Sanskrit & Trika Shaivism (Главная)

JavaScript отключён! Перейдите по этой ссылке!


Paramārthasāra (Парамартхасара) Абхинавагупты: Строфы 24-27. Недвойственный Кашмирский Шиваизм 

Стандартный перевод


 Introduction

Paramārthasāra continues with four more stanzas. This is the seventh set of stanzas, which is composed of 4 out of the 105 stanzas constituting the entire work.

Of course, I will also insert the original stanzas on which Yogarāja is commenting. I will write a lot of notes to make this book so understandable to the average reader as possible.

Yogarāja's Sanskrit will be in dark green color while the original Abhinavagupta's stanzas will be shown in dark red color. In turn, within the transliteration, the original stanzas will be in brown color, while the Yogarāja's comments will be shown in black. Also, within the translation, the original stanzas by Abhinavagupta, i.e. Paramārthasāra, will be in green and black colors, while the commentary by Yogarāja will contain words in both black and red colors.

Read Paramārthasāra and experience Supreme Ānanda or Divine Bliss, dear Śiva.

Important: All that is in brackets and italicized within the translation has been added by me in order to complete the sense of a particular phrase or sentence. In turn, all that is between double hyphen (--...--) constitutes clarifying further information also added by me.

top


 Stanza 24

कञ्चुकत्रितयस्य परसूक्ष्मस्थूलरूपतामाह


परमावरणं मल इह सूक्ष्मं मायादि कञ्चुकं स्थूलम्।
बाह्यं विग्रहरूपं कोशत्रयवेष्टितो ह्यात्मा॥२४॥


चैतन्यस्य स्वस्वरूपापहस्तनसतत्त्वा अख्यातिरेवाणवो मल आन्तरः स्वर्णस्य कालिकेव परम् अन्तरङ्गमावरणं छादनं तादात्म्येन स्थितत्वात्। मायादिविद्यान्तं कञ्चुकषट्कं सूक्ष्ममात्मन आवरणं तण्डुलस्य कम्बुकमिवावरणं पृष्ठपातित्वेनास्ते येन भेदमयी ज्ञत्वकर्तृत्वादिप्रथा प्रथते — इत्येष मायीयो मलः। एतदपेक्षया बाह्यं तुषस्थानीयं प्राधानिकं शरीरसत्तालक्षणमावरणं स्थूलं त्वङ्मांसादिरूपत्वादेष तृतीयः कार्मो मलो येन प्रमाता शुभाशुभकर्मसञ्चयभाजनं भवति। एवमनेन परसूक्ष्मस्थूलरूपेण कोशत्रयेण वेष्टितो विकस्वरोऽपि घटाकाशवत्सङ्कुचितीकृत आत्मेत्यणुः — इति पशुः — इत्युच्यते॥२४॥

Kañcukatritayasya parasūkṣmasthūlarūpatāmāha


Paramāvaraṇaṁ mala iha sūkṣmaṁ māyādi kañcukaṁ sthūlam|
Bāhyaṁ vigraharūpaṁ kośatrayaveṣṭito hyātmā||24||


Caitanyasya svasvarūpāpahastanasatattvā akhyātirevāṇavo mala āntaraḥ svarṇasya kālikeva param antaraṅgamāvaraṇaṁ chādanaṁ tādātmyena sthitatvāt| Māyādividyāntaṁ kañcukaṣaṭkaṁ sūkṣmamātmana āvaraṇaṁ taṇḍulasya kambukamivāvaraṇaṁ pṛṣṭhapātitvenāste yena bhedamayī jñatvakartṛtvādiprathā prathate — Ityeṣa māyīyo malaḥ| Etadapekṣayā bāhyaṁ tuṣasthānīyaṁ prādhānikaṁ śarīrasattālakṣaṇamāvaraṇaṁ sthūlaṁ tvaṅmāṁsādirūpatvādeṣa tṛtīyaḥ kārmo malo yena pramātā śubhāśubhakarmasañcayabhājanaṁ bhavati| Evamanena parasūkṣmasthūlarūpeṇa kośatrayeṇa veṣṭito vikasvaro'pi ghaṭākāśavatsaṅkucitīkṛta ātmetyaṇuḥ — Iti paśuḥ — Ityucyate||24||

(Abhinavagupta, in the present stanza,) said (āha) that the triad (tritayasya) of Kañcuka-s or Sheaths (kañcuka) consists of (rūpatām) (three levels:) supreme (para), subtle (sūkṣma) (and) gross (sthūla):


The Self (ātmā) (is) here (iha) certainly (hi) enveloped (veṣṭitaḥ) by three (traya) coverings (kośa): (1) The impurity (malaḥ) that is the supreme (param) Veil (āvaraṇam), (2) the subtle (sūkṣmam) Sheath (kañcukam) composed of Māyā, etc. (māyā-ādi) (and) (3) the gross (sthūlam) (and) external (bāhyam) bodily form (vigraha-rūpam)||24||


The very primordial ignorance (akhyātiḥ eva), which is as a matter of fact (satattvā) a discarding (apahastana) the own (sva) essential nature (sva-rūpa) of Caitanya or Consciousness in Absolute Freedom (caitanyasya), (is) the inner (āntaraḥ) Āṇavamala (āṇavaḥ malaḥ). (Abhinavagupta called it) "supreme Veil" (param... āvaraṇam) —inner (antaraṅgam) covering (chādanam)—, like (iva) a dark spot (kālikā) in gold (svarṇasya), because it remains (sthitatvāt) as identical (with that Caitanya) (tādātmyena).

