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Paramārthasāra (Парамартхасара) Абхинавагупты: Строфы 79-82. Недвойственный Кашмирский Шиваизм

Стандартный перевод


 Introduction

Paramārthasāra continues with four more stanzas. This is the twentieth set of stanzas, which is composed of 4 out of the 105 stanzas constituting the entire work.

Of course, I will also insert the original stanzas on which Yogarāja is commenting. I will write a lot of notes to make this book so understandable to the average reader as possible.

Yogarāja's Sanskrit will be in dark green color while the original Abhinavagupta's stanzas will be shown in dark red color. In turn, within the transliteration, the original stanzas will be in brown color, while the Yogarāja's comments will be shown in black. Also, within the translation, the original stanzas by Abhinavagupta, i.e. Paramārthasāra, will be in green and black colors, while the commentary by Yogarāja will contain words in both black and red colors.

Read Paramārthasāra and experience Supreme Ānanda or Divine Bliss, dear Śiva.

Important: All that is in brackets and italicized within the translation has been added by me in order to complete the sense of a particular phrase or sentence. In turn, all that is between double hyphen (--...--) constitutes clarifying further information also added by me.

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 Stanzas 79—80

इदं व्रतमस्य — इत्याह


सर्वं समया दृष्ट्या यत्पश्यति यच्च संविदं मनुते।
विश्वश्मशाननिरतां विग्रहखट्वाङ्गकल्पनाकलिताम्॥७९॥

विश्वरसासवपूर्णं निजकरगं वेद्यखण्डककपालम्।
रसयति च यत्तदेतद्व्रतमस्य सुदुर्लभं च सुलभं च॥८०॥


एवं यद् वक्ष्यमाणमेतदेवास्य ज्ञानिनो व्रतं स्वात्मदेवतासमाराधनाय नियमः। कीदृशं तदाह सुदुर्लभं च सुलभं च इति। सुष्ठु कृत्वा दुःखेनाख्यातिपरिक्षयादन्योपायपरिहाररुपेण परमेश्वरानुग्रहेण लभ्यते — इत्यतः सुदुर्लभं तथा सुखेन बाह्यास्थिभस्माद्याभरणाहारनियमादिस्वीकारकदर्थनां च विना लभ्यते — इत्यतः सुलभं च। किं तद्व्रतम् — इत्याह सर्वमित्यादि। यत्सर्वमिदं प्रातीतिकं भेदावभासरूपं युक्त्यागमानुभवपरिशीलनेनाभेददृशा सर्वमिदमेकः स्फुरामीति समीक्षते। यथा श्रीभगवद्गीतासु

सर्वभूतस्थमात्मानं सर्वभूतानि चात्मनि।
ईक्षते योगयुक्तात्मा सर्वत्र समदर्शनः॥

इत्यादि। एवमभेदबुद्धिदार्ढ्यमेव व्रतम्। अन्यच्च यद् विश्वश्मशाननिरतां संविदं मनुते तदपि व्रतम्। यथा विश्वं ग्राह्यग्राहकस्वभावं घटदेहादिजडलक्षणपदार्थशवशतसमाक्रान्तम् — इति कृत्वा तदेव श्मशानं पितृवनं — यतः संविदेका भगवत्यजडातोऽन्यत्तदुल्लासितं सर्वमिदं शवस्थानीयं जडमतो विश्वस्य श्मशानेन सादृश्यम्। तस्मिन् विश्वश्मशाने निःशेषेण रतां संविदं समुत्पत्तिनिधनतया महाभीषणे मध्यवर्तिनीं मनुते अवबुध्यते। व्रती किल श्मशाने वसत्ययं पुनरलौकिको व्रती सर्वत्राहमेवैकचित्तत्त्वपरमार्थ इति मत्वा जडैः पशुप्रमातृभिर्घटादिभिः प्रमेयैश्च परेतस्थानीयैः सहोन्मत्तवत्क्रीडां कुर्वाणः संसारभुवमिमां सर्वप्रमातृप्रमेयनिधनतया भीषणं श्मशानस्वभावामध्यास्ते। अन्यच्च यद् विग्रहखट्वाङ्गकल्पनाकलितां संविदं मनुते इति। विग्रहः शरीरं स एव खट्वाङ्गकल्पना कङ्कालविधिर्योगिनः किल स्वशरीरप्रमातृताभिमानदुर्ग्रहसङ्क्षयाच्छरीरातीतं स्वात्मानं मन्यमानस्य संस्कारशेषीभूतो विग्रहः शवप्रायमेवेत्यवधारयतः स्वशरीरमेव कङ्कालमुद्राकल्पना तया कलितां भोग्याधारत्वेन मुद्रिताम्। वीरव्रतिनो हि श्मशानस्थस्य खट्वाङ्गमुद्रया भाव्यमतोऽस्य स्वसंविद्वपुषः स्वशरीरमपि वेद्यतया भिन्नमवधारयतः सैव खट्वाङ्गमुद्रा — इत्येतदप्यस्य व्रतम्। तथा वेद्यखण्डककपालं रसयति चर्वयति यच्च शब्दादिविषयपञ्चकलक्षणं सर्वभोग्यरूपमिदं वेद्यं ज्ञेयत्वकार्यत्वाभ्यां परिच्छिन्नम् — इति खण्डकं कर्परप्रायं तदेव कपालं शिरोऽस्थिशकलं यद्रसयति साराहरणक्रमेण पूर्णाहन्ताविश्रान्त्या चमत्कुरुते — इत्येतदपि व्रतम्। व्रतिना किल कपालस्थं वीरपानं रस्यते — इत्याह विश्वरस इति। विश्वस्मिन् वेद्यशब्दादिविषयपञ्चकरूपे कपालखण्डे योऽसौ सारभागश्चर्वणामृतमयोंऽशः स एव परमानन्ददायित्वाद्रसासव उत्तमं पानं तेन पूर्णं निर्भरम्। एतदुक्तं स्यात् — विश्वस्य यः शल्कस्थानीयः कठिनोंऽशः पात्रकल्पः स एव कपालं तद्गतः सारभागश्चमत्कारक्षम आह्लाददायित्वात्पानम् — इति। कपालं तु व्रतिनः करगतं भवति — इत्याह निजकरगमिति। निजाः स्वात्मीया ये कराश्चक्षुरादिकरणदेवीस्वभावाश्चिन्मरीचयस्तेषु भोग्यतया तद्वेद्यखण्डकं विषयत्वं गच्छति — इति निजकरगं यथा पाणिस्थेन कपालेन पानं पीयते तथैव वेद्यखण्डककपालेन विश्वरसासवश्चक्षुरादिसंवित्करैर्योगिना समाहृत्यास्वाद्यते। अयमाशयः — योगी सर्वदैव यथोपनतं विषयपञ्चकं करणदेवीभिराहृत्य युक्त्या स्वचैतन्यभैरवविश्रान्तिमव्युच्छिन्नां भजमानश्चरमक्षणपर्यन्तं यथोपदिष्टमद्वयदृशा निर्वाहयति — इत्येतदेवास्य परिशीलितसद्गुरुचरणपङ्कजस्य व्रतमतोऽन्यच्छरीरशोषणमात्रम् — इति॥८०॥

