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Paramārthasāra (Парамартхасара) Абхинавагупты: Строфы 28-31. Недвойственный Кашмирский Шиваизм

Стандартный перевод


 Introduction

Paramārthasāra continues with four more stanzas. This is the eighth set of stanzas, which is composed of 4 out of the 105 stanzas constituting the entire work.

Of course, I will also insert the original stanzas on which Yogarāja is commenting. I will write a lot of notes to make this book so understandable to the average reader as possible.

Yogarāja's Sanskrit will be in dark green color while the original Abhinavagupta's stanzas will be shown in dark red color. In turn, within the transliteration, the original stanzas will be in brown color, while the Yogarāja's comments will be shown in black. Also, within the translation, the original stanzas by Abhinavagupta, i.e. Paramārthasāra, will be in green and black colors, while the commentary by Yogarāja will contain words in both black and red colors.

Read Paramārthasāra and experience Supreme Ānanda or Divine Bliss, dear Śiva.

Important: All that is in brackets and italicized within the translation has been added by me in order to complete the sense of a particular phrase or sentence. In turn, all that is between double hyphen (--...--) constitutes clarifying further information also added by me.

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 Stanza 28

इदानीं भ्रान्तेरसदर्थप्रतिपादनसामर्थ्येन निदर्शनमाह


रज्ज्वां नास्ति भुजङ्गस्त्रासं कुरुते च मृत्युपर्यन्तम्।
भ्रान्तेर्महती शक्तिर्न विवेक्तुं शक्यते नाम॥२८॥


भ्रान्तेः पूर्णत्वाख्यातिरूपाया अताद्रूप्यप्रतिभासने महती शक्तिरुत्तमं सामर्थ्यं न केनचिद्विवेक्तुं शक्यते न केनचिद्विचारयितुं पार्यते — इति यावत्। यथा वस्तुवृत्तेन रज्जुः परिदृश्यमाना दीर्घत्वकुण्डलिनीरूपत्वभ्रमात्सर्पोऽयमित्यध्यवसातॄणां रज्जुद्रव्येऽप्यसदर्थप्रतिभासोऽयं सर्पाध्यवसायः सदर्थप्रतिभासाद्भयं मरणावसायं विदधाति। अनुभवसिद्धमप्येतत्स्थाणुं भूतमिति मत्वा स्वयं भीषणीयं वाकारं समुल्लिख्य भ्रान्ताः सन्तो हृद्भङ्गनाशं के नाम न याताः — इति विभ्रम एवापूर्णत्वप्रथने हेतुः — इति॥२८॥

Idānīṁ bhrānterasadarthapratipādanasāmarthyena nidarśanamāha


Rajjvāṁ nāsti bhujaṅgastrāsaṁ kurute ca mṛtyuparyantam|
Bhrāntermahatī śaktirna vivektuṁ śakyate nāma||28||


Bhrānteḥ pūrṇatvākhyātirūpāyā atādrūpyapratibhāsane mahatī śaktiruttamaṁ sāmarthyaṁ na kenacidvivektuṁ śakyate na kenacidvicārayituṁ pāryate — Iti yāvat| Yathā vastuvṛttena rajjuḥ paridṛśyamānā dīrghatvakuṇḍalinīrūpatvabhramātsarpo'yamityadhyavasātṝṇāṁ rajjudravye'pyasadarthapratibhāso'yaṁ sarpādhyavasāyaḥ sadarthapratibhāsādbhayaṁ maraṇāvasāyaṁ vidadhāti| Anubhavasiddhamapyetatsthāṇuṁ bhūtamiti matvā svayaṁ bhīṣaṇīyaṁ vākāraṁ samullikhya bhrāntāḥ santo hṛdbhaṅganāśaṁ ke nāma na yātāḥ — Iti vibhrama evāpūrṇatvaprathane hetuḥ — Iti||28||

Now (idānīm), (Abhinavagupta) expressed (āha) (the following) example (nidarśanam) in order to (sāmarthyena) explain (pratipādana) non-existent (asat) things (artha) (being produced) from confusion (bhrānteḥ):


A snake (bhujaṅgaḥ) does not (na) exist (asti) in a rope (rajjvām), yet (ca) it --the rope being mistaken for a snake-- terrifies (trāsam kurute) to death (mṛtyu-paryantam). The great (mahatī) power (śaktiḥ) of confusion (bhrānteḥ) cannot be discerned (na vivektum śakyate) indeed (nāma)!||28||


