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Paramārthasāra (Парамартхасара) Абхинавагупты: Строфы 100-105. Недвойственный Кашмирский Шиваизм

Стандартный перевод


 Introduction

Paramārthasāra continues with four more stanzas. This is the twenty-fifth and last set of stanzas, which is composed of 6 out of the 105 stanzas constituting the entire work.

Of course, I will also insert the original stanzas on which Yogarāja is commenting. I will write a lot of notes to make this book so understandable to the average reader as possible.

Yogarāja's Sanskrit will be in dark green color while the original Abhinavagupta's stanzas will be shown in dark red color. In turn, within the transliteration, the original stanzas will be in brown color, while the Yogarāja's comments will be shown in black. Also, within the translation, the original stanzas by Abhinavagupta, i.e. Paramārthasāra, will be in green and black colors, while the commentary by Yogarāja will contain words in both black and red colors.

Read Paramārthasāra and experience Supreme Ānanda or Divine Bliss, dear Śiva.

Important: All that is in brackets and italicized within the translation has been added by me in order to complete the sense of a particular phrase or sentence. In turn, all that is between double hyphen (--...--) constitutes clarifying further information also added by me.

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 Stanzas 100—101

अथाभ्यस्यतोऽपि योगं योगिनो मनश्चाञ्चल्याद्विश्रान्तिमेकदेशेऽपि मनागप्यलभमानस्य योगं प्रति श्रद्धावतश्च पिण्डपातात्का गतिः स्यात् — इत्याह


परमार्थमार्गमेनं ह्यभ्यस्याप्राप्य योगमपि नाम।
सुरलोकभोगभागी मुदितमना मोदते सुचिरम्॥१००॥

विषयेषु सार्वभौमः सर्वजनैः पूज्यते यथा राजा।
भुवनेषु सर्वदैवैर्योगभ्रष्टस्तथा पूज्यः॥१०१॥


एनमिति शतशः प्रतिपादितं स्वात्मज्ञानसतत्त्वं पन्थानमभ्यस्य श्रद्धाभक्तिभ्यां सेवित्वापि चित्तदोषानवस्थानेन यथावद्योगलक्षणां विश्रान्तिं जन्ममध्येऽप्यनधिगतः सन् मृतश्चेत्तदा स योगभ्रष्टो ज्ञानयोगविषयप्ररूढश्रद्धाभक्तिप्रसादसामर्थ्येन देवलोकभोगभागी साह्लादचित्तः सुचिरं कालं हर्षं प्रयाति सुरैरपि भुवनेषु निजनिजस्थानेषु पूज्यो भवति। क इव — इत्याह सार्व इत्यादि। यथा सार्वभौमो राजा सप्तद्वीपेश्वरो राजा चक्रवर्ती विषयेषु नानामण्डलेषु सर्वजनैः पूज्यते समभ्यर्च्यते तथैवायं प्रक्षीणपुण्यापुण्यविषयः समुत्पन्नवैराग्यः पश्चिमजन्मा वन्द्योऽस्माकं यस्य स्वात्मनि जिज्ञासार्थं प्राग्जन्मन्युद्यमोऽभूत् — इति सुरैरपि स्तूयत इति यावत्॥१०१॥

Athābhyasyato'pi yogaṁ yogino manaścāñcalyādviśrāntimekadeśe'pi manāgapyalabhamānasya yogaṁ prati śraddhāvataśca piṇḍapātātkā gatiḥ syāt — Ityāha


Paramārthamārgamenaṁ hyabhyasyāprāpya yogamapi nāma|
Suralokabhogabhāgī muditamanā modate suciram||100||

Viṣayeṣu sārvabhaumaḥ sarvajanaiḥ pūjyate yathā rājā|
Bhuvaneṣu sarvadaivairyogabhraṣṭastathā pūjyaḥ||101||


Enamiti śataśaḥ pratipāditaṁ svātmajñānasatattvaṁ panthānamabhyasya śraddhābhaktibhyāṁ sevitvāpi cittadoṣānavasthānena yathāvadyogalakṣaṇāṁ viśrāntiṁ janmamadhye'pyanadhigataḥ san mṛtaścettadā sa yogabhraṣṭo jñānayogaviṣayaprarūḍhaśraddhābhaktiprasādasāmarthyena devalokabhogabhāgī sāhlādacittaḥ suciraṁ kālaṁ harṣaṁ prayāti surairapi bhuvaneṣu nijanijasthāneṣu pūjyo bhavati| Ka iva — Ityāha sārva ityādi| Yathā sārvabhaumo rājā saptadvīpeśvaro rājā cakravartī viṣayeṣu nānāmaṇḍaleṣu sarvajanaiḥ pūjyate samabhyarcyate tathaivāyaṁ prakṣīṇapuṇyāpuṇyaviṣayaḥ samutpannavairāgyaḥ paścimajanmā vandyo'smākaṁ yasya svātmani jijñāsārthaṁ prāgjanmanyudyamo'bhūt — Iti surairapi stūyata iti yāvat||101||

"Now (atha), to one who, having practiced (abhyasyataḥ api) Yoga (yogam), could not even slightly attain (manāk api alabhamānasya) a repose (viśrāntim) on one zone --on one of those stages such as kanda, navel, etc.-- (eka-deśe api) due to mental unsteadiness (manas-cāñcalyāt) of (such a) yogī (yoginaḥ), but (and) he is (nonetheless) endowed with faith (śraddhāvataḥ) in Yoga (yogam prati), what (kim) would be (syāt) the course (gatiḥ) (of his soul) after his body falls (piṇḍa-pātāt... iti)?". (Abhinavagupta) said (āha) (as follows):