Idaṁ vratamasya — Ityāha


Sarvaṁ samayā dṛṣṭyā yatpaśyati yacca saṁvidaṁ manute|
Viśvaśmaśānaniratāṁ vigrahakhaṭvāṅgakalpanākalitām||79||

Viśvarasāsavapūrṇaṁ nijakaragaṁ vedyakhaṇḍakakapālam|
Rasayati ca yattadetadvratamasya sudurlabhaṁ ca sulabhaṁ ca||80||


Evaṁ yad vakṣyamāṇametadevāsya jñānino vrataṁ svātmadevatāsamārādhanāya niyamaḥ| Kīdṛśaṁ tadāha sudurlabhaṁ ca sulabhaṁ ca iti| Suṣṭhu kṛtvā duḥkhenākhyātiparikṣayādanyopāyaparihārarūpeṇa parameśvarānugraheṇa labhyate — Ityataḥ sudurlabhaṁ tathā sukhena bāhyāsthibhasmādyābharaṇāhāraniyamādisvīkārakadarthanāṁ ca vinā labhyate — Ityataḥ sulabhaṁ ca| Kiṁ tadvratam — Ityāha sarvamityādi| Yatsarvamidaṁ prātītikaṁ bhedāvabhāsarūpaṁ yuktyāgamānubhavapariśīlanenābhedadṛśā sarvamidamekaḥ sphurāmīti samīkṣate| Yathā śrībhagavadgītāsu

Sarvabhūtasthamātmānaṁ sarvabhūtāni cātmani|
Īkṣate yogayuktātmā sarvatra samadarśanaḥ||

