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Paramārthasāra (Парамартхасара) Абхинавагупты: Строфы 44-50. Недвойственный Кашмирский Шиваизм

Стандартный перевод


 Introduction

Paramārthasāra continues with four more stanzas. This is the twelfth set of stanzas, which is composed of 7 out of the 105 stanzas constituting the entire work.

Of course, I will also insert the original stanzas on which Yogarāja is commenting. I will write a lot of notes to make this book so understandable to the average reader as possible.

Yogarāja's Sanskrit will be in dark green color while the original Abhinavagupta's stanzas will be shown in dark red color. In turn, within the transliteration, the original stanzas will be in brown color, while the Yogarāja's comments will be shown in black. Also, within the translation, the original stanzas by Abhinavagupta, i.e. Paramārthasāra, will be in green and black colors, while the commentary by Yogarāja will contain words in both black and red colors.

Read Paramārthasāra and experience Supreme Ānanda or Divine Bliss, dear Śiva.

Important: All that is in brackets and italicized within the translation has been added by me in order to complete the sense of a particular phrase or sentence. In turn, all that is between double hyphen (--...--) constitutes clarifying further information also added by me.

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 Stanza 44

क्रियाज्ञानेच्छामुखेन परशक्तौ यन्न विश्राम्यति तन्न किञ्चित् — इत्याह


इष्यत इति वेद्यत इति सम्पाद्यत इति च भास्वरूपेण।
अपरामृष्टं यदपि तु नभःप्रसूनत्वमभ्येति॥४४॥


यद्वस्तु वस्तुवृत्तेन बहिर्विद्यमानमपि तद्यदीच्छाज्ञानक्रियामुखेन भास्वरेणैतच्छक्तित्रयसामरस्यात्मकपराशक्तिस्फारमयेन बोधेन न परामृष्टं तत्प्रख्योपाख्याविकलं गगनपुष्पतुल्यम्। अनेन च सद्वृत्त्यूर्ध्ववर्तित्रिशूलात्मकवृत्तिवीर्यं सूचितम्॥४४॥

Kriyājñānecchāmukhena paraśaktau yanna viśrāmyati tanna kiñcit — Ityāha


Iṣyata iti vedyata iti sampādyata iti ca bhāsvarūpeṇa|
Aparāmṛṣṭaṁ yadapi tu nabhaḥprasūnatvamabhyeti||44||


Yadvastu vastuvṛttena bahirvidyamānamapi tadyadīcchājñānakriyāmukhena bhāsvareṇaitacchaktitrayasāmarasyātmakaparāśaktisphāramayena bodhena na parāmṛṣṭaṁ tatprakhyopākhyāvikalaṁ gaganapuṣpatulyam| Anena ca sadvṛttyūrdhvavartitriśūlātmakavṛttivīryaṁ sūcitam||44||

(Abhinavagupta) said (āha) (in the stanza 44:) That (tad) is nothing (na kiñcid) --it does not exist at all-- which (yad) does not (na) rests (viśrāmyati) on the Highest Śakti (para-śaktau) by means of (mukhena) Will (icchā), Knowledge (jñāna) (and) Action (kriyā... iti):


However (api tu), that which (yad) is not touched (aparāmṛṣṭam) by (Bodha or Consciousness) whose nature (sva-rūpeṇa) (is) Brightness (bhā) (in the form of) "it is wished (iṣyate iti)", "it is known (vedyate iti)" and (ca) "it is carried out" (sampādyate iti) falls into (abhyeti) (the category of) being a flower (prasūnatvam) in the sky (nabhas) --i.e. it does not exist at all--||44||


Even (api) a thing (vastu) that (yad) is actually present (vastu-vṛttena... vidyamānam) externally (bahis), if (yadi) it (tad) is not (na) touched (parāmṛṣṭam) through (mukhena) Will (icchā), Knowledge (jñāna) (and) Action (kriyā) by the brilliant (bhāsvareṇa) Consciousness (bodhena) which is replete with (mayena) the throbbing (sphāra) of the Highest (parā) Śakti or Power (śakti) appearing in the form of (ātmaka) an equilibrium (sāmarasya) of these (etad) three (traya) powers (śakti) --Will, Knowledge and Action--, (then) that (thing) (tad), being deprived of (vikalam) prakhyā or the desire of becoming a object of knowledge to oneself (prakhyā) (and) upākhyā or the desire of becoming an object of knowledge to another (upākhyā), is like (tulyam) a flower (puṣpa) in the sky (gagana). By this (statement about the three Powers of Consciousness) (anena ca) (is also) pointed out (sūcitam) the active potency or virility (vṛtti-vīryam) consisting of (ātmaka) the upward turned (ūrdhva-varti) trident (triśūla) (which denotes) existence (sat-vṛtti)||44||


Without notes of explanation yet

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 Stanza 45

एतच्छाक्तपदावेशमस्यानुवदञ्छाम्भवपदसमापत्त्या तन्मयीभावमाविर्भावयति


शक्तित्रिशूलपरिगमयोगेन समस्तमपि परमेशे।
शिवनामनि परमार्थे विसृज्यते देवदेवेन॥४५॥


तदित्थं समस्तमपि एतत् सत्तामात्ररूपत्वात्प्रोक्तब्रह्मपरमार्थं शक्तित्रिशूलपरिगमयोगेन निर्णीतयुक्त्या पराशक्तिसमापत्तिक्रमेण शिवनामनि परमार्थे अनवच्छिन्नचिदानन्दैकघने परमेश्वरे स्वस्मिन्स्वभावे विसृज्यते — अन्तर्मुखविमर्शनप्रकर्षात्तत्समावेशेन तन्मयीभावमापाद्यते देवानां ब्रह्मादिसदाशिवान्तानां सर्वप्रकाशानामिन्द्रियाणां च देवेन प्रभुणा परमशिवेनैव नह्यत्रान्यस्य कस्यचित्कर्तृत्वं घटते नाप्येतद्व्यतिरिक्तोऽन्यः कश्चित्प्रमातास्त्यस्यैव च भगवतस्तत्तद्भूमिकाधिरोहिणस्तत्तद्रुद्रक्षेत्रज्ञादिप्रमातृरूपतया स्फुरणम् — इति देवदेवेन इति युक्तैवोक्तिः। तदित्थं विसर्गवृत्तिर्दर्शिता॥४५॥

