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Paramārthasāra (Парамартхасара) Абхинавагупты: Строфы 32-35. Недвойственный Кашмирский Шиваизм

Стандартный перевод


 Introduction

Paramārthasāra continues with four more stanzas. This is the ninth set of stanzas, which is composed of 4 out of the 105 stanzas constituting the entire work.

Of course, I will also insert the original stanzas on which Yogarāja is commenting. I will write a lot of notes to make this book so understandable to the average reader as possible.

Yogarāja's Sanskrit will be in dark green color while the original Abhinavagupta's stanzas will be shown in dark red color. In turn, within the transliteration, the original stanzas will be in brown color, while the Yogarāja's comments will be shown in black. Also, within the translation, the original stanzas by Abhinavagupta, i.e. Paramārthasāra, will be in green and black colors, while the commentary by Yogarāja will contain words in both black and red colors.

Read Paramārthasāra and experience Supreme Ānanda or Divine Bliss, dear Śiva.

Important: All that is in brackets and italicized within the translation has been added by me in order to complete the sense of a particular phrase or sentence. In turn, all that is between double hyphen (--...--) constitutes clarifying further information also added by me.

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 Stanza 32

एवमख्यातिवशान्मिथ्याविकल्पैरित्थमात्मानं बध्नाति — इत्याह


देहप्राणविमर्शनधीज्ञाननभःप्रपञ्चयोगेन।
आत्मानं वेष्टयते चित्रं जालेन जालकार इव॥३२॥


अख्यात्यपहस्तितचैतन्यः सर्वः प्रमाता स्वोत्थैर्विकल्पनिगडैर्व्यापकमप्यात्मानं वेष्टयते। कथम् — इत्याह देह इत्यादि। देहप्राणयोर्विमर्शनं धियो ज्ञानं निश्चयो नभसां प्रपञ्चो विस्तारस्तद्योगेन देहादिविकल्पसम्बन्धेन। यथा कृशः स्थूलो रूपवान्पण्डितश्चास्मि — इति बालाङ्गनापामराः कार्षिका इत्थं स्वविकल्पेन देहमेवात्मत्वेन प्रतिपन्नाः किञ्चिद्विवेचकम्मन्याः।

देहस्तावदिहैव प्रलीयते कुतोऽस्यात्मत्वमतो यः क्षुधितः पिपासितः सोऽहम् — इति प्राणात्ममानिनश्च विवेचकम्मन्यतराः।

देहप्राणौ जडौ लोष्टादिवत्कुतोऽनयोरात्मभावस्ततः सुख्यहं दुःख्यहम् — इति यः सुखदुःखादि चेतते स आत्मा — इति पुर्यष्टकाभिमानिनो मीमांसकादयोऽपि विवेचकतमाश्च।

एतत्सुखदुःखाद्यपि बुद्धिधर्मः कथमात्मतया वक्तुं शक्यस्ततो देहप्राणधीविकल्पानां यत्राभावः स आत्मा — इति शून्याभिमानिनः। एवं यत्किञ्चिदिदं भाति तन्नाहम् — इत्यप्रथारूपं शून्यमेव सर्वापोहनस्वभावमात्मा — इति नभःशब्देनोक्तः। तदपि शून्यं यदा समाधानावसरे वेद्यीकुर्वते — एतदपि शून्यं वयं न भवामः — तदा शून्यान्तरमात्मत्वेन विदधाना नेति नेति ब्रह्मवाद्यभ्युपगततत्तच्छून्यपरित्यागेन तां तां शून्यात्मतां परिगृह्णन्ति — इति नभःप्रपञ्चः कारिकायां निरूपितः। इत्थं संवित्स्वरूपापर्यवसानाच्छून्यात्ममानिनो योगिनः सुषुप्तगुहानिमग्ना जडात्मानो भ्रान्ता एवात्मानं संवित्स्वरूपमपि जाड्येनानुबध्नन्ति। चित्रमित्याश्चर्यमेतत् — यदुत वैशसं नैतत्स्वयं कर्तुं पार्यते — इति। अत्र दृष्टान्तमाह जालेन इत्यादि। यथा जालकारः कश्चित्कृमिर्वा स्वनिर्मितेन फेनेन जालमावरणं निर्माय सर्वतो गतमात्मानं वेष्टयते स्वं स्वात्मनिधनाय बध्नाति येनोत्तरत्र तत्रैव निधनं याति तथा देहाद्यात्ममानी तु स्वविकल्पकल्पितैरहं ममेति विकल्पैः स्वात्मानमेव बध्नाति। तथा च बौद्धाः

सत्यात्मनि परसञ्ज्ञा स्वपरविभागात्परिग्रहद्वेषौ।
अनयोः सम्प्रतिबद्धाः सर्वे दोषाः प्रजायन्ते॥

इत्याहुः॥३२॥

Evamakhyātivaśānmithyāvikalpairitthamātmānaṁ badhnāti — Ityāha


Dehaprāṇavimarśanadhījñānanabhaḥprapañcayogena|
Ātmānaṁ veṣṭayate citraṁ jālena jālakāra iva||32||


Akhyātyapahastitacaitanyaḥ sarvaḥ pramātā svotthairvikalpanigaḍairvyāpakamapyātmānaṁ veṣṭayate| Katham — Ityāha deha ityādi| Dehaprāṇayorvimarśanaṁ dhiyo jñānaṁ niścayo nabhasāṁ prapañco vistārastadyogena dehādivikalpasambandhena| Yathā kṛśaḥ sthūlo rūpavānpaṇḍitaścāsmi — Iti bālāṅganāpāmarāḥ kārṣikā itthaṁ svavikalpena dehamevātmatvena pratipannāḥ kiñcidvivecakammanyāḥ|

Dehastāvadihaiva pralīyate kuto'syātmatvamato yaḥ kṣudhitaḥ pipāsitaḥ so'ham — Iti prāṇātmamāninaśca vivecakammanyatarāḥ|

Dehaprāṇau jaḍau loṣṭādivatkuto'nayorātmabhāvastataḥ sukhyahaṁ duḥkhyaham — Iti yaḥ sukhaduḥkhādi cetate sa ātmā — Iti puryaṣṭakābhimānino mīmāṁsakādayo'pi vivecakatamāśca|

Etatsukhaduḥkhādyapi buddhidharmaḥ kathamātmatayā vaktuṁ śakyastato dehaprāṇadhīvikalpānāṁ yatrābhāvaḥ sa ātmā — Iti śūnyābhimāninaḥ| Evaṁ yatkiñcididaṁ bhāti tannāham — Ityaprathārūpaṁ śūnyameva sarvāpohanasvabhāvamātmā — Iti nabhaḥśabdenoktaḥ| Tadapi śūnyaṁ yadā samādhānāvasare vedyīkurvate — Etadapi śūnyaṁ vayaṁ na bhavāmaḥ — Tadā śūnyāntaramātmatvena vidadhānā neti neti brahmavādyabhyupagatatattacchūnyaparityāgena tāṁ tāṁ śūnyātmatāṁ parigṛhṇanti — Iti nabhaḥprapañcaḥ kārikāyāṁ nirūpitaḥ| Itthaṁ saṁvitsvarūpāparyavasānācchūnyātmamānino yoginaḥ suṣuptaguhānimagnā jaḍātmāno bhrāntā evātmānaṁ saṁvitsvarūpamapi jāḍyenānubadhnanti| Citramityāścaryametat — Yaduta vaiśasaṁ naitatsvayaṁ kartuṁ pāryate — Iti| Atra dṛṣṭāntamāha jālena ityādi| Yathā jālakāraḥ kaścitkṛmirvā svanirmitena phenena jālamāvaraṇaṁ nirmāya sarvato gatamātmānaṁ veṣṭayate svaṁ svātmanidhanāya badhnāti yenottaratra tatraiva nidhanaṁ yāti tathā dehādyātmamānī tu svavikalpakalpitairahaṁ mameti vikalpaiḥ svātmānameva badhnāti| Tathā ca bauddhāḥ

Satyātmani parasañjñā svaparavibhāgātparigrahadveṣau|
Anayoḥ sampratibaddhāḥ sarve doṣāḥ prajāyante||

Ityāhuḥ||32||

Thus (evam), (Abhinavagupta, in the current stanza,) said (badhnāti) (that) by false thoughts (mithyā-vikalpaiḥ) (arisen) on account of (vaśāt) the primordial ignorance --Āṇavamala-- (akhyāti), (the limited individual) binds (badhnāti) himself (ātmānam) in this way (ittham... iti):


By means of (yogena) the act of considering (that he is) (vimarśana) physical body (deha) (and) vital energy (prāṇa), (by) the intellectual knowledge (dhī-jñāna) (and through) the expansion (prapañca) of the ethers (nabhas), (the limited individual) wraps himself up (ātmānam veṣṭayate) astonishingly (citram) like (iva) a spider (jālakāraḥ) with (its) web (jālena)||32||


Every (sarvaḥ) experient or knower (pramātā) whose Caitanya --Consciousness in Absolute Freedom-- (caitanyaḥ) has been discarded (apahastita) by the primordial ignorance --Āṇavamala-- (akhyāti), though (api) all-pervasive (vyāpakam), he wraps himself up (ātmānam veṣṭayate) by the fetters (nigaḍaiḥ) (known as) thoughts (vikalpa), which --the fetters-- originate in himself (sva-utthaiḥ).