Ityādi| Evamabhedabuddhidārḍhyameva vratam| Anyacca yad viśvaśmaśānaniratāṁ saṁvidaṁ manute tadapi vratam| Yathā viśvaṁ grāhyagrāhakasvabhāvaṁ ghaṭadehādijaḍalakṣaṇapadārthaśavaśatasamākrāntam — Iti kṛtvā tadeva śmaśānaṁ pitṛvanaṁ — Yataḥ saṁvidekā bhagavatyajaḍāto'nyattadullāsitaṁ sarvamidaṁ śavasthānīyaṁ jaḍamato viśvasya śmaśānena sādṛśyam| Tasmin viśvaśmaśāne niḥśeṣeṇa ratāṁ saṁvidaṁ samutpattinidhanatayā mahābhīṣaṇe madhyavartinīṁ manute avabudhyate| Vratī kila śmaśāne vasatyayaṁ punaralaukiko vratī sarvatrāhamevaikacittattvaparamārtha iti matvā jaḍaiḥ paśupramātṛbhirghaṭādibhiḥ prameyaiśca paretasthānīyaiḥ sahonmattavatkrīḍāṁ kurvāṇaḥ saṁsārabhuvamimāṁ sarvapramātṛprameyanidhanatayā bhīṣaṇaṁ śmaśānasvabhāvāmadhyāste| Anyacca yad vigrahakhaṭvāṅgakalpanākalitāṁ saṁvidaṁ manute iti| Vigrahaḥ śarīraṁ sa eva khaṭvāṅgakalpanā kaṅkālavidhiryoginaḥ kila svaśarīrapramātṛtābhimānadurgrahasaṅkṣayāccharīrātītaṁ svātmānaṁ manyamānasya saṁskāraśeṣībhūto vigrahaḥ śavaprāyamevetyavadhārayataḥ svaśarīrameva kaṅkālamudrākalpanā tayā kalitāṁ bhogyādhāratvena mudritām| Vīravratino hi śmaśānasthasya khaṭvāṅgamudrayā bhāvyamato'sya svasaṁvidvapuṣaḥ svaśarīramapi vedyatayā bhinnamavadhārayataḥ saiva khaṭvāṅgamudrā — Ityetadapyasya vratam| Tathā vedyakhaṇḍakakapālaṁ rasayati carvayati yacca śabdādiviṣayapañcakalakṣaṇaṁ sarvabhogyarūpamidaṁ vedyaṁ jñeyatvakāryatvābhyāṁ paricchinnam — Iti khaṇḍakaṁ karparaprāyaṁ tadeva kapālaṁ śiro'sthiśakalaṁ yadrasayati sārāharaṇakrameṇa pūrṇāhantāviśrāntyā camatkurute — Ityetadapi vratam| Vratinā kila kapālasthaṁ vīrapānaṁ rasyate — Ityāha viśvarasa iti| Viśvasmin vedyaśabdādiviṣayapañcakarūpe kapālakhaṇḍe yo'sau sārabhāgaścarvaṇāmṛtamayo'ṁśaḥ sa eva paramānandadāyitvādrasāsava uttamaṁ pānaṁ tena pūrṇaṁ nirbharam| Etaduktaṁ syāt — Viśvasya yaḥ śalkasthānīyaḥ kaṭhino'ṁśaḥ pātrakalpaḥ sa eva kapālaṁ tadgataḥ sārabhāgaścamatkārakṣama āhlādadāyitvātpānam — Iti| Kapālaṁ tu vratinaḥ karagataṁ bhavati — Ityāha nijakaragamiti| Nijāḥ svātmīyā ye karāścakṣurādikaraṇadevīsvabhāvāścinmarīcayasteṣu bhogyatayā tadvedyakhaṇḍakaṁ viṣayatvaṁ gacchati — Iti nijakaragaṁ yathā pāṇisthena kapālena pānaṁ pīyate tathaiva vedyakhaṇḍakakapālena viśvarasāsavaścakṣurādisaṁvitkarairyoginā samāhṛtyāsvādyate| Ayamāśayaḥ — Yogī sarvadaiva yathopanataṁ viṣayapañcakaṁ karaṇadevībhirāhṛtya yuktyā svacaitanyabhairavaviśrāntimavyucchinnāṁ bhajamānaścaramakṣaṇaparyantaṁ yathopadiṣṭamadvayadṛśā nirvāhayati — Ityetadevāsya pariśīlitasadgurucaraṇapaṅkajasya vratamato'nyaccharīraśoṣaṇamātram — Iti||80||

(Abhinavagupta) said (āha) that this (idam) (is) his --of the Knower of the Self-- (asya) vow (vratam... iti):


(The Knower of the Self) sees (paśyati) all of which (sarvam... yad) with equanimity and impartiality (samayā dṛṣṭyā), that is to say (yad ca), he considers (manute) Pure Consciousness (saṁvidam) to be resting and delighting in (niratām) the cemetery (śmaśāna) (called) the universe (viśva) (and) being marked (kalitām) by the figure --as an emblem-- (kalpanā) of the skeleton (khaṭvāṅga) in the form of (his own) physical body (vigraha). And he tastes (rasayati ca yad) (the best drink) contained in the skull (kapālam) —that (symbolizes) a fragment (khaṇḍaka) of "vedya" or the objective side of the universal manifestation (vedya)— lying (gam) in his (nija) hands (kara) --in the goddesses of his senses--, which is full of (pūrṇam) (that) Nectar --the best drink-- (rasa-āsava) residing in the universe (viśva). That very thing (tad etad) (is) his (asya) vow (vratam), (which is) both (ca) very difficult (su-durlabham) and (ca) easy (sulabham) (to observe)||79-80||


Thus (evam), this (etad eva) vow (vratam) of his (asya) —of the Knower of the Self (jñāninaḥ)— which (yad) will be talked about later (vakṣyamāṇam) (consists of) a niyama or observance (niyamaḥ) for propitiating (samārādhanāya) the deity (devatā) (called) one's own (sva) Self (ātma). Of what kind (kīdṛśam) (is) that (tad)? --What is (his) vow like?--. (Abhinavagupta) said (āha) "sudurlabhaṁ ca sulabhaṁ ca" (su-durlabham ca sulabham ca iti). (It is) "sudurlabha" or "very difficult to observe" (su-durlabham) for this reason (atas): "Because the annihilation (parikṣayāt) of the primordial ignorance --Āṇavamala-- (akhyāti) is accomplished (kṛtvā) with excessive (suṣṭhu) difficulty (duḥkhena) (and) attained (labhyate) through the Grace (anugraheṇa) of the Supreme (parama) Lord (īśvara), which appears as (rūpeṇa) the act of shunning or excluding (parihāra) (any) other (anya) means (upāya... iti)". And (ca) similarly (tathā) (it is) "sulabham" or "easy to observe" (sulabham ca) on this account (atas): "(Because) it is easily achieved (sukhena... labhyate) without (vinā) the trouble (kadarthanām) of having to do (svī-kāra) food restrictions (āhāra-niyama), etc. (ādi) (and) of wearing (bharaṇa) externally (bāhya) bones (asthi), ashes (bhasma) and so forth (ādi... iti)".

"What (kim) (is) that (tad) vow (vratam... iti)?". (Abhinavagupta) said (āha) "Sarvaṁ" (sarvam), etc. (iti-ādi).

He perceives --realizes, becomes aware of-- (samīkṣate) all (sarvam) this (idam) --viz. the universe--, whose nature (yad... rūpam) seems to be (avabhāsa) dual (bheda) (only) in one's mind (prātītikam), by means of the non-dualistic viewpoint (abheda-dṛśā) based on (pariśīlanena) reasoning (yukti), revealed scripture (āgama) (and) experience (anubhava), (and feels:) "I alone shine forth (ekaḥ sphurāmi) as all (sarvam) this (idam... iti)".