Etacchāktapadāveśamasyānuvadañchāmbhavapadasamāpattyā tanmayībhāvamāvirbhāvayati


Śaktitriśūlaparigamayogena samastamapi parameśe|
Śivanāmani paramārthe visṛjyate devadevena||45||


Taditthaṁ samastamapi etat sattāmātrarūpatvātproktabrahmaparamārthaṁ śaktitriśūlaparigamayogena nirṇītayuktyā parāśaktisamāpattikrameṇa śivanāmani paramārthe anavacchinnacidānandaikaghane parameśvare svasminsvabhāve visṛjyate — Antarmukhavimarśanaprakarṣāttatsamāveśena tanmayībhāvamāpādyate devānāṁ brahmādisadāśivāntānāṁ sarvaprakāśānāmindriyāṇāṁ ca devena prabhuṇā paramaśivenaiva nahyatrānyasya kasyacitkartṛtvaṁ ghaṭate nāpyetadvyatirikto'nyaḥ kaścitpramātāstyasyaiva ca bhagavatastattadbhūmikādhirohiṇastattadrudrakṣetrajñādipramātṛrūpatayā sphuraṇam — Iti devadevena iti yuktaivoktiḥ| Taditthaṁ visargavṛttirdarśitā||45||

(Abhinavagupta, still) insisting on (asya anuvadan) this (etad) entrance (āveśam) into the state (pada) of Śakti or Power (śākta) (on the part of the third Brahma, now) exhibits (āvirbhāvayati) the complete identification (mayī-bhāvam) with Her (tad) by a full absorption (samāpattyā) into the Śambhu's State --the State of Śiva-- (śāmbhava-pada):


The Whole --the third Brahma-- (samastam api) is emitted (visṛjyate) by the God (devena) of gods (deva) into the Supreme Lord (parama-īśe) called (nāmani) Śiva (śiva) who is the Highest Reality (parama-arthe) through (yogena) its attaining --on the part of the third Brahma-- (parigama) the trident (triśūla) of powers (śakti) --Will, Knowledge and Action--||45||


Thus (tad ittham), the "Whole" (samastam api) (mentioned in the stanza is) this (etad) which really is (parama-artham) the aforesaid (prokta) (third) Brahma (explained by the stanza 43) (brahma) since Its nature (rūpatvāt) is only (mātra) Existence (sattā). (This "Whole") is emitted (visṛjyate) through (yogena) its attaining --on the part of the third Brahma-- (parigama) the trident (triśūla) of powers (śakti), i.e. through the method --way-- (krameṇa) of fully absorbing (samāpatti) into the Highest (parā) Śakti or Power (śakti) which has been duly (yuktyā) investigated (nirṇīta). (Where is It emitted?) Into the Supreme Lord (parama-īśe) called (nāmani) Śiva (śiva) who is the Highest Reality (parama-arthe), who is one (eka) compact mass (ghane) of uninterrupted (anavacchinna) Consciousness (cit) (and) Bliss (ānanda) (and) who is one's own (svasmin) essential nature (sva-bhāve). (By the term "visṛjyate" or "It is emitted" Abhinavagupta meant that,) due to the intensity and supremacy (prakarṣāt) of the inward (antarmukha) Śakti (vimarśana) (in the form of I-consciousness,) it is produced (āpādyate) the complete identification (mayī-bhāvam) with Her (tad) by a penetration (samāveśena) into Her (tad) (on the part of the abovementioned Whole, viz. the third Brahma. And by whom is such an emission carried out?) By the God (devena) —i.e. by Lord Paramaśiva (prabhuṇā parama-śivena) indeed (eva)— of the gods (devānām) who begin with (ādi) Brahmā (brahma) (and) end in (antānām) Sadāśiva (sadāśiva), and also (ca) of the powers of perception (indriyāṇām) that manifest (prakāśānām) all (sarva). The agency (kartṛtvam) of nobody else (nahi... anyasya kasyacid) is possible (ghaṭate) with respect to it (atra), nor is there (na... asti) even (api) some (kaścid) other (anyaḥ) knower or experient (pramātā) which is different (vyatiriktaḥ) from Him (etad). And (ca) (as a result,) the flashing manifestation (sphuraṇam) in the form of (rūpatayā) multiple (tad-tad) knowers or experients (pramātṛ) such as Rudra-s --liberated beings-- (rudra), limited individuals (kṣetrajña), etc. (ādi) belongs only to this (asya eva) Fortunate One (bhagavataḥ) who ascends (adhirohiṇaḥ) various (tad-tad) stages (bhūmikā). So (iti), the expression (uktiḥ) "by the God of gods" (deva-devena iti) (in the stanza is) certainly (eva) suitable (yuktā).

In this way (tad ittham) the emissional (visarga) activity (vṛttiḥ) has been shown (darśitā)||45||


Without notes of explanation yet

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 Stanza 46

एवमियता भेदात्मनो नररूपस्य जगतो भेदाभेदात्मकशाक्तपदाध्यारोहेणाभिन्नचिद्घनशिवसामरस्यापत्तिमुपसंहारदृशा प्रदर्श्येदानीं चिदेकघनः शिव एव शक्तिरूपतयोल्लास्य नरात्मकविश्वरूपतया स्फुरति न तु शिवव्यतिरिक्तं शक्तिनरयोः किमपि रूपं शिव एव त्वित्थं निजरसाश्यानतया स्फुरति — इति प्रसरयुक्तिं महामन्त्रस्फारमयीं दर्शयति


पुनरपि च पञ्चशक्तिप्रसरणक्रमेण बहिरपि तत्।
अण्डत्रयं विचित्रं सृष्टं बहिरात्मलाभेन॥४६॥


चिदानन्देच्छाज्ञानक्रियाख्यशक्तिपञ्चकसामरस्यात्मा यः परमशिवस्तेन चिदादिशक्तिप्राधान्यप्रथनात्मकशिवशक्तिसदाशिवेश्वरशुद्धविद्याख्यभूमिकोन्मीलनयुक्त्या तद् अण्डत्रयं विचित्रमिति तत्तद्भुवनादिरूपं सृष्टं बहिरात्मलाभेन इति बाह्याभासात्मतया स्वात्मनः प्रदर्शनेन। पुनरपि इत्यनेनैतद्दर्शयति — यत्परमशिव एव स्वतन्त्रः सदा स्वभित्तौ विश्वप्रपञ्चोल्लासनविलापनक्रीडां स्वात्मानतिरिक्तामप्यतिरिक्तामिवादर्शयन्नेवमित्थं स्थितो न तु तद्व्यतिरिक्तं किमप्यस्तीति॥४६॥