Even (api) after having practiced (abhyasya) this (enam) path (mārgam) of the Highest (parama) Reality (artha) indeed (hi), but (nāma) not having attained (aprāpya) a (repose characterized by a right) union (with his own Self) (yogam), (he, the one who fell from Yoga,) partakes of (bhāgī) the enjoyments (bhoga) in the worlds (loka) of the gods (sura), (and) with his mind full of cheerfulness (mudita-manā), he is happy (modate) (there) for a very long time (suciram). Just as (yathā) a sovereign (rājā) (and) universal monarch (sārvabhaumaḥ) is worshiped (pūjyate) by all the people (sarva-janaiḥ) in (his) territories (viṣayeṣu), in the same way (tathā), one who has fallen (bhraṣṭaḥ) from Yoga (yoga) (is) worshiped (pūjyaḥ) by all the gods (sarva-daivaiḥ) in (each of their heavenly) worlds (bhuvaneṣu)||100-101||


"Abhyasya" (abhyasya) (or) even (api) after having practiced (sevitvā) with faith and devotion (śraddhā-bhaktibhyām) this (enam) path (panthānam) concerning the real nature (satattvam) of Knowledge (jñāna) about one's own (sva) Self (ātma) —which has been explained (pratipāditam) a hundred times (śataśaḥ)—, if (ced) he dies (san mṛtaḥ) without getting (anadhigataḥ) during (his) birth --i.e. during his life-- (janma-madhye api) a repose (viśrāntim) characterized by (lakṣaṇām) a right (yathāvat) union (with his own Self) (yoga) because of unsteadiness (anavasthānena) (and) deficiency (doṣa) in (his) mind (citta), then (tadā) he (saḥ) (is) one who has fallen (bhraṣṭaḥ) from Yoga (yoga) (who,) on account of (sāmarthyena) (his) purity (prasāda) regarding faith and devotion (śraddhā-bhakti) developed (prarūḍha) in the sphere (viṣaya) of Yoga (yoga) of Knowledge (jñāna), partakes of (bhāgī) the enjoyments (bhoga) in the worlds (loka) of the gods (deva), (and) with his mind full of cheerfulness (sāhlāda-cittaḥ), is happy (there) (harṣam prayāti) for a very long (suciram) time (kālam). He is (bhavati) worshiped (pūjyaḥ) by the gods (suraiḥ api) in the "bhuvana-s" --lit. in the worlds-- (bhuvaneṣu), i.e. in each of their own regions (nija-nija-sthāneṣu).

"How (kaḥ iva iti) (is he treated in those worlds)?". (Abhinavagupta) said (āha) "sārva", etc. (sārva iti-ādi).

"Just as (yathā) a sovereign (rājā) (and) universal monarch (sārvabhaumaḥ) —viz. a king (rājā) (and) great sovereign (cakravartī) who is the lord (īśvaraḥ) of the seven (sapta) islands (dvīpa)— is worshiped (pūjyate) (and) paid great honor (samabhyarcyate) by all the people (sarva-janaiḥ) (residing) in (his) "viṣaya-s" (viṣayeṣu) (or) various territories (nānā-maṇḍaleṣu), in the same way (tathā eva), he (ayam) in whose sphere or field of activity (viṣayaḥ) merit (puṇy) (and) demerit (apuṇya) have disappeared (prakṣīṇa), in whom renunciation (vairāgyaḥ) has arisen (samutpanna), being in his last birth (paścima-janmā), (is) very venerable (vandyaḥ) to us (asmākam). (Why? Because) in his case (yasya), during his previous birth (prāk-janmani), there was (abhūt) a continued effort (udyamaḥ) on account of (artham) a desire of knowing (jijñāsā) with reference to his own Self (sva-ātmani)". He is in this way praised (iti... stūyate) by the gods (suraiḥ api). Such is the meaning (iti yāvat)||101||


Without notes of explanation yet

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 Stanza 102

तस्य लोकान्तरभोगाधिकारनिवृत्तेरनन्तरं किं स्यात् — इत्याह


महता कालेन पुनर्मानुष्यं प्राप्य योगमभ्यस्य।
प्राप्नोति दिव्यममृतं यस्मादावर्तते न पुनः॥१०२॥


देवलोकेषु यथानिर्दिष्टेषु भोगान्भुक्त्वातिदीर्घेण कालेन स योगभ्रष्टः संसारेऽस्मिन्मनुष्यभावमागत्य योगाभ्याससाधनयोग्यं शरीरमासाद्य प्राग्जन्मनि मनश्चाञ्चल्याद्यो योगो दुष्प्रापोऽभूत्तमेव योगं प्राग्जातभक्तिश्रद्धाप्ररूढयोगवासनासंस्कारप्रबोधमनायासेन प्राप्य समभ्यस्य च देहान्ते दिव्यममृतं परतत्त्वस्वरूपमुपलभते परस्वरूपतादार्ढ्यं गच्छति — इति यावत्। अत एव तस्मात्पुनरावर्तनं तस्य न स्यात् — इति। एवं महति कल्याणे स्वात्मज्ञानविषये मनागपि प्रत्यवमर्शः संसारसरणाय न भवति। यदुक्तं श्रीगीतासु

नेहाभिक्रमनाशोऽस्ति प्रत्यवायो न विद्यते।
स्वल्पमप्यस्य धर्मस्य त्रायते महतो भयात्॥

इति। तथा

अयतिः श्रद्धयोपेतो योगाच्चलितमानसः।
अप्राप्य योगसंसिद्धिम्...॥

इत्यादिप्रश्नादारभ्य

अनेकजन्मसंसिद्धस्ततो याति परां गतिम्॥

इत्युत्तरपर्यन्तो ग्रन्थो मुनिना प्रतिपादितोऽपि स्मर्तव्यः — इति॥१०२॥

Tasya lokāntarabhogādhikāranivṛtteranantaraṁ kiṁ syāt — Ityāha


Mahatā kālena punarmānuṣyaṁ prāpya yogamabhyasya|
Prāpnoti divyamamṛtaṁ yasmādāvartate na punaḥ||102||


