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Paramārthasāra (Парамартхасара) Абхинавагупты: Строфы 92-95. Недвойственный Кашмирский Шиваизм

Стандартный перевод


 Introduction

Paramārthasāra continues with four more stanzas. This is the twenty-third set of stanzas, which is composed of 4 out of the 105 stanzas constituting the entire work.

Of course, I will also insert the original stanzas on which Yogarāja is commenting. I will write a lot of notes to make this book so understandable to the average reader as possible.

Yogarāja's Sanskrit will be in dark green color while the original Abhinavagupta's stanzas will be shown in dark red color. In turn, within the transliteration, the original stanzas will be in brown color, while the Yogarāja's comments will be shown in black. Also, within the translation, the original stanzas by Abhinavagupta, i.e. Paramārthasāra, will be in green and black colors, while the commentary by Yogarāja will contain words in both black and red colors.

Read Paramārthasāra and experience Supreme Ānanda or Divine Bliss, dear Śiva.

Important: All that is in brackets and italicized within the translation has been added by me in order to complete the sense of a particular phrase or sentence. In turn, all that is between double hyphen (--...--) constitutes clarifying further information also added by me.

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 Stanzas 92—93

एवं दर्शितदृष्ट्या यतः सदा तद्भावभावितत्वमपहस्त्य नूतनत्वेन शरीरविनाशे नापूर्वं किञ्चित्समापतेज्ज्ञानिनो यतो देह एव विनाशी केवलं स एव विनश्यति न पुनर्वासनाप्ररोहः — इति दर्शयन्नाह


स्वर्गमयो निरयमयस्तदयं देहान्तरालगः पुरुषः।
तद्भङ्गे स्वौचित्याद्देहान्तरयोगमभ्येति॥९२॥

एवं ज्ञानावसरे स्वात्मा सकृदस्य यादृगवभातः।
तादृश एव तदासौ न देहपातेऽन्यथा भवति॥९३॥


तत् तस्माच्छरीरघटादिनिविष्टः पुरुषः सर्वस्य कार्ममलाधिवासित आत्मा स्वर्गाद्यभिप्रायपूर्वकृतकर्मफलवासनावासितान्तःकरणः स्वर्गमयः प्ररूढस्वर्गफलवासनाविशिष्टत्वात्स्वर्गफलभोक्ता — इति यावत्। एवं दुष्कृतपूर्वकर्मवासनाप्ररूढो नरकफलभोक्ता केवलं देह उभयकर्मफलभोगायतनं तद्भङ्गे स्वौचित्यादिति तस्मिन्देहक्षये स्वस्य आत्मनो यथाहितवासनानुगुण्यादन्येन भोगायतनेन शरीरान्तरेण समनन्तरं सम्बन्धमुपयात्युत्तरकालं येन विशिष्टकर्मवासनादत्तफलभोगभागी भवति। तथैव ज्ञानावसर उपदेश्यस्य गुरूपदिष्टस्वात्मप्रकाशनकाले स्वात्मा चैतन्यं सकृद् एकवारं यादृग्यादृशोऽवभात उपदेशक्रमानुसारेण परिपूर्णस्वातन्त्र्यलक्षणां मितां वा परामर्शदशां गतस्तादृश एव सदा असौ येनैव स्वरूपेण ज्ञानिना स्वात्मा सर्वकालं परामृष्टस्ताद्रूप्येण वासनाप्ररोहात्तस्य प्रथते न पुनर्देहपाते प्रकाशितोऽपि स्वात्मा ज्ञानिनोऽन्यथा समाच्छादितो भवति। नहि भातमभातं स्यादपरथा न कश्चित्किञ्चिदभ्यसेत् — इति सर्वव्यवहारविप्रलोपो भवेत्

धर्मेण गमनमूर्ध्वं गमनमधस्ताद्भवत्यधर्मेण।
ज्ञानेन चापवर्गो विपर्ययादिष्यते बन्धः॥

इत्यादि सर्वं च त्रुट्येत्तस्मान्मरणकाले शरीरं यथास्तु तथास्तु केवलं वासनाप्ररोहः स्वात्मगतः सर्वस्य बन्धे मोक्षे च हेतुः — इति॥९३॥

Evaṁ darśitadṛṣṭyā yataḥ sadā tadbhāvabhāvitatvamapahastya nūtanatvena śarīravināśe nāpūrvaṁ kiñcitsamāpatejjñānino yato deha eva vināśī kevalaṁ sa eva vinaśyati na punarvāsanāprarohaḥ — Iti darśayannāha