The great (mahatī) power (śaktiḥ) of confusion (bhrānteḥ) (is) the highest (uttamam) efficacy (sāmarthyam) of this whose nature (rūpāyāḥ) (consists of) ignorance (akhyāti) about (one's own) Fullness (pūrṇatva). (Its power or efficacy is shown) when there is appearance (pratibhāsane) of a lack of similarity (atādrūpya) (between the imagined thing and the real thing, as in the case of a snake being imagined in a rope. This great power of confusion) cannot be discerned (na... vivektum śakyate) by anyone (kenacid), i.e. it cannot be ascertained or investigated (na... vicārayitum pāryate) by anyone (kenacid). This is the sense (iti yāvat).

Just as (yathā) on beholding (paridṛśyamānā) what is really (vastuvṛttena) a (mere) rope (rajjuḥ), due to an error (bhramāt) generated by its length (dīrghatva) (and) coiled aspect (kuṇḍalinī-rūpatva), (it could be mistaken for a snake and generate the following expression:) "This (ayam) (is) a snake (sarpaḥ... iti)!" by the ones perceiving (it) (adhyavasātṝṇām), (so,) this (ayam) perception (adhyavasāyaḥ) of a snake (sarpa) even (api) in a object (dravye) (called) a rope (rajju) (is) the manifestation (pratibhāsaḥ) of a non-existent (asat) thing (artha) from the manifestation (pratibhāsāt) of an existent (sat) thing (artha). (And such a perception arisen from a confusion) causes (vidadhāti) fear (bhayam) to death (maraṇa-avasāyam).

This (etad) (is) even (api) established or proven (siddham) by (one's own) experience (anubhava), (as when one,) considering (iti matvā) the stump of a tree (sthāṇum) as a demon (bhūtam iti), or (vā) delineating (samullikhya), by oneself (svayam), (some other) terrifying (bhīṣaṇīyam) form (ākāram) (on that very stump), what (ke nāma) errors (bhrāntāḥ) taking place (in that way —on account of confusion—) (santaḥ) do not end up (na yātāḥ) in (one's own) annihilation (nāśam) because of a cardiac arrest (hṛt-bhaṅga)? (One does not know that certainly!). Thus (iti), confusion (vibhramaḥ) itself (eva) (is) the cause (hetuḥ) of the spreading out (prathane) of lack of Fullness (apūrṇatva... iti)||28||


Without notes of explanation yet

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 Stanza 29

एतत् प्रकृते समर्थयते


तद्वद्धर्माधर्मस्वर्निरयोत्पत्तिमरणसुखदुःखम्।
वर्णाश्रमादि चात्मन्यसदपि विभ्रमबलाद्भवति॥२९॥


एवं यथा रज्जुः परमार्थसती भ्रान्त्या सर्पतया विमृष्टापि सर्पगतामर्थक्रियां करोति तथैव देहात्ममानिनां चेतसि धर्माद्यसदपि तत्त्वतोऽविद्यमानं विभ्रमवशान्मायाव्यामोहसामर्थ्यादेव भवति एतदेव तत्त्वमिति भ्रान्त्या सत्तां लभते। धर्मोऽश्वमेधादिरधर्मो ब्रह्महननादिः स्वर्निरतिशया प्रीतिर्निरयो यातना उत्पत्तिर्जन्म मरणं जन्माभावः सुखमाह्लादो दुःखं राजसः क्षोभस्तथा वर्णो ब्राह्मणोऽस्मीत्यादि आश्रमो ब्रह्मचारी — इत्यादि आदि ग्रहणात्तपःपूजाव्रतानि — इति सर्वं कल्पनामात्रसारं विभ्रमविजृम्भितमेव मायाशक्त्या देहाद्यात्मतयाभिमन्यते। एतत्सर्वं भ्रान्तेः प्रभवति ययानवरतस्वर्गनरकजन्ममरणप्रबन्धभाजः पशवो न पुनः परमार्थतः स्वात्मनोऽनवच्छिन्नचिदानन्दैकघनस्य धर्माधर्मादिकं किञ्चिद्विद्यते — इति॥२९॥

