
शिवतत्त्वं परं शान्तं कला तत्रावकाशदा॥५६॥
स्वरषोडशकं मन्त्रं पदं चैकं विलक्षयेत्।
इत्येवं षड्विधोऽप्यध्वा समासात्परिकीर्तितः॥५७॥
Utpūyinyā caturthaṁ tu tatra tattvatrayaṁ viduḥ|
Varṇatrayaṁ mantramekaṁ padamekaṁ ca lakṣayet||55||
Aṣṭādaśa vijānīyādbhuvanāni samāsataḥ|
Śivatattvaṁ paraṁ śāntaṁ kalā tatrāvakāśadā||56||
Svaraṣoḍaśakaṁ mantraṁ padaṁ caikaṁ vilakṣayet|
Ityevaṁ ṣaḍvidho'pyadhvā samāsātparikīrtitaḥ||57||
The fourth (egg) --Śakti egg-- (caturtham tu) (is pervaded) by Utpūyinī(kalā) (utpūyinyā). There (tatra), (the sages) observe (viduḥ) a triad of tattva-s or categories (tattva-trayam). (Likewise, there) one perceives (lakṣayet) three letters (varṇa-trayam), one mantra (mantram ekam) and (ca) one word (padam ekam). (In addition,) one notices (there) (vijānīyāt) (the presence of) eighteen (aṣṭādaśa) worlds (bhuvanāni), succinctly speaking (samāsataḥ).
(Finally, beyond all eggs, there is) the Śivatattva --category 1-- (śiva-tattvam), which is supremely peaceful (param śāntam). The Avakāśadākalā (kalā... avakāśadā) (dwells) in Him (tatra). (There) one perceives (vilakṣayet) a group of sixteen vowels (svara-ṣoḍaśakam), one mantra (mantram... ekam) and (ca) one word (padam... ekam).
Thus (iti-evam), the Sixfold Course --or the Six Courses-- (ṣaḍvidhaḥ api adhvā) has been concisely mentioned (samāsāt parikīrtitaḥ)||55-57||
The scope of the Śakti egg is 3 tattva-s: From Sadvidyātattva (category 5) up to Sadāśivatattva (category 3). It is pervaded by the Utpūyinīkalā (in my opinion, this is another name for the Śāntikalā). Here, one observes no only 3 tattva-s but also 3 varṇa-s, 1 mantra, 1 pada and 18 bhuvana-s.
And beyond all the four Brahmā's eggs lies the Great Lord of all which is totally peaceful (not agitated by objectivity, impressions and subjectivity). There is 1 tattva here (because Śaktitattva is only an expansion of Śivatattva and not a real separate tattva). Anyway, in order to study the Supreme Lord and His Supreme Power, both of them are separated to simplify the process of teaching and learning. This Śivatattva is pervaded by the Avakāśadākalā (in my opinion, this is another name for the Śāntyatītākalā). Apart from 1 tattva, one perceives here 16 varṇa-s (16 vowels in this case), 1 mantra and 1 word. There is no bhuvana here.
शुद्धाशुद्धं जगत्सर्वं ब्रह्माण्डप्रभवं यतः।
तस्माच्छुद्धमिमैः शुद्धैर्ब्रह्माण्डैः सर्वमिष्यते॥५८॥
Śuddhāśuddhaṁ jagatsarvaṁ brahmāṇḍaprabhavaṁ yataḥ|
Tasmācchuddhamimaiḥ śuddhairbrahmāṇḍaiḥ sarvamiṣyate||58||
As (yatas) all (sarvam) the pure and impure (śuddha-aśuddham) universe (jagat) originates from the eggs of Brahmā (brahmāṇḍa-prabhavam), therefore (tasmāt) all of it --pure and impure universe-- (sarva) (is) pure (śuddham) (since it) is impelled (iṣyate) by these pure eggs of Brahmā (imaiḥ śuddhaiḥ brahmāṇḍaiḥ)||58||
The pure universe contains the tattva-s 3 to 5, while the rest of tattva-s (from 6 to 36) is the impure universe. Pure and impure here are not moral-related but unity-related. So, pure means 'with unity' while impure means 'without unity'. In the end, since all these four eggs of Brahmā are pure as they consist of the 4 Kalā-s --4 aspects of the Supreme Power of Śiva-- (Śāntikalā, Vidyākalā, Pratiṣṭhākalā and Nivṛttikalā), then even the impure universe is pure as it is impelled (displayed and kept into view) by such eggs.