Devalokeṣu yathānirdiṣṭeṣu bhogānbhuktvātidīrgheṇa kālena sa yogabhraṣṭaḥ saṁsāre'sminmanuṣyabhāvamāgatya yogābhyāsasādhanayogyaṁ śarīramāsādya prāgjanmani manaścāñcalyādyo yogo duṣprāpo'bhūttameva yogaṁ prāgjātabhaktiśraddhāprarūḍhayogavāsanāsaṁskāraprabodhamanāyāsena prāpya samabhyasya ca dehānte divyamamṛtaṁ paratattvasvarūpamupalabhate parasvarūpatādārḍhyaṁ gacchati — Iti yāvat| Ata eva tasmātpunarāvartanaṁ tasya na syāt — Iti| Evaṁ mahati kalyāṇe svātmajñānaviṣaye manāgapi pratyavamarśaḥ saṁsārasaraṇāya na bhavati| Yaduktaṁ śrīgītāsu

Nehābhikramanāśo'sti pratyavāyo na vidyate|
Svalpamapyasya dharmasya trāyate mahato bhayāt||

Iti| Tathā

Ayatiḥ śraddhayopeto yogāccalitamānasaḥ|
Aprāpya yogasaṁsiddhim...||

Ityādipraśnādārabhya

Anekajanmasaṁsiddhastato yāti parāṁ gatim||

Ityuttaraparyanto grantho muninā pratipādito'pi smartavyaḥ — Iti||102||

On the cessation (nivṛtteḥ) of his (tasya) right (adhikāra) to the enjoyments (bhoga) in other (antara) worlds (loka), what (kim) happens (syāt) to him (tasya) immediately after (that) (anantaram)? (Abhinavagupta) said (āha) so (iti):


After a very long time (mahatā kālena) (living in those heavenly worlds, the one who fell from Yoga,) having obtained (prāpya) again (punar) the human condition (mānuṣyam), practices (abhyasya) Yoga (yogam) (and) acquires (prāpnoti) the divine (divyam) Nectar of Immortality (amṛtam) from which (yasmāt) he does not return (āvartate na) any more (punar)||102||


After experiencing (bhuktvā) enjoyments (bhogān) in the worlds of the gods (deva-lokeṣu) during a very long time (ati-dīrgheṇa kālena) such as they --i.e. such worlds-- were described (yathā-nirdiṣṭeṣu), the one who has fallen from Yoga (saḥ yoga-bhraṣṭaḥ) arrives (again) at (āgatya) the human (manuṣya) condition (bhāvam) in this Saṁsāra --Transmigration full of misery-- (saṁsāre asmin) (and) obtains (āsādya) a physical body (śarīram) which is fit (yogyam) (and) effective (sādhana) for the practice (abhyāsa) of Yoga (yoga)... a Yoga or union with the Supreme Self (yogaḥ) which (yaḥ) in (his) previous birth (prāk-janmani) was (abhūt) inaccessible (duṣprāpaḥ) (to him) because of unsteadiness (cāñcalyāt) of (his) mind (manas). After easily acquiring (anāyāsena prāpya) and (ca) practicing (samabhyasya) that (tam) Yoga (yogam) —i.e. an awakening (prabodham) of the yogic (yoga) accumulated impressions (saṁskāra) (and) tendencies (vāsanā) developed (prarūḍha) by (his) faith (śraddhā) (and) devotion (bhakti) in the previous birth (prāk-jāta)—, when the end of (his) physical body comes (deha-ante), he gets (upalabhate) the divine (divyam) Nectar of Immortality (amṛtam) whose essential nature (sva-rūpam) is the Supreme (para) Principle (tattva). (In other words,) he attains firmness (dārḍhyaṁ gacchati) as far as the Highest Nature is concerned (para-svarūpatā). This is the purport (iti yāvat).

For this very reason (atas eva), there is no (na syāt) returning (āvartanam) again (punar) from that (State) (tasmāt) in his case (tasya).

Thus (evam), a reflection (pratyavamarśaḥ) upon (this) Great Good Fortune (mahati kalyāṇe) whose sphere of activity (viṣaye) is Knowledge (jñāna) about one's own (sva) Self (ātma), even (api) slightly (manāk), does not lead to moving from one place to another (saraṇāya na bhavati) in Saṁsāra --Transmigration replete with misery-- (saṁsāra).

As (yad) has been said (uktam) in the verses of venerable Bhagavadgītā (śrī-gītāsu):

"Here, (i.e. in the intelligence described in Yoga) (iha), there is neither (na... asti) unsuccessful effort (abhikrama-nāśaḥ) nor (na vidyate) decrease or diminution (pratyavāyaḥ). Even (api) a very little quantity (su-alpam) of this (asya) dharma (dharmasya) protects (you) (trāyate) from a great (mahataḥ) danger (bhayāt... iti)".

Similarly (tathā), (in the Bhagavadgītā too:)

"(Though) endowed (upetaḥ) with faith (śraddhayā), one who does not make efforts properly (ayatiḥ) (and) whose mind (mānasaḥ) is deviated (calita) from Yoga (yogāt), not having obtained (aprāpya) complete perfection or success (saṁsiddhim) in Yoga (yoga)...".

etc. (iti-ādi). (And) by beginning (ārabhya) from the question (praśnāt) (by Arjuna right at the end of the previously quoted stanza --VI.37--: "oh Kṛṣṇa, what way does he go? --i.e. what state does he attain after dying?--", and also he asks again in the next stanza --VI.38--: "Oh big-armed one, fallen from both, without support, completely deluded and bewildered on the path of Brahma --i.e. on the path leading to Brahma--, does he not perish like a rent cloud?"), the text (granthaḥ) extending up to (paryantaḥ) the (final) reply (given by Lord Kṛṣṇa) (uttara) (in VI.45:)

"(The yogī who strives diligently, who is purified from sin and) has achieved full perfection (saṁsiddhaḥ) (after) many (aneka) births (janma), attains (yāti) consequently (tatas) the highest (parām) state --i.e. Liberation-- (gatim... iti)".

which --i.e. the text from stanza VI.37 to VI.45-- was also explained (pratipāditaḥ api) by the Sage --by Abhinavagupta in his commentary on Bhagavadgītā known as Gītārthasaṅgraha... but in this commentary, as it comes from a different recension —the one of Kashmir—, the text extends from VI.39 up to VI.47 and there are several additional modifications-- (muninā) must be remembered (smartavyaḥ... iti) (by everyone!)||102||