Etat prakṛte samarthayate


Tadvaddharmādharmasvarnirayotpattimaraṇasukhaduḥkham|
Varṇāśramādi cātmanyasadapi vibhramabalādbhavati||29||


Evaṁ yathā rajjuḥ paramārthasatī bhrāntyā sarpatayā vimṛṣṭāpi sarpagatāmarthakriyāṁ karoti tathaiva dehātmamānināṁ cetasi dharmādyasadapi tattvato'vidyamānaṁ vibhramavaśānmāyāvyāmohasāmarthyādeva bhavati etadeva tattvamiti bhrāntyā sattāṁ labhate| Dharmo'śvamedhādiradharmo brahmahananādiḥ svarniratiśayā prītirnirayo yātanā utpattirjanma maraṇaṁ janmābhāvaḥ sukhamāhlādo duḥkhaṁ rājasaḥ kṣobhastathā varṇo brāhmaṇo'smītyādi āśramo brahmacārī — Ityādi ādi grahaṇāttapaḥpūjāvratāni — Iti sarvaṁ kalpanāmātrasāraṁ vibhramavijṛmbhitameva māyāśaktyā dehādyātmatayābhimanyate| Etatsarvaṁ bhrānteḥ prabhavati yayānavaratasvarganarakajanmamaraṇaprabandhabhājaḥ paśavo na punaḥ paramārthataḥ svātmano'navacchinnacidānandaikaghanasya dharmādharmādikaṁ kiñcidvidyate — Iti||29||

(Abhinavagupta, by the current stanza,) comments (again) on (samarthayate) this (plague known as "confusion") (etad) with reference to the subject under discussion (prakṛte):


Likewise (tadvat), (the group composed of) what is to be done (dharma), what is not to be done (adharma), heaven (svar), hell (niraya), birth (utpatti), death (maraṇa), pleasure (sukham), pain (duḥkham), together with (ca) castes (varṇa), stages of life (āśrama), etc. (ādi), though (api) non-existent (asat) in the Self (ātmani), arises (bhavati) in virtue of (balāt) confusion (vibhrama)||29||


In this way (evam), just as (yathā) a rope (rajjuḥ) is (satī) really (parama-artha) (only a rope), but (api) if it is considered (vimṛṣṭā) as a snake (sarpatayā) because of confusion (bhrāntyā), causes (karoti) an objective activity (artha-kriyām) connected with (gatām) snakes (sarpa) --i.e. a response in the form of "I must run away from it", "I must kill it", etc.--, in the same manner (tathā eva), (the entire group composed of) what is to be done (dharma), what is not to be done (adharma), etc. (ādi), though (api) non-existent (asat) —viz. (though) it is not really present (in the Self) (tattvataḥ avidyamānam)—, in virtue of (vaśāt) confusion (vibhrama) —i.e. on account of (sāmarthyāt eva) the bewilderment (vyāmoha) generated by Māyā (māyā)— arises (bhavati) in the mind (cetasi) of the ones who think (māninām) (their) bodies (deha) to be the Self (ātma). (All in all, that abovementioned group) comes into existence (sattām labhate) (in the case of those people, in the form of) "This (etad) (is) true (tattvam) indeed (eva)!" due to confusion (bhrāntyā).

(In the stanza,) "dharma" --what is to be done-- (dharmaḥ) (implies such actions as the performance of) the horse-sacrifice (aśva-medhaḥ), etc. (ādiḥ); (while) "adharma" --what is not to be done-- (adharmaḥ) (has to do with such actions as) the act of killing (hanana) a priest (brahma), etc. (ādiḥ). (In turn,) "svar" --heaven-- (svar) (denotes) unsurpassed (niratiśayā) satisfaction (prītiḥ) (and) "niraya" --hell-- (niraya) (refers to) intense torment (yātanā). (The term) "utpatti" (utpattiḥ) (means) birth (janma) (and) "maraṇa" --death-- (maraṇam) (indicates) absence or negation (abhāvaḥ) of birth (janma). "Sukha" --pleasure-- (sukham) (denotes) cheerfulness (āhlādaḥ), (while) "duḥkha" --pain-- (duḥkham) (implies) a rajasic --related to the quality known as Rajas-- (rājasaḥ) disturbance (kṣobhaḥ). In the same way (tathā), (on the one hand, the word) "varṇa" (varṇaḥ) --caste-- (entails such notions as) "I am (asmi) a brāhmaṇa --a member of the priestly caste-- (brāhmaṇaḥ... iti)", etc. (iti-ādi), (and on the other hand, the term) "āśrama" --stage of life-- (āśramaḥ) (points out such things as) "celibate" --the first stage of life-- (brahmacārī), etc. (iti-ādi). (Finally,) by means of the word (grahaṇāt) et cetera (in the stanza itself) (ādi), austerity, worship and vows (tapas-pūja-vratāni... iti) (are additionally hinted at). All (sarvam) that has been manifested (vijṛmbhitam eva) by confusion (vibhrama) (and) whose essence (sāram) is merely (mātra) a mental creation (kalpanā) is (then) imagined (abhimanyate) (by a limited individual) through the power (śaktyā) of Māyā (māyā) (when) he identifies (his) body, etc. with the Self (deha-ādi-ātmatayā).