Evamiyatā bhedātmano nararūpasya jagato bhedābhedātmakaśāktapadādhyāroheṇābhinnacidghanaśivasāmarasyāpattimupasaṁhāradṛśā pradarśyedānīṁ cidekaghanaḥ śiva eva śaktirūpatayollāsya narātmakaviśvarūpatayā sphurati na tu śivavyatiriktaṁ śaktinarayoḥ kimapi rūpaṁ śiva eva tvitthaṁ nijarasāśyānatayā sphurati — Iti prasarayuktiṁ mahāmantrasphāramayīṁ darśayati


Punarapi ca pañcaśaktiprasaraṇakrameṇa bahirapi tat|
Aṇḍatrayaṁ vicitraṁ sṛṣṭaṁ bahirātmalābhena||46||


Cidānandecchājñānakriyākhyaśaktipañcakasāmarasyātmā yaḥ paramaśivastena cidādiśaktiprādhānyaprathanātmakaśivaśaktisadāśiveśvaraśuddhavidyākhyabhūmikonmīlanayuktyā tad aṇḍatrayaṁ vicitramiti tattadbhuvanādirūpaṁ sṛṣṭaṁ bahirātmalābhena iti bāhyābhāsātmatayā svātmanaḥ pradarśanena| Punarapi ityanenaitaddarśayati — Yatparamaśiva eva svatantraḥ sadā svabhittau viśvaprapañcollāsanavilāpanakrīḍāṁ svātmānatiriktāmapyatiriktāmivādarśayannevamitthaṁ sthito na tu tadvyatiriktaṁ kimapyastīti||46||

After showing (pradarśya) so far (evam iyatā), by a conclusive viewpoint (upasaṁhāra-dṛśā), the entrance (āpattim) of the dual (bheda-ātmanaḥ) universe (jagataḥ) —whose form (rūpasya) (is all these) nara-s or limited individuals (nara)— into a state of identity (sāmarasya) with Śiva (śiva) who is a undivided (abhinna) compact mass (ghana) of Consciousness (cit) through its ascending --on the part of the universe-- (adhyāroheṇa) (up to) the state (pada) related to Śakti or Power (śākta) --i.e. the tattva-s or categories 3 to 5-- consisting of (ātmaka) unity (abheda) in diversity (bheda), now (idānīm) (it is taught that) Śiva (śivaḥ) Himself (eva), one (eka) compact mass (ghanaḥ) of Consciousness (cit), by appearing (ullāsya) in the form of (rūpatayā) Śakti (śakti), shines forth (sphurati) as (rūpatayā) the universe (viśva) composed of (ātmaka) limited individuals (nara). However (tu), there is no (na... kimapi) form (rūpam), whether in the case of Śakti --the Supreme Power-- or of nara --the limited individual-- (śakti-narayoḥ), that is different from (vyatiriktam) Śiva (śiva), but (tu) (it is) Śiva (śivaḥ) Himself (eva) (who) shines forth (sphurati) with His own Sap --Bliss-- coagulated (nija-rasa-āśyānatayā) in that way (ittham). Thus (iti), (in order to prove this Truth, Abhinavagupta, in the stanza 46,) exhibits (darśayati) a torrent-like (prasara) argument (yuktim) that is replete with (mayīm) the vibration (sphāra) of the Great (mahā) Mantra (mantra) --i.e. Aham or I--:


And (ca) even again (punar api) that (tad) wonderful and variegated (vicitram) triad (trayam) of eggs (aṇḍa) (is) emitted (sṛṣṭam) (by the Supreme Śiva) outside (bahis api) through the method (krameṇa) of expanding (prasaraṇa) (His) five (pañca) powers (śakti) for the purpose of perceiving (lābhena) Himself (ātma) externally (bahis)||46||


Paramaśiva --the Supreme Śiva-- (parama-śivaḥ) is One whose essence (ātmā yaḥ) is (constituted by) an equilibrium (sāmarasya) of the group of the five (pañcaka) powers (śakti) known as (ākhya) (the Powers of) Consciousness (cit), Bliss (ānanda), Will (icchā), Knowledge (jñāna) (and) Action (kriyā). (The expression) "that (tad) wonderful and variegated (vicitram) triad (trayam) of eggs (aṇḍa... iti)" (in the stanza means) that which is composed of (rūpam) various (tad-tad) worlds (bhuvana), etc. (ādi) --i.e. the eggs of Māyā, Prakṛti and Pṛthivī--. (The phrase) "for the purpose of perceiving (lābhena) Himself (ātma) externally (bahis... iti)" (means) for the purpose of seeing (pradarśanena) His own Self (sva-ātmanaḥ) as an external flashing manifestation (bāhya-ābhāsa-ātmatayā). (Summing it up, that wonderful and variegated triad of eggs is) emitted --manifested-- (sṛṣṭam) by Him (tena) through (yuktyā) an unfoldment (unmīlana) of the stages (bhūmikā) called (ākhya) "Śiva, Śakti, Sadāśiva, Īśvara and Śuddhavidyā" (śiva-śakti-sadāśiva-īśvara-śuddhavidyā) which are based on (ātmaka) a display (prathana) of predominances (prādhānya) of (the five abovementioned) powers (śakti) (such as the Powers of) Consciousness (cit), etc. (ādi). (To what end? For the purpose of perceiving Himself externally).