The group of six (ṣaṭkam) Kañcuka-s or Sheaths (kañcuka) beginning with (ādi) Māyā (māyā) (and) ending in (antam) Vidyā (vidyā) --tattva-s 6 to 11-- (is) the subtle (sūkṣmam) veil (āvaraṇam) of the Self (ātmanaḥ). (This) veil (āvaraṇam), like (iva) the bran (kambukam) in the case of a grain (taṇḍulasya), remains (āste) as a controlling (force in the background) (pṛṣṭha-pātitvena) (as far as a limited individual is concerned). As a result (yena), appears (prathate) the spreading (prathā) of (limited) knowledge (jñatva), (limited) state of agent or doer (kartṛtva), etc. (ādi), all of which is full of (mayī) dualism (bheda... iti). This (eṣaḥ) (is) Māyīyamala --the mayic impurity-- (māyīyaḥ malaḥ).

(Next, there is) a veil (āvaraṇam) that is external (bāhyam) with reference to (apekṣayā) this --to Māyīyamala-- (etad). It represents (sthānīyam) the hull or husk (in the example with a rice-grain) (tuṣa), is characterized by (lakṣaṇam) the existence (sattā) of a physical body (śarīra) manufactured by Prakṛti (prādhānikam) (and is) gross (sthūlam) since it consists of (rūpatvāt) skin (tvak), flesh (māṁsā), etc. (ādi). This (eṣaḥ) third (tṛtīyaḥ) impurity (malaḥ) (is known as) Kārma (kārmaḥ) --viz. Kārmamala-- (and) by means of it (yena) the (limited) experient or knower (pramātā) becomes (bhavati) a recipient (bhājanam) for a multitude (sañcaya) of good (śubha) (and) bad (aśubha) actions (karma).

In this way (evam), enveloped (veṣṭitaḥ) by the triad (trayeṇa) of coverings (kośa) whose form is (rūpeṇa) supreme (para), subtle (sūkṣma) (and) gross (sthūla), though (api) fully expanded (vikasvaraḥ), "the Self" (ātmā iti) gets totally contracted (saṅkucitī-kṛtaḥ) like (vat) the space (ākāśa) within a pot (ghaṭa) (and is accordingly called) "aṇu" or "atom" (aṇuḥ iti). (In this stage, He) is (also) said to be (ucyate) a "paśu" --lit. an animal-- (paśuḥ iti)||24||


Without notes of explanation yet

top


 Stanza 25

एतत्सम्बन्धादुपहत इव भवति — इत्याह


अज्ञानतिमिरयोगादेकमपि स्वं स्वभावमात्मानम्।
ग्राह्यग्राहकनानावैचित्र्येणावबुध्येत॥२५॥


एष कोशत्रयसम्बद्ध आत्मा आत्माख्यात्यन्धकारसम्बन्धादेकमप्यद्वयस्वभावमपि स्वं निजं नान्यस्मादुपनतमात्मस्वभावं चैतन्यमात्मसत्तालक्षणं स्वरूपं प्रमातृप्रमाणप्रमेयनानारचनाप्रपञ्चेन जानात्यभेदविपरीतेन भेदेनाभिमन्यते — इति यावत्। यथा रेखातिमिरोपहतः पुरुष एकमपि चन्द्रं पश्यन् द्वौ चन्द्राविमौ नभसि स्त इति परिच्छिन्दन् लोकमपि दर्शयति द्वौ चन्द्राविमौ पस्य इति — वस्तुवृत्तेनैक एवासौ चन्द्रः — इति तिमिरवशात्तथा भासते येनोद्वेगलक्षणामानन्दलक्षणां वार्थक्रियां स तैमिरिकः प्राप्नोति — तथैवाज्ञानतिमिरप्राप्तभेदप्रथः सर्वं स्वात्मनोऽभिन्नमपि भेदेन व्यवहरन् भिन्नं कर्मफलमर्थयते येन भूयोभूयः स्वर्गनिरयादिभोगभाग्भवति। अतश्चाज्ञानस्य तिमिरेण रूपणा विपरीताभासनात्॥२५॥

