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Paramārthasāra (Парамартхасара) Абхинавагупты: Строфы 20-23. Недвойственный Кашмирский Шиваизм

Normal translation


 Introduction

Paramārthasāra continues with four more stanzas. This is the sixth set of stanzas, which is composed of 4 out of the 105 stanzas constituting the entire work.

Of course, I will also insert the original stanzas on which Yogarāja is commenting. I will write a lot of notes to make this book so understandable to the average reader as possible.

Yogarāja's Sanskrit will be in dark green color while the original Abhinavagupta's stanzas will be shown in dark red color. In turn, within the transliteration, the original stanzas will be in brown color, while the Yogarāja's comments will be shown in black. Also, within the translation, the original stanzas by Abhinavagupta, i.e. Paramārthasāra, will be in green and black colors, while the commentary by Yogarāja will contain words in both black and red colors.

Read Paramārthasāra and experience Supreme Ānanda or Divine Bliss, dear Śiva.

Important: All that is in brackets and italicized within the translation has been added by me in order to complete the sense of a particular phrase or sentence. In turn, all that is between double hyphen (--...--) constitutes clarifying further information also added by me.

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 Stanza 20

बाह्यकरणमाह


श्रोत्रं त्वगक्षि रसना घ्राणं बुद्धीन्द्रियाणि शब्दादौ।
वाक्पाणिपादपायूपस्थं कर्मेन्द्रियाणि पुनः॥२०॥


वक्ष्यमाणे शब्दादौ विषये ज्ञानप्रधानानि श्रोत्रादीनि पञ्च इन्द्रियाणि क्रियाप्रधानानि चेन्द्रियाणि पञ्च वागादीनि। वचनादानविहरणविसर्गानन्दात्मकाः कर्मेन्द्रियाणां विषयाः। इत्युभयथा च शृणोमि कथयामीत्यहङ्कारानुगमादहङ्कारकार्याणि॥२०॥

Bāhyakaraṇamāha


Śrotraṁ tvagakṣi rasanā ghrāṇaṁ buddhīndriyāṇi śabdādau|
Vākpāṇipādapāyūpasthaṁ karmendriyāṇi punaḥ||20||


Vakṣyamāṇe śabdādau viṣaye jñānapradhānāni śrotrādīni pañca indriyāṇi kriyāpradhānāni cendriyāṇi pañca vāgādīni| Vacanādānaviharaṇavisargānandātmakāḥ karmendriyāṇāṁ viṣayāḥ| Ityubhayathā ca śṛṇomi kathayāmītyahaṅkārānugamādahaṅkārakāryāṇi||20||

(Abhinavagupta, in the following stanza,) spoke (āha) about the Bāhyakaraṇa --the outer or external organ consisting of Powers of Perception and Action-- (bāhyakaraṇam):


The power of hearing (śrotram), the power of feeling by touch (tvak), the power of seeing (akṣi), the power of tasting (rasanā) (and) the power of smelling (ghrāṇam) (are the five) Powers of Perception (buddhi-indriyāṇi) with respect to Sound(-as-such), etc. (śabda-ādau). Besides (punar), the power of speaking (vāk), the power of handling (pāṇi), the power of locomotion (pāda), the power of excreting (pāyu) (and) the power of sexual activity and restfulness (upastham) (constitute the five) Powers of Action (karma-indriyāṇi)||20||


As regards the object(s) (viṣaye) Sound(-as-such) (śabda), etc. (ādau), which will be spoken about later on (vakṣyamāṇe), (there are) five (pañca) Powers (indriyāṇi) (such as) the power of hearing (śrotra), etc. (ādīni) in which there is predominance (pradhānāni) of knowledge (jñāna) --Buddhīndriya-s or Jñānendriya-s: Powers of Perception comprising the tattva-s 17 to 21--. And also (ca) (there are) five (pañca) Powers (indriyāṇi) (such as) the power of speaking (vāk), etc. (ādīni) in which there is predominance (pradhānāni) of action (kriyā) --Karmendriya-s: Powers of Action comprising the tattva-s 22 to 26--.

The spheres or fields of action (viṣayāḥ) of the Powers of Action (karma-indriyāṇām) are (the acts of) (ātmakāḥ) speaking (vacana), seizing (ādāna), moving to and from (viharaṇa), excreting (visarga) (and) experiencing pleasure (ānanda).