"How (does he do that) (katham... iti)?". (Abhinavagupta answered the question by saying "By means of the act of considering that he is) body (deha)", etc. (iti-ādi).

(Going into details, he does that through) the act of considering (himself) (vimarśanam) as body and vital energy (deha-prāṇayoḥ), (through) the intellectual knowledge (dhiyaḥ jñānam) (characterized by) ascertainment (niścayaḥ), (and through) the prapañca (prapañcaḥ) (or) expansion (vistāraḥ) of the ethers (nabhasām). (All in all, he wraps himself up) by means of (yogena) (all) that (tad), i.e. by (his) close association with (sambhandena) thoughts (vikalpa) (related to) body (deha), etc. (ādi).

Just as (yathā) children, women, people of lowest extraction (bāla-aṅganā-pāmarāḥ) (and) husbandwomen (kārṣikāḥ) (think this way:): "I am (asmi) thin (kṛśaḥ)", "I am (asmi) fat (sthūlaḥ)", "I am (asmi) handsome (rūpavān)" and (ca) "I am (asmi) a scholar (paṇḍitaḥ... iti)", so (ittham) people who think (manyāḥ) with a limited (kiñcid) discernment (vivecakam) are convinced (pratipannāḥ), due to their own thought (sva-vikalpena), that the body (deham) (is) certainly (eva) (their) Self (ātmatvena).

(When) the physical body (deha) is indeed (tāvat) dissolved (pralīyate) here, in this world (iha eva), how then (kutas) (could) the state of the Self (ātmatvam) (be) its --of the body-- (asya)? --i.e. how then could the body be the Self?--. And (ca) in consequence of this --to exhibit a better explanation about the real identity of the Self-- (atas) (arose) the ones who think (māninaḥ) that the vital energy (prāṇa) is the Self (ātma) (on the basis of the following experience:) "I myself (saḥ aham) (am) who (yaḥ) is hungry (kṣudhitaḥ) (and) thirsty (pipāsitaḥ... iti)". (But they are also mistaken though they believe that they are) better thinkers endowed with discernment (vivecakam-manyatarāḥ).

(When) the physical body and the vital energy (deha-prāṇau) (are) inert (jaḍau) like (vat) lumps of clay (loṣṭa) and such (ādi), how then (kutas) (could) the state (bhāvaḥ) of the Self (ātma) (be) of these two (anayoḥ)? Also (ca), in consequence of that --in order to show a better explanation about the nature of the Self-- (tatas), (emerged) the ones who think (abhimāninaḥ) that the subtle body (puri-aṣṭaka) (is the Self)(a group of people that) includes the followers of Pūrvamīmāṁsā (mīmāṁsaka... api), etc. (ādayaḥ)(on the basis of the following teaching:) "He (saḥ) (is) the Self (ātmā) who (yaḥ) perceives (cetati) pleasure (sukha), pain (duḥkha), etc. (ādi... iti)", (which derives from the experiences:) "I (aham) (am) happy (sukhī)" (and) "I (aham) (am) unhappy (duḥkhī... iti)". (However, they are also mistaken though they believe that they are) the best (thinkers) furnished with discernment (vivecakatamāḥ).

(When) even (api) this (etad) (group composed of) pleasure (sukha), pain (duḥkha), etc. (ādi) is of the nature (dharmaḥ) of Buddhi or Intellect --tattva or category 14-- (buddhi), how then (katham) can (śakyaḥ) (it) be said (vaktum) to be the Self (ātmatayā)? In consequence of that --to show a better explanation about who the Self is-- (tatas), (appeared) the ones who think (abhimāninaḥ) (that the Self) is a void (śūnya) (on the basis of the following instruction:) "He (saḥ) (is) the Self (ātmā) wherein (yatra) there is absence (abhāvaḥ) of intellectual fluctuations (dhī-vikalpānām) related to physical body (deha) (and) vital energy (prāṇa... iti)".

Thus (evam), "This (idam) shining forth (bhāti), whatever it may be (yad-kiñcid), I (aham) (am) not (na) that (tad... iti)". (As a result,) the Self (ātmā) (is) the void (śūnyam) itself (eva) whose form (rūpam) is without any spreading out (aprathā) (and) whose nature (sva-bhāvam) is negation (apoha) of all (sarva). (This Self as void) was mentioned (uktaḥ) (by Abhinavagupta) by the word (śabdena) "nabhas" --ether(s)-- (nabhas) (in the stanza).

When (yadā), on the occasion (avasare) of trance (samādhāna), even (api) that (tad) void (śūnyam) is made an object of knowledge (vedyī-kurvate), (that experience triggers the affirmation:) "We (vayam) are (bhavāmaḥ) not (na) even (api) this (etad) void (śūnyam)", then (tadā), such as it is admitted (abhyupagata) by the followers of the doctrine (vādi) of Brahma (brahma), by establishing (vidadhānāḥ) another (antaram) void (śūnya) as the Self (ātmatvena) (and, after doing so for the first time,) by abandoning (parityāgena) each of the (tad-tad) (successive) voids (śūnya) (that will follow... how?... through the expression:) "(It is) not (this) (na iti)", "(It is) not (this) (na iti)", they --the followers of the doctrine of Brahma-- (ultimately) take hold of --i.e. they realize-- (parigṛhṇanti) the Self (ātmatām) as a (final) "Void" (śūnya) (having firstly become aware of) each of those (successive voids, such as has been explained) (tām tām... iti). (This --the question about the Self as a final "Void" after a succession of voids-- was) indicated (nirūpitaḥ) in the aphorism (kārikāyām) (by the expression:) "the expansion (prapañcaḥ) of the ethers (nabhas)".

In this way (ittham), the yogī-s (yoginaḥ), not arriving at the final portion (of the question about the Highest Reality) (aparyavasānāt), i.e. "that (their own) essential nature (svarūpa) (is) pure Consciousness (saṁvid)", think (māninaḥ) that the Self (ātma) (is) a void (śūnya) (and) remain immersed in (nimagnāḥ) the cave (guhā) of deep sleep (suṣupta). (This is so because these) confused (yogī-s) (bhrāntāḥ eva) of dull nature (jaḍa-ātmānaḥ) bind (anubadhnanti) the Self (ātmānam) by insensibility --the inert state of void-- (jāḍyena) though (api) His essence (sva-rūpam) (is) pure Consciousness (saṁvid).

(The term) "citram" (citram iti) (in the stanza means that) this (etad) (is) astonishing (āścaryam). (In other words, this is what one, filled with awe, would think about it:) "(A limited individual) cannot (na... pāryate) be doing (kartum) this (etad) that (yad-uta) (is) a calamity (vaiśasam) to himself (svayam)!".

(To explain such a mystery, Abhinavagupta) cited (āha), with reference to this (subject-matter) (atra), an example (dṛṣṭāntam) (in stanza): "jālena" --with (its) web-- (jālena), etc. (iti-ādi).

Just as (yathā) any (kaścid) "jālakāra" (jālakāraḥ) or (vā) spider (kṛmiḥ), having created (nirmāya) the web (jālam) (or) covering (āvaraṇam) with saliva (phenena) created (nirmitena) by itself --by the spider-- (sva), wraps up (veṣṭayate) (its) all-pervasive (sarvatas gatam) Self (ātmānam) —i.e. it binds (badhnāti) itself (svam) for its own annihilation (sva-ātma-nidhanāya)(and) as a result (yena) gets annihilated (nidhanam yāti) subsequently (uttaratra) therein (tatra eva), in the same way (tathā), he binds (badhnāti) himself (sva-ātmānam eva) by means of thoughts (vikalpaiḥ) (related to) "I (aham) (and) mine (mama iti)" created (kalpitaiḥ) by his own (sva) imagination (vikalpa) who thinks (mānī) that the body, etc. (deha-ādi) (are) the Self (ātma) indeed (tu).