Etatsambandhādupahata iva bhavati — Ityāha


Ajñānatimirayogādekamapi svaṁ svabhāvamātmānam|
Grāhyagrāhakanānāvaicitryeṇāvabudhyeta||25||


Eṣa kośatrayasambaddha ātmā ātmākhyātyandhakārasambandhādekamapyadvayasvabhāvamapi svaṁ nijaṁ nānyasmādupanatamātmasvabhāvaṁ caitanyamātmasattālakṣaṇaṁ svarūpaṁ pramātṛpramāṇaprameyanānāracanāprapañcena jānātyabhedaviparītena bhedenābhimanyate — Iti yāvat| Yathā rekhātimiropahataḥ puruṣa ekamapi candraṁ paśyan dvau candrāvimau nabhasi sta iti paricchindan lokamapi darśayati dvau candrāvimau pasya iti — Vastuvṛttenaika evāsau candraḥ — Iti timiravaśāttathā bhāsate yenodvegalakṣaṇāmānandalakṣaṇāṁ vārthakriyāṁ sa taimirikaḥ prāpnoti — Tathaivājñānatimiraprāptabhedaprathaḥ sarvaṁ svātmano'bhinnamapi bhedena vyavaharan bhinnaṁ karmaphalamarthayate yena bhūyobhūyaḥ svarganirayādibhogabhāgbhavati| Ataścājñānasya timireṇa rūpaṇā viparītābhāsanāt||25||

(Abhinavagupta) said (āha) (in this stanza that) through (his) connection (sambandhāt) with this --with the triad of Sheaths-- (etad), He becomes (bhavati) impeded (upahataḥ), as it were (iva... iti):


(This Self,) though (api) one (ekam), on account of (His) contact (yogāt) with the darkness (timira) of ignorance (ajñāna), knows or perceive (avabudhyeta) Himself (ātmānam) —His own (svam) essential nature (sva-bhāvam)— as the multiple variety (nānā-vaicitryeṇa) of subjects (grāhaka) (and) objects (grāhya)||25||


(The term) "svam" (in the stanza) (svam) (means) "one's own" (nijam) (or) "not (na) dependent (upanatam) on another (anyasmāt)". (In turn, the words "svabhāvam ātmānam" indicate) "the essential nature" (sva-bhāvam) of the Self (ātma), viz. Caitanya or Consciousness endowed with Absolute Freedom (caitanyam) whose essence (sva-rūpam) is characterized by (lakṣaṇam) His own (ātma) Existence (sattā). This (eṣaḥ) Self (ātmā) who is totally bound (sambaddhaḥ) by the triad (traya) of coverings (kośa), because of His connection (ātmā... sambandhāt) with the darkness (andhakāra) of ignorance (akhyāti), though (api) one (ekam) —although (api) (His) essence (sva-bhāvam) is non-dual (advaya)—, knows --perceives-- (jānāti) (His own essential nature or Caitanya) as a manifestation (prapañcena) prepared (racanā) with multiple (nānā) knowers (pramātṛ), means of knowledge (pramāṇa) (and) knowables (prameya). (In other words,) He erroneously considers (abhimanyate) (His own essential nature) as dual (bhedena), i.e. as opposite to (viparītena) non-dual (abheda). This is the sense (iti yāvat).

As (yathā) a person (puruṣaḥ) being afflicted (upahataḥ) by partial blindness (rekhā-timira) (who,) even though (api) he sees (paśyan) one (ekam) moon (candram), by defining (paricchindan) (previously as follows:) "There are (staḥ) these (imau) two (dvau) moons (candrau) in the sky (nabhasi... iti)", he (then) shows (darśayati) (other) people (lokam api) (by saying): "Look (pasya) at these (imau) two (vau) moons (candrau... iti)!", (because although,) as a matter of fact (vastu-vṛttena) "that (asau) moon (candraḥ) (is) only (eva) one (ekaḥ... iti)", it --the image of the moon-- appears (bhāsate) like that (tathā) on account of (vaśāt) (his partial) blindness (timira) (and) consequently (yena) (this) person suffering from (partial) blindness (saḥ taimirikaḥ) attains (prāpnoti) a level of efficacy (artha-kriyām) marked by (lakṣaṇām) distress (udvega) or (vā) happiness (ānanda); similarly (tathā eva), (the limited individual) who experiences spreading of dualism (prāpta-bheda-prathaḥ) because of the darkness (timira) of ignorance (ajñāna), though (api) all (sarvam) is not different (abhinnam) from his own Self (sva-ātmanaḥ), by proceeding (vyavaharan) dualistically (bhedena), strives to obtain (arthayate) the fruit(s) (phalam) of (his) actions (karma), which --the fruits-- (look like) different (from himself) (bhinnam). As a result (yena), he becomes (bhavati) over and over again (bhūyas-bhūyas) a receptacle (bhāk) for the enjoyment (bhoga) of heaven (svarga), hell (niraya), etc. (ādi).