And (ca) in this manner (iti), in both cases (ubhayathā), (activities such as) "I hear (śṛṇomi), I speak, etc. (kathayāmi iti)" are effects or products (kāryāṇi) of Ahaṅkāra --Ego, the category 15-- (ahaṅkāra) on account of (their) following (anugamāt) Ahaṅkāra (ahaṅkāra)||20||


Without notes of explanation yet

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 Stanza 21

एषां शब्दादिविषयस्वरूपं कथयति


एषां ग्राह्यो विषयः सूक्ष्मः प्रविभागवर्जितो यः स्यात्।
तन्मात्रपञ्चकं तत् शब्दः स्पर्शो महो रसो गन्धः॥२१॥


ज्ञेयकार्यतया स्वीकार्यो य एषामिन्द्रियाणां विषयो गोचरः स्यात्। स कीदृशः प्रविभागवर्जितो विशेषेण बहिष्कृतः सामान्यात्मा सूक्ष्मो योऽर्थो भवेत्तदेव शब्दादि सामान्यरूपं तन्मात्रं शब्दसामान्यं शब्दतन्मात्रम् — इति। एवमन्यानि। विषयविषयिणोः परस्परापेक्षित्वादिन्द्रियवदिदमपि तन्मात्रपञ्चकमाहङ्कारिकमेव — इति॥२१॥

Eṣāṁ śabdādiviṣayasvarūpaṁ kathayati


Eṣāṁ grāhyo viṣayaḥ sūkṣmaḥ pravibhāgavarjito yaḥ syāt|
Tanmātrapañcakaṁ tat śabdaḥ sparśo maho raso gandhaḥ||21||


Jñeyakāryatayā svīkāryo ya eṣāmindriyāṇāṁ viṣayo gocaraḥ syāt| Sa kīdṛśaḥ pravibhāgavarjito viśeṣeṇa bahiṣkṛtaḥ sāmānyātmā sūkṣmo yo'rtho bhavettadeva śabdādi sāmānyarūpaṁ tanmātraṁ śabdasāmānyaṁ śabdatanmātram — Iti| Evamanyāni| Viṣayaviṣayiṇoḥ parasparāpekṣitvādindriyavadidamapi tanmātrapañcakamāhaṅkārikameva — Iti||21||

(In this stanza, Abhinavagupta) talks (kathayati) about the nature (sva-rūpam) of the objects (viṣaya) (called) Śabda --Sound(-as-such)-- (śabda), etc. (ādi), which are related to these (Buddhīndriya-s and Karmendriya-s) (eṣām):


The sphere of activity (viṣayaḥ) (or) object (grāhyaḥ) of these (Buddhīndriya-s and Karmendriya-s) (eṣām) is (syāt) (one) that (yaḥ) (is) subtle (sūkṣmaḥ) (and) devoid of (varjitaḥ) distinction or difference (pravibhāga). That (tad) (is) the group of five (pañcakam) Tanmātra-s or Subtle Elements (tad-mātra): Sound-as-such (śabdaḥ), Touch-as-such (sparśaḥ), Form or Color-as-such --lit. light, luster-- (mahaḥ), Flavor-as-such (rasaḥ) (and) Odor-as-such (gandhaḥ)||21||


Whatever (yaḥ) is received or apprehended (svīkāryaḥ) as being a knowable (jñeya-kāryatayā) (by such Indriya-s, that) is (syāt) the viṣaya (viṣayaḥ) (or) sphere of activity (gocaraḥ) of these (eṣām) Indriya-s --Powers of Perception and Action-- (indriyānām).

What is that (viṣaya or sphere of activity) like (saḥ kīdṛśaḥ)? It is (bhavet) a thing (arthaḥ) that (yaḥ) is "pravibhāgavarjita" --lit. devoid of distinction or difference-- (pravibhāga-varjitaḥ) —i.e. it dwells beyond (bahiṣkṛtaḥ) distinction or difference (viśeṣeṇa)(and) "sūkṣma" --lit. subtle-- (sūkṣmaḥ) —i.e. it is (ātmā) general (sāmānya)—. That (tad eva) (constitutes what is known as the group of five) Tanmātra(s) --Subtle Elements-- (tad-mātram), whose form (rūpam) is general (sāmānya) (and) begins with (ādi) Sound-as-such (śabda). (For instance,) "the Tanmātra (called) Sound-as-such" (śabda-tad-mātram... iti) (is) general sound (śabda-sāmānyam) --but no specific sound in particular--.