He shows (darśayati) that (universe outside) (tad) by this (method which has been explained in the last paragraph) (anena) "even (api) again (punar... iti)". (In other words, the previous statement meant) that (yad) Paramaśiva (paramaśivaḥ) Himself (eva), the Free One (svatantraḥ), always (sadā) keeps showing (ādarśayan... sthitaḥ) on His own canvas (sva-bhittau) the Play (krīḍām) of manifesting (ullāsana) (and) dissolving (vilāpana) the universal (viśva) manifoldness (prapañca) in this way (evam ittham), i.e. (showing this Play) as if it were (iva) different from (atiriktām) Himself (sva-ātma) though (api) it is not different from (anatiriktām) Himself (sva-ātma). Nevertheless (tu), "there is nothing at all (na... kimapi asti) that is different from (vyatiriktam) Him (tad... iti)"||46||


Without notes of explanation yet

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 Stanzas 47-50

इत्थं विश्वोल्लासनविलायनक्रीडाशीलो भगवान् यः शिव इति व्यपदिश्यते स कतमः कुत्र तिष्ठति कतमेन वा प्रमाणेन प्रसिद्धः — इत्याशङ्क्य सर्वेषां स्वात्मैव शिवः सर्वत्रादिसिद्धतया स्फुरन्सर्गादीन्विदधाति — इत्यस्मच्छब्दवाचकैः शब्दैः प्रतिपादयति


इति शक्तिचक्रयन्त्रं क्रीडायोगेन वाहयन्देवः।
अहमेव शुद्धरूपः शक्तिमहाचक्रनायकपदस्थः॥४७॥

मय्येव भाति विश्वं दर्पण इव निर्मले घटादीनि।
मत्तः प्रसरति सर्वं स्वप्नविचित्रत्वमिव सुप्तात्॥४८॥

अहमेव विश्वरूपः करचरणादिस्वभाव इव देहः।
सर्वस्मिन्नहमेव स्फुरामि भावेषु भास्वरूपमिव॥४९॥

द्रष्टा श्रोता घ्राता देहेन्द्रियवर्जितोऽप्यकर्तापि।
सिद्धान्तागमतर्कांश्चित्रानहमेव रचयामि॥५०॥


इति — व्याख्यातेन प्रकारेण चिदादिशक्तिपञ्चकाक्षिप्तोऽनन्तो यः शक्तिसमूहस्तदेव यन्त्रं क्रीडायोगेन वाहयन् अरघट्टघटीयन्त्रन्यायेन सृष्ट्याद्युन्मज्जननिमज्जनहेलाक्रमेण विपरिवर्तयन्नहमेवेति देवः सर्वप्राणिनामहमित्यनाहतो नादात्मा पराहन्ताचमत्कारसारः स्वात्मपरामर्शः स एव सर्वस्यानपह्नवनीयोऽयं स्वात्मैव देवः क्रीडनशीलः स्फुरतीति। अनेन स्वस्वरूपनिष्ठ एव शिव इति प्रतिपादितम्। तथा शुद्धरूप इति कल्पनातिक्रान्तगोचरः। अन्यच्च शक्तीनां करणदेवतानां विषयाहरणत्यागादिव्यवहारस्वातन्त्र्यदातृ यन् महाचक्रनायकपदं तत्र तिष्ठति तत्स्थः। यतः करणशक्तीनां चैतन्यविश्रान्तिं विना स्वरूपसत्ता न विद्यतेऽतः शक्तिमन्तमेव स्वरूपासादनायानवरतं भजन्ते — इत्यनेन सर्वप्रमातृहृदयाधिष्ठातृत्वाद्भगवतो नियतभुवनाधिष्ठातृत्वं परिहृतम्। तथा यदिदं किञ्चिद्विश्वतयाभिमतं तत्सर्वमादर्शप्रतिबिम्बन्यायेन मय्येव भाति व्याख्यातरूपास्मदर्थविश्रान्तमेवावभासतेऽहन्तासारमेव स्फुरतीति यावत्। तथा मत्त इति — पूर्णादहमिति रूपात्स्वात्मनः सकलं निःशेषमिदं विश्वं प्रसरति प्रमात्रपेक्षयापहृततया स्फुरति। कथम् — इत्याह स्वप्नविचित्रत्वमिव सुप्तादिति यथा निद्रितात्प्रमातुः स्वप्नावस्थायां बाह्यपदार्थाभावेऽपि पुरप्राकारदेवगृहादि नानाश्चर्यं स्वप्नपदार्थवैचित्र्यमविद्यादिपरिकल्पितकारणान्तराभावात्स्वसंविदुपादानमेव प्रसरति तथैव तीर्थान्तरनियमितकारणान्तरानुपपत्तेरनवच्छिन्नचिदानन्दैकघनादहमिति रूपाद्विश्वमिति। तथा अहमेव विश्वरूप इत्यादि। अहमित्येव यः पूर्णश्चैतन्यपरामर्श एष एवास्मि नानादेहादिप्रमातृतासमापन्नो विश्वरूप आगोपालबालाङ्गनादिष्वन्तरभेदेन स्फुरणाद्विश्वानि ममैव रूपाणीति यावत्। क इव करचरणादिस्वभावो देह इव यथा सामान्येन सर्वेषामेको देहः करचरणादिस्वभावः प्रतिप्रमातृ स्वालक्षण्येन नानारूपस्तथैवैकश्चैतन्यलक्षणः पदार्थः सर्वावासत्वाद्विश्वरूप इति। तथा सर्वस्मिन् प्रमातृप्रमाणप्रमेयरूपेऽस्मिन् अहमेव स्फुरामि सर्वस्य स्वात्मानुभवितृत्वेन प्रकाशनात्। कथं भावेषु भास्वरूपमिव इति यथा नानावस्तुषु भास्वरूपमतिशयेन द्योतनशीलं वस्तु देदीप्यते तथैव जडेऽस्मिञ्जगत्येकश्चिद्रूपोऽहमिति। अतश्च द्रष्टा इत्यादि — देहेन्द्रियवर्जितोऽपि चिन्मूर्तत्वादहमेव पश्यामि शृणोमि जिघ्रामि रसयामि स्पृशामि — इति सर्वत्र पूर्णाहन्ताविश्रान्तेः कृतकृत्यता। देहेन्द्रियवर्गो हि पश्यामीत्यादि मन्यते परं स्वापाद्यवस्थासु द्रष्टृत्वाद्यभावात्तस्माद्देहेन्द्रियादिवर्गसमुल्लासकस्तद्वर्जितोऽपि चिदानन्दैकघनः सर्वभूतहृदयान्तरचारी विषयोपभोगभोक्ता अस्मच्छब्दवाच्यः परः पुरुष एव। तथा च श्रुतिः

