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Paramārthasāra (Парамартхасара) Абхинавагупты: Строфы 59-62. Недвойственный Кашмирский Шиваизм

Стандартный перевод


 Introduction

Paramārthasāra continues with four more stanzas. This is the fifteenth set of stanzas, which is composed of 4 out of the 105 stanzas constituting the entire work.

Of course, I will also insert the original stanzas on which Yogarāja is commenting. I will write a lot of notes to make this book so understandable to the average reader as possible.

Yogarāja's Sanskrit will be in dark green color while the original Abhinavagupta's stanzas will be shown in dark red color. In turn, within the transliteration, the original stanzas will be in brown color, while the Yogarāja's comments will be shown in black. Also, within the translation, the original stanzas by Abhinavagupta, i.e. Paramārthasāra, will be in green and black colors, while the commentary by Yogarāja will contain words in both black and red colors.

Read Paramārthasāra and experience Supreme Ānanda or Divine Bliss, dear Śiva.

Important: All that is in brackets and italicized within the translation has been added by me in order to complete the sense of a particular phrase or sentence. In turn, all that is between double hyphen (--...--) constitutes clarifying further information also added by me.

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 Stanza 59

नापि स्वात्ममहेश्वरस्वरूपपरिशीलनदार्ढ्यादस्य ज्ञानिनश्चेतस्यपूर्णत्वादिदोषः स्यादिति प्रतिपादयति


अतिगूढहृदयगञ्जप्ररूढपरमार्थरत्नसञ्चयतः।
अहमेवेति महेश्वरभावे का दुर्गतिः कस्य॥५९॥


अतिगूढमतिशयेन गुप्तं हृदयमेव गञ्जं सर्वपरमार्थस्वस्वरूपविश्रान्तिस्थानस्वभावं भाण्डागारं तत्र योऽतितीव्रतमसमाश्वासप्ररूढः परमार्थः सद्गुरूपदिष्टः स्वात्मज्ञानसतत्त्वः स एव सर्वविभूतिहेतुत्वाद्रत्नसञ्चय इव रत्नसञ्चयस्तेन हेतुना अहमेवेति सर्वमिदमस्मीति य आविर्भूतः पूर्णः पराहन्ताविश्रान्तिलक्षणो महेश्वरभावः शरीरिणोऽपि स्वात्मप्रकाशस्वातन्त्र्यं तस्मिन्स्थिते सति का नाम वराकी दुर्गतिर्दरिद्रभावस्तदुपलक्षितो वा कश्चित्कृत्रिमो विभूत्याद्यतिशयः स्यात्। आभाससारा हि सर्वे पदार्था यदैवाभासन्ते तदैव योगिनः स्वात्मकल्पाः सन्तः कथमुत्कर्षापकर्षादौ प्रगल्भन्ते — इति न किञ्चिद्दौर्गत्यादिकं भवेत्। कस्य वेति को वास्या दुर्गतेः समाश्रयो देहाद्यात्माभिमानिनो ह्यस्या दुर्गतेः समाश्रया भवन्तु यतस्ते व्यतिरिक्तस्यैषणीयस्य प्राप्त्येश्वरास्तदपहाराद्रिक्ताः — इति। यः पुनरकृत्रिमाहन्ताप्रत्यवमर्शपरमार्थो ज्ञानी सर्वमस्मीत्यव्यतिरिक्तेनैषणीयेन महेश्वरः स कथं व्यतिरिक्तप्राप्त्यप्राप्त्यभावाद्दौर्गत्यादेर्भाजनं स्यादत एव गञ्जशब्दस्य रत्नसञ्चयशब्दस्येश्वरशब्दस्य च हृदयप्ररूढपरमार्थो महान् — इत्यकृत्रिमार्थवाचकानि विशेषणान्युपपादितानि॥५९॥

Nāpi svātmamaheśvarasvarūpapariśīlanadārḍhyādasya jñāninaścetasyapūrṇatvādidoṣaḥ syāditi pratipādayati


Atigūḍhahṛdayagañjaprarūḍhaparamārtharatnasañcayataḥ|
Ahameveti maheśvarabhāve kā durgatiḥ kasya||59||


Atigūḍhamatiśayena guptaṁ hṛdayameva gañjaṁ sarvaparamārthasvasvarūpaviśrāntisthānasvabhāvaṁ bhāṇḍāgāraṁ tatra yo'titīvratamasamāśvāsaprarūḍhaḥ paramārthaḥ sadgurūpadiṣṭaḥ svātmajñānasatattvaḥ sa eva sarvavibhūtihetutvādratnasañcaya iva ratnasañcayastena hetunā ahameveti sarvamidamasmīti ya āvirbhūtaḥ pūrṇaḥ parāhantāviśrāntilakṣaṇo maheśvarabhāvaḥ śarīriṇo'pi svātmaprakāśasvātantryaṁ tasminsthite sati kā nāma varākī durgatirdaridrabhāvastadupalakṣito vā kaścitkṛtrimo vibhūtyādyatiśayaḥ syāt| Ābhāsasārā hi sarve padārthā yadaivābhāsante tadaiva yoginaḥ svātmakalpāḥ santaḥ kathamutkarṣāpakarṣādau pragalbhante — Iti na kiñciddaurgatyādikaṁ bhavet| Kasya veti ko vāsyā durgateḥ samāśrayo dehādyātmābhimānino hyasyā durgateḥ samāśrayā bhavantu yataste vyatiriktasyaiṣaṇīyasya prāptyeśvarāstadapahārādriktāḥ — Iti| Yaḥ punarakṛtrimāhantāpratyavamarśaparamārtho jñānī sarvamasmītyavyatiriktenaiṣaṇīyena maheśvaraḥ sa kathaṁ vyatiriktaprāptyaprāptyabhāvāddaurgatyāderbhājanaṁ syādata eva gañjaśabdasya ratnasañcayaśabdasyeśvaraśabdasya ca hṛdayaprarūḍhaparamārtho mahān — Ityakṛtrimārthavācakāni viśeṣaṇānyupapāditāni||59||