Without notes of explanation yet

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 Stanza 103

एवमनेन ज्ञानयोगक्रमेण जन्तोर्मनागपि स्पृष्टस्य सत इयान्विभूत्यतिशयो यः प्रवक्तुं न पार्यते तस्मात्सर्वात्मना विवेकार्द्रहृदयैर्जननमरणनिवृत्तौ सावधानैर्भाव्यम् — इति निरूपयति


तस्मात्सन्मार्गेऽस्मिन्निरतो यः कश्चिदेति स शिवत्वम्।
इति मत्वा परमार्थे यथातथापि प्रयतनीयम्॥१०३॥


यत एवं स्वात्मप्रत्यवमर्शाभ्यासः प्रतिपादितक्रमवशादुत्तमफललाभस्तस्मादेतस्मिन्सुशोभने मार्गे प्रकृष्टमुक्तिप्रापके पथि यः कश्चिन्निरत इत्यधिकारिनियमाभावः प्रदर्शितः। यः कश्चिज्जनो जननमरणव्याध्यादिक्लेशशतपरिपीडितो निरतो विवेकबुद्ध्या निःशेषेण रतस्तत्रैव श्रद्दधानो भूत्वा निमग्नः स जन्तुरचिराल्लघुनैव कालेन शिवत्वमेति सकलसांसारिकक्लेशानवधूय परश्रेयोरूपदशामेकेनैव जन्मना प्राप्नोति। यथा शिवधर्मोत्तरे शास्त्रे

इहैकभविको मोक्ष एष तावत्परीक्ष्यताम्।
अनेकभविका मुक्तिर्भवतां केन वार्यते॥

इति। इति मत्वैवं विमृश्य तस्मिन् परमार्थे यथातथा येन तेनापि प्रकारेण प्रयतनीयं प्रकर्षेण समुद्यमः कार्यः। प्रधाने यत्नः फलवानिति कृत्वात्रार्थे मनागप्यवलेपो न विधेयो येन योगाभ्यासेन स्वात्मप्ररूढिश्चेत्समुत्पन्ना सिद्धं नः समीहितं न चेद्दिव्यलोकान्तरप्राप्तिः। ततोऽपि प्रत्यावृत्तस्य प्राक्समभ्यस्तयोगवासनाप्रबोधबलेन पुनरपि योगसम्बन्धः — इति श्रेयोमार्गपरिशीलनान्न विरुद्धं किञ्चित्कर्तुः समापतति — इति परमपुरुषार्थसाधनायां मनागप्यवलेपो न कार्यः — इति शिवम्॥१०३॥

Evamanena jñānayogakrameṇa jantormanāgapi spṛṣṭasya sata iyānvibhūtyatiśayo yaḥ pravaktuṁ na pāryate tasmātsarvātmanā vivekārdrahṛdayairjananamaraṇanivṛttau sāvadhānairbhāvyam — Iti nirūpayati


Tasmātsanmārge'sminnirato yaḥ kaścideti sa śivatvam|
Iti matvā paramārthe yathātathāpi prayatanīyam||103||


Yata evaṁ svātmapratyavamarśābhyāsaḥ pratipāditakramavaśāduttamaphalalābhastasmādetasminsuśobhane mārge prakṛṣṭamuktiprāpake pathi yaḥ kaścinnirata ityadhikāriniyamābhāvaḥ pradarśitaḥ| Yaḥ kaścijjano jananamaraṇavyādhyādikleśaśataparipīḍito nirato vivekabuddhyā niḥśeṣeṇa ratastatraiva śraddadhāno bhūtvā nimagnaḥ sa janturacirāllaghunaiva kālena śivatvameti sakalasāṁsārikakleśānavadhūya paraśreyorūpadaśāmekenaiva janmanā prāpnoti| Yathā śivadharmottare śāstre

Ihaikabhaviko mokṣa eṣa tāvatparīkṣyatām|
Anekabhavikā muktirbhavatāṁ kena vāryate||

Iti| Iti matvaivaṁ vimṛśya tasmin paramārthe yathātathā yena tenāpi prakāreṇa prayatanīyaṁ prakarṣeṇa samudyamaḥ kāryaḥ| Pradhāne yatnaḥ phalavāniti kṛtvātrārthe manāgapyavalepo na vidheyo yena yogābhyāsena svātmaprarūḍhiścetsamutpannā siddhaṁ naḥ samīhitaṁ na ceddivyalokāntaraprāptiḥ| Tato'pi pratyāvṛttasya prāksamabhyastayogavāsanāprabodhabalena punarapi yogasambandhaḥ — Iti śreyomārgapariśīlanānna viruddhaṁ kiñcitkartuḥ samāpatati — Iti paramapuruṣārthasādhanāyāṁ manāgapyavalepo na kāryaḥ — Iti śivam||103||

Thus (evam), to the limited being --lit. insect-- (jantoḥ) who is even slightly touched (manāk api spṛṣṭasya sataḥ) by this method (anena... krameṇa) (called) the Yoga (yoga) of Knowledge (jñāna), there is such a powerful superiority (iyān vibhūti-atiśayaḥ) which cannot be (na pāryate) spoken about (pravaktum). Therefore (tasmāt), the ones whose hearts (hṛdayaiḥ) are full of feelings (ārdra) (and) discernment (viveka) should be (bhāvyam) attentive and focused (sa-avadhānaiḥ), with all their soul (sarva-ātmanā), on the cessation (nivṛttau) of birth (janana) (and) death (maraṇa). This is what (Abhinavagupta) states (iti nirūpayati) (by the following stanza):


Therefore (tasmāt), anyone whosoever (yaḥ kaścid) that is completely devoted to (nirataḥ) this (asmin) very beautiful path (sat-mārge) becomes Śiva (eti saḥ śivatvam). Reflecting in this manner (iti matvā), a great effort is to be intensely made (prayatanīyam) in whatever (possible) way (yathā-tathā api) in order to attain the Highest Reality or Supreme Goal (parama-arthe)||103||