अपाणिपादो जवनो ग्रहीता पश्यत्यचक्षुः स शृणोत्यकर्णः।
स वेत्ति वेद्यं न च तस्यास्ति वेत्ता तमाहुरग्र्यं पुरुषं महान्तम्॥

इति। तथाकर्तापि सिद्धान्तागम इत्यादि स्वयमविधातापि देवमुनिमनुष्याद्याशयाविष्टः सङ्क्षेपविस्तारविवक्षयान्तःप्रतिभास्वरूपोऽहं सिद्धान्तादीन्नानाश्चर्यान्करोमि न पुनर्जडानां लोष्टस्थानीयानां देहेन्द्रियाणां तत्करणं शक्यम् — इति तत्तद्व्यवधानेनाहमेव सर्वप्रमाणनिर्मातेति। अनेन पराहन्तास्वरूपस्य स्वात्ममहेश्वरस्य सत्तायां न प्रमाणोपयोग उपपद्यत उपयुज्यते वा — इत्युक्तं स्यात्। एवमनपह्नवनीयोऽहमित्येवमनुभवितृतया सर्वेषां स्वात्मैव शिवः सर्वत्रावस्थितः सर्वप्रमाणेष्वादिसिद्ध इति॥५०॥

Itthaṁ viśvollāsanavilāyanakrīḍāśīlo bhagavān yaḥ śiva iti vyapadiśyate sa katamaḥ kutra tiṣṭhati katamena vā pramāṇena prasiddhaḥ — Ityāśaṅkya sarveṣāṁ svātmaiva śivaḥ sarvatrādisiddhatayā sphuransargādīnvidadhāti — Ityasmacchabdavācakaiḥ śabdaiḥ pratipādayati


Iti śakticakrayantraṁ krīḍāyogena vāhayandevaḥ|
Ahameva śuddharūpaḥ śaktimahācakranāyakapadasthaḥ||47||

Mayyeva bhāti viśvaṁ darpaṇa iva nirmale ghaṭādīni|
Mattaḥ prasarati sarvaṁ svapnavicitratvamiva suptāt||48||

Ahameva viśvarūpaḥ karacaraṇādisvabhāva iva dehaḥ|
Sarvasminnahameva sphurāmi bhāveṣu bhāsvarūpamiva||49||

Draṣṭā śrotā ghrātā dehendriyavarjito'pyakartāpi|
Siddhāntāgamatarkāṁścitrānahameva racayāmi||50||


Iti — Vyākhyātena prakāreṇa cidādiśaktipañcakākṣipto'nanto yaḥ śaktisamūhastadeva yantraṁ krīḍāyogena vāhayan araghaṭṭaghaṭīyantranyāyena sṛṣṭyādyunmajjananimajjanahelākrameṇa viparivartayannahameveti devaḥ sarvaprāṇināmahamityanāhato nādātmā parāhantācamatkārasāraḥ svātmaparāmarśaḥ sa eva sarvasyānapahnavanīyo'yaṁ svātmaiva devaḥ krīḍanaśīlaḥ sphuratīti| Anena svasvarūpaniṣṭha eva śiva iti pratipāditam| Tathā śuddharūpa iti kalpanātikrāntagocaraḥ| Anyacca śaktīnāṁ karaṇadevatānāṁ viṣayāharaṇatyāgādivyavahārasvātantryadātṛ yan mahācakranāyakapadaṁ tatra tiṣṭhati tatsthaḥ| Yataḥ karaṇaśaktīnāṁ caitanyaviśrāntiṁ vinā svarūpasattā na vidyate'taḥ śaktimantameva svarūpāsādanāyānavarataṁ bhajante — Ityanena sarvapramātṛhṛdayādhiṣṭhātṛtvādbhagavato niyatabhuvanādhiṣṭhātṛtvaṁ parihṛtam| Tathā yadidaṁ kiñcidviśvatayābhimataṁ tatsarvamādarśapratibimbanyāyena mayyeva bhāti vyākhyātarūpāsmadarthaviśrāntamevāvabhāsate'hantāsārameva sphuratīti yāvat| Tathā matta iti — Pūrṇādahamiti rūpātsvātmanaḥ sakalaṁ niḥśeṣamidaṁ viśvaṁ prasarati pramātrapekṣayāpahṛtatayā sphurati| Katham — Ityāha svapnavicitratvamiva suptāditi yathā nidritātpramātuḥ svapnāvasthāyāṁ bāhyapadārthābhāve'pi puraprākāradevagṛhādi nānāścaryaṁ svapnapadārthavaicitryamavidyādiparikalpitakāraṇāntarābhāvātsvasaṁvidupādānameva prasarati tathaiva tīrthāntaraniyamitakāraṇāntarānupapatteranavacchinnacidānandaikaghanādahamiti rūpādviśvamiti| Tathā ahameva viśvarūpa ityādi| Ahamityeva yaḥ pūrṇaścaitanyaparāmarśa eṣa evāsmi nānādehādipramātṛtāsamāpanno viśvarūpa āgopālabālāṅganādiṣvantarabhedena sphuraṇādviśvāni mamaiva rūpāṇīti yāvat| Ka iva karacaraṇādisvabhāvo deha iva yathā sāmānyena sarveṣāmeko dehaḥ karacaraṇādisvabhāvaḥ pratipramātṛ svālakṣaṇyena nānārūpastathaivaikaścaitanyalakṣaṇaḥ padārthaḥ sarvāvāsatvādviśvarūpa iti| Tathā sarvasmin pramātṛpramāṇaprameyarūpe'smin ahameva sphurāmi sarvasya svātmānubhavitṛtvena prakāśanāt| Kathaṁ bhāveṣu bhāsvarūpamiva iti yathā nānāvastuṣu bhāsvarūpamatiśayena dyotanaśīlaṁ vastu dedīpyate tathaiva jaḍe'smiñjagatyekaścidrūpo'hamiti| Ataśca draṣṭā ityādi — Dehendriyavarjito'pi cinmūrtatvādahameva paśyāmi śṛṇomi jighrāmi rasayāmi spṛśāmi — Iti sarvatra pūrṇāhantāviśrānteḥ kṛtakṛtyatā| Dehendriyavargo hi paśyāmītyādi manyate paraṁ svāpādyavasthāsu draṣṭṛtvādyabhāvāttasmāddehendriyādivargasamullāsakastadvarjito'pi cidānandaikaghanaḥ sarvabhūtahṛdayāntaracārī viṣayopabhogabhoktā asmacchabdavācyaḥ paraḥ puruṣa eva| Tathā ca śrutiḥ