Nor (na api) is there (syāt) any fault or deficiency (doṣaḥ) (such as) lack of Fullness --imperfection-- (apūrṇatva), etc. (ādi) in the mind (cetasi) of this (asya) knower of the Self (jñāninaḥ) due to firmness or strength (dārḍhyāt) of the contact (pariśīlana) with the essential nature (sva-rūpa) of the Great Lord (mahā-īśvara) who is his own (sva) Self (ātma). (Abhinavagupta) explains (pratipādayati) so (iti) (in the stanza 59:)


In the State (bhāve) of the Great (mahā) Lord (īśvara) (in the form of) "I" (aham eva iti), acquired by the collection (sañcayataḥ) of gems (ratna) (known as) the Highest Truth (parama-artha) arisen from (prarūḍha) the well hidden (ati-gūḍha) treasury --jewel room-- (gañja) of the Heart --Consciousness in Absolute Freedom-- (hṛdaya), what (kā) poverty (durgatiḥ) (could there be?, and even if there was such a poverty,) whose (kasya) (would it be)?||59||


(The portion "hṛdayagañja" of the initial compound means) the "gañja" (gañja) (known as) the Heart (hṛdayam eva), i.e. the treasury --jewel room-- (bhāṇḍāgāram) that is (sva-bhāvam) the resting-place (viśrānti-sthāna) of All (sarva) on His (sva) essential nature (sva-rūpa) which is the Highest (parama) Reality (artha). (And by "atigūḍha", Abhinavagupta meant that this treasury called the Heart is) very well (ati) hidden (gūḍha), viz. very (atiśayena) protected (guptam). That (saḥ eva) which (yaḥ) (is) "Paramārtha" or the Highest Truth (parama-arthaḥ) arisen from (prarūḍhaḥ) the highest degree (ati-tīvratama) of confidence (samāśvāsa) in It --i.e. in the well hidden treasury known as the Heart-- (tatra) (and) whose real nature (satattvaḥ) is Knowledge (jñāna) of one's own (sva) Self (ātma) as taught (upadiṣṭaḥ) by the genuine (sat) Guru (guru), (is) "ratnasañcaya" (ratna-sañcayaḥ) (or) like (iva) a collection (sañcayaḥ) of gems (ratna) since it is the cause (hetutvāt) of all (sarva) powers (vibhūti). Because of that (collection of gems) (tena hetunā), the State (bhāvaḥ) of the Great Lord (mahā-īśvara), which --the State-- (yaḥ) is Full (pūrṇaḥ) (and) characterized by (lakṣaṇaḥ) a repose (viśrānti) on the Highest (parā) I-consciousness (ahantā), becomes manifest (āvirbhūtaḥ) (in the form of) "I" (aham eva iti), i.e. "I am (asmi) all (sarvam) this (idam... iti)". (When that happens, there is) Svātantrya or Absolute Freedom (svātantryam) of the Light (prakāśa) of one's own (sva) Self (ātma) even (api) in the case of an embodied being (śarīriṇaḥ). When (such an embodied being) remains (sthite sati) in that (State) (tasmin), then what (kā nāma) miserable (varākī) "durgati" (durgatiḥ) —poverty (daridra-bhāvaḥ)(would befall him)?, or (vā) (how) could there be (syāt) some (kaścid) artificial (kṛtrimaḥ) preeminence or superiority (atiśayaḥ) regarding powers (vibhūti), etc. (ādi) being perceived (upalakṣita) by him (tad)? --such a liberated person cannot perceive anyone being superior to him because he has realized the Ultimate Reality, this is the sense--.

Because (hi) when (yadā eva) all (sarve) the objects (padārthāḥ) look like (ābhāsante) having (His) Light (ābhāsa) for their quintessence (sārāḥ), then (tadā eva), they being (santaḥ) equal to (kalpāḥ) his own (sva) Self (ātma) in the case of the Yogī (yoginaḥ), how (katham) are (those objects) capable of (pragalbhante) (producing his) elevation (utkarṣa), (his) decay (apakarṣa) and so forth (ādau)? Thus (iti), nothing (na kiñcid) becomes (bhavet) poverty (daurgatya), etc. (ādikam) (in his case).