As (has been stated) (yathā) in the verses of venerable Bhagavadgītā (śrī-bhagavadgītāsu):

"He whose mind (ātmā) is perfectly concentrated (yukta) by (the practice of) Yoga (yoga) (and) looks on all with equal eyes --i.e. he is endowed with equanimity-- (sama-darśanaḥ) everywhere (sarvatra), sees (īkṣate) the Self (ātmānam) existing (stham) in all (sarva) beings (bhūta) and (ca) all (sarva) beings (bhūtāni) in the Self (ātmani... iti-ādi)".

In this way (evam), intellectual firmness (buddhi-dārḍhyam) regarding non-dualism (abheda) (is) indeed (eva) the vow (vratam) (then).

Moreover (anyat ca), that (yad) (the Knower of the Self) considers (manute) Pure Consciousness (saṁvidam) to be resting and delighting in (niratām) the cemetery (śmaśāna) (called) the universe (viśva) (is) also (tad api) (part of his) vow (vratam).

After considering (iti kṛtvā) that (yathā) the universe (viśvam) formed from (sva-bhāvam) subjects (grāhaka) (and) objects (grāhya) (is) overrun with (samākrāntam) hundreds (śata) of corpses (śava) (called) things (padārtha) characterized by (lakṣaṇa) (their being) inert --lifeless-- (jaḍa) (such as) pots (ghaṭa), bodies (deha), etc. (ādi), it --the universe-- (tad) (is) certainly (eva) a "śmaśāna" (śmaśānam) (or) cemetery --lit. ancestor-grove-- (pitṛvanam). (Why?) Because (yatas) Pure Consciousness (saṁvid) (also known as) the Mistress of the Fortunate One --i.e. Śakti-- (bhagavatī) alone (ekā) is not inert --She is alive-- (ajaḍā). For this reason (atas), all (sarvam) this (idam) other (stuff) (anyat) which has shone forth (ullāsitam) from Her (tad) (is) inert (jaḍam) (and) represents (sthānīyam) corpses (śava), (and it is) because of this (too) (atas) that there is similarity (sādṛśyam) to a cemetery (śmaśānena) in the case of the universe (viśvasya).

(Therefore, the phrase "saṁvidaṁ manute| Viśvaśmaśānaniratāṁ" occurring in the stanza 79 is to be interpreted like this:) He --the Knower of the Self-- considers (manute) viz. realizes (avabudhyate)— Pure Consciousness (saṁvidam), which exists (vartinīm) in the middle of (madhya) a great terror --this world-- (mahā-bhīṣaṇe) where there are birth and death (samutpatti-nidhanatayā), to be completely resting and delighting in (niḥśeṣeṇa ratām) the cemetery (tasmin... śmaśāne) (known as) the universe (viśva).

(All in all,) the one observing (such) a vow --i.e. the Knower of the Self-- (vratī) lives (vasati) in a cemetery (śmaśāne) really (kila). Also (punar), this "alaukika" --not relating to the world-- (Knower of the Self) who observes (such) a vow (ayam... alaukikaḥ vratī), by realizing that (iti matvā) "I myself (aham eva) really (paramārthaḥ) (am) everywhere (sarvatra) one (eka) Principle (tattva) (known as) Consciousness (cit... iti)", plays (krīḍām kurvāṇaḥ) like (vat) a madman (unmatta) together with (saha) inert stuff (jaḍaiḥ) (appearing as both) limited individuals (paśu-pramātṛbhiḥ) and (ca) objects (prameyaiḥ) (such as) pots, etc. (ghaṭa-ādibhiḥ), which represent (sthānīyaiḥ) the dead (pareta) while he dwells (adhyāste) in this (imām) residence (bhuvam) of Saṁsāra --Transmigration replete with misery-- (saṁsāra) that is a frightening cemetery (bhīṣaṇam śmaśāna-sva-bhāvām) (since) there is death or cessation (nidhanatayā) of all (sarva) the subjects (pramātṛ) (and) objects (prameya).

Besides (anyat ca), (Abhinavagupta said) that (yad) (the Knower of the Self) considers (manute) Pure Consciousness (saṁvidam) to be "vigrahakhaṭvāṅgakalpanākalitām" (vigraha-khaṭvāṅga-kalpanā-kalitām... iti).

"Vigraha" (vigrahaḥ) (means) "the physical body" (śarīram), (and) that --vigraha or physical body-- (saḥ) (is) most assuredly (eva) "khaṭvāṅga-kalpanā" (khaṭvāṅga-kalpanā) (or) the figure or form (vidhiḥ) of a skeleton (kaṅkāla). Being a residue (śeṣī-bhūtaḥ) of accumulated impressions (saṁskāra), the vigraha --physical body-- (vigrahaḥ) of a Yogī (yoginaḥ kila) who considers (manyamānasya) his own Self (sva-ātmānam) to be existing beyond (atītam) the physical body (śarīra) due to the complete annihilation (saṅkṣayāt) of the erroneous perception (durgraha) (appearing as) the false conception (abhimāna) that subjectivity (pramātṛtā) is his body (sva-śarīra) --the false conception that the real subject is his physical body--, (is) practically (prāyam eva) a corpse (śava) (to him). In the case of (that Yogī) who thinks so (iti avadhārayataḥ), his own (sva) physical body (śarīram eva) (becomes) a form or image (kalpanā) exhibiting the "kaṅkālamudrā" or "skeleton emblem" (kaṅkāla-mudrā). (Finally, the word) "kalitām" (in the expression "vigrahakhaṭvāṅgakalpanākalitām") (kalitām) (means that he --the Knower of the Self who observes this vow-- considers Pure Consciousness) as being marked (mudritām) by that (skeleton emblem) (tayā) as a support (ādhāratvena) for (the enjoyment of) objects (bhogya).