Apāṇipādo javano grahītā paśyatyacakṣuḥ sa śṛṇotyakarṇaḥ|
Sa vetti vedyaṁ na ca tasyāsti vettā tamāhuragryaṁ puruṣaṁ mahāntam||

Iti| Tathākartāpi siddhāntāgama ityādi svayamavidhātāpi devamunimanuṣyādyāśayāviṣṭaḥ saṅkṣepavistāravivakṣayāntaḥpratibhāsvarūpo'haṁ siddhāntādīnnānāścaryānkaromi na punarjaḍānāṁ loṣṭasthānīyānāṁ dehendriyāṇāṁ tatkaraṇaṁ śakyam — Iti tattadvyavadhānenāhameva sarvapramāṇanirmāteti| Anena parāhantāsvarūpasya svātmamaheśvarasya sattāyāṁ na pramāṇopayoga upapadyata upayujyate vā — Ityuktaṁ syāt| Evamanapahnavanīyo'hamityevamanubhavitṛtayā sarveṣāṁ svātmaiva śivaḥ sarvatrāvasthitaḥ sarvapramāṇeṣvādisiddha iti||50||

In this manner (ittham), the Fortunate One (bhagavān) who (yaḥ) is fond of (śīlaḥ) playing (krīḍā) at manifesting (ullāsana) (and) dissolving (vilāyana) the universe (viśva) is designated as (vyapadiśyate) Śiva (śivaḥ iti). After doubting (āśaṅkya) (in this way:) "Who (katamaḥ) (is) He (saḥ)?" "Where (kutra) does He reside (tiṣṭhati)?" Or (vā) "By what (katamena) means of valid knowledge (pramāṇena) (is He) known (prasiddhaḥ... iti)", (the answer is that) Śiva (śivaḥ), the one's own (sva) Self (ātmā eva) of everybody (sarveṣām), effects (vidadhāti) the emission --the universal manifestation-- (sarga), etc. (ādīn) while He shines (sphuran) everywhere (sarvatra) as the Ādisiddha --the One who is proved in the first place-- (ādisiddhatayā). Thus (iti), (Abhinavagupta) explains (pratipādayati) (all that by the stanzas 47 to 50) through terms (śabdaiḥ) that denote (vācakaiḥ) the declinable word (śabda) "asmad" (asmad) --"asmad" is the pronoun "I" that, when declined in, for example, Nominative case, assumes the forms of "aham" (I), "āvām" (we both) and "vayam" (we) in singular, dual and plural, respectively--:


Thus (iti), the God (devaḥ), Pure in nature (śuddha-rūpaḥ), by playfully guiding and propelling (krīḍā-yogena vāhayan) the machine (yantram) (known as) the group (cakra) of powers (śakti), remains (sthaḥ) as "Aham" or "I" (aham eva) in the state (pada) of Leader (nāyaka) of the great (mahā) group (cakra) of śakti-s (śakti)||47||

The universe (viśva) shines forth (bhāti) in Myself (mayi) alone (eva) just as (iva) a pot (ghaṭa), etc. (ādīni) (appear) in a spotless (nirmale) mirror (darpaṇe). All (sarvam) springs up (prasarati) from Myself (mattaḥ) just like (iva) the variegated variety (vicitratvam) of dreams (svapna) (arises) from sleep (suptāt)||48||

I (aham) Myself (eva) have the form (rūpaḥ) of the universe (viśva) as if it were (iva) a Body (dehaḥ) that by nature (sva-bhāvaḥ) consists of hands (kara), feet (caraṇa), etc. (ādi). I (aham) Myself (eva) shines forth (sphurāmi) in all (sarvasmin) as (iva) (the Śakti or Power) whose essential nature (sva-rūpam) is Brightness (bhā) with reference to (all) the positive entities (bhāveṣu)||49||

Though (api) devoid of (varjitaḥ) body (deha) (and) senses (indriya), I (aham) Myself (eva) (am) the One who sees (draṣṭā), hears (śrotā) (and) smells (ghrātā). Though (api) not being an agent (akartā), I (aham) Myself (eva) produce (racayāmi) the different and wonderful (citrān) reasonings (tarkān) (to be found) in the Siddhāntāgama-s --Tantric scriptures in general-- (siddhānta-āgama). --An alternative translation of the final portion being: "the different and wonderful (citrān) doctrines (siddhānta), revealed scriptures (āgama) (and) tarka-s or systems dealing with logic (tarkān)"--||50||


Thus (iti), in the way (prakāreṇa) as has been explained (vyākhyātena), (the phrase "devaḥ| Ahameva" in the stanza 47 means) the "I" (aham) Itself (eva), viz. the God (devaḥ) who is "Aham" or "I" (aham iti) in all the living beings (sarva-prāṇinām). (This God) is of the nature (ātmā) of the sound (nāda) which is unstruck (anāhataḥ), (and since) He is the essence (sāraḥ) of the Delight (camatkāra) of the Highest (parā) I-consciousness (ahantā), is mentally seized (parāmarśaḥ) as being one's own (sva) Self (ātma). He is the One who playfully guides and propels (krīḍā-yogena vāhayan) that (tad eva) machine (yantra) (called) the multitude (samūhaḥ) of powers (śakti) which (yaḥ) (is) infinite (anantaḥ) (and) caused (ākṣiptaḥ) by the group of five (pañcaka) Powers (śakti) (such as the Power of) Consciousness (cit), etc. (ādi). (In other words,) He sportingly causes (that machine) to revolve (helā-krameṇa viparivartayan), as in the analogy (nyāyena) of a waterwheel (ghaṭīyantra) (to extract water) from a well (araghaṭṭa), (if you will excuse the repetition,) through unmajjana and nimajjana --emergence and immersion-- (unmajjana-nimajjana) (in the form of) universal manifestation (sṛṣṭi), etc. (ādi). This very (saḥ eva... ayam) God (devaḥ) who is the undeniable (anapahnavanīyaḥ) innate Self (sva-ātmā eva) of all (sarvasya) shines forth (sphurati) as addicted to (śīlaḥ) playing (krīḍana... iti).