ब्रह्मा विष्णुश्च रुद्रश्च ईश्वरश्चेति सुव्रते।
पृथगेतेषु बोद्धव्यं शान्तं पतिचतुष्टयम्॥५९॥
Brahmā viṣṇuśca rudraśca īśvaraśceti suvrate|
Pṛthageteṣu boddhavyaṁ śāntaṁ paticatuṣṭayam||59||
Oh virtuous One (suvrate)!, the peaceful group of four lords (śāntam pati-catuṣṭayam) (residing) in these eggs separately (pṛthak eteṣu) —viz. 'Brahmā (brahmā), Viṣṇu (viṣṇuḥ), Rudra (rudraḥ) and (ca... ca... ca iti) Īśvara (īśvaraḥ)— should be known (boddhavyam)||59||
Four lords are the rulers of these eggs. The Pṛthivī egg is ruled by Brahmā, the Prakṛti egg is ruled by Viṣṇu, the Māyā egg is ruled by Rudra and the Śakti egg is ruled by Īśvara. These four lords are mentioned and briefly explained by Abhinavagupta in the sixth chapter of his Tantrasāra.
यो हि यस्माद्गुणोत्कृष्टः स तस्मादूर्ध्व उच्यते।
एतत्ते कथितं सर्वं किमन्यत्परिपृच्छसि॥६०॥
Yo hi yasmādguṇotkṛṣṭaḥ sa tasmādūrdhva ucyate|
Etatte kathitaṁ sarvaṁ kimanyatparipṛcchasi||60||
A lord (in the aforesaid group of four) --lit. he-- (saḥ) is said to be (ucyate) above another lord --lit. above him-- (tasmāt ūrdhvaḥ) who (yaḥ) is superior in good qualities with regard to that lord --lit. is superior in good qualities with regard to whom-- (yasmāt guṇa-utkṛṣṭaḥ). All (sarvam) this (etad) has been spoken (kathitam) to You (te) --i.e. I have said to You all this which is so important--. What other thing (kim anyat) do you (want to) ask about (paripṛcchasi)?||60||
इति श्रीमालिनीविजयोत्तरे तन्त्रे व्याप्त्यधिकारो द्वितीयः॥२॥
Iti śrīmālinīvijayottare tantre vyāptyadhikāro dvitīyaḥ||2||
Here ends (iti) the second chapter dealing with 'pervasion' (vyāpti-adhikāraḥ dvitīyaḥ) in venerable Mālinīvijayottaratantra (śrī-mālinī-vijaya-uttare)||2||
Viṣṇu is superior to Brahmā, Rudra is superior to Viṣṇu and Īśvara is superior to Rudra, by following the rule that 'the higher the more superior'. Now a chart showing synthetically the teaching about the eggs of Brahmā (though Viṣṇu, Rudra and Īśvara are the presiding deities of the three last eggs, all these four eggs are collectively called 'eggs of Brahmā'):
|Nº||NAME OF EACH EGG PLUS THE ŚIVATATTVA||ITS TATTVIC SCOPE||RULING LORD||NUMBER
|NAME OF THE RESPECTIVE KALĀ||NUMBER
|From Āpastattva (category 35) up to Prakṛtitattva (category 13)||Viṣṇu||23||5||5||Āpyāyinīkalā
|From Puruṣatattva (category 12) up to Māyātattva (category 6)||Rudra||7||2||2||Bodhinīkalā
|From Sadvidyātattva (category 5) up to Sadāśivatattva (category 3)||Īśvara||3||1||1||Utpūyinīkalā
(which includes the category 2 too)
|Totals according to Mālinīvijayottaratantra||50||10||10||—||35||118|
|Totals according to Svacchandatantra||50||11||81||—||36||224|
After this synthetic chart, the things look much clearer for sure.
And in this way ends the second chapter dealing with 'vyāpti' or 'pervasion' in Mālinīvijayottaratantra. May there be welfare for all the real devotees of the Great Śiva!
This document was conceived by Gabriel Pradīpaka, one of the two founders of this site, and spiritual guru conversant with Sanskrit language and Trika philosophy.
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