All (sarvam) this (etad) appears (prabhavati) from confusion (bhrānteḥ), and by it --by confusion-- (yayā), the limited individuals (paśavaḥ) participate in (bhājaḥ) the incessant (anavarata) series (prabandha) of heaven (svarga), hell (naraka), birth (janma) (and) death (maraṇa). Nevertheless (punar), as a matter of fact (parama-arthataḥ), there is no (na... kiñcid vidyate) "dharma" --what is to be done-- (dharma), "adharma" --what is not to be done-- (adharma), etc. (ādikam) in the case of one's own Self (sva-ātmanaḥ) who is a compact mass (eka-ghanasya) of uninterrupted (anavacchinna) Consciousness (cit) (and) Bliss (ānanda... iti)!||29||


Without notes of explanation yet

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 Stanza 30

एवमसदर्थप्रतिभासने भ्रान्तेः सामर्थ्यं विचार्य तदुत्पत्तिमाह


एतत्तदन्धकारं यद्भावेषु प्रकाशमानतया।
आत्मानतिरिक्तेष्वपि भवत्यनात्माभिमानोऽयम्॥३०॥


एतत्तदन्धकारमित्येषा सा समनन्तरप्रतिपादिता विश्वमोहिनी पूर्णत्वाख्यातिरूपा भ्रान्तिर्यद्भावेषु प्रमातृप्रमेयरूपेषु विश्ववर्तिषु पदार्थेषु प्रकाशमानतया इति

... नाप्रकाशः प्रकाशते।

इति प्रकाशमानतान्यथानुपपत्त्या प्रकाशशरीरीभूतेषु आत्मनश्चैतन्यमहेश्वरादपृथग्भूतेषु सत्स्वपि योऽयमतिरेकेणामी भावा ग्राह्या बाह्या मत्तो भिन्नाश्च — इति अनात्माभिमानो वास्तवचिद्रूपतापहस्तनेन यत्तेष्ववास्तवं जडत्वापादनम्। अयमाशयः — भावप्रकाशनेऽन्यस्याप्रकाशरूपस्य बाह्यवासनादेर्हेतोरनुपपद्यमानत्वात्स्वात्मप्रकाश एव स्वतन्त्रोऽर्थान्नीलसुखादिना प्रकाशतेऽतः प्रमातृप्रमेयरूपतया चित्स्वरूपोऽहमेव प्रकाशे — इति यद्वास्तवं रूपं तन्न प्रकाशते केवलमेवावास्तवो भेदः प्रथते — इति तात्त्विकप्रथनाभावाद्भ्रान्तेरन्धकारेण रूपणम् — इति॥३०॥

Evamasadarthapratibhāsane bhrānteḥ sāmarthyaṁ vicārya tadutpattimāha


Etattadandhakāraṁ yadbhāveṣu prakāśamānatayā|
Ātmānatirikteṣvapi bhavatyanātmābhimāno'yam||30||


Etattadandhakāramityeṣā sā samanantarapratipāditā viśvamohinī pūrṇatvākhyātirūpā bhrāntiryadbhāveṣu pramātṛprameyarūpeṣu viśvavartiṣu padārtheṣu prakāśamānatayā iti