By this (teaching) --the one given in the previous paragraph-- (anena) "Śiva" (śivaḥ iti), the One who rests on (niṣṭhaḥ) His (sva) essential nature (svarūpa), is explained (pratipāditam).

So (tathā), (He is) "Pure in nature (śuddha-rūpaḥ iti)" (because of) His residing in a sphere (gocaraḥ) which is beyond (atikrānta) the mental creations (kalpanā).

Besides (anyat ca), ("mahācakranāyakapadam" is) the state (padam) of Leader (nāyaka) of the great (mahā) group (cakra) that (yat) gives (dātṛ) Freedom (svātantrya) to the śakti-s or powers (śaktīnām) (known as) the deities (devatānām) of the senses (karaṇa) with reference to (their) activities (vyavahāra) (such as) taking (āharaṇa) objects (viṣaya), leaving (tyāga) objects (viṣaya), etc. (ādi). He remains (sthaḥ) in it --in that state-- (tad), i.e. He dwells (tiṣṭhati) there (tatra).

Because (yatas) without (vinā) resting on (viśrāntim) Caitanya --Consciousness in Absolute Freedom-- (caitanya) there is no (na vidyate) existence (sattā) of the essential nature (sva-rūpa) of the śakti-s or powers (śaktīnām) of the senses (karaṇa). For this reason (atas), they --such powers-- constantly (anavaratam) worship (bhajante) the Master of Śakti (śaktimantam) alone (eva) for getting possession of (āsādanāya) their essential nature (sva-rūpa). In this way (iti), by this statement (anena) the state of being a Ruler (adhiṣṭhātṛtvam) with the worlds under (His) control (niyata-bhuvana) in the case of the Fortunate one (bhagavataḥ) since He inhabits (adhiṣṭhātṛtvāt) in the hearts (hṛdaya) of all (sarva) subjects (pramātṛ) is shunned (parihṛtam) --here ends the commentary on the stanza 47--.

In this manner (tathā), this (idam), whatever it be (yad... kiñcid), which is thought of (abhimatam) as being the universe (viśvatayā), all (sarvam) that (tad) shines forth (bhāti) in Myself (mayi) alone (eva) as in the analogy (nyāyena) of a reflection (pratibimba) in a mirror (ādarśa). (In other words,) it appears (avabhāsate) only (eva) as resting on (viśrāntam) the Reality (artha) of "Aham" or "I" (asmad) whose nature (rūpa) was (already) explained (vyākhyāta). (Therefore, all that which is thought of as being the universe) becomes displayed (sphurati) as having "I-ness" --I-consciousness-- (ahantā) alone (eva) for its essence (sāram). This is the meaning (iti yāvat).

So also (tathā), "from Myself" (mattaḥ iti), viz. from one's own Self (sva-ātmanaḥ), from the Perfect (pūrṇāt) Nature (rūpāt) (called) "Aham" or "I" (aham iti), all (sakalam) this (idam) universe (viśvam) in its entirety (niḥśeṣam) springs up (prasarati), i.e. shines forth (sphurati) as being extracted and put apart (apahṛtatayā) (in the form of an object) with respect to (apekṣayā) the subject (pramātṛ). How (katham)? (Abhinavagupta) said (āha) so (iti) (in his stanza 48:) "just like (iva) the variegated variety (vicitratvam) of dreams (svapna) (arises) from sleep (suptāt... iti)", (that is,) just as (yathā) during the dreaming state (svapna-avasthāyām) the manifold (nānā) wonder (āścaryam) (known as) the multicolored variety (vaicitryam) of oneiric (svapna) objects (padārtha), which is composed of cities (pura), walls (prākāra), temples (devagṛha), etc. (ādi) even (api) in the absence (ābhāve) of external (bāhya) things (padārtha), springs up (prasarati) from the sleeping subject (nidritāt pramātuḥ), —(and) since there is no (abhāvāt) other (antara) supposed (parikalpita) cause (kāraṇa) (such as) ignorance (avidyā), etc. (ādi) it has only his own --of the sleeping subject-- (sva... eva) Consciousness (saṁvid) for the cause (of its manifestation) (upādānam)—, even so (tathā eva), since there is not enough proof (anupapatteḥ) for (the existence of) another (antara) cause (kāraṇa) which is stipulated (niyamita) by other (antara) philosophies (tīrtha), "the universe" (viśvam iti) (springs up) from the (Perfect) Nature (rūpāt) (called) "I" (aham iti) which is one (eka) compact mass (ghanāt) of uninterrupted (anavacchinna) Consciousness (cit) (and) Bliss (ānanda) --here ends the commentary on the stanza 48--.

Thus (tathā), (at the beginning of stanza 49, Abhinavagupta affirms:) "I (aham) Myself (eva) have the form (rūpaḥ) of the universe (viśva)", etc. (ityādi).

"I" (aham iti) Myself (eva), who (yaḥ) am the full (pūrṇaḥ) experience (parāmarśa) of Caitanya --Consciousness in Absolute Freedom-- (caitanya), am (asmi) this very (eṣaḥ eva) universal form (viśva-rūpaḥ) endowed with (samāpannaḥ) the state of knower (pramātṛtā) of different (nānā) bodies (deha), etc. (ādi), (and,) throbbing (sphuraṇāt) in unity --non-dualistically-- (abhedena) within (antar) cowherds (gopāla), children (bāla), women (aṅganā), etc. (ādiṣu) completely (ā), all (viśvāni) the forms (rūpāṇi) (are) only (eva) Mine (mama). This is the sense (iti yāvat).

What could that possibly be like (kaḥ iva)? (The answer to that question is:) Like if it --the universe as My Form-- were (iva) a Body (dehaḥ) that by nature (sva-bhāvaḥ) consists of hands (kara), feet (caraṇa), etc. (ādi). Just as (yathā), (from the viewpoint of the Supreme Lord, there is) one (ekaḥ) Body (dehaḥ) which is by nature (sva-bhāvaḥ) composed of hands (kara), feet (caraṇa), etc. (ādi) for everybody (sarveṣām) in general (sāmānyena), in the view of every (prati) subject --limited individual-- (pramātṛ), (that very Body appears as) manifold --as a lot of individual bodies-- (nānā-rūpaḥ) according to the different particular characteristics (of each of the individual bodies) (svālakṣaṇyena), so also (tathā eva) a Principle (padārthaḥ) characterized by (lakṣaṇaḥ) one (eka) Consciousness in Absolute Freedom (caitanya) possesses the form (rūpaḥ) of the universe (viśva) because (such a Principle) has Its Abode everywhere (sarva-āvāsatvāt... iti).