A brave ascetic (vīra-vratinaḥ) who remains (sthasya) in a cemetery (śmaśāna) should be (bhāvyam) (marked) with the skeleton emblem (khaṭvāṅga-mudrayā) indeed (hi). Hence (atas), in the case of the (Knower of the Self) (asya) whose form (sva... vapuṣaḥ) is Pure Consciousness (saṁvid), his act of considering (avadhārayataḥ) even (api) his own (sva) physical body (śarīram) as a fragment (bhinnam) endowed with the state of "vedya" or "knowable" (vedyatayā) (is) his (asya) skeleton emblem --khaṭvāṅgamudrā or kaṅkālamudrā-- (sā eva khaṭvāṅga-mudrā). In this manner (iti), this (etad) (is) also (api) (part of) his (asya) vow (vratam).

Likewise (tathā), (Abhinavagupta said:) "vedyakhaṇḍakakapālaṁ rasayati" (vedya-khaṇḍaka-kapālam rasayati), viz. he tastes (the Nectar contained in "vedyakhaṇḍakakapālam") (carvayati), that is to say (yad ca): (1) "vedya" (vedyam) (is) this (idam) which consists of (rūpam) all (sarva) the objects (bhogya), which is characterized by (lakṣaṇam) the group of five (pañcaka) things (viṣaya) (such as) sound (śabda), etc. (ādi) (and) which is divided (paricchinnam) by the states of being a knowable and an effect (jñeyatva-kāryatvābhyām); (2) thus (iti), "khaṇḍaka" --lit. fragment-- (khaṇḍakam) resembles (prāyam) a cup or bowl (karpara); (and) (3) "kapālam" (kapālam) (is) that very thing --the cup or bowl-- (tad eva), viz. a bony (asthi) fragment (śakalam) in the head (śiras) --in short, "a skull"--. (The phrase "rasayati ca yad" in the stanza 80 means) "he tastes (rasayati) which --the portion of universal Nectar which is contained in that skull acting as a cup or bowl-- (yad)", (that is,) he experiences an amazing Delight (camatkurute) by the method (krameṇa) of extracting (āharaṇa) the Essence --portion of Nectar residing in the universe-- (sāra), which (implies) a rest (viśrāntyā) in the Full and Perfect (pūrṇa) I-consciousness (ahantā). In this way (iti), this (etad) (is) also (api) (part of his) vow (vratam).

(As) the drink (pāna) of the brave ones (vīra) which is (stham) in the "kapāla" or skull (kapāla) (is) verily tasted (kila... rasyate) by the person observing (such) a vow (vratinā), (therefore Abhinavagupta) said so (iti āha) (in the stanza 80): "viśvarasa" (viśvarasa iti).

That (asau) "bhāga" (bhāgaḥ) of the Essence (sāra) which (yaḥ) (resides) in the universe (viśvasmin) composed of (rūpe) the group of five (pañcaka) things (viṣaya) forming "vedya" or the objective side of the universal manifestation (vedya) (such as) sound (śabda), etc. (ādi), all of which is (symbolized by) the fragment (khaṇḍe) (called) "the skull" (kapāla), (is) the portion (aṁśaḥ) full of (mayaḥ) Nectar (amṛta) being tasted (by the Knower of the Self) (carvaṇa). (And) that very thing (saḥ eva) (is) "rasāsava" (rasa-āsavaḥ) (or) the best (uttamam) drink (pānam) since it grants (dāyitvāt) Supreme (parama) Bliss (ānanda). (The skull) is "pūrṇa" (pūrṇa) (or) full of (nirbharam) that (Nectar) (tena).

This (etad) could be (syāt) said (uktam) (then:) The cup-like (pātra-kalpaḥ) solid (kaṭhinaḥ) part (aṁśaḥ) that (yaḥ) represents (sthānīyaḥ) a fragment (śalka) of the universe (viśvasya) (is) the skull (saḥ eva kapālam). The portion (bhāgaḥ) of Essence (sāra) contained in (gataḥ) it --in the skull-- (tad) (is) able to (produce) (kṣamaḥ) (Supreme) Delight (camatkāra). As it grants (dāyitvāt) (such) a Joy (āhlāda) (is known as the best) drink (pānam... iti).

The skull (kapālam) is (gatam bhavati) indeed (tu) in the hands (kara) of an ascetic (vratinaḥ... iti). (That is why Abhinavagupta) said (āha) (in the stanza 80): "nijakaragam" (nijakaragam iti).