... nāprakāśaḥ prakāśate|

Iti prakāśamānatānyathānupapattyā prakāśaśarīrībhūteṣu ātmanaścaitanyamaheśvarādapṛthagbhūteṣu satsvapi yo'yamatirekeṇāmī bhāvā grāhyā bāhyā matto bhinnāśca — Iti anātmābhimāno vāstavacidrūpatāpahastanena yatteṣvavāstavaṁ jaḍatvāpādanam| Ayamāśayaḥ — Bhāvaprakāśane'nyasyāprakāśarūpasya bāhyavāsanāderhetoranupapadyamānatvātsvātmaprakāśa eva svatantro'rthānnīlasukhādinā prakāśate'taḥ pramātṛprameyarūpatayā citsvarūpo'hameva prakāśe — Iti yadvāstavaṁ rūpaṁ tanna prakāśate kevalamevāvāstavo bhedaḥ prathate — Iti tāttvikaprathanābhāvādbhrānterandhakāreṇa rūpaṇam — Iti||30||

Thus (evam), (Abhinavagupta,) after having examined (vicārya) the power (sāmarthyam) of confusion (bhrānteḥ) as regards the manifestation (pratibhāsane) of non-existent (asat) things (artha), spoke (āha) about its origin (tad-utpattim) (in the following stanza):


This very (etad tad) darkness (andhakāram) which (yad) appears (prakāśamānatayā) in the positive entities --subjects and objects-- (bhāveṣu) becomes (bhavati) this (ayam) erroneous conception (abhimānaḥ) about the not-Self (an-ātma) even (api) in (such positive entities) that are not different from (anatirikteṣu) the Self (ātma)||30||


"This very (etad tad) darkness (andhakāram... iti)" —i.e. this very (eṣā sā) confusion (bhrāntiḥ) (or) universal (viśva) deluder (mohinī) that was previously explained (samanantara-pratipāditā) (and) whose nature (rūpā) (consists of) ignorance (akhyāti) about (one's own) Fullness (pūrṇatva)— which (yad) "appears" (prakāśamānatayā iti) in the bhāva-s --positive entities-- (bhāveṣu) —that are (nothing but a mass of) universal (viśva-vartiṣu) entities (padārtheṣu) in the form of (rūpeṣu) subjects (pramātṛ) (and) objects (prameya)(becomes) this (ayam) erroneous conception (abhimānaḥ) about the not-Self (an-ātma) —which (yaḥ), due to duality (atirekeṇa), (assumes the form of notions such as:) "Those (amī) positive entities (bhāvāḥ) (or) knowables --subjects and objects-- (grāhyāḥ) (are) external (bāhyāḥ) and (ca) different (bhinnāḥ) from me (mattaḥ... iti)"— even (api) in (such positive entities) that are real (satsu) (and) not different (apṛthak-bhūteṣu) from the Self (ātmanaḥ) (or) Great Lord (mahā-īśvarāt) who is Consciousness in Absolute Freedom (caitanya) in their having taken bodily shape (śarīrī-bhūteṣu) from (His) Light (prakāśa), since the manifestation (of those positive entities) cannot be proven otherwise (prakāśamānatā-anyathā-anupapattyā) (according to the axiom:)

"... what is not (His) Light (aprakāśaḥ) does not (na) become manifest (prakāśate... iti)."

(Such an erroneous conception about the not-Self) causes those (positive entities) to arrive at (teṣu... āpādanam) an inert or gross state (jaḍatva) —which (yad) (is) unreal (avāstavam)— due to act of discarding (apahastanena) the essential nature (rūpatā) of Consciousness (cit), which is Real (vāstava).

This (ayam) (was) the intention (of Abhinavagupta when he wrote the present stanza) (āśayaḥ): As there is insufficiency of means to prove (anupapadyamānatvāt) (the existence) of another (anyasya) unmanifest --devoid of His Light-- (aprakāśa-rūpasya) cause (hetoḥ) such as external (bāhya) vāsanā-s or tendencies (vāsanā), etc. (ādeḥ) with reference to the manifestation (prakāśane), (it is then) only (eva) the Free (svatantraḥ) Light (prakāśaḥ) of one's own (sva) Self (ātma) (that), according to the circumstances (arthāt), becomes manifest (prakāśate) as blue color, pleasure, etc. (nīla-sukha-ādinā). Hence (atas), "I myself (ahameva), being essentially (sva-rūpaḥ) Consciousness (cit), become manifest (prakāśe) in the form of (rūpatayā) knowers --subjects-- (pramātṛ) (and) knowables --objects-- (prameya)". (Therefore,) That --Aham or "I", the Self-- (tad) which (yad) (is) the Real (vāstavam) Nature (rūpam) does not (na) become manifest (prakāśate), (but it is) only (kevalam eva) the unreal (avāstavaḥ) duality (bhedaḥ) that is appearing (prathate) --unreal duality alone is being manifested, while the Real Nature or Lord called "I" remains unmanifest--. In this way (iti), the metaphorical description (rūpaṇam) of confusion (bhrānteḥ) as being darkness (andhakāreṇa) is due to the absence (abhāvāt) of manifestation (prathana) of what is Real (tāttvika... iti)||30||