The other (four) Tanmātra-s or Subtle Elements (anyāni) (are) like that (evam) (too) --they are like the Tanmātra known as Sound-as-such--.

Due to the mutual dependence (paraspara-apekṣitvāt) (existing) between viṣaya --the object or sphere of activity-- and viṣayī --the one perceiving that object or moving in that sphere of activity-- (viṣaya-viṣayiṇoḥ), as (in the case) (vat) of the Indriya-s --Powers of Perception and Action-- (indriya), even (api) this (idam) group of five (pañcakam) Tanmātra-s or Subtle Elements (tanmātra) belongs to Ahaṅkāra or Ego (āhaṅkārikam) indeed (eva... iti)||21||


Without notes of explanation yet

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 Stanza 22

विषयाणां परस्परसाङ्कर्येण पृथिव्यादीनि कार्यम् — इत्याह


एतत्संसर्गवशात्स्थूलो विषयस्तु भूतपञ्चकताम्।
अभ्येति नभः पवनस्तेजः सलिलं च पृथ्वी च॥२२॥


एतेषां संसर्गवशात्परस्परसङ्घर्षसामर्थ्याद्यो विशेषः स्थूलो विषयः स एव भूतरूपतां याति। तथा हि — शब्दतन्मात्रात्शब्दविशेषो नभो जायते शब्दस्पर्शाभ्यां पवनो रूपसंयुक्ताभ्यामेताभ्यां तेजश्चैभ्यो रसयुक्तेभ्यश्चापो गन्धसंयुक्तेभ्यश्च पृथ्वी — इति पञ्च महाभूतानि कार्यं कारणानुगुणमिति कृत्वैकोत्तरगुणानि — इति। एवमेषा प्रकृतिः कार्यकारणात्मा पुरुषस्य परमेश्वरस्येच्छया भोग्यतया प्रवृत्ता — इति षट्त्रिंशत्तत्त्वात्मकं जगद्विभज्य प्रतितत्त्वं निरूपितम्॥२२॥

Viṣayāṇāṁ parasparasāṅkaryeṇa pṛthivyādīni kāryam — Ityāha


Etatsaṁsargavaśātsthūlo viṣayastu bhūtapañcakatām|
Abhyeti nabhaḥ pavanastejaḥ salilaṁ ca pṛthvī ca||22||


Eteṣāṁ saṁsargavaśātparasparasaṅgharṣasāmarthyādyo viśeṣaḥ sthūlo viṣayaḥ sa eva bhūtarūpatāṁ yāti| Tathā hi — Śabdatanmātrātśabdaviśeṣo nabho jāyate śabdasparśābhyāṁ pavano rūpasaṁyuktābhyāmetābhyāṁ tejaścaibhyo rasayuktebhyaścāpo gandhasaṁyuktebhyaśca pṛthvī — Iti pañca mahābhūtāni kāryaṁ kāraṇānuguṇamiti kṛtvaikottaraguṇāni — Iti| Evameṣā prakṛtiḥ kāryakāraṇātmā puruṣasya parameśvarasyecchayā bhogyatayā pravṛttā — Iti ṣaṭtriṁśattattvātmakaṁ jagadvibhajya pratitattvaṁ nirūpitam||22||

"An effect or product (kāryam) (in the form of) Pṛthivī --earth, the 36th tattva or category-- (pṛthivī), etc. (ādīni) (arises) from mutually mixing (paraspara-sāṅkaryeṇa) (those) viṣaya-s or objects --the Subtle Elements-- (viṣayāṇām... iti)"; (Abhinavagupta) talked (āha) (about this in the stanza 22):


By means of (vaśāt) the mixture (saṁsarga) of these (Tanmātra-s or Subtle Elements) (etad), the gross (sthūlaḥ) object or sphere of activity (of a limited individual endowed with ego) (viṣayaḥ) becomes a group of five (pañcakatām abhyeti) elements (bhūta) (called:) Ether or Space (nabhaḥ), Air (pavanaḥ), Fire (tejas), Water (salilam) and (ca) Earth (pṛthvī)||22||