The hands (karāḥ) that (ye) (are) "nija" (nijāḥ) (or) of his own (svātmīyāḥ) (constitute) rays (marīcayaḥ) of Consciousness (cit) whose essential nature (sva-bhāvāḥ) is the goddesses (devī) of the senses (karaṇa) (such as) the power of seeing (cakṣus) and so forth (ādi). In them (teṣu), that (tad) fragment (khaṇḍakam) of "vedya" ---the objective side of the universal manifestation-- (vedya) becomes a thing (viṣayatvam gacchati) (which appears) as an object of enjoyment (bhogyatayā). In this way (iti), (such a fragment of "vedya" symbolized by the skull,) is (gam) in his own (nija) hands (kara). Just as (yathā) the drink (pānam) is tasted (pīyate) (by the mere ascetic) through the skull (kapālena) which is (sthena) in (his) hands (pāṇi), even so (tathā eva) the Nectar (rasa-āsavaḥ) residing in the universe (viśva) (is) tasted (āsvādyate) by the (great) Yogī (yoginā) through the skull (kapālena) which is a fragment (khaṇḍaka) of "vedya" or the objective side of the universal manifestation (vedya) after having taken (it) for himself (samāhṛtya) with the hands (karaiḥ) of Pure Consciousness (saṁvid) (appearing as the goddesses of the senses such as) the power of seeing (cakṣus), etc. (ādi).

This (ayam) (is) the purport (āśayaḥ) (then:) "The Yogī (yogī), after grabbing (āhṛtya) the group of five (pañcakam) things --sound, etc.-- (viṣaya) —which was generated in that way (yathā-upanatam)— by means of the goddesses (devībhiḥ) of the senses (karaṇa), duly (yuktyā) attains (bhajamānaḥ) a uninterrupted (avyucchinnā) repose (viśrānti) on Bhairava --Lord Śiva-- (bhairava) who is his own (sva) Consciousness in Absolute Freedom (caitanya) (and) spends (nirvāhayati) until (paryantam) the last (carama) instant of (his) time (kṣaṇa) (in this State) by clinging to the non-dualistic viewpoint (advaya-dṛśā) such as he was taught (yathā-upadiṣṭam... iti)". This (etad eva) (is) the vow (vratam) of the one who cherishes the lotus feet of (his) genuine Guru (asya pariśīlita-sat-guru-caraṇa-paṅkajasya) indeed (eva). Hence (atas), the other (types of external austerities) (anyat) only (mātram) dry the body up (śarīra-śoṣaṇa... iti)||80||


Without notes of explanation yet

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 Stanza 81

प्राक्प्रतिपादितं सङ्कलयन्नस्योपदेशस्योत्कृष्टत्वमाह


इति जन्मनाशहीनं परमार्थमहेश्वराख्यमुपलभ्य।
उपलब्धृताप्रकाशात्कृतकृत्यस्तिष्ठति यथेष्टम्॥८१॥


इति समनन्तरोक्तेन प्रकारेण यत्प्रतिपादितं रहस्यं परमार्थमहेश्वराख्यं तात्त्विकं महेश्वरमुपलभ्य स्वात्मनि दृढप्रतिपत्त्या सम्यगनुभूय। कीदृगाह जन्मनाशहीनमिति येनाधिगतेनोत्पत्तिमरणे न स्याताम् — इति यावत्। कृतकृत्यस्तिष्ठति यथेष्टमिति योग्येतत्प्राप्य कर्तव्यतान्तरस्याभावान्निष्पन्नपरपुरुषार्थो यथेष्टं स्वेच्छातिक्रमं विना स्वातन्त्र्येण चक्रभ्रमवद्धृतशरीरस्तिष्ठति कालमतिवाहयन्नास्ते। कथमाह उपलब्धृताप्रकाशादिति। एतद्रहस्यपरिशीलनेन सर्वासु दशास्वनुभवितृतया प्रकाशः परिस्फुरणं तस्मात् — इति शरीरस्थोऽपि पूर्णानन्दमयः — इति यावत्॥८१॥

Prākpratipāditaṁ saṅkalayannasyopadeśasyotkṛṣṭatvamāha


Iti janmanāśahīnaṁ paramārthamaheśvarākhyamupalabhya|
Upalabdhṛtāprakāśātkṛtakṛtyastiṣṭhati yatheṣṭam||81||


Iti samanantaroktena prakāreṇa yatpratipāditaṁ rahasyaṁ paramārthamaheśvarākhyaṁ tāttvikaṁ maheśvaramupalabhya svātmani dṛḍhapratipattyā samyaganubhūya| Kīdṛgāha janmanāśahīnamiti yenādhigatenotpattimaraṇe na syātām — Iti yāvat| Kṛtakṛtyastiṣṭhati yatheṣṭamiti yogyetatprāpya kartavyatāntarasyābhāvānniṣpannaparapuruṣārtho yatheṣṭaṁ svecchātikramaṁ vinā svātantryeṇa cakrabhramavaddhṛtaśarīrastiṣṭhati kālamativāhayannāste| Kathamāha upalabdhṛtāprakāśāditi| Etadrahasyapariśīlanena sarvāsu daśāsvanubhavitṛtayā prakāśaḥ parisphuraṇaṁ tasmāt — Iti śarīrastho'pi pūrṇānandamayaḥ — Iti yāvat||81||

By accumulating (saṅkalayan) (all that) has been explained (pratipāditam) before (prāk), (Abhinavagupta) expressed (āha) (in the stanza 81) the superiority (utkṛṣṭatvam) of his teaching (asya upadeśasya):


After realizing (upalabhya) in that way (iti) the One who is known as (ākhyam) the Real (paramārtha) Great (mahā) Lord (īśvara) devoid of (hīnam) birth (janma) (and) death (nāśa), (the Yogī --the Knower of the Self--) that has attained the Supreme Goal of existence (kṛta-kṛtyaḥ) remains (in a physical body) (tiṣṭhati) as he wishes (yathā-iṣṭam), because of the display or manifestation (prakāśāt) (of this Great Lord) as the State of the Perceiver (upalabdhṛtā)||81||