Since (yatas) the practice (abhyāsaḥ) of becoming aware of --i.e. of recognizing-- (pratyavamarśa) one's own (sva) Self (ātma) in this way (evam) by means of (vaśāt) the method (krama) which was (already) explained (pratipādita) (leads to) the acquisition (lābhaḥ) of the Highest (uttama) Fruit (phala), therefore (tasmāt), "anyone whosoever (yaḥ kaścid) that is completely devoted to (nirataḥ iti)" this (etasmin) very beautiful (suśobhane) path (mārge) —viz. (to this) way (pathi) which is conducive to (prāpake) a superior (prakṛṣṭa) Liberation (mukti)(can acquire the aforesaid Highest Fruit. By the phrase "anyone whosoever who is completely devoted to",) the absence (abhāvaḥ) of requisites --lit. restrictions to be an "adhikārin" or someone who is qualified to receive spiritual knowledge-- (adhikāri-niyama) is (clearly) shown (pradarśitaḥ).

Any person whosoever (yaḥ kaścid janaḥ) tormented (paripīḍitaḥ) by hundreds (śata) of afflictions (kleśa) such as birth (janana), death (maraṇa), diseases (vyādhi), etc. (ādi) who is "nirata" (nirataḥ) (or) "totally (niḥśeṣeṇa) dedicated (rataḥ)" with an intellect (buddhyā) (full of) discernment (viveka), i.e. after (such a person) becomes (bhūtvā) immersed (nimagnaḥ), with (great) faith (śraddadhānaḥ), in it --in the abovementioned path-- (tatra eva), (then) that limited being (saḥ jantuḥ) obtains the State of Śiva (śivatvam eti) soon (acirāt), in a short time (laghunā eva kālena). (All in all,) by shaking off (avadhūya) all (sakala) the afflictions (kleśān) of Saṁsāra --Transmigration packed with misery-- (sāṁsārika), he acquires (prāpnoti) the State (daśām) whose nature (rūpa) is the Most Elevated (para) Good (śreyas) in a single birth (ekena eva janmanā).

As (yathā) (has been declared) in the scripture (śāstre) (whose name is) Śivadharmottarapurāṇa (śivadharmottare):

"(May) this (eṣaḥ) Liberation (mokṣaḥ) be searched (parīkṣyatām) here --in this world-- (iha) in one birth (eka-bhavikaḥ) indeed (tāvat)! In the case of the living beings (bhavatām), how --viz. by what means?-- (kena) is Liberation (muktiḥ) taking many births (aneka-bhavikā) stopped (vāryate)?".

(The final expression in the stanza 103, viz.) "Iti matvā paramārthe yathātathāpi prayatanīyam" (iti matvā... parama-arthe yathā-tathā... api... prayatanīyam) (means:) Considering or reflecting (vimṛśya) in this manner (evam), a great effort (samudyamaḥ) is to be intensely made (prakarṣeṇa... kāryaḥ) in whatever (possible) way (yena tena... prakāreṇa) in order to attain That (tasmin).

Considering that (iti kṛtvā) "(Any) effort (yatnaḥ) for achieving the Most Important Thing (pradhāne) yields results (phalavān)", pride (avalepaḥ) regarding this Goal (atra arthe) is not even slightly (manāk api... na) displayed or shown (vidheyaḥ). As a result (yena), if (ced) by the practice (abhyāsena) of Yoga (yoga), a shooting forth (prarūḍhiḥ) of one's own (sva) Self (ātma) takes place (samutpannā), (then) our (naḥ) desire (samīhitam) (is) fulfilled (siddham). (And) if (ced) (it is) not (so) --for the reasons which were already fully explained-- (na), there is arrival at (prāptiḥ) other (antara) divine (divya) worlds (loka). After that --i.e. after living in such heavenly worlds-- (tatas api), in the case of that person who has come back (to the human condition) (pratyāvṛttasya), there is once again a connection (punar api... sambandhaḥ) with Yoga (yoga) by force of (balena) the awakening (prabodha) of the tendencies (vāsanā) relating to Yoga (yoga) which had been practiced (samabhyasta) before (prāk). Thus (iti), (as) no opposition (na viruddham kiñcid) comes to (samāpatati) the agent --the spiritual aspirant-- (kartuḥ) from (his) constant pursuit of (pariśīlanāt) the path (mārga) (leading to the Highest) Good (śreyas), (then,) when the Supreme Aim of human existence is accomplished (parama-puruṣa-artha-sādhanāyām), pride (avalepaḥ) is not (na) even (api) slightly (manāk) the (final) result (kāryaḥ). May there be welfare (for all) (iti śivam)!||103||


Without notes of explanation yet

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 Stanza 104

एवं शास्त्रकारः शेषभट्टारकोक्तं परमार्थसारोपदेशं शिवाद्वयशासनक्रमेण युक्त्यनुभवागमसनाथं प्रतिपाद्य स्वात्मनः परितोषमात्रार्थितया स्वाभिधानप्रदर्शनपूर्वकमयमेवोपदेशः परपुरुषार्थसाधनोपाय इति निरूपयन्ग्रन्थार्थोपसंहारमाह


इदमभिनवगुप्तोदितसङ्क्षेपं ध्यायतः परं ब्रह्म।
अचिरादेव शिवत्वं निजहृदयावेशमभ्येति॥१०४॥