Hence (atas ca), (Abhinavagupta uses) a metaphorical description (rūpaṇā) with (partial) blindness (timireṇa) in the case of ignorance (ajñānasya), inasmuch as (this eye disease) manifests (ābhāsanāt) an opposite reality (viparīta)||25||


Without notes of explanation yet

top


 Stanza 26

आत्माद्वयं दृष्टान्तेन निदर्शयति


रसफाणितशर्करिकागुडखण्डाद्या यथेक्षुरस एव।
तद्वदवस्थाभेदाः सर्वे परमात्मनः शम्भोः॥२६॥


रसादय इक्षुभेदा यथैक एवेक्षुरसः परमार्थतः सर्वत्र माधुर्यानुगमात्तथैव जाग्रदाद्यवस्थाभेदा ग्राह्यग्राहकप्रपञ्चरूपाः सर्वे विशेषाः परमात्मनः स्वस्वभावस्य शम्भोश्चैतन्यमहेश्वरस्यैव। यतः स एव भगवान् सर्वस्य स्वात्मभूतः स्वस्वातन्त्र्यात्तां तामपि भूमिकां समापन्नस्तथा ग्राह्यग्राहकाद्यवस्थाविशिष्टः प्रथते यथेक्षुरसो न पुनः स्वात्मनस्तस्माद्भिन्नं किञ्चिदस्ति — इति स एक एव सर्वावस्थासु संविदनुगमात्। इत्थं सर्वत्रैकरूपतादर्शनात्प्रमाता सर्वदृश्वा भवति। यथाह श्रीशम्भुभट्टारकः

एको भावः सर्वभावस्वभावः सर्वे भावा एकभावस्वभावाह्।
एको भावस्तत्त्वतो येन दृष्टः सर्वे भावास्तत्त्वतस्तेन दृष्टाः॥

इति। भगवद्गीतास्वपि

सर्वभूतेषु येनैकं भावमक्षयमीक्षते।
अविभक्तं विभक्तेषु तज्ज्ञानं विद्धि सात्त्विकम्॥

इति॥२६॥

Ātmādvayaṁ dṛṣṭāntena nidarśayati


Rasaphāṇitaśarkarikāguḍakhaṇḍādyā yathekṣurasa eva|
Tadvadavasthābhedāḥ sarve paramātmanaḥ śambhoḥ||26||


Rasādaya ikṣubhedā yathaika evekṣurasaḥ paramārthataḥ sarvatra mādhuryānugamāttathaiva jāgradādyavasthābhedā grāhyagrāhakaprapañcarūpāḥ sarve viśeṣāḥ paramātmanaḥ svasvabhāvasya śambhoścaitanyamaheśvarasyaiva| Yataḥ sa eva bhagavān sarvasya svātmabhūtaḥ svasvātantryāttāṁ tāmapi bhūmikāṁ samāpannastathā grāhyagrāhakādyavasthāviśiṣṭaḥ prathate yathekṣuraso na punaḥ svātmanastasmādbhinnaṁ kiñcidasti — Iti sa eka eva sarvāvasthāsu saṁvidanugamāt| Itthaṁ sarvatraikarūpatādarśanātpramātā sarvadṛśvā bhavati| Yathāha śrīśambhubhaṭṭārakaḥ

Eko bhāvaḥ sarvabhāvasvabhāvaḥ sarve bhāvā ekabhāvasvabhāvāh|
Eko bhāvastattvato yena dṛṣṭaḥ sarve bhāvāstattvatastena dṛṣṭāḥ||

iti| Bhagavadgītāsvapi

Sarvabhūteṣu yenaikaṁ bhāvamakṣayamīkṣate|
Avibhaktaṁ vibhakteṣu tajjñānaṁ viddhi sāttvikam||

iti||26||

(Abhinavagupta, in the following stanza,) points out (nidarśayati) the Self's non-dualism (ātma-advayam) by an example (dṛṣṭāntena):


Just as (yathā) juice of the sugar-cane (rasa), jaggery (phāṇita), refined sugar (śarkarikā), molasses (guḍa), candied sugar (khaṇḍa), etc. (ādyāḥ) (are) only (eva) (the very) juice (rasa) of the sugar-cane (ikṣu), in the same way (tadvad), all (sarve) the varieties (bhedāḥ) of states (avasthā) (are) of Śambhu (śambhoḥ), the Supreme Self (parama-ātmanaḥ)||26||


Just as (yathā) the varieties (bhedāḥ) of sugar-cane (ikṣu) (such as) juice of the sugar-cane (rasa), etc. (ādayaḥ) (are) only (eva) one (thing) (ekaḥ) really (parama-arthataḥ) viz. the (very) juice of the sugar-cane (ikṣu-rasaḥ), from (the presence of) sweetness (mādhurya-anugamāt) in every case (sarvatra), likewise (tathā eva) all (sarve) the bheda-s or varieties (bhedāḥ... viśeṣāḥ) of states (avasthā) —e.g. wakefulness (jāgrat), etc. (ādi)—, consisting of (rūpāḥ) a manifestation (prapañca) of subjects (grāhaka) (and) objects (grāhya), (are) of the Supreme Self (parama-ātmanaḥ) —one's essential nature (sva-sva-bhāvasya)—, i.e. (they belong to) Śambhu (śambhoḥ), to the Great Lord (mahā-īśvarasya) (who) is Caitanya or Consciousness in Absolute Freedom (caitanya).