In similar way (tathā), I (aham) Myself (eva) shine forth (sphurāmi) in all (sarvasmin) this (asmin) whose form (rūpe) is knower, knowledge/means of knowledge and knowable (pramātṛ-pramāṇa-prameya), (respectively,) by becoming displayed (prakāśanāt) as the One who experiences (anubhavitṛtvena) (in the form of) one's own (sva) Self (ātma) of all (sarvasya).

How (katham)? "As (iva) (the Śakti or Power) whose essential nature (sva-rūpam) is Brightness (bhā) with reference to (all) the positive entities (bhāveṣu... iti)". Just as (yathā) a reality (vastu) shines intensely (dedīpyate) which is preeminently (atiśayena) habituated to (śīlam) illuminating (dyotana) (since) it has a bright or luminous nature (bhā-sva-rūpam) with regard to (other) different realities (nānā-vastuṣu), so (tathā eva) "I" (aham iti), having one (eka) Consciousness (cit) for (My) essence (rūpaḥ), (shine intensely) in this inert world (jaḍe asmin jagati) --here ends the commentary on the stanza 49--.

And (ca) for this reason (atas), (Abhinavagupta said in the stanza 50:) "the One who sees" (draṣṭā), etc. (iti-ādi). I (aham) Myself (eva), since I am Consciousness incarnate (cit-mūrtatvāt), see (paśyāmi), hear (śṛṇomi), smell (jighrāmi), taste (rasayāmi) (and) touch (rasayāmi) even (api) devoid of (varjitaḥ) body (deha) (and) senses (indriya). Thus (iti), success in attaining any object (kṛtakṛtyatā) (is accomplished) everywhere (sarvatra) from a repose (viśrānteḥ) on the Perfect (pūrṇā) I-consciousness (ahantā). The group (vargaḥ) (constituted by) body (deha) (and) senses (indriya) is certainly thought of (hi... manyate) (as the cause of) "I see (paśyāmi)", etc. (iti-ādi), but (param) (this is false) due to the presence (bhāvāt) of the state of seer (draṣṭṛtva), etc. (ādya) during the states (avasthāsu) of sleep (svāpa), etc. (ādi). Therefore (tasmāt), the One who causes the group of body, senses, etc. to appear (deha-indriya-ādi-varga-samullāsakaḥ) though (api) He is devoid of (varjitaḥ) it (tad) (is) one (eka) compact mass (ghanaḥ) of Consciousness (cit) (and) Bliss (ānanda) that lives (cārī) inside (antara) the hearts (hṛdaya) of all (sarva) beings (bhūta). (In other words, He is) the Supreme (paraḥ) Person (puruṣaḥ) Himself (eva) being designated (vācyaḥ) by the declinable word (śabda) "I" (asmad) who is the One experiencing the enjoyment --perception-- (upabhoga-bhoktā) of objects (viṣaya).

The Veda-s (śrutiḥ) (establish it) so as well (tathā ca):

"He (saḥ) moves fast (javanaḥ) (and) takes (grahītā) without feet and hands (apāṇi-pādaḥ); He sees (paśyati) without eyes (acakṣuḥ); He hears (śṛṇoti) without ears (akarṇaḥ). He (saḥ) knows (vetti) that which is to be known (vedyam), yet (ca) there is not (na... asti) His (tasya) knower (vettā) --nobody knows Him--. They --the ancient sages-- called (āhuḥ) Him (tam) the Great (mahāntam) Foremost (agryam) Person (puruṣam... iti)".

In like manner (tathā), (the phrase) "akartāpi| Siddhāntāgama" (akartā api siddhānta-āgama), etc. (iti-ādi) (in the stanza 50 means:) Though (api) Myself (svayam) (am) not an author (avidhātā), by penetrating into (āviṣṭaḥ) the thoughts (āśaya) of gods (deva), sages (muni), human beings (manuṣya), etc. (ādi), I (aham) who am of the nature (sva-rūpaḥ) of the inner (antar) Pratibhā (pratibhā) --i.e. Parāvāk, the highest level of speech-- produce (karomi) the different and wonderful (nānā-āścaryān) Siddhāntāgama-s --Tantric scriptures in general-- (siddhānta), etc. (ādīn) with the intention to teach (vivakṣayā) detailed descriptions (vistāra) by means of brief expositions (saṅkṣepa). However (punar), in the case of the inert (jaḍānām) body and senses (deha-indriyāṇām) resembling (sthānīyānām) lumps of clay (loṣṭa), there is no capacity (na... śakyam) to do (karaṇam) (all) that (tad). Thus (iti), I (aham) Myself (eva), by various interventions (tad-tad-vyavadhānena), (am the real) author (nirmātā) of all (sarva) means of valid knowledge (pramāṇa... iti) --here ends the commentary on the stanza 50--.

By this (statement given at the end of the previous paragraph) (anena), it is established that (iti uktam syāt), with reference to the existence (sattāyām) of the Great Lord (mahā-īśvarasya) who is one's own Self (sva-ātma) (and) whose essence (svarūpasya) is the Highest (parā) I-consciousness (ahantā), the use (upayogaḥ) of a means of valid knowledge (to prove it) (pramāṇa) does not exist (na... upapadyate) or (vā) is not (na) applicable (upayujyate).

In this way (evam), the undeniable (anapahnavanīyaḥ) "I" (aham iti), being the One who thus experiences (evam anubhavitṛtayā), remains (avasthitaḥ) everywhere (sarvatra) as Śiva (śivaḥ), one's own Self (sva-ātmā eva) of all (sarvasya). (I am) the "Ādisiddha --the One who is proved in the first place-- (ādi-siddhaḥ iti)" with regard to all the means of valid knowledge (sarva-pramāṇeṣu)||50||


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