The Buddhists (bauddhāḥ) said (āhuḥ) the same thing (tathā ca):

"The perception (sañjñā) of the true Self (satya-ātmani) as another (different reality) (para) (brings about) possession and hatred (parigraha-dveṣau) due to the division between (vibhāgāt) the Self (sva) (and) another (different reality) (para). All (sarve) faults (doṣāḥ) are produced (prajāyante) in connection with (sampratibaddhāḥ) these two (anayoḥ... iti)."

||32||


Without notes of explanation yet

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 Stanza 33

कथमेष दुर्निवारो महामोहो देहादिप्रमातृतासमुत्थः प्रलीयते — इति भगवत्स्वातन्त्र्यमेवात्र हेतुः — इत्याह


स्वज्ञानविभवभासनयोगेनोद्वेष्टयेन्निजात्मानम्।
इति बन्धमोक्षचित्रां क्रीडां प्रतनोति परमशिवः॥३३॥


स्वस्य आत्मनश्चैतन्यलक्षणस्य यज्ज्ञानं स्वस्वातन्त्र्यावगमस्तस्य विभवो देहाद्यभिमानविगलनेन यच्चित्स्वरूपे पराहन्ताचमत्काररूपस्य स्वस्वातन्त्र्यस्य स्फीतत्वं चिदानन्दैकघनः स्वतन्त्रोऽस्मि — इति तस्य बोधस्वातन्त्र्यस्वरूपस्य विभवस्य भासनं प्रकाशः सर्वो ममायं विभव इति बाह्यतयाभिमतस्य सर्वस्य स्वात्मन्येव स्वीकारस्तस्य योग एवम्परिशीलनक्रमेणात्मनि यद्विमर्शदार्ढ्यमेवमेतेन स्वज्ञानविभवभासनयोगेन निजमात्मानं नान्यत उपनतं चैतन्यस्वभावमुद्वेष्टयते देहप्राणपुर्यष्टकशून्यपरामर्शननिगडैर्यो वेष्टित आसीत्तमेव चैतन्यस्वरूपः स्वतन्त्रोऽस्मीति विमर्शनेन पुनरपि भगवानेवोद्वेष्टनं विगतवेष्टनं कुरुते — इति। एवमख्यातिबलादागतं स्वात्मनो देहाद्यावरणं तत्पुनरपि ख्यातिबलाद्विनश्यति — इति स्वविकल्पकल्पित इयान्दोषः — इति श्रीमद्ग्रन्थकृता तन्त्रसारे निरूपितम्

यो निश्चयः पशुजनस्य जडोऽस्मि कर्मसम्पाशितोऽस्मि मलिनोऽस्मि परेरितोऽस्मि।
इत्येतदन्यदृढनिश्चयलाभयुक्त्या सद्यः पतिर्भवति विश्ववपुश्चिदात्मा॥

इति। किमिति बध्नाति मुञ्चति च भगवान् — इत्याह इति बन्ध इत्यादि। इति प्राक् प्रतिपादितेन क्रमेण भगवान्स्वतन्त्रः परमशिवः पूर्णचिदानन्दैकघनलक्षणः स्वरूपगोपनसतत्त्वक्रीडाशीलत्वादख्यात्यवभासनपूर्वं स्वात्मानमेव देहादिप्रमातृतापन्नं विधाय स्वरूपं प्रच्छाद्य च बन्धं विदधाति तथैव पुनः स्वेच्छातः स्वात्मज्ञानप्रकाशक्रमेण देहादिप्रमातृताबन्धं निवार्य स एव तं स्वात्मानं मोचयति — इत्युभयथा बन्धमोक्षचित्रां संसारापवर्गस्वरूपाश्चर्यमयीं क्रीडां खेलां प्रतनोति विस्तारयत्येकाकी न रमाम्यहमिति। स्वभाव एवैष देवस्य यत्तां तामप्यवस्थामापन्नः स्वरूपरूपः सन्सर्वत्रानुभवितृतया प्रथते — इत्येतदेव स्वातन्त्र्यम्॥३३॥

Kathameṣa durnivāro mahāmoho dehādipramātṛtāsamutthaḥ pralīyate — Iti bhagavatsvātantryamevātra hetuḥ — Ityāha


Svajñānavibhavabhāsanayogenodveṣṭayennijātmānam|
Iti bandhamokṣacitrāṁ krīḍāṁ pratanoti paramaśivaḥ||33||


Svasya ātmanaścaitanyalakṣaṇasya yajjñānaṁ svasvātantryāvagamastasya vibhavo dehādyabhimānavigalanena yaccitsvarūpe parāhantācamatkārarūpasya svasvātantryasya sphītatvaṁ cidānandaikaghanaḥ svatantro'smi — Iti tasya bodhasvātantryasvarūpasya vibhavasya bhāsanaṁ prakāśaḥ sarvo mamāyaṁ vibhava iti bāhyatayābhimatasya sarvasya svātmanyeva svīkārastasya yoga evampariśīlanakrameṇātmani yadvimarśadārḍhyamevametena svajñānavibhavabhāsanayogena nijamātmānaṁ nānyata upanataṁ caitanyasvabhāvamudveṣṭayate dehaprāṇapuryaṣṭakaśūnyaparāmarśananigaḍairyo veṣṭita āsīttameva caitanyasvarūpaḥ svatantro'smīti vimarśanena punarapi bhagavānevodveṣṭanaṁ vigataveṣṭanaṁ kurute — Iti| Evamakhyātibalādāgataṁ svātmano dehādyāvaraṇaṁ tatpunarapi khyātibalādvinaśyati — Iti svavikalpakalpita iyāndoṣaḥ — Iti śrīmadgranthakṛtā tantrasāre nirūpitam

Yo niścayaḥ paśujanasya jaḍo'smi karmasampāśito'smi malino'smi parerito'smi|
Ityetadanyadṛḍhaniścayalābhayuktyā sadyaḥ patirbhavati viśvavapuścidātmā||

Iti| Kimiti badhnāti muñcati ca bhagavān — Ityāha iti bandha ityādi| Iti prāk pratipāditena krameṇa bhagavānsvatantraḥ paramaśivaḥ pūrṇacidānandaikaghanalakṣaṇaḥ svarūpagopanasatattvakrīḍāśīlatvādakhyātyavabhāsanapūrvaṁ svātmānameva dehādipramātṛtāpannaṁ vidhāya svarūpaṁ pracchādya ca bandhaṁ vidadhāti tathaiva punaḥ svecchātaḥ svātmajñānaprakāśakrameṇa dehādipramātṛtābandhaṁ nivārya sa eva taṁ svātmānaṁ mocayati — Ityubhayathā bandhamokṣacitrāṁ saṁsārāpavargasvarūpāścaryamayīṁ krīḍāṁ khelāṁ pratanoti vistārayatyekākī na ramāmyahamiti| Svabhāva evaiṣa devasya yattāṁ tāmapyavasthāmāpannaḥ svarūparūpaḥ sansarvatrānubhavitṛtayā prathate — Ityetadeva svātantryam||33||

"How (katham) (can) this (eṣaḥ) irrepressible (durnivāraḥ) great delusion (mahā-mohaḥ) derived from (samutthaḥ) (the erroneous conception about) the physical body (deha), etc. (ādi) as being the Knower --the Self-- (pramātṛtā) be dissolved (pralīyate... iti)?". (Abhinavagupta) said (āha) that the very Absolute Freedom (svātantryam eva) of the Fortunate One --Lord Śiva-- (bhagavat) (is) the cause (hetuḥ) of that (dissolution) (atra... iti):


The Supreme Śiva (parama-śivaḥ) untwists (udveṣṭayet) Himself (nija-ātmānam) by constant concentration (yogena) on the splendorous manifestation (bhāsana) of the Glory (vibhava) of Knowledge (jñāna) of the Self (sva). In this way (iti), He displays (pratanoti) the wonderful (citrām) Play (krīḍām) of bondage and liberation (bandha-mokṣa) (by twisting and untwisting Himself)||33||