"Whose (would it) possibly (be) (kasya vā iti)?", i.e. who (is) possibly (kaḥ vā) (going to be) the place of refuge (samāśrayaḥ) of this poverty (asyāḥ durgateḥ)? (Let) the ones who indeed think (abhimāninaḥ) that the body (deha), etc. (ādi) is the Self (ātma) become (bhavantu) places of refuge (samāśrayāḥ) of this poverty (asyāḥ durgateḥ)! Because (yatas) they (te) (feel like) lords (īśvarāḥ) in their obtaining (prāptyā) what is desirable (eṣaṇīyasya) (but looks like) separate (from themselves) (vyatiriktasya) --viz. mere objects of desire to be sought in duality-- (and they feel) void (riktāḥ) when (those objects of desire) are stolen (from them) (apahārāt... iti). Nonetheless (punar), the knower of the Self (jñānī) who (yaḥ) has realized the Highest Truth (parama-arthaḥ) by a recognition (pratyavamarśa) of the natural (akṛtrima) I-consciousness (ahantā) (feels that he is) the Great Lord (mahā-īśvaraḥ) (appearing) as what is desirable --as objects of desire-- (eṣaṇīyena) (but these are) not separate (from him) (avyatiriktena). (His experience is then:) "I am (asmi) all (sarvam... iti)". (This being so,) how (katham), in the absence of (abhāvāt) obtaining (prāpti) (and) not obtaining (aprāpti) separate objects of desire (vyatirikta), could he be (saḥ... syāt) a receptacle (bhājanam) of poverty, etc. (daurgatya-ādeḥ)? For this very reason (atas eva), in the case of the word(s) (śabdasya... śabdasya... śabdasya) "treasury" --jewel room-- (gañja), "collection of gems" (ratna-sañcaya) and (ca) "Lord" (īśvara), they have been proved to act (upapāditāni) as "viśeṣaṇa-s" or "differencers" --words which particularize or define other words-- (viśeṣaṇāni) that denote (vācakāni) the Natural (akṛtrima) Artha --Truth, Reality, Goal, Wealth-- (artha) (appearing in the form of) "the Great (mahān) Paramārtha --the Highest Truth-- (parama-arthaḥ) arisen from (prarūḍha) the Heart (hṛdaya... iti)"||59||


Without notes of explanation yet

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 Stanza 60

इदानीं मोक्षस्वरूपमाह


मोक्षस्य नैव किञ्चिद्धामास्ति न चापि गमनमन्यत्र।
अज्ञानग्रन्थिभिदा स्वशक्त्यभिव्यक्तता मोक्षः॥६०॥


मोक्षस्य पराहन्ताचमत्कारसारस्य कैवल्यस्य धाम व्यतिरिक्तं स्थानं न विद्यत एव देशकालाकारावच्छेदाभावादत एव न चाप्यन्यत्र कुत्रचिद्व्यतिरिक्ते गमनं लयो मोक्षो यथा भेदवादिनां मतेनोत्क्रान्त्या चक्राधारादिभेदनादूर्ध्वं द्वादशान्ते लयः — एषैव मुक्तिः — इति। यदुक्तम्

व्यापिन्यां शिवसत्तायामुत्क्रान्त्या किं प्रयोजनम्।
अव्यापिनि परे तत्त्वे ह्युत्क्रान्त्या किं प्रयोजनम्॥

इति। एवंविधा अप्यन्ये तीर्थान्तरपरिकल्पिता बहवो मोक्षभेदाः सन्ति ते प्रतन्यमाना ग्रन्थगौरवभयमानयन्ति — इति नेह प्रतन्यन्ते — इति सर्वत्र द्वैतमलस्य सम्भवादमोक्षे मोक्षलिप्सा मोक्षाभास एव। किं पुनर्मोक्षलक्षणम् — इत्याह अज्ञान इत्यादि। अज्ञानमख्यातिजनित आत्मन्यनात्माभिमानपूर्वोऽनात्मनि देहादावात्माभिमानलक्षणो मोहः स एव पूर्णस्वरूपसङ्कोचदायित्वाद्ग्रन्थिरिव ग्रन्थिः स्वस्वातन्त्र्यलक्षणस्य निजस्य व्यापित्वादेर्देहाद्यभिमानतया बन्धस्तस्य भिद्भेदनं निजपूर्णस्वात्मस्वातन्त्र्यपरिशीलनदार्ढ्याद्देहाद्यभिमानलक्षणस्य ग्रन्थेर्विदारणं तेन हेतुना स्वशक्तिभिः स्वात्मस्वातन्त्र्यलक्षणैर्धर्मैरभिव्यक्तता स्वात्मशक्तिविकस्वरतैष एव निरतिशयो मोक्ष इति। अयमाशयः — यथा सहजनित्यव्यापकत्वादिधर्मयुक्तमाकाशमपि घटादिभित्तिबन्धसङ्कुचितं तत एव तदेवाव्यापकत्वादिधर्मयुक्तं घटाकाशम् — इत्युच्यत आकाशाद्भिन्नमिव प्रथते पुनरपि घटादिभित्तिकृतसङ्कोचभङ्गात्तदेव घटाद्याकाशं तदैव व्यापकत्वादिधर्मयुक्तं स्यान्न पुनस्तस्य घटादिभङ्गान्नूतनः कश्चिद्धर्माविर्भाव आयाति — इति। तथैव देहाद्यभिमानकृतसङ्कोचसङ्कुचितं चैतन्यं बद्धमिव — इत्युच्यते तदेव पुनः स्वस्वरूपज्ञानाभिव्यक्तेर्देहादिप्रमातृताबन्धसङ्क्षयात्स्वशक्तिविवेकविकस्वरं मुक्तमिव — इत्यभिमानमात्रसारौ परिमितप्रमात्रपेक्षया बन्धमोक्षौ न पुनः परमार्थे संवित्तत्त्व एवं किञ्चित्सम्भवति — इति। तस्मान्मुक्तौ नूतनं न किञ्चित्साध्यते निजमेव स्वरूपं प्रथते। एतदेव विष्णुधर्मेष्वप्युक्तम्