इदं प्रथमानं वितत्य प्रतिपादितं यत् परं प्रकृष्टं ब्रह्म बृंहकत्वात्परिपूर्णानन्दमयं स्वात्मस्वरूपं ध्यायतोऽनायासेन स्वात्मनि प्रत्यवमृशतो जनस्याचिरात्शीघ्रमेव न तु पुनर्बहूनां जन्मनामन्ते — इति। तदेवंविधस्य ब्रह्मभूतस्य शिवत्वमभ्येति निःश्रेयसप्राप्तिः सम्भवति। कथं निजहृदयावेशं कृत्वा निजं हृदयं परामर्शस्थानमाविश्य। कीदृशं तद्ब्रह्म कीर्तनीयनाम्ना अभिनवगुप्तेनोदितः प्रकाशितः सङ्क्षेपस्तात्पर्यं यत्र तदेवंविधम्। अत्र च नामव्याजेनेदमप्युक्तं स्याद्यथा — अभिनवो योऽन्यैरदृष्टः परब्रह्मरहस्यातिशयो गुप्तश्चावच्छन्न इवाभूत्स एवंविध उदितः प्रकाशितः सङ्क्षेपो यत्र तदेवंविधं ब्रह्म —इति। एवमावेदयता दुर्लभतोपदेशस्य प्रतिपादिता स्यात्॥१०४॥

Evaṁ śāstrakāraḥ śeṣabhaṭṭārakoktaṁ paramārthasāropadeśaṁ śivādvayaśāsanakrameṇa yuktyanubhavāgamasanāthaṁ pratipādya svātmanaḥ paritoṣamātrārthitayā svābhidhānapradarśanapūrvakamayamevopadeśaḥ parapuruṣārthasādhanopāya iti nirūpayangranthārthopasaṁhāramāha


Idamabhinavaguptoditasaṅkṣepaṁ dhyāyataḥ paraṁ brahma|
Acirādeva śivatvaṁ nijahṛdayāveśamabhyeti||104||


Idaṁ prathamānaṁ vitatya pratipāditaṁ yat paraṁ prakṛṣṭaṁ brahma bṛṁhakatvātparipūrṇānandamayaṁ svātmasvarūpaṁ dhyāyato'nāyāsena svātmani pratyavamṛśato janasyācirātśīghrameva na tu punarbahūnāṁ janmanāmante — Iti| Tadevaṁvidhasya brahmabhūtasya śivatvamabhyeti niḥśreyasaprāptiḥ sambhavati| Kathaṁ nijahṛdayāveśaṁ kṛtvā nijaṁ hṛdayaṁ parāmarśasthānamāviśya| Kīdṛśaṁ tadbrahma kīrtanīyanāmnā abhinavaguptenoditaḥ prakāśitaḥ saṅkṣepastātparyaṁ yatra tadevaṁvidham| Atra ca nāmavyājenedamapyuktaṁ syādyathā — Abhinavo yo'nyairadṛṣṭaḥ parabrahmarahasyātiśayo guptaścāvacchanna ivābhūtsa evaṁvidha uditaḥ prakāśitaḥ saṅkṣepo yatra tadevaṁvidhaṁ brahma —Iti| Evamāvedayatā durlabhatopadeśasya pratipāditā syāt||104||

Thus (eva), the author of the scripture --i.e. Abhinavagupta-- (śāstra-kāraḥ), after having explained (pratipādya) the teaching (upadeśam) (contained) in Paramārthasāra (parama-artha-sāra) spoken by (uktam) most venerable (bhaṭṭāraka) Śeṣa -- also known as Ādiśeṣa or Ādhāra-- (śeṣa) (but) furnished with (sanātham) reasoning (yukti), experience (anubhava) (and) revealed scripture (āgama) according to the method (krameṇa) (stipulated) by the non-dualistic (advaya) doctrine (śāsana) of Śiva (śiva), (and) after (pūrvakam) exhibiting (pradarśana) his own (sva) name (abhidhāna) with the sole desire (mātra-arthitayā) to delight (paritoṣa) in his Self (sva-ātmanaḥ), in his establishing that (nirūpayan) "this (ayam eva) teaching (upadeśaḥ) is the means (upāyaḥ) leading straight to (sādhana) the Highest (para) Aim of human existence (puruṣa-artha... iti)", expressed (āha) the epilogue as well as a summary (upasaṁhāram) of the book's meaning (grantha-artha) (by the following stanza:)


In the case of the one who meditates (dhyāyataḥ) on this (idam) Supreme (param) Brahma (brahma) in whom a brief explanation (about His nature) (saṅkṣepam) has been proclaimed (udita) by Abhinavagupta (abhinavagupta) (in the form of venerable Paramārthasāra), the State of Śiva (śivatvam) soon (acirāt eva) penetrates into (āveśam abhyeti) his (nija) heart (hṛdaya)||104||


(The meaning of) "(Idam)... (dhyāyataḥ) paraṁ (brahma)| Acirāt" (param... acirāt) (is as follows:) In the case of a person that meditates (dhyāyataḥ... janasya) on this (idam) Eminent (prakṛṣṭam) Brahma (brahma)(the Supreme Self is called "Brahma") because He makes (all) grow and develop (bṛṁhakatvāt)—, who (yad) was (already) explained (pratipāditam) after writing (vitatya) extensively (prathamānam), as being (svarūpam) his own (sva) Self (ātma) full of (mayam) Perfect (paripūrṇa) Bliss (ānanda), he --i.e. such a person-- easily becomes aware of (anāyāsena... pratyavamṛśataḥ) his Self (sva-ātmani) soon (acirāt), i.e. quickly (śīghram eva), and not (na tu punar) at the end (ante) of many births (bahūnām janmanām... iti).

That (tad) State of Śiva (śivatvam) —the most excellent (niḥśreyasa) achievement (prāptiḥ)— "abhyeti" --lit. comes to-- (abhyeti) (or) accrues to (sambhavati) such (a person) (evaṁvidhasya) who became (bhūtasya) Brahma (brahma).

How (katham)? By making (kṛtvā) a penetration (āveśam) into "nija-hṛdaya" (nija-hṛdaya). (In other words,) by penetrating into (āviśya) his own (nija) heart (hṛdaya) (or) place (sthānam) where there can be "parāmarśa" --viz. where the Self can be mentally seized, where He can be realized-- (parāmarśa).