Since (yatas) the Fortunate (Lord) (saḥ eva bhagavān) is (bhūtaḥ) one's own (sva) Self (ātma) of all (sarvasya), He plays (samāpannaḥ) various (tām tām api) roles (bhūmikām) due to His Freedom (sva-svātantryāt), (and) He so appears (tathā... prathate) characterized by (viśiṣṭaḥ) the states (avasthā) of object (grāhya), subject (grāhaka), etc. (ādi), as (yathā) (in the case of) the juice of the sugar-cane (ikṣu-rasaḥ). Nonetheless (punar), there is nothing (na... kiñcid asti) different (bhinnam) from Him (tasmāt), from one's own Self (sva-ātmanaḥ). So (iti), He (saḥ) (is) only (eva) one (ekaḥ) because He enters (anugamāt), as pure Consciousness (saṁvid), into all the states (sarva-avasthāsu).

In this way (ittham), the experient or knower (pramātā), inasmuch as he perceives (darśanāt) uniformity (eka-rūpatā) everywhere (sarvatra), becomes (bhavati) the seer (dṛśvā) of all (sarva) --someone who sees it all--.

As (yathā) venerable Śambhubhaṭṭāraka (śrī-śambhubhaṭṭārakaḥ) said (āha):

"One (ekaḥ) Being (bhāvaḥ) (is) the essential nature (sva-bhāvaḥ) of all (sarva) beings (bhāva) (and accordingly) all (sarve) beings (bhāvāḥ) have one (eka) Being (bhāva) for their essential nature (sva-bhāvāh). He (tena) really (tattvatas) sees (dṛṣṭāḥ) all (sarva) beings (bhāvāḥ) who (yena) truly (tattvatas) sees (dṛṣṭaḥ) one (ekaḥ) Being (bhāvaḥ... iti)."

In the (verses of) Bhagavadgītā (bhagavat-gītāsu) (one) also (api) (reads):

"Know (viddhi) that (tad) knowledge (jñāna) to be belonging to the quality called Sattva (sāttvikam) by which (yena) someone sees (īkṣate) one (ekam) imperishable (akṣayam) Being (bhāvam) in all beings (sarva-bhūteṣu), (by which someone sees) the Undivided One (avibhaktam) in those who are divided --the beings that form multiple divisions-- (vibhakteṣu... iti)."

||26||


Without notes of explanation yet

top


 Stanza 27

तीर्थान्तरपरिकल्पितस्तु भेदः संवृत्यर्थमभ्युपगतोऽपि न सत्यभूमाववकल्पते — इत्याह


विज्ञानान्तर्यामिप्राणविराड्देहजातिपिण्डान्ताः।
व्यवहारमात्रमेतत् परमार्थेन तु न सन्त्येव॥२७॥


विज्ञानमिति बोधमात्रमेव केवलमनुपाधि नामरूपरहितमप्यनादिवासनाप्रबोधवैचित्र्यसामर्थ्यान्नीलसुखादिरूपं बाह्यरूपतया नाना प्रकाशते — इति विज्ञानवादिनः।

पुरुष एवेदं सर्वम्...।
नेह नानास्ति किञ्चन...।

इति न्यायेनान्तर्यामि सर्वस्य — इति परं ब्रह्मैवानाद्यविद्यावशाद्भेदेन प्रकाशते — इति ब्रह्मवादिनः। अत्रोभयत्रापि वेदनस्य स्वातन्त्र्यं जीवितभूतं विश्वनिर्माणहेतुः — इति न चेतितम्। अन्ये प्राणब्रह्मवादिनस्तु यथाप्राणनमेव विश्वमागूर्य वर्तते नहि प्राणनादृतेऽन्यत्किञ्चिद्ब्रह्मणो रूपम् — इति सविमर्शं शब्दब्रह्म — इत्याहुः। अपरे प्रतिपन्ना यथा विराड्देहमिति वैराजमपि ब्रह्मणः सत्यभूतम् — इति। यथोक्तम्

यस्याग्निरास्यं द्यौर्मूर्धा खं नाभिश्चरणौ क्षितिः।
सूर्यश्चक्षुर्दिशः श्रोत्रे तस्मै लोकात्मने नमः॥