यथोदपानकरणात्क्रियते न जलाम्बरम्।
सदेव नीयते व्यक्तिमसतः सम्भवः कुतः॥
भिन्ने दृतौ यथा वायुर्नैवान्यः सह वायुना।
क्षीणपुण्याघबन्धस्तु तथात्मा ब्रह्मणा सह॥

इति॥६०॥

Idānīṁ mokṣasvarūpamāha


Mokṣasya naiva kiñciddhāmāsti na cāpi gamanamanyatra|
Ajñānagranthibhidā svaśaktyabhivyaktatā mokṣaḥ||60||


Mokṣasya parāhantācamatkārasārasya kaivalyasya dhāma vyatiriktaṁ sthānaṁ na vidyata eva deśakālākārāvacchedābhāvādata eva na cāpyanyatra kutracidvyatirikte gamanaṁ layo mokṣo yathā bhedavādināṁ matenotkrāntyā cakrādhārādibhedanādūrdhvaṁ dvādaśānte layaḥ — Eṣaiva muktiḥ — Iti| Yaduktam

Vyāpinyāṁ śivasattāyāmutkrāntyā kiṁ prayojanam|
Avyāpini pare tattve hyutkrāntyā kiṁ prayojanam||

Iti| Evaṁvidhā apyanye tīrthāntaraparikalpitā bahavo mokṣabhedāḥ santi te pratanyamānā granthagauravabhayamānayanti — Iti neha pratanyante — Iti sarvatra dvaitamalasya sambhavādamokṣe mokṣalipsā mokṣābhāsa eva| Kiṁ punarmokṣalakṣaṇam — Ityāha ajñāna ityādi| Ajñānamakhyātijanita ātmanyanātmābhimānapūrvo'nātmani dehādāvātmābhimānalakṣaṇo mohaḥ sa eva pūrṇasvarūpasaṅkocadāyitvādgranthiriva granthiḥ svasvātantryalakṣaṇasya nijasya vyāpitvāderdehādyabhimānatayā bandhastasya bhidbhedanaṁ nijapūrṇasvātmasvātantryapariśīlanadārḍhyāddehādyabhimānalakṣaṇasya granthervidāraṇaṁ tena hetunā svaśaktibhiḥ svātmasvātantryalakṣaṇairdharmairabhivyaktatā svātmaśaktivikasvarataiṣa eva niratiśayo mokṣa iti| Ayamāśayaḥ — Yathā sahajanityavyāpakatvādidharmayuktamākāśamapi ghaṭādibhittibandhasaṅkucitaṁ tata eva tadevāvyāpakatvādidharmayuktaṁ ghaṭākāśam — Ityucyata ākāśādbhinnamiva prathate punarapi ghaṭādibhittikṛtasaṅkocabhaṅgāttadeva ghaṭādyākāśaṁ tadaiva vyāpakatvādidharmayuktaṁ syānna punastasya ghaṭādibhaṅgānnūtanaḥ kaściddharmāvirbhāva āyāti — Iti| Tathaiva dehādyabhimānakṛtasaṅkocasaṅkucitaṁ caitanyaṁ baddhamiva — Ityucyate tadeva punaḥ svasvarūpajñānābhivyakterdehādipramātṛtābandhasaṅkṣayātsvaśaktivivekavikasvaraṁ muktamiva — Ityabhimānamātrasārau parimitapramātrapekṣayā bandhamokṣau na punaḥ paramārthe saṁvittattva evaṁ kiñcitsambhavati — Iti| Tasmānmuktau nūtanaṁ na kiñcitsādhyate nijameva svarūpaṁ prathate| Etadeva viṣṇudharmeṣvapyuktam

Yathodapānakaraṇātkriyate na jalāmbaram|
Sadeva nīyate vyaktimasataḥ sambhavaḥ kutaḥ||
Bhinne dṛtau yathā vāyurnaivānyaḥ saha vāyunā|
Kṣīṇapuṇyāghabandhastu tathātmā brahmaṇā saha||

Iti||60||

Now (idānīm) (Abhinavagupta) described (āha) the nature (sva-rūpam) of Liberation (mokṣa):


In the case of Liberation (mokṣasya), there is neither (na eva kiñcid asti) an abode (dhāma) nor (na ca api) a going (gamanam) to another place (anyatra). Liberation (mokṣaḥ) (is simply) the manifestation (abhivyaktatā) of one's own (sva) Powers (śakti) by the piercing (bhidā) of the knot (granthi) of ignorance (ajñāna)||60||


In the case of Liberation (mokṣasya), i.e. Kaivalya --lit. Isolation-- (kaivalyasya) whose essence (sārasya) is a Delight (camatkāra) in the Supreme (parā) I-consciousness (ahantā), there is no (na vidyate eva) abode (dhāma) (or) separate (vyatiriktam) place (sthānam) due to the absence (abhāvāt) of delimitation (avaccheda) by space (deśa), time (kāla) (and) form (ākāra). For this very reason (atas eva), Liberation (mokṣaḥ) is not (na api) a going (gamanam) to another place whatsoever (anyatra kutracid), i.e. (it is not) dissolution (layaḥ) in something that is separate (from oneself) (vyatirikte) as, for instance (yathā), according to the belief (matena) of the ones following dualistic doctrines (bheda-vādinām), Liberation (muktiḥ) (would be) certainly (eva) this (eṣā): "A dissolution (layaḥ) in the ūrdhvadvādaśānta --higher dvādaśānta-- (ūrdhvam dvādaśānte), passing beyond (the body) (utkrāntyā) after having pierced (bhedanāt) cakra-s (cakra), ādhāra-s (ādhāra), etc. (ādi.. iti)".