(The phrase "iti... paramārthamaheśvarākhyamupalabhya" means the following:) "Upalabhya" (upalabhya) (or) after completely experiencing (samyak anubhūya) by firm realization (dṛḍha-pratipattyā) in himself (sva-ātmani). (Whom? "Paramārthamaheśvarākhyam" or) the Mysterious Secret (rahasyam) which (yad) has (already) been explained (pratipāditam) (and) whose name (ākhyam) (is) "Paramārthamaheśvara" (paramārtha-mahā-īśvara) (or) the Real (tāttvikam) Great Lord (mahā-īśvaram). (How? "Iti" or) in the way (prakāreṇa) described (uktena) before (samanantara). What (this Great Lord) is like (kīdṛk)? (Abhinavagupta) said (āha): "janmanāśahīnam" (janma-nāśa-hīnam iti), (or) having obtained whom (yena adhigatena) there are not (any longer) (na... syātām) birth and death (utpatti-maraṇe). This is the sense (iti yāvat).

(The expression) "kṛtakṛtyastiṣṭhati yatheṣṭam" (kṛta-kṛtyaḥ tiṣṭhati yathā-iṣṭam iti) (means that) after achieving (prāpya) this (realization of the Great Lord) (etad), the Yogī (yogī), in the absence of (abhāvāt) another obligation (kartavyatā) (since) he has attained the Supreme Goal of existence (niṣpanna-para-puruṣa-arthaḥ), continues (tiṣṭhati) retaining a physical body (dhṛta-śarīraḥ). (In other words,) he continues to spend (ativāhayan āste) the time (kālam) as he wishes (yathā-iṣṭam) —i.e. freely (svātantryeṇa), without (vinā) going beyond (atikramam) his own (sva) desires (icchā), like (vat) the turning or rotation (bhrama) of the wheel (of a potter) (cakra), (which turns round and round freely but never abandons its axis)—.

How (can he do that) (katham)? (Abhinavagupta) said (āha) "upalabdhṛtāprakāśāt" (upalabdhṛtā-prakāśāt iti). By constant coming into contact (pariśīlanena) with this (etad) Mysterious Secret (rahasya) --with the Great Lord--, (there is) consequently (tasmāt) a display (prakāśaḥ) (or) manifestation (parisphuraṇam) (of this Great Lord) as the State of the Perceiver (anubhavitṛtayā) in all the (other) states --in wakefulness, dreaming and deep sleep-- (sarvāsu daśāsu... iti). (After that Revelation,) although (api) (such a great Yogī) remains (sthaḥ) in a physical body (śarīra), he is full of (mayaḥ) Perfect (pūrṇa) Bliss (ānanda) (anyway). This is the meaning (iti yāvat)||81||


Without notes of explanation yet

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 Stanza 82

इत्थं स्वात्मानं यः कश्चिज्जीवतां मध्याज्जानानः स सर्वस्तद्रूपः स्यात् — इत्यधिकारिनियमाभावमाह


व्यापिनमभिहितमित्थं सर्वात्मानं विधूतनानात्वम्।
निरुपमपरमानन्दं यो वेत्ति स तन्मयो भवति॥८२॥


इत्थमित्युक्तेन प्रकारेण व्यापिनमनवच्छिन्नचिदानन्दैकघनं शिवमभिहितं युक्त्यागमानुभवपरिशीलनक्रमेणावेदितं यो वेत्ति यः कश्चिदेव प्राणिप्रायो जानाति स सर्वस्त्यक्तसङ्कोचस्तन्मयः शिव एव स्यात् — इति। अत्र स्वात्मज्ञाने नाधिकारिनियमो यतो ये केचन जन्ममरणादिदोषाघ्रातास्तिर्यञ्चोऽपि वा ते सर्वे स्वात्ममहेश्वरप्रत्यभिज्ञानात्तन्मया भवन्ति — इति यच्छब्दस्य परामर्शः। कीदृशं च सर्वात्मानमिति। सर्वेषां प्रमातृप्रमेयाणामात्मा सर्वाणि वा प्रमातृप्रमेयाणि यस्यात्मा तं सर्वोत्तीर्णं सर्वमयमिति यावत्। अत एव विधूतं न्यक्कृतं सर्वदा सर्वत्र चिद्रूपतया स्फुरणान्नानात्वं भेदानन्त्यं येन तमेवमाकाङ्क्षाविरहान्निरुपमो विशेषणरहितः प्रकृष्ट आनन्दो यस्य तमेवंविधम् — इति स्वात्मानं जानानः सर्वः शिवरूपी स्यात् — इति॥८२॥

Itthaṁ svātmānaṁ yaḥ kaścijjīvatāṁ madhyājjānānaḥ sa sarvastadrūpaḥ syāt — Ityadhikāriniyamābhāvamāha


Vyāpinamabhihitamitthaṁ sarvātmānaṁ vidhūtanānātvam|
Nirupamaparamānandaṁ yo vetti sa tanmayo bhavati||82||