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 Stanza 31

आत्मन्यनात्माभिमानपूर्वोऽनात्मन्यात्माभिमानो भवति — इति प्रतिपादयन्भ्रान्तेः सुतरां मोहरूपतामाह


तिमिरादपि तिमिरमिदं गण्डस्योपरि महानयं स्फोटः।
यदनात्मन्यपि देहप्राणादावात्ममानित्वम्॥३१॥


आदौ तावदेकसंवित्सतत्त्वेष्वपि भावेषु भेदमयं जाड्यापादनमख्यातितिमिरेण कृतं यत्स्वात्मनोऽभिन्नानां भावानां ततो भेदेन प्रथनमत एव तिमिरमिव तिमिरमख्यातिः। यथैकोऽपि चन्द्रश्चक्षुस्थेन रेखातिमिरेण द्विधा भास्यते द्वौ चन्द्राविति तथैवाख्यातितिमिरमेकमपि सर्वं स्वात्मस्वरूपं वस्तु भेदेनानात्मरूपं प्रकाशितवत्। एवमवस्थिते तिमिरमपरमायातं मोहान्मोहोऽयमापतितो गण्डस्योपरि पिटकोद्भवश्च यदख्यात्यपहस्तितचित्स्वरूपेष्वपि विश्ववर्तिषु पदार्थेषु जाड्यमापादितेषु मध्यादुद्धृते व्यतिरिक्ते जडे देहप्राणादौ वेद्यखण्डे कृशोऽहं स्थूलोऽहं क्षुधितोऽहं सुख्यस्मि न किञ्चिदहम् — इति प्रमातृतयानात्मभूते आत्ममानित्वमताद्रूप्ये ताद्रूप्यप्रतिपत्तिरेतदतिवैशसम्। यदि तावदात्माभिमानेन विना वैशसमस्ति तन्नीलसुखादिष्वप्यस्तु मा वा कुत्रापि भूद्यत्पुनः कतिपये जडे देहादौ लोष्टप्राय आत्मतयाहन्तारसाभिषेकोऽन्यत्र नीलसुखादाविदन्तयानात्मप्रतिपादनमेष एव पूर्णः संसारः शोचनीयो यदभिमानोपनतो द्वन्द्वाभिघातः कर्षति पशून् — इति। यदुक्तं मार्कण्डेयपुराणे योगिन्या मदालसया

यानं क्षितौ यानगतश्च देहो देहेऽपि चान्यः पुरुषो निविष्टः।
ममत्वमुर्व्यां न तथा यथा स्वे देहेऽतिमात्रं च विमूढतैषा॥

इति॥३१॥

Ātmanyanātmābhimānapūrvo'nātmanyātmābhimāno bhavati — Iti pratipādayanbhrānteḥ sutarāṁ moharūpatāmāha


Timirādapi timiramidaṁ gaṇḍasyopari mahānayaṁ sphoṭaḥ|
Yadanātmanyapi dehaprāṇādāvātmamānitvam||31||