Knowledge (jñānam) that (yad) belongs to the "Sva" (svasya) or Self (ātmanaḥ) characterized by (lakṣaṇasya) Caitanya --Consciousness in Absolute Freedom-- (caitanya) (is) Understanding (avagamaḥ) about His (sva) Freedom (svātantrya). The "vibhava" or Glory (vibhavaḥ) of that (Knowledge of the Self) (tasya) (implies) abundance or expansion (sphītatvam) of His Freedom (sva-svātantryasya) whose nature (rūpasya) is the Delight (camatkāra) of the Highest (parā) I-consciousness (ahantā), which --the abundance or expansion-- (yad), by dissolving (vigalanena) the erroneous conception (abhimāna) that body (deha), etc. (ādi) (are the Self, triggers) in the case of one who is essentially Consciousness --a limited individual-- (cit-svarūpe) (the following experience:) "I am (asmi) One (eka) Free (svatantraḥ) Compact Mass (ghana) of Consciousness (cit) (and) Bliss (ānanda... iti)!". The "bhāsana" (bhāsanam) (or) splendorous manifestation (prakāśaḥ) of (such a) Glory (vibhasya) whose essence (sva-rūpasya) is His (tasya) Knowledge (bodha) (and) Freedom (svātantrya) (appears as the experience:) "All (sarvaḥ) this (ayam) Glory (vibhavaḥ) is Mine (mama... iti)!" --I am the entire universe!--. (In a word, the experience consists in) admitting (svīkāraḥ) that all (sarvasya) that was thought (abhimatasya) to be external (bāhyatayā) (is) in one's own Self --in oneself-- (sva-ātmani) indeed (eva). (The term "yogena" in the stanza means that) the yoga or constant concentration (yogaḥ) on that (experience) (tasya) through a succession (krameṇa) of such contacts (evam-pariśīlana) (leads to) a stability (yad... dārḍhyam) of awareness (vimarśa) with reference to the Self (ātmani). In this way (evam), (the first line of the stanza, viz."Svajñānavibhavabhāsanayogenodveṣṭayennijātmānam", indicates that the Supreme Śiva) untwists (udveṣṭayate) Himself --His own Self-- (nijam ātmānam) —i.e. (He untwists or liberates the limited individual) who is essentially (sva-bhāvam) Consciousness in Absolute Freedom (caitanya) (and consequently) depends on (upanatam) none other (na anyatas) (to exist)— by this (etena), (in other words,) by means of the constant concentration (yogena) on the splendorous manifestation (bhāsana) of the Glory (vibhava) of Knowledge (jñāna) of the Self (sva). (As Lord Paramaśiva --the Supreme Śiva-- Himself assumed the form of a limited individual) that (yaḥ) remained (āsīt) tied (veṣṭitaḥ) by the fetters (nigaḍaiḥ) based on considering (parāmarśana) physical body (deha), vital energy (prāṇa), subtle body (puri-aṣṭaka) (and) void (śūnya) (as the Self), the Fortunate One (bhagavān eva) makes (kurute) Himself (tam eva) —the (eternally) Unbound One (udveṣṭanam) (appearing as a limited individual)— Free from ties (vigata-veṣṭanam... iti) again (punar api) through the (following) awareness (vimarśanena): "I am (asmi) the Free One (svatantraḥ) whose nature (sva-rūpaḥ) (is) Caitanya --Consciousness with Absolute Freedom to know and do everything-- (caitanya... iti)".

Thus (evam), by force of (balāt) primordial ignorance --Āṇavamala-- (akhyāti), a veil (āvaraṇam) (in the form of) physical body (deha) etc. (ādi) has come (āgatam) to one's own Self (sva-ātmanaḥ), (and) that (veil) (tad) vanishes (vinaśyati) by force of (balāt) Knowledge (khyāti... iti) again (punar api). The fault (doṣaḥ) manufactured (kalpitaḥ) by one's (sva) thoughts (vikalpa) is of such extent (iyān... iti). (The same teaching) was indicated (nirūpitam) in Tantrasāra (tantrasāre) by the author (kṛtā) of (that) venerable (śrīmat) book (grantha) --in short, by Abhinavagupta himself!--:

"The one who (yaḥ) belongs to the category known as paśu or limited individual (paśu-janasya) has (these) conviction(s) (niścayaḥ) "I am (asmi) matter (jaḍaḥ)", "I am (asmi) fully tied (sampāśitaḥ) to the actions (karma)", "I am (asmi) affected by the Mala-s or Impurities --Āṇavamala, Māyīyamala and Kārmamala-- (malinaḥ)", "I am (asmi) moved (īritaḥ) by others (para... iti)" --I am motivated or influenced by other people--. By means of (yuktyā) the acquisition (lābha) of other (anya) firm (dṛḍha) convictions (niścaya) about this (matter or question) (etad), (such a person) becomes (bhavati) immediately (sadyas) a Lord (patiḥ) of the nature of (ātmā) Consciousness (cit) whose form (vapus) is the universe (viśva... iti)."

Why (kim-iti) does the Fortunate One --the Supreme Śiva-- (bhagavān) bind (badhnāti) and (ca) liberate (muñcati... iti)? (Abhinavagupta) said (āha): "Iti bandha, etc." --see the stanza above-- (bandha ityādi). Thus (iti), in the way (krameṇa) previously (prāk) explained (pratipāditena), the Fortunate (bhagavān) (and) Free (svatantraḥ) Paramaśiva --the Supreme Śiva-- (parama-śivaḥ) is characterized by (lakṣaṇaḥ) (being) one (eka) compact mass (ghana) of Perfect (pūrṇa) Consciousness (cit) (and) Bliss (ānanda). He manifests (vidadhāti) bondage (bandham) since He is, by nature, fond of (satattva... śīlatvāt) playing (krīḍā) to hide (gopana) His essence (sva-rūpa), making (vidhāya) His own Self --Himself as limited individual-- (sva-ātmānam eva) enter into (āpannam) the state of knower (pramātṛtā) of the physical body (deha), etc. (ādi)(the entire process being) preceded by (pūrvam) the appearance (avabhāsana) of primordial ignorance --Āṇavamala-- (akhyāti)— and (ca) concealing (pracchādya) his essential nature --the essential nature of the limited individual-- (sva-rūpam). Likewise (tathā eva), (once) again (punar), of His Free Will (sva-icchātaḥ), removing (nivārya) bondage (bandham) whose form is the state of knower (pramātṛtā) of the physical body (deha), etc. (ādi) through a series or succession (krameṇa) of manifestations (prakāśa) of Knowledge (jñāna) about His own (sva) Self (ātma), He (saḥ eva) liberates (mocayati) His own Self (as a limited individual) (sva-ātmānam), i.e. Himself (in that aspect) (tam). Thus (iti), in both cases (ubhayathā) He displays (pratanoti) (or) spreads (vistārayati) the wonderful (citrām) Play (krīḍām) (or) Sport (khelām) of bondage and liberation (bandha-mokṣa) which is replete with (mayīm) the wonder (āścarya), (if you will excuse the repetition,) whose essence (sva-rūpa) is transmigration --to miserably move from one thought to another thought, from one body to another body, etc.-- (saṁsāra) (and) emancipation (apavarga), (because) "I cannot play (na ramāmi aham) alone (ekākī... iti)".

This (eṣaḥ) (is) the very (eva) nature (sva-bhāvaḥ) of God (devasya), viz. that (yad) though He is (san) one's own essential nature (sva-rūpa-rūpaḥ), entering into (āpannaḥ) even (api) each of (tām tām) the states (avasthām), He appears (prathate) as the Experient (anubhavitṛtayā) everywhere (sarvatra... iti). This (etad) (is) truly (eva) (His) Absolute Freedom (svātantryam)||33||


Without notes of explanation yet

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 Stanza 34

न केवलमेतद्यावदपरः कश्चिदवस्थाविशेषः स्वस्मिन्रूपे विश्रान्त एवावभास्यते भगवता — इत्याह


सृष्टिस्थितिसंहारा जाग्रत्स्वप्नौ सुषुप्तमिति तस्मिन्।
भान्ति तुरीये धामनि तथापि तैर्नावृतं भाति॥३४॥


विश्वापेक्षया ये सर्गादयो मायाप्रमातृगताश्च ये जाग्रदादयोऽवस्थाविशेषास्त उभयथैतस्मिन्भगवत्यानन्दघने तुरीये धामनि चतुर्थे पूर्णाहन्तामये पदे भान्ति तद्विश्रान्ताः सन्तः स्वरूपसत्तां कल्पितप्रमात्रपेक्षया बाह्यतया लभन्ते। परमेश्वरभित्तौ यन्न प्रकाशते तद्बाह्यतयापि न प्रकाशतेऽतः

त्रिषु चतुर्थं तैलवदासेच्यम्।

इति सर्वास्ववस्थासु तुरीयं रूपमनुस्यूतत्वेन स्थितम् — इति परमार्थः। एतावता तत्र तैः स्वरूपमाच्छादितं स्यान्न वा — इत्याह तथापि तैर्नावृतं भाति इति। इत्थमपि तैः स्वरूपसत्तार्थमावृतमपि तेभ्यः समुत्तीर्णतया सर्वानुभवितृतया सर्वत्रावभासत एव न पुनस्तदावरणेन पूर्णस्वरूपतां तत्र तिरोधत्ते — इति शिवधाम सर्वावस्थास्वपि सदैव परिपूर्णम्॥३४॥