इत्येवमादि। जातिरिति महासत्तासामान्यलक्षणं सर्वगुणाश्रयं वस्तु परमार्थसत् — इति वैशेषिकादयो ब्रुवते। अन्ये पिण्डा इति व्यक्तय एव परमार्थसत्यो नहि सामान्यं नाम किञ्चिदेकमनेकगुणाश्रयं प्रकाशते नाप्युपपद्यते वा — इति व्यक्तीनामेव व्यवहारः परिसमाप्तः किं सामान्येन — इति नानावृत्तिविकल्पैः सामान्यं विवदमाना व्यक्तयो नानुयन्त्यन्यदनुयायि न भासत इत्येवमादि बहु ब्रुवन्तो जातिर्न परमार्थ इति प्रतिपन्नाः — इत्येव विज्ञानादिः पिण्डोऽन्ते येषां भेदानां ते तथोक्ता व्यवहारमात्रमेतदित्यस्मिन् स्वातन्त्र्यवादे प्रकाशमानस्य वस्तुनोऽनपह्नवनीयत्वादेते भेदाः संवृतिसत्यत्वेन प्रकाशन्ते परमार्थेन तु न सन्त्येवेति न पुनः सतत्त्वतयैते भेदास्तीर्थान्तरपरिकल्पितभेदा विद्यमाना एव। तस्मादेक एव परमप्रकाशपरमार्थः स्वतन्त्रश्चैतन्यमहेश्वर इत्थमित्थं चकास्ति यतोऽन्यस्यैतद्व्यतिरिक्तस्याप्रकाशरूपस्य प्रकाशमानताभावात्। यदुक्तम्

तीर्थक्रियाव्यसनिनः स्वमनीषिकाभिरुत्प्रेक्ष्य तत्त्वमिति यद्यदमी वदन्ति।
तत् तत्त्वमेव भवतोऽस्ति न किञ्चिदन्यत्सङ्ज्ञासु केवलमयं विदुषां विवादः॥

इति॥२७॥

Tīrthāntaraparikalpitastu bhedaḥ saṁvṛtyarthamabhyupagato'pi na satyabhūmāvavakalpate — Ityāha


Vijñānāntaryāmiprāṇavirāḍdehajātipiṇḍāntāḥ|
Vyavahāramātrametat paramārthena tu na santyeva||27||


Vijñānamiti bodhamātrameva kevalamanupādhi nāmarūparahitamapyanādivāsanāprabodhavaicitryasāmarthyānnīlasukhādirūpaṁ bāhyarūpatayā nānā prakāśate — Iti vijñānavādinaḥ|

Puruṣa evedaṁ sarvam...|
Neha nānāsti kiñcana...|

Iti nyāyenāntaryāmi sarvasya — Iti paraṁ brahmaivānādyavidyāvaśādbhedena prakāśate — Iti brahmavādinaḥ| Atrobhayatrāpi vedanasya svātantryaṁ jīvitabhūtaṁ viśvanirmāṇahetuḥ — Iti na cetitam| Anye prāṇabrahmavādinastu yathāprāṇanameva viśvamāgūrya vartate nahi prāṇanādṛte'nyatkiñcidbrahmaṇo rūpam — Iti savimarśaṁ śabdabrahma — Ityāhuḥ| Apare pratipannā yathā virāḍdehamiti vairājamapi brahmaṇaḥ satyabhūtam — Iti| Yathoktam

Yasyāgnirāsyaṁ dyaurmūrdhā khaṁ nābhiścaraṇau kṣitiḥ|
Sūryaścakṣurdiśaḥ śrotre tasmai lokātmane namaḥ||

Ityevamādi| Jātiriti mahāsattāsāmānyalakṣaṇaṁ sarvaguṇāśrayaṁ vastu paramārthasat — Iti vaiśeṣikādayo bruvate| Anye piṇḍā iti vyaktaya eva paramārthasatyo nahi sāmānyaṁ nāma kiñcidekamanekaguṇāśrayaṁ prakāśate nāpyupapadyate vā — Iti vyaktīnāmeva vyavahāraḥ parisamāptaḥ kiṁ sāmānyena — Iti nānāvṛttivikalpaiḥ sāmānyaṁ vivadamānā vyaktayo nānuyantyanyadanuyāyi na bhāsata ityevamādi bahu bruvanto jātirna paramārtha iti pratipannāḥ — Ityeva vijñānādiḥ piṇḍo'nte yeṣāṁ bhedānāṁ te tathoktā vyavahāramātrametadityasmin svātantryavāde prakāśamānasya vastuno'napahnavanīyatvādete bhedāḥ saṁvṛtisatyatvena prakāśante paramārthena tu na santyeveti na punaḥ satattvatayaite bhedāstīrthāntaraparikalpitabhedā vidyamānā eva| Tasmādeka eva paramaprakāśaparamārthaḥ svatantraścaitanyamaheśvara itthamitthaṁ cakāsti yato'nyasyaitadvyatiriktasyāprakāśarūpasya prakāśamānatābhāvāt| Yaduktam