As has been said (yad uktam):

"If the Being of Śiva is all-pervasive (vyāpinyām śiva-sattāyām), what (kim) (is) the use (prayojanam) of passing beyond (the body) (utkrāntyā)? If the Supreme Principle is not all-pervasive (avyāpini pare tattve hi), what (kim) (is) the use (prayojanam) of passing beyond (the body) (utkrāntyā... iti)?".

Even (api) many (bahavaḥ) other (anye) such (evaṁvidhāḥ) varieties (bhedāḥ) of Liberation (mokṣa) invented (parikalpitāḥ) by other (antara) philosophical systems (tīrtha) do exist (santi), (but) they (te), being very extensive (pratanyamānāḥ), imply the danger of (bhayam ānayanti iti) (producing) a voluminous (gaurava) book (grantha) --a book with heaviness in argumentation--. (Therefore,) they are not displayed (na... pratanyante) here (iha). Thus (iti), in a state of non-Liberation (amokṣe) because of the existence (sambhavāt) everywhere (sarvatra) of the impurity (malasya) (known as) duality (dvaita), the desire of gaining (lipsā) Liberation (mokṣa) (is) only (eva) mere semblance (ābhāsaḥ) of Liberation (mokṣa).

"What then (kim punar) (is) the characteristic (lakṣaṇam) of Liberation (mokṣa... iti)?" (Abhinavagupta) said (in the final portion of the stanza) (āha): "Ajñāna" (ajñāna), etc. (iti-ādi).

"Ajñāna" (ajñānam) (is) the Delusion (mohaḥ) begotten (janitaḥ) by the primordial ignorance --Āṇavamala-- (akhyāti) whose mark --of such a Delusion-- (lakṣaṇaḥ) is the erroneous conception (abhimāna) that the not Self (anātmani) —body, etc. (deha-ādau)— is the Self (ātma) --this is Bauddhājñāna or intellectual ignorance--, which is preceded by (pūrvaḥ) the erroneous conception (abhimāna) that the Self (ātmani) is the not Self (anātma) --this is Pauruṣājñāna or ignorance about the Self--. That very (ajñāna or ignorance) (saḥ eva) (is) "granthi" (granthiḥ) (or) like (iva) a knot (granthiḥ) since it confers (dāyitvāt) limitation (saṅkoca) as regards the Full essential nature --one's own Self who is Full and Perfect-- (pūrṇa-svarūpa), i.e. (it is) bondage (bandhaḥ) appearing as the false conception (abhimānatayā) of being the body (deha) and so on (ādi) in the case of the all-pervasiveness, etc. (vyāpitva-ādeḥ) of one's own Self (nijasya) characterized by (lakṣaṇasya) His (sva) Absolute Freedom (svātantrya). The "bhid" (bhit) (or) piercing (bhedanam) of that (knot) (tasya) —carried out by firmly becoming aware of --lit. by firmness or strength of contact-- (pariśīlana-dārḍhyāt) Absolute Freedom (svātantrya) of one's own Self (sva-ātma) who is innately (nija) Full (pūrṇa)(is) the breaking (vidāraṇam) of the knot (grantheḥ) marked by (lakṣaṇasya) the erroneous conception (abhimāna) of being the body (deha), etc. (ādi). On that account (tena hetunā), the expansion (vikasvaratā) of the Powers (śakti) of one's own Self (sva-ātma) (is) the manifestation (of such Powers) (abhivyaktatā) by (these very) Powers (śaktibhiḥ) belonging to oneself (sva), which have the dharma or quality (lakṣaṇaiḥ dharmaiḥ) (known as) Absolute Freedom (svātantrya) of one's own Self (sva-ātma). Only (eva) this (eṣaḥ) (is) unsurpassed (niratiśayaḥ) Liberation (mokṣaḥ... iti).

This (ayam) (is) the sense (āśayaḥ) (in the previous definition of Liberation): Just as (yathā) even (api) the ether --space-- (ākāśam), (which is) endowed with (yuktam) (such) qualities (dharma) (as) being natural (sahaja), (being) eternal (nitya), all-pervasiveness (vyāpakatva), etc. (ādi), when limited (saṅkucitam) by something binding (it) (bandha), (e.g.) the walls (bhitti) of a pot (ghaṭa), etc. (ādi), is then said to be (tatas eva tad eva... ucyate) "the ether or space (ākāśam) in a pot (ghaṭa... iti)", which is possessed of (yuktam) (such) qualities (dharma) (as) not being all-pervasive (avyāpakatva), etc. (ādi) (and) appears (prathate) as if (iva) (it was) different and separate (bhinnam) from the ether or space (outside that pot) (ākāśāt)(and,) from the interruption (bhaṅgāt) of the limitation (saṅkoca) brought about (kṛta) by the walls (bhitti) of the pot (ghaṭa) and so forth (ādi), that very (tad eva) ether or space (ākāśam) in the pot (ghaṭa), etc. (ādi) is (syāt) again (punar api) then (tadā eva) furnished with (yuktam) (such) qualities (dharma) (as) all-pervasiveness (vyāpakatva), etc. (ādi)... however (punar), from the breaking (bhaṅgāt) of the pot (ghaṭa), etc. (ādi), some (kaścid) new (nūtanaḥ) manifestation (āvirbhāvaḥ) of qualities (dharma) does not (na) come (āyāti) to it --to the ether or space-- (tasya... iti)—; in the same way (tathā eva), Consciousness in Absolute Freedom (caitanyam) is said to be (ucyate) "bound (baddham iva... iti)" when It is contracted (saṅkucita) by the limitation (saṅkoca) produced (kṛta) by the erroneous conception (abhimāna) of being the body (deha) and so on (ādi). But (punar) that very (Consciousness in Absolute Freedom) (tad eva) (appears) to be liberated (muktam iva) when It is expanded (vikasvara) through the discernment or discrimination (viveka) of one's own (sva) Powers (śakti) due to the manifestation (abhivyakteḥ) of Knowledge (jñāna) of Its own (sva) essential nature (sva-rūpa) on the complete destruction (saṅkṣayāt) of bondage (bandha) (in the form of) subjectivity (pramātṛtā) based on the body (deha), etc. (ādi). Thus (iti), bondage and Liberation (bandha-mokṣau) with reference to (apekṣayā) the limited (parimita) individual (pramātṛ) chiefly consist of (sārau) only (mātra) false conceptions (abhimāna). Nevertheless (punar), "nothing of that sort --bondage or Liberation-- (na... evam kiñcid) happens to (sambhavati) the Highest Reality (parama-arthe) whose essence is Pure Consciousness (saṁvid-tattvaḥ... iti)".