Ādau tāvadekasaṁvitsatattveṣvapi bhāveṣu bhedamayaṁ jāḍyāpādanamakhyātitimireṇa kṛtaṁ yatsvātmano'bhinnānāṁ bhāvānāṁ tato bhedena prathanamata eva timiramiva timiramakhyātiḥ| Yathaiko'pi candraścakṣusthena rekhātimireṇa dvidhā bhāsyate dvau candrāviti tathaivākhyātitimiramekamapi sarvaṁ svātmasvarūpaṁ vastu bhedenānātmarūpaṁ prakāśitavat| Evamavasthite timiramaparamāyātaṁ mohānmoho'yamāpatito gaṇḍasyopari piṭakodbhavaśca yadakhyātyapahastitacitsvarūpeṣvapi viśvavartiṣu padārtheṣu jāḍyamāpāditeṣu madhyāduddhṛte vyatirikte jaḍe dehaprāṇādau vedyakhaṇḍe kṛśo'haṁ sthūlo'haṁ kṣudhito'haṁ sukhyasmi na kiñcidaham — Iti pramātṛtayānātmabhūte ātmamānitvamatādrūpye tādrūpyapratipattiretadativaiśasam| Yadi tāvadātmābhimānena vinā vaiśasamasti tannīlasukhādiṣvapyastu mā vā kutrāpi bhūdyatpunaḥ katipaye jaḍe dehādau loṣṭaprāya ātmatayāhantārasābhiṣeko'nyatra nīlasukhādāvidantayānātmapratipādanameṣa eva pūrṇaḥ saṁsāraḥ śocanīyo yadabhimānopanato dvandvābhighātaḥ karṣati paśūn — Iti| Yaduktaṁ mārkaṇḍeyapurāṇe yoginyā madālasayā

Yānaṁ kṣitau yānagataśca deho dehe'pi cānyaḥ puruṣo niviṣṭaḥ|
Mamatvamurvyāṁ na tathā yathā sve dehe'timātraṁ ca vimūḍhataiṣā||

Iti||31||

(Abhinavagupta,) while establishing (pratipādayan) that there is (bhavati) the erroneous conception (abhimānaḥ) that the not-Self (an-ātmani) is the Self (ātma) accompanied by (pūrvaḥ) the erroneous conception (abhimāna) that the Self (ātmani) is the not-Self (an-ātma), spoke (in the following stanza) (āha) about the delusive (moha) (and) easy to be crossed (sutarām) nature (rūpatām) of confusion (bhrānteḥ):


This (idam) darkness (timiram) (arising) even (api) from darkness (timirāt), which (yad) (consists in) thinking (mānitvam) that the not-Self (an-ātmani api) —e.g. body, vital energy, etc. (deha-prāṇa-ādau)— is the Self (ātma), (may be compared to) the great misfortune (mahā-anayam) (of having) a blister (sphoṭaḥ) on (upari) a boil (gaṇḍasya)||31||


In the beginning (ādau) indeed (tāvat), (the act related to causing) the positive entities --subjects and objects-- (bhāveṣu) —though they are of the nature (satattveṣu api) of one (eka) Pure Consciousness (saṁvid)— to arrive at (āpādanam) an inert or gross state (jāḍya) full of (mayam) duality (bheda) is carried out (kṛtam) by the darkness (timireṇa) (known as) the primordial ignorance --Āṇavamala in its Pauruṣājñāna aspect (ignorance about the Self) characterized by the experience of "not Fullness"-- (akhyāti), which (yad) (generates) manifestation or display (prathanam) of positive entities (bhāvānām) that are not different (abhinnānām) from one's own Self (sva-ātmanaḥ) in duality --with a state of difference and separation-- (bhedena) regarding Him (tatas). For this very reason (atas eva), "timira" -- lit. "darkness"-- (timiram)(also called) primordial ignorance (akhyātiḥ) (is exactly) like (iva) (that, i.e. like) darkness (timiram).

Just as (yathā) the moon (candraḥ), though (api) one (ekaḥ), it is shown (bhāsyate) as double (dvidhā) due to a partial blindness (rekhā-timireṇa) residing (sthena) in the eyes (cakṣu)(which triggers the expression:) "(There are) two (dvau) moons (candrau... iti)!"—, even so (tathā eva), the darkness (timiram) of primordial ignorance (akhyāti) manifested (prakāśitavat) the whole (sarvam) reality (vastu) as being (rūpam) the not-Self (an-ātma) in duality (bhedena) although (such a reality) (api) is one (eka) (and) of the nature (sva-rūpam) of one's own (sva) Self (ātma).