Na kevalametadyāvadaparaḥ kaścidavasthāviśeṣaḥ svasminrūpe viśrānta evāvabhāsyate bhagavatā — Ityāha


Sṛṣṭisthitisaṁhārā jāgratsvapnau suṣuptamiti tasmin|
Bhānti turīye dhāmani tathāpi tairnāvṛtaṁ bhāti||34||


Viśvāpekṣayā ye sargādayo māyāpramātṛgatāśca ye jāgradādayo'vasthāviśeṣāsta ubhayathaitasminbhagavatyānandaghane turīye dhāmani caturthe pūrṇāhantāmaye pade bhānti tadviśrāntāḥ santaḥ svarūpasattāṁ kalpitapramātrapekṣayā bāhyatayā labhante| Parameśvarabhittau yanna prakāśate tadbāhyatayāpi na prakāśate'taḥ

Triṣu caturthaṁ tailavadāsecyam|

Iti sarvāsvavasthāsu turīyaṁ rūpamanusyūtatvena sthitam — Iti paramārthaḥ| Etāvatā tatra taiḥ svarūpamācchāditaṁ syānna vā — Ityāha tathāpi tairnāvṛtaṁ bhāti iti| Itthamapi taiḥ svarūpasattārthamāvṛtamapi tebhyaḥ samuttīrṇatayā sarvānubhavitṛtayā sarvatrāvabhāsata eva na punastadāvaraṇena pūrṇasvarūpatāṁ tatra tirodhatte — Iti śivadhāma sarvāvasthāsvapi sadaiva paripūrṇam||34||

(Abhinavagupta) said (āha) (in the present stanza that) there is not (na) only (kevalam) this --bondage and liberation-- (etad) but (there is) even (yāvat) some (kaścid) other (aparaḥ) type (viśeṣaḥ) of states (avasthā) resting (viśrāntaḥ eva) on His own (svasmin) nature (rūpe), which --this additional type of states-- is (also) manifested (avabhāsyate) by the Fortunate One (bhagavatā... iti):


Manifestation, maintenance and dissolution (of the universe) (sṛṣṭi-sthiti-saṁhārāḥ) (as well as) waking and dreaming (jāgrat-svapnau) (together with) deep sleep (suṣuptam iti) exist (bhānti) in Him (tasmin) in the Fourth State (turīye dhāmani), (but) even so (tathā api) He is not (na... bhāti) covered (āvṛtam) by them (taiḥ)||34||


Those (te) types (viśeṣāḥ) of states (avasthā) that (ye) have to do with (apekṣayā) the universe (viśva) (such as) manifestation (sarga), etc. (ādayaḥ), and (ca) (those) that (ye) take place (gatāḥ) in the experient or knower (pramātṛ) (subject to) Māyā --tattva or category 6-- (māyā) (such as) wakefulness (jāgrat), etc. (ādayaḥ), in both cases (ubhayathā) they exist (bhānti) in this Fortunate One (etasmin bhagavati) who is a compact mass of Bliss (ānanda-ghane) in "turīyadhāma" (turīye dhāmani) (or) Fourth (caturthe) State (pade) full of (maye) the perfect (pūrṇa) I-consciousness (ahantā). (In other words,) while resting (viśrāntāḥ santaḥ) on Him (tad), they assume (labhante) their own form and existence (sva-rūpa-sattām) externally (bāhyatayā) with reference to (apekṣayā) the invented (kalpita) knower or experient (pramātṛ).

That (tad) which (yad) does not (na) become manifest (prakāśate) on the Canvas (bhittau) of the Supreme (parama) Lord (īśvara) does not (na) even (api) become manifest (prakāśate) externally (bāhyatayā). For this reason (atas), (such as the Śivasūtra III.20 reads):

"The Fourth State of consciousness, (which is a Witness) (caturtham), should be poured (āsecyam) like (vat) (a continuous flow of) oil (taila) into (the other) three (triṣu... iti), (that is, in waking, dreaming and deep sleep)".

the nature of the Fourth (State) (turīyaṁ rūpam) keeps running uninterruptedly (anusyūtatvena sthitam) through all the states (sarvāsu avasthāsu). This is the highest meaning (of the stanza) (iti parama-arthaḥ). During all this time (etāvatā) then (tatra) --viz. while the states of manifestation, etc. along with wakefulness, etc. are working--, "Is (syāt) one's own essential nature (sva-rūpam) not (na vā) concealed (ācchāditam) by them --by those states being previously referred to-- (taiḥ... iti)?" --that is, one could ask if one's essential nature called the Supreme Śiva is not covered or hidden by those states when they are active-- (Abhinavagupta) said (in the current stanza) (āha): "(but) even so (tathā api) He is not (na... bhāti) covered (āvṛtam) by them (taiḥ... iti)".

In this way (ittham api), though (api) (the Supreme Lord) is covered (āvṛtam) by them (sukha) (apparently) so that (artham) (these states get) their own (sva) form (rūpa) (and) existence (sattā), He shines forth (avabhāsate eva) everywhere (sarvatra) as the Experient (anubhavitṛtayā) of all (sarva) who transcends (samuttīrṇatayā) those (states) (tebhyaḥ), and not (na punar) that He hides (tirodhatte) there (tatra) (His) perfect (pūrṇa) essential nature (sva-rūpatām) by using those (states) as a covering (tad-āvaraṇena). Thus (iti), the State (dhāma) of Śiva (śiva) (is) always (sadā eva) completely Full and Perfect (paripūrṇam) even (api) during all the states (sarva-avasthāsu)||34||


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 Stanza 35

वेदान्तभाषाभिर्जाग्रदादीनां त्रयाणां स्वरूपं व्यवहरंस्तदनुस्यूतमपि ततः परं तुरीयमावेदयति


जाग्रद्विश्वं भेदात्स्वप्नस्तेजः प्रकाशमाहात्म्यात्।
प्राज्ञः सुप्तावस्था ज्ञानघनत्वात्ततः परं तुर्यम्॥३५॥


जाग्रदवस्थैव विश्वं ब्रह्मणो वैराजं स्वरूपं कुतो भेदात्शब्दादिविषयपञ्चकस्य बाह्यतया परमेश्वरसृष्टस्यैव सर्वप्रमातॄणां चक्षुरादीन्द्रियप्रवृत्तेः — इत्येकस्यैव ब्रह्मणो विषयविषयिभावेन स्थितस्य नानेन्द्रियज्ञानवैचित्र्यम्। अत एव शिवसूत्रेषु

ज्ञानं जाग्रत्।

इति। एषा ब्रह्मणो विराडवस्था गीयते। यच्छ्रुतिः

यो विश्वचक्षुरुत विश्वतोमुखो विश्वतोहस्त उत विश्वतस्पात्।
सं बाहुभ्यां नमते सं यजत्रैर्द्यावापृथिवी जनयन्देव एकः॥

इति। तथा स्वप्नस्तेजोऽवस्था ब्रह्मणः। कुतः — इत्याह प्रकाशमाहात्म्यादिति। स्वप्ने बहिष्करणानि शब्दादौ विषये तावन्न प्रगल्भन्ते नापि तत्र बाह्यं शब्दादिकं नाम किञ्चित्परमार्थसद्विद्यते नापि बाह्यतयाध्यवसायस्याविद्यादि किञ्चिद्भिन्नमभिन्नं वा कारणान्तरमुपलभ्यते युक्त्या विचार्यमाणं वोपपद्यतेऽथ च स्वप्ने सर्वं प्रकाशतेऽत इदमर्थबलादायातम् — यत्स एव भगवान्स्वस्वभावो देवस्तत्तत्प्रमातृतां समाविष्टः स्वप्नायमानः स्वात्मानमेव प्रकाशस्वातन्त्र्याद्गृहनगराट्टालाद्यनेकप्रमातृवैचित्र्यरूपतया प्रविभज्य प्रतिप्रमातृ स्वप्नेऽसाधारणमेव विश्वं प्रकाशयत्येव — इति ब्रह्मणः स्वातन्त्र्यं स्वप्न एव ब्रह्मवादिभिरभ्युपगतम्। यतो वेदान्तेष्विदमुक्तम्

प्रविभज्यात्मनात्मानं सृष्ट्वा भावान्पृथग्विधान्।
सर्वेश्वरः सर्वमयः स्वप्ने भोक्ता प्रकाशते॥