Tīrthakriyāvyasaninaḥ svamanīṣikābhirutprekṣya tattvamiti yadyadamī vadanti|
Tat tattvameva bhavato'sti na kiñcidanyatsaṅjñāsu kevalamayaṁ viduṣāṁ vivādaḥ||

iti||27||

(Abhinavagupta, in this stanza,) said (āha) (the following:) "However (tu), the variety (of opinions about the Highest Reality) (bhedaḥ) created (parikalpitaḥ) by other (antara) philosophies (tīrtha), even though (api) it is admitted (abhyupagataḥ) for the sake of (artham) (establishing) a conventionality (which conceals the Truth) (saṁvṛti), is not fit for (na... kalpate) the plane (bhūmau) of the Truth (satya... iti)":


Definite ascertainments (antāḥ) (such as:) "Consciousness as a stream" (vijñāna), "the Indweller" (antar-yāmi), "the vital energy" (prāṇa), "the One whose Body is the macrocosm" (virāṭ-deha), "the Universal" (jāti) (and) "the Individuals" (piṇḍa)... this (etad) (is) only (mātram) empirical discourse --a mere conventionality-- (vyavahāra)... nonetheless (tu), (all those things) do not (na) really (parama-arthena) exist (santi) at all (eva)!||27||


"Vijñāna" (Vijñānam iti) (is) only (kevalam) mere (mātram eva) Consciousness (as a stream) (bodha), which, (though) free from limitations (anupādhi) —It is even devoid of (rahitam api) name (nāma) (and) form (rūpa)— It appears (prakāśate) variously --in different ways-- (nānā) (and) with an external form (bāhya-rūpatayā) such as blue, pleasure, etc. (nīla-sukha-ādi-rūpam) on account of (sāmarthyāt) the multiplicity (vaicitrya) of cognitions (prabodha) (generated) by beginningless (an-ādi) residual tendencies (vāsanā). This is what the followers of the doctrine of Consciousness as a stream formulate --i.e. the followers of Yogācāra Buddhism-- (iti vijñāna-vādinaḥ).

According to the axiom (nyāyena):

"Only (eva) Puruṣa --the Supreme Person-- (puruṣaḥ) (is) all (sarvam) this (idam)...
Here (iha) there is not at all (na... asti kiñcana) manifoldness --nothing is different from Him-- (nānā... iti)..."

the Supreme (param) Brahma (brahma) Himself (eva), who is "the Indweller (antar-yāmi) as regards all (sarvasya... iti)", appears (prakāśate) as dual (bhedena) due to (vaśāt) beginningless (an-ādi) ignorance (avidyā). This is what the followers of the doctrine of Brahma establish --i.e. the followers of Advaitavedānta-- (iti brahma-vādinaḥ).

Here (atra), in both cases --both in Yogācāra Buddhism and Advaitavedānta-- (ubhayatra api), it has not been taken notice of (na cetitam) Freedom (svātantryam) of Consciousness (vedanasya), which is (bhūtam) Life (jīvita), as being the Cause (hetuḥ) of the universal manifestation (viśva-nirmāṇa... iti).

However (tu), others (anye), known as the followers of the doctrine (vādinaḥ) of Brahma (brahma) as prāṇa or vital energy (prāṇa), after having pronounced the āgur --an approving exclamation used in the Vedic rites-- (āgūrya) (for the assertion) "The universe (viśvam) only (eva) exists (vartate) as (yathā) vital energy (prāṇanam)", (proclaim) that Brahma (brahmaṇaḥ) has no other (nahi... anyat kiñcid) form or nature (rūpam) apart from (ṛte) the vital energy (prāṇanāt). Thus (iti), they called (this vital energy) (āhuḥ): "Śabdabrahma --Brahma as word-- (śabda-brahma) endowed with Awareness (sa-vimarśam... iti)".

(In turn,) others (apare) are convinced (pratipannāḥ) that even (api) Vairāja (vairājam) as (yathā) "the One whose Body is the macrocosm (virāṭ-deham iti)" is (bhūtam) the truth (satya) with reference to Brahma (brahmaṇaḥ... iti).

As has been said (yathā uktam) (in Mahābhārata 12.47.44):

"Salutation (namas) to that (tasmai) universal Self (loka-ātmane) whose (yasya) mouth (āsyam) (is) fire (agniḥ), (whose) head (mūrdhā) (is) heaven (dyaus), (whose) navel (nābhiḥ) (is) the sky (kham), (whose) feet (caraṇau) (are) the earth (kṣitiḥ), (whose) eye (cakṣus) (is) the sun (puruṣaḥ) (and whose) ears (śrotre) (are) the directions (diśaḥ... iti)!"

(the macrocosmic Being) is of such nature (evam-ādi).