Thus (evam), another (aparam) darkness (timiram) --Āṇavamala in its Bauddhājñāna aspect (intellectual ignorance) characterized by the notion that the not-Self is the Self-- approaches (āyātam) (and) this (ayam) (new) delusion (mohaḥ) (arisen) from Moha or Māyā --tattva or category 6-- (mohāt) descends (āpatitaḥ) on the (darkness) that had (already) been placed (avasthite), (like) the development (udbhavaḥ) of a blister (piṭaka) on (upari) a boil (gaṇḍasya). (And) that which (is like a blister on a boil) --i.e. this darkness (Bauddhājñāna) arising even from darkness (Pauruṣājñāna)-- (yad) (consists in) thinking (mānitvam) that what is (bhūte) the not-Self (an-ātma) appearing as a limited knower --"a person"-- (pramātṛtayā) is the Self (ātma) —i.e. it consists in supposing (pratipattiḥ) that what is not one's own identity (atādrūpye) is one's own identity (tādrūpya)—. (When does this new darkness or Bauddhājñāna appears?) When a section (khaṇḍe) of inert or gross (jaḍe) knowables (vedya), —such as body (deha), vital energy (prāṇa), etc. (ādau)— is separately (vyatirikte) selected (uddhṛte) from among (madhyāt) (the mass of) universal (viśva-vartiṣu) entities (padārtheṣu) --subjects and objects--, (which,) though (api) are essentially (sva-rūpeṣu) Consciousness (cit), have discarded (apahastita) (their essential nature) because of the primordial ignorance --Āṇavamala-- (akhyāti), (and accordingly) they have been lead to (āpāditeṣu) an inert or gross state (jāḍyam). (After such a selection takes place, the following notions emerge:) "I (aham) (am) thin (kṛśaḥ)", "I (aham) (am) fat (sthūlaḥ)", "I (aham) (am) hungry (kṣudhitaḥ)", "I (aham) (am) happy (sukhī)", "I (aham) (am) nothing (na kiñcid... iti)". And this (etad) (is really) very adverse --a great calamity-- (ativaiśasam)!

How would it be if (yadi tāvat) there was (asti) (the same) calamity (called the second darkness descended on the first darkness) (vaiśasam) (but) without (vinā) the erroneous conception (abhimānena) about the (not-Self as being the) Self (ātma) (in the way it was explained in the previous paragraph, i.e. without selecting first specific knowables such as body, vital energy, etc. to identify oneself with them)? (For instance, how would it be) that (calamity if) (tad) there was (astu) even (api) (the erroneous conception) that (external objects such as) blue color, pleasure, etc. (nīla-sukha-ādiṣu) (are the Self, i.e. "oneself")? (The same thing) can surely take place --lit. can it not take place!-- (mā... bhūt) somewhere (kutra-api) (else too), optionally (vā)! Still (punar), that (calamity) (yad) (is taking place) in a certain number (katipaye) of inert or gross objects (jaḍe) resembling (prāye) lumps of clay (loṣṭa) (such as) body, etc. (deha-ādau), which, due to the presence of the state of the Self (ātmatayā) (in them to a certain extent,) receive an sprinkling (abhiṣekaḥ) of the sap (rasa) of Aham --"I"-- (ahantā). In the other case (anyatra), it is taught (pratipādanam) that (external objects such as) blue color, pleasure, etc. (nīla-sukha-ādau) are the not-Self (an-ātma) endowed with the state of Idam --"This"-- (idantayā). This (eṣaḥ) (is) only (eva) full (pūrṇaḥ) Transmigration --misery in the form of a going from one thing to another thing, from one thought to another thought, from a body to another body-- (saṁsāraḥ), which is deplorable (śocanīyaḥ). (Such a miserable Transmigration) brought about (upanataḥ) by the (aforesaid) erroneous conception (abhimāna) about That --the Self-- (yad) overpowers (karṣati) the limited individuals (paśūn) by damaging (abhighātaḥ) (them) through the pairs of opposites (dvandva... iti).

That (very truth) (yad) was expressed (uktam) by the Yoginī (yoginyā) (called) Madālasā (madālasayā) in Mārkaṇḍeyapurāṇa (mārkaṇḍeya-purāṇe):

"A vehicle (yānam) (stands) on the earth (kṣitau) and (ca) a body (deha) is (gataḥ) in the vehicle (yāna), and (ca) another (anyaḥ), i.e. a person (puruṣaḥ), resides (niviṣṭaḥ) even (api) in (that) body (dehe). His 'state of mine' --sense of property-- (mamatvam) as regards the earth (urvyām) is not (na) so much (tathā) as (yathā) the extremely excessive (atimātram) (state of mine or sense or property) with respect to his own body (sve dehe) indeed (ca). This (eṣā) (is) a state of confusion and foolishness (vimūḍhatā... iti)."

||31||


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