By means of (vaśāt) the mixture (saṁsarga) of these (Tanmātra-s or Subtle Elements) (eteṣām), (that is,) on account of (sāmarthyāt) (their) mutual (paraspara) friction (saṅgharṣa), the very object or sphere of activity (of a limited individual endowed with ego) (viṣayaḥ... saḥ eva), which --the object or sphere of activity-- (yaḥ) (is now) specially (viśeṣaḥ) gross (sthūlaḥ), assumes the form (rūpatām yāti) of (other five) elements (bhūta). For instance (tathā hi): From the Subtle Element (tanmātrāt) (called) Sound-as-such --tattva or category 27-- (śabda), Ether or Space --tattva 32-- (nabhaḥ) is born (jāyate), whose special characteristic (viśeṣaḥ) is sound (śabda). From Sound-as-such and Touch-as-such --tattva-s 27 and 28-- (śabda-sparśābhyām), Air --tattva 33-- (pavanaḥ) (is born). And (ca) from these two --Sound-as-such and Touch-as-such-- (etābhyām), combined with (saṁyuktābhyām) Form or Color-as-such --tattva 29-- (rūpa), Fire --tattva 34-- (tejas) (is born). Also (ca), from these --Sound-as-such, Touch-as-such and Form or Color-as-such, tattva-s 27 to 29-- (ebhyaḥ), combined with (yuktebhyaḥ) Flavor-as-such --tattva 30-- (rasa), Water --tattva 35-- (āpas) (is born). And (finally) (ca), from the combination (of these four) --Sound-as-such, Touch-as-such, Form or Color-as-such and Flavor-as-such, tattva-s 27 to 30-- with (saṁyuktebhyaḥ) Odor-as-such --tattva 31-- (gandha), Earth --tattva 36-- (pṛthvī) (is born). In this way (iti) (are formed) the five (pañca) Great Elements --the Gross Elements comprising the tattva-s 32 to 36-- (mahā-bhūtāni). "The attributes (in the case of these five Great Elements) (guṇāni) increase by one (eka-uttara... iti)", (always) considering (iti kṛtvā) (the rule that) "an effect or product (kāryam) has similar qualities (anuguṇam) as (its) cause (kāraṇa)". Thus (evam), this (eṣā) Prakṛti (prakṛtiḥ), whose nature (ātmā) is (the relationship) of cause (kāraṇa) (and) effect (kārya), exists (pravṛttā) as the object of enjoyment (bhogyatayā) of Puruṣa (puruṣasya) by the Will (icchayā) of the Supreme Lord (parama-īśvarasya). In this manner (iti), (in the process of) dividing (vibhajya) the universe (jagat) into (an aggregate) of thirty-six tattva-s or categories (ṣaṭtriṁśat-tattva-ātmakam), each (of these) tattva(-s) (prati-tattvam) was ascertained (nirūpitam) (by Abhinavagupta too)||22||


Without notes of explanation yet

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 Stanza 23

मायाकञ्चुकवत्प्रकृतेः कञ्चुकतां पुरुषं प्रति आह


तुष इव तण्डुलकणिकामावृणुते प्रकृतिपूर्वकः सर्गः।
पृथ्वीपर्यन्तोऽयं चैतन्यं देहभावेन॥२३॥


अयमपि प्राधानिकः सर्गो धरापर्यन्तस्तण्डुलकणं यथा तुषो धान्यचर्म आवृणुते समाच्छादयति तथैव मायाकञ्चुकेन कम्बुकस्थानीयेन समावृतं चैतन्यं पुनरपि तुषस्थानीयेन देहभावेनैतत् समावृणुते तत्प्रतिप्राकारतया स्थगयति। अत्रेमे प्रमातारः कलाभिरिन्द्रियमात्राभिर्विशेषान्ताभिर्देहस्वभावाः सकलाः — इत्युच्यन्ते विशेषवर्जिता विदेहाः प्रलयाकलाः — इति च। एवं शिवादिसकलान्तप्रमातृसप्तकसनाथं रुद्रक्षेत्रज्ञाधिष्ठितं जगत् — इति॥२३॥