इति प्रकाशमाहात्म्यमेवात्र हेतुरतः स्वप्नो ब्रह्मणस्तेजोऽवस्था — इति। तथा प्राज्ञः सुप्तावस्था इति। सर्वप्रमातॄणां या सुप्तावस्था सुषुप्तं सा प्राज्ञ इति ब्रह्मणः प्राज्ञावस्था — इति। यतः सर्वप्रमातॄणां ग्राह्यग्राहकप्रपञ्चविलयान्महाशून्यत्वरूपे ग्राह्यादिविलये संस्कारशेषे सुषुप्ते विश्वस्य बीजभूतस्य ब्रह्मण एव प्रज्ञा ब्रह्म प्रज्ञातृतयान्तरतममवशिष्यते — इति यावत्। सर्वस्य प्रमातुर्नीलसुखादिविश्ववैचित्र्यप्रथायाः सैषा संस्कारभूमिस्ततः प्रबुद्धस्य प्रागनुभूतवद्व्यवहारदर्शनादन्यथा यद्यस्यां भूमौ स्थिरं प्रज्ञातृस्वभावं सर्वक्रोडीकारेण ब्रह्म न प्राकाशिष्यत कुतस्तत उत्थितस्य प्रमातुः प्रागनुभूतवस्तुनस्तथैव तदित्यनुभूतचरत्वेन स्मृतिरुदपत्स्यत नापि सुखमहमस्वाप्सं दुःखमहमस्वाप्सं गाढमूढोऽहमासमित्यनुभवः प्रादुरभविष्यत् — इति। तथा च भट्टदिवाकरवत्सः

सर्वेऽनुभूता यदि नान्तरर्थास्त्वदात्मसात्कारसुरक्षिताः स्युः।
विज्ञातवस्त्वप्रतिमोषरूपा काचित्स्मृतिर्नाम न सम्भवेत्तत्॥

इति। इत्थं सुषुप्तं चिन्मयमेव ब्रह्मणः प्राज्ञावस्था — इति गीयते। कुतो ज्ञानघनत्वादिति। सुषुप्ततुर्ययोः साधारणोऽयं हेतुः — इत्युभयत्र योज्यम्। एषा सुषुप्तभूमिर्ज्ञानघना प्रकाशमूर्तिः केवलं विश्वप्रलयसंस्कारेण ध्यामला सती शुद्धचिन्मयी न भवति — इति। यदुक्तं स्पन्दशास्त्रे

ज्ञानज्ञेयस्वरूपिण्या शक्त्या परमया युतः। पदद्वये विभुर्भाति तदन्यत्र तु चिन्मयः॥

इति। तथा ततः परं तुर्यमिति। तस्मात्सुषुप्तात्परमन्यन्निःशेषपाशववासनासंस्कारपरिक्षयाच्छुद्धपूर्णानन्दमयं ब्रह्मणस्तुरीयं रूपमनुगुणं नाम। यदत्र नामान्वर्थं न किञ्चिदुपपद्यतेऽतो व्याख्यातस्यावस्थात्रयस्य विश्रामभूतं सर्वान्तरतमत्वेनानुस्यूतम् — इति चतुःसङ्ख्यापूरणेन तुर्यमिति पूरणप्रत्ययेन सङ्ख्याव्यपदेशोऽत्र कृतः कथमवस्थात्रयस्यानुस्यूतमपि ततः परमेतत् — इत्याह ज्ञानघनत्वादिति। यतो जाग्रदादयोऽवस्थाः सर्वा भेदप्रवणत्वात्प्रमातॄणामज्ञानमय्यस्तुरीयं ग्राह्यग्राहकक्षोभप्रलयसंस्कारपरिक्षयाज्ज्ञानघनप्रकाशानन्दमूर्त्यतस्तदन्तःस्थमपि ताभ्योऽवस्थाभ्यश्चिन्मयतया समुत्तीर्णत्वात्परमन्यत् — इति। एवमवस्थाविचित्रं परमाद्वयस्वभावं स्वतन्त्रं ब्रह्मैव पूर्णं विजृम्भते॥३५॥

Vedāntabhāṣābhirjāgradādīnāṁ trayāṇāṁ svarūpaṁ vyavaharaṁstadanusyūtamapi tataḥ paraṁ turīyamāvedayati


Jāgradviśvaṁ bhedātsvapnastejaḥ prakāśamāhātmyāt|
Prājñaḥ suptāvasthā jñānaghanatvāttataḥ paraṁ turyam||35||


Jāgradavasthaiva viśvaṁ brahmaṇo vairājaṁ svarūpaṁ kuto bhedātśabdādiviṣayapañcakasya bāhyatayā parameśvarasṛṣṭasyaiva sarvapramātṝṇāṁ cakṣurādīndriyapravṛtteḥ — Ityekasyaiva brahmaṇo viṣayaviṣayibhāvena sthitasya nānendriyajñānavaicitryam| Ata eva śivasūtreṣu

Jñānaṁ jāgrat|

Iti| Eṣā brahmaṇo virāḍavasthā gīyate| Yacchrutiḥ

Yo viśvacakṣuruta viśvatomukho viśvatohasta uta viśvataspāt|
Saṁ bāhubhyāṁ namate saṁ yajatrairdyāvāpṛthivī janayandeva ekaḥ||

Iti| Tathā svapnastejo'vasthā brahmaṇaḥ| Kutaḥ — Ityāha prakāśamāhātmyāditi| Svapne bahiṣkaraṇāni śabdādau viṣaye tāvanna pragalbhante nāpi tatra bāhyaṁ śabdādikaṁ nāma kiñcitparamārthasadvidyate nāpi bāhyatayādhyavasāyasyāvidyādi kiñcidbhinnamabhinnaṁ vā kāraṇāntaramupalabhyate yuktyā vicāryamāṇaṁ vopapadyate'tha ca svapne sarvaṁ prakāśate'ta idamarthabalādāyātam — Yatsa eva bhagavānsvasvabhāvo devastattatpramātṛtāṁ samāviṣṭaḥ svapnāyamānaḥ svātmānameva prakāśasvātantryādgṛhanagarāṭṭālādyanekapramātṛvaicitryarūpatayā pravibhajya pratipramātṛ svapne'sādhāraṇameva viśvaṁ prakāśayatyeva — Iti brahmaṇaḥ svātantryaṁ svapna eva brahmavādibhirabhyupagatam| Yato vedānteṣvidamuktam

Pravibhajyātmanātmānaṁ sṛṣṭvā bhāvānpṛthagvidhān|
Sarveśvaraḥ sarvamayaḥ svapne bhoktā prakāśate||

Iti prakāśamāhātmyamevātra heturataḥ svapno brahmaṇastejo'vasthā — Iti| Tathā prājñaḥ suptāvasthā iti| Sarvapramātṝṇāṁ yā suptāvasthā suṣuptaṁ sā prājña iti brahmaṇaḥ prājñāvasthā — Iti| Yataḥ sarvapramātṝṇāṁ grāhyagrāhakaprapañcavilayānmahāśūnyatvarūpe grāhyādivilaye saṁskāraśeṣe suṣupte viśvasya bījabhūtasya brahmaṇa eva prajñā brahma prajñātṛtayāntaratamamavaśiṣyate — Iti yāvat| Sarvasya pramāturnīlasukhādiviśvavaicitryaprathāyāḥ saiṣā saṁskārabhūmistataḥ prabuddhasya prāganubhūtavadvyavahāradarśanādanyathā yadyasyāṁ bhūmau sthiraṁ prajñātṛsvabhāvaṁ sarvakroḍīkāreṇa brahma na prākāśiṣyata kutastata utthitasya pramātuḥ prāganubhūtavastunastathaiva tadityanubhūtacaratvena smṛtirudapatsyata nāpi sukhamahamasvāpsaṁ duḥkhamahamasvāpsaṁ gāḍhamūḍho'hamāsamityanubhavaḥ prādurabhaviṣyat — Iti| Tathā ca bhaṭṭadivākaravatsaḥ

Sarve'nubhūtā yadi nāntararthāstvadātmasātkārasurakṣitāḥ syuḥ|
Vijñātavastvapratimoṣarūpā kācitsmṛtirnāma na sambhavettat||

Iti| Itthaṁ suṣuptaṁ cinmayameva brahmaṇaḥ prājñāvasthā — Iti gīyate| Kuto jñānaghanatvāditi| Suṣuptaturyayoḥ sādhāraṇo'yaṁ hetuḥ — Ityubhayatra yojyam| Eṣā suṣuptabhūmirjñānaghanā prakāśamūrtiḥ kevalaṁ viśvapralayasaṁskāreṇa dhyāmalā satī śuddhacinmayī na bhavati — Iti| Yaduktaṁ spandaśāstre

Jñānajñeyasvarūpiṇyā śaktyā paramayā yutaḥ|
Padadvaye vibhurbhāti tadanyatra tu cinmayaḥ||