What is that Brahma like (kīdṛśam tad brahma)? (He is) the One --lit. That of such a kind, That who is like that-- (tad evaṁvidham) where (yatra) a "saṅkṣepa" (saṅkṣepaḥ) (or brief) explanation (tātparyam) (about His nature) has been proclaimed (uditaḥ) (or) revealed (prakāśitaḥ) by Abhinavagupta (abhinavaguptena), the one who bears a famous name (kīrtanīya-nāmnā), (in the form of venerable Paramārthasāra).

In this respect (atra ca), by means of (vyājena) the name (nāma) this (Eminent Brahma) (idam) is (syāt) even (api) described (uktam), namely (yathā): "abhinava" and "gupta" (abhinavaḥ... guptaḥ ca), i.e. the one who (yaḥ), being the most secret (rahasya-atiśayaḥ) (nature of) the Supreme (para) Brahma (brahma), was not seen (adṛṣṭaḥ) by others (anyaiḥ) (and) was (abhūt) concealed (avacchannaḥ), as it were (iva). Brahma (brahma) (is then) the One --lit. That of such a kind, That who is like that-- (tad evaṁvidham) in whom (yatra) such a (saḥ evaṁvidhaḥ) "saṅkṣepa" --a brief explanation-- (saṅkṣepaḥ) (about His nature) has been proclaimed (uditaḥ) (or) revealed (prakāśitaḥ... iti).

In such a manner (evam), the scarcity and rarity (durlabhatā) of the teaching (upadeśasya) is (syāt) (also tacitly) explained (pratipāditā) by the one making (it) known --by Abhinavagupta-- (āvedayatā)||104||


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 Stanza 105

ग्रन्थपरिमाणं निरूपयन्नस्मिन्प्रकरणे कर्तृत्वमाह


आर्याशतेन तदिदं सङ्क्षिप्तं शास्त्रसारमतिगूढम्।
अभिनवगुप्तेन मया शिवचरणस्मरणदीप्तेन॥१०५॥


इदं शास्त्रसारं बहूनां ग्रन्थानां यत्प्रकृष्टं सतत्त्वं तन्मया सङ्क्षिप्तं ग्रन्थसहस्रैरप्युपपादयितुमशक्यं तदेव लघुना वृत्तशतपरिमाणेन स्वीकृत्योक्तम् — इत्यनेन प्रतिभाकौशलमुक्तं भवेत्। कीदृशेण मया शिवचरणस्मरणदीप्तेन इति। शिवस्य परश्रेयःस्वभावस्य स्वात्मस्थस्य चिदानन्दैकमूर्तेर्यानि चरणानि चिद्रश्मयस्तेषां स्मरणं शब्दादिविषयग्रहणकाले निभालनं प्रतिक्षणं स्वानुभवाप्रमोषस्तेन दीप्तः पराहन्ताचमत्कारभास्वरोऽत एव कीर्तनीयाभिधानेन। अन्यथा कथं देहाद्यात्ममानिनोऽज्ञातस्वात्ममहेश्वरसतत्त्वस्येयति महार्थोपदेशेऽस्य कर्तृताधिकारित्वमुपपद्यते यतो यो यत्स्वभावः स तत्स्वभावं विवेक्तुं प्रगल्भते — इत्युपदेष्टुः समाविष्टमहेश्वरस्वभावोऽनेन वाक्येनोक्तः स्यात् — इति शिवम्॥१०५॥

Granthaparimāṇaṁ nirūpayannasminprakaraṇe kartṛtvamāha


Āryāśatena tadidaṁ saṅkṣiptaṁ śāstrasāramatigūḍham|
Abhinavaguptena mayā śivacaraṇasmaraṇadīptena||105||


Idaṁ śāstrasāraṁ bahūnāṁ granthānāṁ yatprakṛṣṭaṁ satattvaṁ tanmayā saṅkṣiptaṁ granthasahasrairapyupapādayitumaśakyaṁ tadeva laghunā vṛttaśataparimāṇena svīkṛtyoktam — Ityanena pratibhākauśalamuktaṁ bhavet| Kīdṛśeṇa mayā śivacaraṇasmaraṇadīptena iti| Śivasya paraśreyaḥsvabhāvasya svātmasthasya cidānandaikamūrteryāni caraṇāni cidraśmayasteṣāṁ smaraṇaṁ śabdādiviṣayagrahaṇakāle nibhālanaṁ pratikṣaṇaṁ svānubhavāpramoṣastena dīptaḥ parāhantācamatkārabhāsvaro'ta eva kīrtanīyābhidhānena| Anyathā kathaṁ dehādyātmamānino'jñātasvātmamaheśvarasatattvasyeyati mahārthopadeśe'sya kartṛtādhikāritvamupapadyate yato yo yatsvabhāvaḥ sa tatsvabhāvaṁ vivektuṁ pragalbhate — Ityupadeṣṭuḥ samāviṣṭamaheśvarasvabhāvo'nena vākyenoktaḥ syāt — Iti śivam||105||

After stating (nirūpayan) the extent (parimāṇam) of the book (grantha), (Abhinavagupta) declared (āha) the authorship (kartṛtvam) with reference to this treatise (asmin prakaraṇe):


This very (tad idam) extremely secret (ati-gūḍham) essence (sāram) of (all) the scriptures (śāstra) has been summed up (saṅkṣiptam) in one hundred (śatena) (verses in) Āryā meter (āryā) by me (mayā), Abhinavagupta (abhinavaguptena), the one who shines (dīptena) by the remembrance (smaraṇa) of the Śiva's feet (śiva-caraṇa)||105||


This (idam) Essence (sāram) of (all the) scriptures (śāstra), viz. that (tad) which (yad) (is) the Superior (prakṛṣṭam) Nature (satattvam) of many books (bahūnām granthānām), (has been) "mayā saṅkṣiptam" --lit. "summed up by me, (by Abhinavagupta)-- (mayā saṅkṣiptam). (In short,) though it cannot (aśakyam) be presented (upapādayitum) by thousands of (sahasraiḥ) books (grantha), it is claimed to have been described (tad eva... svīkṛtya uktam) by the short extent (laghunā... parimāṇena) of one hundred (śata) verses regulated by meter (vṛtta... iti). By this (statement) (anena) the skillfullness (kauśalam) of (Abhinavagupta's) intelligence (pratibhā) is (bhavet) expressed (uktam).