Māyākañcukavatprakṛteḥ kañcukatāṁ puruṣaṁ prati āha


Tuṣa iva taṇḍulakaṇikāmāvṛṇute prakṛtipūrvakaḥ sargaḥ|
Pṛthvīparyanto'yaṁ caitanyaṁ dehabhāvena||23||


Ayamapi prādhānikaḥ sargo dharāparyantastaṇḍulakaṇaṁ yathā tuṣo dhānyacarma āvṛṇute samācchādayati tathaiva māyākañcukena kambukasthānīyena samāvṛtaṁ caitanyaṁ punarapi tuṣasthānīyena dehabhāvenaitat samāvṛṇute tatpratiprākāratayā sthagayati| Atreme pramātāraḥ kalābhirindriyamātrābhirviśeṣāntābhirdehasvabhāvāḥ sakalāḥ — Ityucyante viśeṣavarjitā videhāḥ pralayākalāḥ — Iti ca| Evaṁ śivādisakalāntapramātṛsaptakasanāthaṁ rudrakṣetrajñādhiṣṭhitaṁ jagat — Iti||23||

(Abhinavagupta) said (now) (āha) (that) in the case of Prakṛti --tattva 13-- (prakṛteḥ), such as it occurred with Māyā and (her five) Kañcuka-s or Sheaths (māyā-kañcuka-vat), she --Prakṛti-- (also) becomes a Kañcuka (kañcukatām) with respect to (prati) Puruṣa --tattva 12, the limited individual-- (puruṣam):


This (ayam) Prakṛti-related (prakṛti-pūrvakaḥ) emission (of tattva-s or categories) (sargaḥ) that ends in (paryantaḥ) Pṛthvī --also known as Pṛthivī or Earth, the last tattva-- (pṛthvī) covers (āvṛṇute) Caitanya --Consciousness endowed with Absolute Freedom-- (caitanyam) with the state (bhāvena) of deha or physical body (deha) in the same way as (iva) the hull or husk (tuṣaḥ) (covers) a little rice-grain (taṇḍula-kaṇikām)||23||


Just as (yathā) the hull (tuṣaḥ) (or) outermost layer of a grain (dhānya-carma) covers (āvṛṇute) (or) conceals (samācchādayati) a rice-grain (taṇḍula-kaṇam), even so (tathā eva) this very (ayam api) Prakṛti-related (prādhānikaḥ) emission (of tattva-s or categories) (sargaḥ) ending in (paryantaḥ) the Earth --tattva 36-- (dharā) completely covers (samāvṛṇute) this (etad) Caitanya or Free Consciousness (caitanyam) even (api) again (punar) with the state (bhāvena) of deha or physical body (deha) —which represents (sthānīyena) the hull or outermost layer of a grain (tuṣa)—, since (such a Caitanya had already been) covered (samāvṛtam) by Māyā and (her five) Kañcuka-s or Sheaths (māyā-kañcukena) —which represents (sthānīyena) the bran --the innermost layer covering a grain-- (kambuka)—. (And such emission of tattva-s coming from Prakṛti) covers (sthagayati) (this Caitanya or Consciousness full of Absolute Freedom) as (if it were) Its --of Caitanya-- outer rampart (tat-pratiprākāratayā).

In this context (atra), the Sakala-s (sa-kalāḥ) are said to be (iti ucyante) these (ime) experients or knowers (pramātāraḥ) whose natures (svabhāvāḥ) are (based on) the physical body (deha), (and who are endowed) with kalā-s (kalābhiḥ), which are merely powers (indriya-mātrābhiḥ) ending in (antābhiḥ) particular characteristics (of such a deha or physical body) (viśeṣa). Also (iti ca), the Pralayākala-s (pralaya-akalāḥ) (are said to be these experients or knowers) who are bodiless --who are beyond the bodily sphere-- (vi-dehāḥ) (and therefore) devoid of (varjitāḥ) (the aforesaid) particular characteristics (viśeṣa).

In this way (evam), the universe (jagat) inhabited (adhiṣṭhitam) by liberated and bound beings (rudra-kṣetrajña) possesses (sanātham) a group of seven (saptaka) experients or knowers (pramātṛ) beginning with (ādi) Śiva (śiva) (and) ending in (anta) Sakala (sakala... iti)||23||


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