Iti| Tathā tataḥ paraṁ turyamiti| Tasmātsuṣuptātparamanyanniḥśeṣapāśavavāsanāsaṁskāraparikṣayācchuddhapūrṇānandamayaṁ brahmaṇasturīyaṁ rūpamanuguṇaṁ nāma| Yadatra nāmānvarthaṁ na kiñcidupapadyate'to vyākhyātasyāvasthātrayasya viśrāmabhūtaṁ sarvāntaratamatvenānusyūtam — Iti catuḥsaṅkhyāpūraṇena turyamiti pūraṇapratyayena saṅkhyāvyapadeśo'tra kṛtaḥ kathamavasthātrayasyānusyūtamapi tataḥ parametat — Ityāha jñānaghanatvāditi| Yato jāgradādayo'vasthāḥ sarvā bhedapravaṇatvātpramātṝṇāmajñānamayyasturīyaṁ grāhyagrāhakakṣobhapralayasaṁskāraparikṣayājjñānaghanaprakāśānandamūrtyatastadantaḥsthamapi tābhyo'vasthābhyaścinmayatayā samuttīrṇatvātparamanyat — Iti| Evamavasthāvicitraṁ paramādvayasvabhāvaṁ svatantraṁ brahmaiva pūrṇaṁ vijṛmbhate||35||

By distinguishing (vyavaharan) the nature (svarūpam) of the three (states of consciousness) (trayāṇām) (such as) wakefulness, etc. (jāgrat-ādīnām) through the definitions (bhāṣābhiḥ) (given) by the Vedānta system (vedānta), (Abhinavagupta) makes the Fourth State known (turīyam āvedayati), (which) though (api) runs uninterruptedly (anusyūtam) through those (three states of consciousness) (tad) (is) another (param) than them (tatas) --the Fourth State is beyond them--:


Wakefulness (jāgrat) (is called) "viśva" --lit. universe-- (viśvam) due to differentiation (bhedāt); dreaming (svapnaḥ) (is known as both) "tejas" --lit. light-- (and "taijasa" --lit. consisting of light--) (tejas) because of the exalted position (māhātmyāt) of light (prakāśa) (here); the state (avasthā) of deep sleep (supta) (is designated) "prājña" --lit. intelligent-- (prājñaḥ) on account of how massive (ghanatvāt) knowledge (jñāna) (is during this state. Finally,) "Turya" or the Fourth One (turyam) (is) another (param) than that one --it is even beyond deep sleep-- (tatas) (also) on account of the massive state (ghanatvāt) of Knowledge (jñāna) (present in this state)||35||


The very state (avasthā eva) of wakefulness (jāgrat), (called) "viśva" --lit. universe-- (in Vedānta) (viśvam) (is) the Virāj-related (vairājam) nature (sva-rūpam) of Brahma (brahmaṇaḥ). From what cause or motive (kutas)? Due to differentiation (bhedāt), (that is, because) there is appearance (pravṛtteḥ) of a group of five (pañcakasya) spheres or fields of action --the objects-- (viṣaya) (such as) sound-as-such (śabda), etc. (ādi) --the Tanmātra-s or Subtle Elements-- manifested (sṛṣṭasya eva) by the Supreme (parama) Lord (īśvara) externally (bāhyatayā) (as well as there is appearance) of indriya-s --powers of perception or knowledge in this case-- (indriya) (such as) power of seeing (cakṣus), etc. (ādi) in the case of all the experients or knowers --the subjects-- (sarva-pramātṝṇām). Thus (iti), in one Brahma (ekasya eva brahmaṇaḥ) who remains (sthitasya) as the state (bhāvena) of subject (viṣayi) (and) object (viṣaya) (there is) differently (nānā) diversity (vaicitryam) of knowledge (jñāna) (and) powers of perception or knowledge (indriya).

For this very reason (atas eva) (it is stated) in the Śivasūtra-s --in I.8-- (śiva-sūtreṣu):

"Knowledge (jñānam) (is) the waking state of consciousness (jāgrat... iti)."

It is said that (gīyate) this (eṣā) (is) the universal (virāṭ) state (avasthā) of Brahma (brahmaṇaḥ). That (yad) (is also said) in the Veda-s (śruti) --to be more precise, in Śvetāśvataropaniṣad III.3--:

"The one (ekaḥ) God (devaḥ) who (yaḥ) sees all --who has eyes everywhere-- (viśva-cakṣus uta), (who has) mouths everywhere (viśvatas-mukhaḥ), hands everywhere (viśvatas-hastaḥ uta), feet everywhere (viśvatas-pāt), creating (janayan eva) heaven and earth (dyāvā-pṛthivī) makes a salutation (namate) with (His) two arms (sam bāhubhyām) together with the ones who deserve worship (sam yajatraiḥ... iti)."

Likewise (tathā), dreaming (svapnaḥ) (is) the luminous state (tejas-avasthā) of Brahma (brahmaṇaḥ).

"From what cause or motive (kutas... iti)?". (Abhinavagupta) said (āha): "because of the exalted position (māhātmyāt) of light (prakāśa... iti)".

In dreaming (svapne) the external organs --powers of perception-- (bahiṣkaraṇāni) not only are not (tāvat na) capable of (working) (pragalbhante) in the sphere (viṣaye) of sound-as-such, etc. (śabda-ādau) but there (are) not even (na api... kiñcid... vidyate) external object(s) (bāhyam) known as (nāma) sound, etc. (śabda-ādikam) really existing (paramārtha-sat) in that (state) (tatra). (And apart from the Lord Himself,) it is not even perceived (na api... upalabhyate) any (na... kiñcid) other (antaram) cause (kāraṇa)(whether) divided into parts (bhinnam) or (vā) undivided (abhinnam), (such as) ignorance, etc. (avidyā-ādi)— of the apprehension or perception (of objects) (adhyavasāyasya) as if they were external (bāhyatayā), nor does (vā) exist (all that there --in dreaming--) (upapadyate) as something one reflected upon (vicāryamāṇam) by (his) reasoning (yuktyā). Nevertheless (atha ca), all (sarvam) becomes manifest (prakāśate) in the dream state (svapne). Therefore (atas), this (idam) has arrived (āyātam) through (His) objective efficacy --His power to produce objects-- (artha-balāt). That is to say (yad), the Fortunate God Himself (saḥ eva bhagavān... devaḥ) who is one's own (sva) essential nature (sva-bhāvaḥ) assumes (samāviṣṭaḥ) the role of experient or knower (pramātṛtām) of this and that (tad-tad) (and) extends or expands (āyamānaḥ) the state of dreaming (svapna). (Then,) by means of His Freedom (svātantryāt) to manifest (prakāśa), separating (pravibhajya) His own Self (sva-ātmānam eva) in the form of (rūpatayā) a diversity (vaicitrya) (composed of) many (aneka) subjects (pramātṛ) (and objects such as) houses (gṛha), cities (nagara), watchtowers (aṭṭāla), etc. (ādi), He displays (prakāśayati) indeed (eva) a special --uncommon-- (asādhāraṇam eva) universe (viśvam) in the dream state (svapne) of each of the subjects (pratipramātṛ... iti). Brahma's (brahmaṇaḥ) Freedom (svātantryam) in dreaming (svapne eva) has been admitted (abhyupagatam) by the followers of the doctrine (vādibhiḥ) of Brahma (brahma).

(Why am I affirming that? --that the followers of Vedānta admit the Freedom of Brahma--.) Because (yatas) this (idam) (is) proclaimed (uktam) in the scriptures dealing with Vedānta philosophy (vedānteṣu):

"The Lord (īśvaraḥ) of all (sarva), the One who contains all (sarva-mayaḥ), after separating (pravibhajya) Himself (ātmānam) by Himself (ātmanā) (and) after manifesting (sṛṣṭvā) objects (bhāvān) of different classes (pṛthak-vidhān), shines (prakāśate) in the dream state (svapne) (as) the Enjoyer --Experient or Knower-- (bhoktā... iti) (of those objects)."

Only (eva) the exalted position --i.e. predominance-- (māhātmyam) of light (prakāśa) (is) the cause (hetuḥ) of this (atra). Hence (atas) dreaming (svapnaḥ) (is) the luminous state (tejas-avasthā) of Brahma (brahmaṇaḥ... iti).