Therefore (tasmāt), nothing (na kiñcid) new (nūtanam) is accomplished or conquered (sādhyate) in Liberation (muktau), one's own (nijam) essential nature (sva-rūpam) just (eva) appears (prathate).

This very (truth) (tad eva) is also declared (api uktam) in the verses of Viṣṇudharmapurāṇa (viṣṇu-dharmeṣu):

"Just as (yathā) by the act of making (karaṇāt) a well (udapāna) the ether or space (ambaram) (which contains the) water (jala) is not made (kriyate). Only (eva) something that really exists (sat) is led to (nīyate) (its) manifestation (vyaktim), (because) how (kutas) (might there be) manifestation (sambhavaḥ) (arising) from what is not real (asataḥ)?

Just as (yathā) when a pair of bellows (dṛtau) gets broken (bhinne) the air (inside it) (vāyuḥ) does not (na eva) (become) another (air) (anyaḥ) (but it rather becomes one) with (saha) (the rest of the) air (vāyunā), similarly (tathā) the self (ātmā) in whom bondage (bandhaḥ) (as regards) what is virtuous (puṇya) (and) sinful (agha) has been certainly destroyed (kṣīṇa... iti) (becomes one) with (saha) Brahma (brahmaṇā)".

||60||


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 Stanza 61

एवं प्रक्षीणाज्ञानबन्धो ज्ञानी परानुग्रहार्थं शरीरमपि धारयन्मुक्तः — इत्यावेदयति


भिन्नाज्ञानग्रन्थिर्गतसन्देहः पराकृतभ्रान्तिः।
प्रक्षीणपुण्यपापो विग्रहयोगेऽप्यसौ मुक्तः॥६१॥


शरीरसम्बन्धेऽपि स्वात्मज्ञानविच्छरीराद्यभिमानाभावाज्जीवन्नपि मुक्तो विकस्वरशक्तिर्भवेत्। ननु विग्रहयोग एव बन्धः कथं तत्सम्बन्धेऽप्यसौ मुक्तः स्यात् — इत्याह भिन्न इत्यादि। भिन्नो विदारितोऽज्ञानरूपो ग्रन्थिरपूर्णत्वख्यातिसमुत्थो देहाद्यभिमानरूपो बन्धो येन स एवम्। तथा गतसन्देह इत्यत एव नष्टसंशयः। पराकृता न्यक्कृता परमाद्वयज्ञानलाभाद्भ्रान्तिर्द्वयरूपो भ्रमो येन स तथा — इति। एवं परिशीलनेन प्रक्षीणानि पुण्यापुण्यानि विगलितसंस्काराणि देहात्ममानित्वाभावाद्धर्माधर्माणि यस्य स एवंविधः — इति। अनेनाज्ञानमेव बन्ध इति प्रतिपादितम्। तच्च विग्रहयोगेऽपि यस्य प्रक्षीणं स तदैव जीवन्नेव मुक्तो न पुनः शरीरयोगो बन्धस्तदपगमो मुक्तिः — इति किं तु देहपातात्पूर्णो मोक्ष इति॥६१॥

Evaṁ prakṣīṇājñānabandho jñānī parānugrahārthaṁ śarīramapi dhārayanmuktaḥ — Ityāvedayati


Bhinnājñānagranthirgatasandehaḥ parākṛtabhrāntiḥ|
Prakṣīṇapuṇyapāpo vigrahayoge'pyasau muktaḥ||61||


Śarīrasambandhe'pi svātmajñānaviccharīrādyabhimānābhāvājjīvannapi mukto vikasvaraśaktirbhavet| Nanu vigrahayoga eva bandhaḥ kathaṁ tatsambandhe'pyasau muktaḥ syāt — Ityāha bhinna ityādi| Bhinno vidārito'jñānarūpo granthirapūrṇatvakhyātisamuttho dehādyabhimānarūpo bandho yena sa evam| Tathā gatasandeha ityata eva naṣṭasaṁśayaḥ| Parākṛtā nyakkṛtā paramādvayajñānalābhādbhrāntirdvayarūpo bhramo yena sa tathā — Iti| Evaṁ pariśīlanena prakṣīṇāni puṇyāpuṇyāni vigalitasaṁskārāṇi dehātmamānitvābhāvāddharmādharmāṇi yasya sa evaṁvidhaḥ — Iti| Anenājñānameva bandha iti pratipāditam| Tacca vigrahayoge'pi yasya prakṣīṇaṁ sa tadaiva jīvanneva mukto na punaḥ śarīrayogo bandhastadapagamo muktiḥ — Iti kiṁ tu dehapātātpūrṇo mokṣa iti||61||