"How could this be carried out by me (kīdṛśeṇa mayā)?" --as if Abhinavagupta had asked that--, (and he replied:) "śivacaraṇasmaraṇadīptena" (śiva-caraṇa-smaraṇa-dīptena iti).

(In the compound "śivacaraṇasmaraṇadīptena", "śivacaraṇa" means) those (yāni) feet (caraṇāni) —rays of the Light (raśmayaḥ) of Consciousness (cit)— of Śiva (śivasya) whose essential nature (sva-bhāvasya) is the Highest (para) Good (śreyas), who remains (sthasya) as one's own (sva) Self (ātma) (and) whose one (eka) form (mūrteḥ) is Consciousness (cit) (and) Bliss (ānanda). Remembrance (smaraṇam) of those (Śiva's feet) (teṣām) is awareness (nibhālanam) that is not robbed (apramoṣaḥ) in one's own (sva) experience (anubhava) at every instant (pratikṣaṇam), at the moment (kāle) of perceiving (grahaṇa) objects (viṣaya) such as sounds (śabda), etc. (ādi). The one who is "dīpta" (dīptaḥ) by that (remembrance of the Śiva's feet) (tena) (is) the one who shines (bhāsvaraḥ) as the Delight (camatkāra) of the Perfect (parā) I-consciousness (ahantā). For this reason (atas eva), (the expression "śivacaraṇasmaraṇadīptena" in the stanza is an additional description of "abhinavaguptena" or) "by the one whose name is famous" --i.e. by Abhinavagupta-- (kīrtanīya-abhidhānena).

Otherwise (anyathā), how (katham), even extending to the teaching (iyati... upadeśe) of the Mahārtha school (mahārtha) --i.e. even including the viewpoint of this Trika's school which is also known as Krama system--, could there be (upapadyate) a right (adhikāritvam) to authorship (kartṛtā) on the part of someone (asya) who thinks (māninaḥ) the physical body (deha), etc. (ādi) to be himself (ātma) (and accordingly) ignores that the nature (ajñāta... satattvasya) of the Great Lord (mahā-īśvara) (is) his own (sva) Self (ātma)? --all in all, only someone who is not ignorant about his divine essence has the right to be the author of such a monumental work as Paramārthasāra--. Because (yatas) he (saḥ) who (yaḥ) has this or that nature (yat-svabhāvaḥ) is (only) able to (pragalbhate) discern (vivektum) that (type of) (tad) nature (svabhāvam) --in short, a person cannot discern a nature he ignores to have--. Thus (iti), by this express declaration (anena vākyena) the essential nature (svabhāvaḥ) of the Master --lit. "the one who gives the teaching", viz. Abhinavagupta-- (upadeṣṭuḥ) is (syāt) said to be (uktaḥ) one who has entered into (samāviṣṭa) the Great Lord (mahā-īśvara) --i.e. the essential nature of Abhinavagupta is one with that of Lord Śiva--. May there be welfare (for all) (iti śivam)!||105||


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 End of the scripture


इति श्रीमहामाहेश्वराचार्याभिनवगुप्तविरचितः परमार्थसारः॥


श्रीमतः क्षेमराजस्य सद्गुर्वाम्नायशालिनः।
साक्षात्कृतमहेशस्य तस्यान्तेवासिना मया॥१॥

श्रीवितस्तापुरीधाम्ना विरक्तेन तपस्विना।
विवृतिर्योगनाम्नेयं पूर्णाद्वयमयी कृता॥२॥

सम्पूर्णेयं परमार्थसारसङ्ग्रहविवृतिः कृतिस्तत्रभवत्परममाहेश्वरश्रीराजानकयोगराजस्य॥


Iti śrīmahāmāheśvarācāryābhinavaguptaviracitaḥ paramārthasāraḥ||


Śrīmataḥ kṣemarājasya sadgurvāmnāyaśālinaḥ|
Sākṣātkṛtamaheśasya tasyāntevāsinā mayā||1||

Śrīvitastāpurīdhāmnā viraktena tapasvinā|
Vivṛtiryoganāmneyaṁ pūrṇādvayamayī kṛtā||2||

Sampūrṇeyaṁ paramārthasārasaṅgrahavivṛtiḥ kṛtistatrabhavatparamamāheśvaraśrīrājānakayogarājasya||


Here ends (iti) Paramārthasāra --The essence of the Highest Reality or Supreme Goal-- (parama-artha-sāraḥ) composed (viracitaḥ) by Abhinavagupta (abhinavagupta), the venerable (śrī) Master (ācārya) (and) Great Devotee of the Great Lord (mahā-māhā-īśvara).


This (iyam) complete commentary (vivṛtiḥ), which is replete with (mayī) perfect (pūrṇa) non-dualism (advaya), has been done (kṛtā) by me (mayā), whose name is (nāmnā) Yogarāja (yoga), a detached (viraktena) ascetic (tapasvinā) residing (dhāmnā) in holy (śrī) Vitastāpurī (vitastāpurī), who is the disciple --specially one living near the house of his Guru-- (antevāsinā) of that (tasya) most venerable (śrīmataḥ) Kṣemarāja (kṣemarājasya) who is full of (śālinaḥ) the sacred tradition (āmnāya) of the genuine Guru-s (sad-guru) (and) has realized --lit. has seen with his own eyes-- the Great Lord (sākṣāt-kṛta-mahā-īśasya)||1-2||

This (iyam) work (kṛtiḥ) —a complete commentary (vivṛtiḥ) on the compendium (saṅgraha) (known as) Paramārthasāra (parama-artha-sāra)— belonging to the revered (and) supreme devotee of the Great Lord (whose name is) Śrīrājānakayogarāja (tatrabhavat-parama-māhā-īśvara-śrī-rājānaka-yogarājasya) (is) thoroughly finished (sampūrṇā).


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