The followers of the Vaiśeṣika system (vaiśeṣika), etc. (ādayaḥ) say (bruvate) that the reality or substance (vastu) (called) "the Universal" (jātiḥ iti) characterized by (lakṣaṇam) universality (sāmānya) (in the form of) the great (mahā) existence (sattā), which is the substratum (āśrayam) of all (sarva) the attributes (guṇa), is (sat) the Highest (parama) Reality (artha... iti).

(Even) others (anye) (postulate) that only the individuals (vyaktayaḥ) (known as) "piṇḍa-s (piṇḍāḥ iti)" are (satyaḥ) the Highest (parama) Reality (artha). Nothing (nahi... kiñcid) called (nāma) universality --the Jāti or Universal-- (sāmānya) becomes manifest (prakāśate) or (vā) even (api) exists (na upapadyate). So (iti), (when) the ordinary activity (vyavahāraḥ) relates (parisamāptaḥ) to the individuals (vyaktīnām) alone (eva), (then) "what is the use of a Universal (kim sāmānyena... iti)?" Disputing (vivadamānāḥ) about the universality --the notion of an Universal-- (sāmānyam) (and also disputing) with the different ideas (nānā... vikalpaiḥ) (supporting its) existence (vṛtti), they frequently are saying (bahu bruvantaḥ) such things as (evam-ādi): "(If) the individuals (vyaktayaḥ) do not (na) seek (anuyanti) --if they do not go after--, another (universal reality) (anyat) dependent on (their seeking) (anuyāyi) does not shine forth (bhāsate... iti)", (and as a result,) they are convinced that (pratipannāḥ) "The Universal (jātiḥ) is not (na) the Highest Reality (parama-arthaḥ... iti)". Thus (iti eva), in the case of the varieties (of opinions about the Highest Reality) (bhedānām) which (yeṣām) begin with (ādiḥ) "Consciousness as a stream" (vijñāna) and end in (ante) "the Individual(s)" (piṇḍaḥ), they (te) (are just) hypothetical (tathā-uktāḥ). (By the phrase occurring the stanza:) "this (etad) (is) only (mātram) empirical discourse --a mere conventionality-- (vyavahāra... iti)", (it is meant that) these (ete) different (opinions about the Highest Reality) (bhedāḥ) appear (prakāśante) as a conventional truth (that conceals the real Truth) (saṁvṛti-satyatvena) since there is no denial or concealment (anapahnavanīyatvāt) of the effulgent and evident (prakāśamānasya) Reality (vastunaḥ) in this doctrine (asmin... vāde) of the Absolute Freedom (svātantrya) --i.e. in the Trika system--. (On the other hand, by the expression:) "(all those things) do not (na) really (parama-arthena) exist (santi) at all (eva... iti)!", (the purport is that) nonetheless (their paraphernalia of theories) (punar) these (ete) different (opinions about the Highest Reality) (bhedāḥ) are not (na) real or true (satattvatayā). (All in all, those) different (opinions with regard to Highest Reality) (bhedāḥ) created (parikalpita) by other (antara) philosophies (tīrtha) only (eva) exist (vidyamānāḥ) (but they do not contain the Truth).

Therefore (tasmāt), only (eva) one (ekaḥ) Free (svatantraḥ) Great (mahā) Lord (īśvaraḥ) (also called) Caitanya --Consciousness in Absolute Freedom-- (caitanya) shines (cakāsti) (here) in this and that way (ittham ittham) as the Highest Reality (parama-arthaḥ) (or) Supreme (parama) Effulgence (prakāśa), because (yatas) if there was another (reality) (anyasya) different (vyatiriktasya) from Him (etad), (such a reality) would be (rūpasya) devoid of (His) Effulgence (aprakāśa) --it would remain unmanifest-- due to the absence (abhāvāt) of (its) becoming manifest by His Light (prakāśamānatā).

As has been said (yathā uktam):

"Whatever (yad yad) those (amī) who are addicted to (vyasaninaḥ) the philosophical activity (tīrtha-kriyā) say (vadanti) to be the Truth (tattvam iti) after having observed and reflected (utprekṣya) through their own intelligences (sva-manīṣikābhiḥ), that (tad) truth (tattvam) is (asti) only (eva) of Yours (bhavataḥ) (and) no other thing (na kiñcid anyat). This --the rest-- (ayam) (is) solely (kevalam) a quarrel (vivādaḥ) between scholars (viduṣām) about technical terms (saṅjñāsu)."

||27||


Without notes of explanation yet

top


 Further Information

Габриэль Pradīpaka

Этот документ был составлен Габриэлем Pradīpaka, одним из двух основателей этого сайта, духовным гуру, экспертом в санскрите и философии Трика.

Для получения дополнительной информации о санскрите, йоге и философии, или если вы просто хотите оставить комментарий, задать вопрос или нашли ошибку, напишите нам: Это наша электронная почта.



Вернуться Строфы 20-23 Вверх  Продолжить чтение Строфы 28-31