In this manner (evam), the knower of the Self (jñānī) in whom bondage (bandhaḥ) of ignorance (ajñāna) has been annihilated (prakṣīṇa), though (api) he is liberated (muktaḥ), retains (dhārayan) a physical body (śarīram) for (bestowing) (artham) Grace (anugraha) on others (para). This is what (Abhinavagupta) makes known (by the stanza 61) (iti āvedayati):


He (asau) who has pierced the knot of ignorance (bhinna-ajñāna-granthiḥ), whose doubts (sandehaḥ) are gone (gata), in whom confusion (bhrāntiḥ) is disregarded (parākṛta) (and) for whom virtue (puṇya) (and) sin (pāpaḥ) have vanished (prakṣīṇa), (is) a liberated one (muktaḥ) although (api) (he is) in connection (yoge) with the physical body --the individual form-- (vigraha)||61||


The one who possesses Knowledge (jñāna-vit) about his own (sva) Self (ātma), although (api) (he is) in connection (sambandhe) with the physical body (śarīra), (is) a liberated (muktaḥ) even (api) while he is (still) alive (jīvan) due to the absence (in him) (abhāvāt) of the erroneous conceptions (abhimāna) about the physical body (śarīra) and so on (ādi), i.e. he is (bhavet) one whose Powers (śaktiḥ) are expanded (vikasvara).

An objection (nanu): "The connection (yogaḥ) with the body --the individual form-- (vigraha) (is) certainly (eva) bondage (bandhaḥ). How (katham) is (syāt) he (asau) liberated (muktaḥ) even (api) while he remains connected (sambandhe) with that (body) (tad... iti)?" (To answer such a question, Abhinavagupta) said (āha) "Bhinna" (bhinna), etc. (iti-ādi). (In his case,) the knot (granthiḥ) consisting of (rūpaḥ) ignorance (ajñāna) —viz. bondage (bandhaḥ) based on (rūpaḥ) the erroneous conception (abhimāna) of being the body (deha), etc. (ādi) (and) derived from (samutthaḥ) the absence of knowledge (a... khyāti) about (one's own) Fullness (pūrṇatva)— has been pierced (bhinnaḥ) (or) broken open (vidāritaḥ). As a result (yena), he (saḥ) (is) so (evam) --i.e. he is a liberated one--.

In the same way (tathā), he is "one whose doubts are gone" (gata-sandehaḥ iti) (and) for this very reason (atas eva) (his) doubts (saṁśayaḥ) have vanished (naṣṭa).

(In his case,) confusion (bhrāntiḥ) (or) error (bhramaḥ) based on (rūpaḥ) duality (dvaya) is disregarded (parākṛtā) (or) treated with contempt (nyakkṛtā) due to his obtaining (lābhāt) the Knowledge (jñāna) of Supreme (parama) Non-dualism (advaya). As a result (yena), he (saḥ) (is) like that (tathā... iti) --i.e. he is a liberated one--.

Thus (evam), by becoming aware of (his Real Self) --by a contact with his own Self-- (pariśīlanena), he (saḥ) is of such a kind (evaṁvidhaḥ), (namely, a liberated one) whose (yasya) dharma --what is to be done-- and adharma --what is not to be done-- (dharma-adharmāṇi) —virtues and sins (puṇya-apuṇyāni)— have vanished (prakṣīṇāni). (In a nutshell,) the residual impressions (of his virtues and sins) (saṁskārāṇi) have completely disappeared (vigalita) due to the absence (abhāvāt) of the act of thinking (mānitva) himself (ātma) to be the body (deha... iti).

By this (teaching) (anena) (the truth that) "Ignorance (ajñānam) (is) bondage (bandhaḥ) indeed (eva... iti)" was established and proved (pratipāditam).

The one (saḥ) in whom (yasya) that (ignorance) (tad ca) has been destroyed (prakṣīṇam), although (api) (he is) in connection (yoge) with the physical body --the individual form-- (vigraha), (is) then (tadā eva) a liberated (muktaḥ) while living (jīvan eva). However (punar), the connection (yogaḥ) with the physical body (śarīra) is not (na) bondage (bandhaḥ) nor is (na) its death --the death of the body-- (tad-apagamaḥ) Liberation (muktiḥ... iti). Nonetheless (kim tu), "Liberation (mokṣaḥ) (is) Full (pūrṇaḥ) after the fall (pātāt) of the body (deha... iti)"||61||


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 Stanza 62

जीवन्मुक्तस्य कर्महेतौ शरीरे स्थितेऽपि शरीरयात्रामात्रार्थं ज्ञानेद्धं कुर्वाणस्य कर्म न फलाय तस्य भवति — इत्यत्रोपपत्तिमाह


अग्न्यभिदग्धं बीजं यथा प्ररोहासमर्थतामेति।
ज्ञानाग्निदग्धमेवं कर्म न जन्मप्रदं भवति॥६२॥