Itthamityuktena prakāreṇa vyāpinamanavacchinnacidānandaikaghanaṁ śivamabhihitaṁ yuktyāgamānubhavapariśīlanakrameṇāveditaṁ yo vetti yaḥ kaścideva prāṇiprāyo jānāti sa sarvastyaktasaṅkocastanmayaḥ śiva eva syāt — Iti| Atra svātmajñāne nādhikāriniyamo yato ye kecana janmamaraṇādidoṣāghrātāstiryañco'pi vā te sarve svātmamaheśvarapratyabhijñānāttanmayā bhavanti — Iti yacchabdasya parāmarśaḥ| Kīdṛśaṁ ca sarvātmānamiti| Sarveṣāṁ pramātṛprameyāṇāmātmā sarvāṇi vā pramātṛprameyāṇi yasyātmā taṁ sarvottīrṇaṁ sarvamayamiti yāvat| Ata eva vidhūtaṁ nyakkṛtaṁ sarvadā sarvatra cidrūpatayā sphuraṇānnānātvaṁ bhedānantyaṁ yena tamevamākāṅkṣāvirahānnirupamo viśeṣaṇarahitaḥ prakṛṣṭa ānando yasya tamevaṁvidham — Iti svātmānaṁ jānānaḥ sarvaḥ śivarūpī syāt — Iti||82||

In this manner (ittham), someone (kaścid) who (yaḥ) knows (jānānaḥ) his own Self (sva-ātmānam) in the middle (madhyāt) of the limited beings (jīvatām), is (saḥ... syāt) of the nature (rūpaḥ) of that (Great Lord) (tad) in his entirety (sarvaḥ) --he is completely the Great Lord--. Thus (iti), (Abhinavagupta tacitly) declared (āha) (by the stanza 82) the absence (abhāvam) of requisites --lit. restrictions to be an "adhikārin" or someone who is qualified to receive spiritual knowledge-- (adhikāri-niyama) (as far as Knowledge about the Self is concerned):


He (saḥ) who (yaḥ) knows (vetti) so (ittham) the Self (ātmānam) of all (sarva), called (abhihitam) the All-pervasive One (vyāpinam) who has humbled infinity of dualism (vidhūta-nānātvam) (and) whose Supreme (parama) Bliss (ānandam) is unequaled (nirupama), is (bhavati) identical (mayaḥ) with Him (tad)||82||


(The term) "Ittham" --lit. so, in this way-- (ittham iti) (means) in the way (prakāreṇa) mentioned (before) (uktena). (The expression) "Vyāpinamabhihitam" --lit. called the All-pervasive One-- (vyāpinam... abhihitam) (implies) the One who is made known (āveditam) —by the method (krameṇa) based on (pariśīlana) reasoning (yukti), revealed scripture (āgama) (and) experience (anubhava)— as Śiva (śivam), one (eka) compact mass (ghanam) of uninterrupted (anavacchinna) Consciousness (cit) (and) Bliss (ānanda). (The phrase) "yo vetti" --lit. he who knows-- (yaḥ vetti) (indicates) someone (kaścid eva), furnished with life (prāṇi-prāyaḥ), who (yaḥ) knows (jānāti). (The expression) "sa tanmayo (bhavati)" --lit. he is identical with Him-- (saḥ... tanmayaḥ) (points out the fact that such a person,) having abandoned (all of his) limitations (tyakta-saṅkocaḥ), is (syāt) wholly (sarvaḥ) Śiva (śivaḥ eva... iti).

There is no (na) requisite (adhikāri-niyamaḥ) with reference to this Knowledge (atra... jñāne) about one's own (sva) Self (ātma). Because (yatas) all (te sarve) —anyone whatsoever (ye kecana)— who are scented by (āghrātāḥ) the fault (doṣa) (known as) birth (janma), death (maraṇa), etc. (ādi), or (vā) even (api) the animals (tiryañcaḥ), become (bhavanti) identical with (mayāḥ) Him (tad) by means of a recognition (pratyabhijñānāt) that their own (sva) Self (ātma) (is) the Great Lord (mahā-īśvara). This is what is inferred from the use of the word "yad" (in the stanza) (iti yad-śabdasya parāmarśaḥ) --"yad" appears as "yaḥ" (masculine gender, singular) in "yo vetti" (he who knows)--.

And (ca) what is (the Great Lord) like (kīdṛśam)? (Abhinavagupta said) "sarvātmānaṁ" (sarvātmānam iti). This is the meaning (of "sarvātmānaṁ") (iti yāvat): Him (tam) (who,) transcending (uttīrṇam) all (sarva) (and at the same time) being immanent (mayam) in all (sarva), (is) the Self (ātmā) of all (sarveṣām) subjects and objects (pramātṛ-prameyāṇām) or (else) (vā) (One) whose (yasya) Self (ātmā) (consists of) all (sarvāṇi) the subjects and objects (pramātṛ-prameyāṇi).

For this very reason (atas eva), (the phrase "vidhūtanānātvam" means) One (tam) by whom (yena) "nānātva" (nānātvam) —infinity (ānantyam) of dualism (bheda)(is) always (sarvadā) (and) everywhere (sarvatra) "vidhūta" (vidhūtam) (or) humbled (nyakkṛtam) because of (His) shining forth (sphuraṇāt) in the form of (rūpatayā) Consciousness (cit). (And) thus (evam), (the remaining expression "nirupamaparamānandaṁ" would mean the following:) One (tam) of such qualities (evaṁvidham) whose (yasya) superior (prakṛṣṭa) Bliss (ānandaḥ) (is) "nirupama" (nirupamaḥ) (or) without any (rahitaḥ) adjectives (viśeṣaṇa) --i.e. impossible to be qualified by adjectives, peerless, unequaled, incomparable-- due to the absence (virahāt) of desires (ākāṅkṣā). Someone who knows (jānānaḥ) so (iti) his own Self (sva-ātmānam) is (syāt) of the nature (rūpī) of Śiva (śiva) in his entirety (sarvaḥ... iti)||82||


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