In the same way (tathā), prājña --lit. intelligent-- (prājñaḥ) (is) the state (avasthā) of deep sleep (supta... iti). The state (avasthā... sā) of "supta" (supta) (or) deep sleep (suṣuptam) which (yā) is to be found in all the subjects or experients (sarva-pramātṝṇām) (is called) "prājña" (prājñaḥ iti), viz. "the intelligent (prājña) state (avasthā) of Brahma (brahmaṇaḥ... iti)". (Why?) Because (yatas), through the dissolution (vilayāt) of the manifestation (prapañca) of subject (grāhaka) (and) object (grāhya), (there is emergence) of the deep knowledge or intelligence (prajñā) of Brahma Himself (brahmaṇaḥ eva) who has become (bhūtasya) the Seed (bīja) of the universe (viśvasya) during deep sleep (suṣupte) characterized by (rūpe) a great (mahā) void (śūnya) (in which,) on the disappearance (vilaye) of the knowables (grāhya), etc. (ādi), a residue (śeṣe) of impressions (saṁskāra) (of those knowables, etc. is left). Brahma (brahma) remains (avaśiṣyate) (then) most internal (antaratamam) (and) endowed with the state of intelligent Knower (of all) (prajñātṛtayā). This is the meaning (iti yāvat).

That very (state of deep sleep) (sā eṣā) (is) the stage (bhūmiḥ) of the (latent) impressions --the seeds-- (saṁskāra) of the spreading out (prathāyāḥ) (known as) the universal (viśva) diversity (vaicitrya) (constituted by objects such as) blue (nīla), pleasure (sukha), etc. (ādi) in the case of every subject (sarvasya pramātuḥ), since the ordinary life is seen (vyavahāra-darśanāt) as (vat) had been experienced (anubhūta) before (deep sleep) (prāk) (once) the subject awakens (prabuddhasya) from that (state) (tatas). Otherwise (anyathā), if (yadi) Brahma (brahma), whose nature (sva-bhāvam) as the intelligent Knower (of all) (prajñātṛ) (is) firm (sthiram) in this stage (of latent impressions) (asyām bhūmau), did not appear (na prākāśiṣyata) as the One who contains all in His bosom (sarva-kroḍī-kāreṇa) (during deep sleep), how (kutas) then (tatas) (could) the remembrance or recollection (smṛtiḥ) of having experienced something before (anubhūta-caratvena) arise (udapatsyata) (as) "That (tad) (is) so (tathā eva... iti)!" in a subject (pramātuḥ) who has experienced (that) reality before (prāk-anubhūta-vastunaḥ) once he has come out (of deep sleep and awakened in wakefulness) (utthitasya)? Nor would there be (na api... prādur-abhaviṣyat... iti), (on awakening from deep sleep,) the experience of (anubhavaḥ) "I (aham) slept (asvāpsam) well (sukham... iti)", "I (aham) slept (asvāpsam) bad (duḥkham... iti)" (or) "I (aham) was (āsam) excessively (gāḍha) unconscious (mūḍhaḥ... iti)".

Accordingly (tathā ca), venerable Divākaravatsa (bhaṭṭa-divākaravatsaḥ) (has declared the following:)

"If (yadi) all (sarve) the objects (arthāḥ) experienced (anubhūtāḥ) (by you) were not (na... syuḥ) well protected (surakṣitāḥ) (and) reduced to sameness with (ātmasāt-kāra) you (tvat) inside (antar), (then) there would not be (na sambhavet) that (tad) which is called (nāma) 'a memory' (kācid smṛtiḥ), whose nature (rūpā) (is simply) the reproduction, without taking anything from any other sources (apratimoṣa), of the reality (vastu) that was (previously) known (vijñāta... iti)."

In this way (ittham), it is said that (iti gīyate) deep sleep (suṣuptam), being replete with (mayam eva) Consciousness (cit), (is) the intelligent (prājña) state (avasthā) of Brahma (brahmaṇaḥ). From what cause or motive (kutas)? "On account of how massive knowledge (is during this state)" (jñāna-ghanatvāt iti). This (ayam) cause (hetuḥ) --i.e. the massive state of knowledge-- (is) common to (sādhāraṇaḥ) deep sleep and Turya --the Fourth State-- (suṣupta-turyayoḥ... iti), viz. it can be used (yojyam) in both cases (ubhayatra).

This (eṣā) stage (bhūmiḥ) of deep sleep (suṣupta) (is) a compact mass (ghanā) of knowledge (jñāna) whose form (mūrtiḥ) is Light (prakāśa). (Nonetheless, this compact mass of knowledge) is impure (dhyāmalā satī) (and) only (kevalam) (appears) as a residual impression (saṁskāreṇa) after the dissolution (pralaya) of the universe (viśva)". (In other words,) it is not (na bhavati) Pure Consciousness (śuddha-cit-mayī... iti).

That was (also) said (yad uktam) in the scripture dealing with Spanda --i.e. in Spandakārikā-s I.18-- (spanda-śāstre):

"The all-pervading (Self) (vibhuḥ) shines forth (bhāti) in the two (dvaye) states (of wakefulness and dreaming) (pada) accompanied (yutaḥ) by (His) Supreme --parama-- (paramayā) Power --śakti-- (śaktyā) whose nature (sva-rūpiṇyā) is knowledge (jñāna) (and) knowable (jñeya). Nevertheless (tu), in the other (anyatra) than those (two) (tad) --in deep sleep--, (He appears only) as Consciousness (cit-mayaḥ... iti)".

So (tathā), "Turya or the Fourth One (turyam) (is) another (param) than that one (tatas... iti) --it is even beyond deep sleep--".

Turīya or Turya --the Fourth State-- (turīyam) (is) "param" (param) (or) another (anyat) than that deep sleep (tasmāt suṣuptāt), (and) due to complete dissolution (in it) (niḥśeṣa... parikṣayāt) of the residual impressions (saṁskāra) (and) tendencies (vāsanā) related to a limited individual (pāśava) (is) certainly (nāma) the "rūpa" (rūpam) (or) innate nature (anuguṇam) of Brahma (brahmaṇaḥ), full of (mayam) Pure (śuddha) (and) Perfect (pūrṇa) Bliss (ānanda).

There is no (na kiñcid upapadyate) name or term (nāma) which (yad) has a clear and obvious meaning (anvartham) for (designating) this (Turya) (atra) (as there is with reference to wakefulness, dreaming and deep sleep). For this reason (atas), (it is generally described as the State) that runs uninterruptedly (anusyūtam) as the most internal (antaratamatvena) of all (sarva) (and also) as being (bhūtam) the resting-place (viśrāma) of the three states (avasthā-trayasya) which has been (formerly) explained (vyākhyātasya... iti). (All in all, the State of the Self is simply designated) by the ordinal number (pūraṇena) (derived from) the (cardinal) number (saṅkhyā) "four" (catur), (but) here (atra) the numerical representation (saṅkhyā-vyapadeśaḥ) is made (kṛtaḥ) by (addition of) an ordinal affix (pūraṇa-pratyayena). (Therefore, the final result of all that process is) Turya or Fourth (turyam iti). How (katham) (is) this (Turya or Fourth State) (etad) another (param) than that one --than deep sleep-- (tatas) though (api) it runs uninterruptedly (anusyūtam) through the three (trayasya) (ordinary) states of consciousness (avasthā... iti)? (Abhinavagupta) said (in the stanza) (āha): "On account of the massive state of Knowledge (present in this state)" (jñāna-ghanatvāt iti). (Why?) Because (yatas) all (sarvāḥ) the (ordinary) states (avasthāḥ) of wakefulness, etc. (jāgrat-ādayaḥ), since there is inclination or tendency to (pravaṇatvāt) duality (bheda) (in them), are full of (mayyaḥ) ignorance (ajñāna) in the case of the subjects or knowers (of such states) (pramātṝṇām). (But) the Fourth State --Turya or Turīya-- (turīyam), due to the dissolution (parikṣayāt) of latent impressions (saṁskāra) by the removal (pralaya) of the agitation (kṣobha) (known as the relationship) grāhaka vs. grāhya --subject vs. object-- (grāhya-grāhaka), (is one) whose form (mūrti) consists of Light and Bliss (prakāśa-ānanda) as it is a compact mass (ghana) of Knowledge (jñāna). On this account (atas), (Turya is) "param" (param) (or) another (anyat) than those (ordinary) states (tābhyaḥ avasthābhyaḥ) since it transcends (them) (samuttīrṇatvāt) as (Pure) Consciousness (cit-mayatayā) although (api) remains (stham) within (antar) them (tad... iti). Thus (evam), the Free (svatantram) and Full --Perfect-- (pūrṇam) Brahma (brahma) Himself (eva) whose nature (sva-bhāvam) is Supreme (parama) Non-dualism (advaya) becomes expanded (vijṛmbhate) as multiple and wonderful (vicitram) states (avasthā)||35||


Without notes of explanation yet

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