वह्निनिर्भृष्टं शालिबीजं क्षितिसलिलातपमध्यवर्त्यपि सामग्रीवैकल्याद्यथाङ्कुरादिजननेऽशक्ततां याति तथैव ज्ञानाग्निना दग्धं परमाद्वयबोधदीप्त्या प्लुष्टं कर्म यथाहमेवेत्थं विश्वात्मना स्फुरामि — इत्येवंरूपेण देहाद्यात्ममानित्वहानेर्हेयोपादेयबुद्धिपरित्यागेन यत्किञ्चिच्छुभाशुभं कर्म क्रियमाणं तद्दग्धवीर्यं न पुनर्ज्ञानिनः पिण्डपातादनन्तरं जन्मफलप्रदं भवति देहनिर्माणहेतुः सम्पद्यते दग्धं बीजमिवाङ्कुरे। तस्मान्न सर्वाहम्भावरूपायाश्चितिशक्तेरफलाभिसन्धानतया कृतं कर्म भूयो जन्म दातुं प्रभवतीति॥६२॥

Jīvanmuktasya karmahetau śarīre sthite'pi śarīrayātrāmātrārthaṁ jñāneddhaṁ kurvāṇasya karma na phalāya tasya bhavati — Ityatropapattimāha


Agnyabhidagdhaṁ bījaṁ yathā prarohāsamarthatāmeti|
Jñānāgnidagdhamevaṁ karma na janmapradaṁ bhavati||62||


Vahninirbhṛṣṭaṁ śālibījaṁ kṣitisalilātapamadhyavartyapi sāmagrīvaikalyādyathāṅkurādijanane'śaktatāṁ yāti tathaiva jñānāgninā dagdhaṁ paramādvayabodhadīptyā pluṣṭaṁ karma yathāhamevetthaṁ viśvātmanā sphurāmi — Ityevaṁrūpeṇa dehādyātmamānitvahānerheyopādeyabuddhiparityāgena yatkiñcicchubhāśubhaṁ karma kriyamāṇaṁ taddagdhavīryaṁ na punarjñāninaḥ piṇḍapātādanantaraṁ janmaphalapradaṁ bhavati dehanirmāṇahetuḥ sampadyate dagdhaṁ bījamivāṅkure| Tasmānna sarvāhambhāvarūpāyāścitiśakteraphalābhisandhānatayā kṛtaṁ karma bhūyo janma dātuṁ prabhavatīti||62||

Although (api) the body (śarīre) of a liberated while living (jīvat-muktasya) remains (sthite) (and) is cause (hetau) of actions (karma), the action (karma) of the agent --the physical body-- (kurvāṇasya) does not bear fruit (na phalāya... bhavati) for him (tasya) (because) the Light (iddham) of Knowledge (jñāna) (resides in such a person) for the sake of (artham) only (mātra) giving support of life (yātrā) to (his) physical body (śarīra... iti). (Abhinavagupta) presented arguments (upapattim āha) with respect to this (subject) (atra) (in the stanza 62):


Just as (yathā) a grain or seed (bījam) burnt (abhidagdham) by fire (agni) is not capable of (asamarthatām eti) sprouting (praroha), similarly (evam) the karma --the residual impression of an action-- (karma) scorched (dagdham) by the Fire (agni) of Knowledge (jñāna) is not (na... bhavati) a bestower (pradam) of birth (janma)||62||


Just as (yathā) a grain or seed (bījam) of rice (śāli) roasted (nirbhṛṣṭam) in a fire (vahni) is unable (aśaktatām yāti) to produce (janane) a sprout (aṅkura), etc. (ādi) even (api) being in the middle (madhya-varti) of earth (kṣiti), water (salila) (and) sunshine (ātapa) because it is deprived from (vaikalyāt) the entire collection (of husk, bran and beard) (sāmagrī), in the same way (tathā eva) the karma --the residual impression of an action-- (karma) is scorched (dagdham) by the Fire (agninā) of Knowledge (jñāna). (In short,) it is burnt (pluṣṭam) by the Light (dīptyā) of Knowledge (bodha) of Supreme (parama) Non-dualism (advaya) so that (yathā), after the cessation (hāneḥ) of the act of thinking (mānitva) himself (ātma) to be the body (deha), etc. (ādi) (carried out) by completely abandoning (parityāgena) in (his) intellect (buddhi) (the concepts of) "acceptable (upādeya) (and) rejectable (heya)" through such (experiences) as (evaṁrūpeṇa): "I Myself (aham eva) shine forth (sphurāmi) in this way (ittham) as the universe (viśva-ātmanā... iti)", any (yad kiñcid) good or bad (śubha-aśubham) action (karma) being done (kriyamāṇam) (by him), having its power or energy scorched (tad dagdha-vīryam), never again (na punar) becomes (bhavati) a bestower (pradam) of the fruit (phalam) (called) a birth (janma) immediately after (anantaram) the fall (pātāt) of the body (piṇḍa) belonging to the knower of the Self (jñāninaḥ). (In other words, it never again) turns into (sampadyate) the cause (hetuḥ) regarding the creation (nirmāṇa) of a body (deha), just like (iva) a burnt (dagdha) grain or seed (bījam) (does not become the cause) with reference to (the creation of) a sprout (aṅkure).

On that account (tasmāt), the action (karma) which is performed (kṛtam) without attachment to (a... abhisandhānatayā) (its) fruit (phala) because of the Power of Consciousness (citi-śakteḥ) appearing as (rūpāyāḥ) the State (bhāva) of "I (aham) (am) all (sarva)" is not able to (na... prabhavati) give (dātum) a birth (janma) again (bhūyas... iti)||62||


Without notes of explanation yet

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