Svargamayo nirayamayastadayaṁ dehāntarālagaḥ puruṣaḥ|
Tadbhaṅge svaucityāddehāntarayogamabhyeti||92||

Evaṁ jñānāvasare svātmā sakṛdasya yādṛgavabhātaḥ|
Tādṛśa eva tadāsau na dehapāte'nyathā bhavati||93||


Tat tasmāccharīraghaṭādiniviṣṭaḥ puruṣaḥ sarvasya kārmamalādhivāsita ātmā svargādyabhiprāyapūrvakṛtakarmaphalavāsanāvāsitāntaḥkaraṇaḥ svargamayaḥ prarūḍhasvargaphalavāsanāviśiṣṭatvātsvargaphalabhoktā — Iti yāvat| Evaṁ duṣkṛtapūrvakarmavāsanāprarūḍho narakaphalabhoktā kevalaṁ deha ubhayakarmaphalabhogāyatanaṁ tadbhaṅge svaucityāditi tasmindehakṣaye svasya ātmano yathāhitavāsanānuguṇyādanyena bhogāyatanena śarīrāntareṇa samanantaraṁ sambandhamupayātyuttarakālaṁ yena viśiṣṭakarmavāsanādattaphalabhogabhāgī bhavati| Tathaiva jñānāvasara upadeśyasya gurūpadiṣṭasvātmaprakāśanakāle svātmā caitanyaṁ sakṛd ekavāraṁ yādṛgyādṛśo'vabhāta upadeśakramānusāreṇa paripūrṇasvātantryalakṣaṇāṁ mitāṁ vā parāmarśadaśāṁ gatastādṛśa eva sadā asau yenaiva svarūpeṇa jñāninā svātmā sarvakālaṁ parāmṛṣṭastādrūpyeṇa vāsanāprarohāttasya prathate na punardehapāte prakāśito'pi svātmā jñānino'nyathā samācchādito bhavati| Nahi bhātamabhātaṁ syādaparathā na kaścitkiñcidabhyaset — Iti sarvavyavahāravipralopo bhavet

Dharmeṇa gamanamūrdhvaṁ gamanamadhastādbhavatyadharmeṇa|
Jñānena cāpavargo viparyayādiṣyate bandhaḥ||

Ityādi sarvaṁ ca truṭyettasmānmaraṇakāle śarīraṁ yathāstu tathāstu kevalaṁ vāsanāprarohaḥ svātmagataḥ sarvasya bandhe mokṣe ca hetuḥ — Iti||93||

Thus (evam), by the viewpoint (dṛṣṭyā) which has been shown (darśita), because (yatas) after discarding (apahastya) the condition of being constantly cultivating (sadā... bhāvitatvam) that (tad) State (bhāva) --since the person already got Final Liberation and became a Knower of the Self--, nothing (na... kiñcid) which has not existed before (apūrvam) comes to (samāpatet) the Knower of the Self (jñāninaḥ) as being something new (nūtanatvena) when the physical body is destroyed (śarīra-vināśe), (and) since (yatas) (this) physical body (dehaḥ) (is) certainly (eva) perishable (vināśī), only (kevalam) it --the physical body-- (saḥ eva) is annihilated (vinaśyati), but (punar) there is no (na) sprout (prarohaḥ) (of Saṁsāra or Transmigration full of misery in the form of accumulated) tendencies (vāsanā). The Master --i.e. Abhinavagupta-- (darśayan) said (āha) so (iti) (in the stanzas 92 and 93):


Therefore (tad), this (ayam) individual soul --i.e. the limited being-- (puruṣaḥ) who is (gaḥ) inside (antarāla) a physical body (deha) is heaven (svarga-mayaḥ) (or) hell (niraya-mayaḥ). When that (physical body) is eliminated (tad-bhaṅge), (the individual soul) comes into contact with (yogam abhyeti) another (antara) physical body (deha) according to (the tendencies which are adequately) suitable (aucityāt) for himself --for such an individual soul-- (sva). Similarly (evam), at the moment (avasare) Knowledge (is revealed) (jñāna), his own (sva) Self (ātmā) appears (avabhātaḥ) at once (sakṛt) as such (yādṛk) before him --before the limited being-- (asya). (After that,) He --the Self-- (asau) (is experienced) always --Abhinavagupta wrote "tadā" or "then", but it should preferably be "sadā" or "always"-- (tadā) like that (tādṛśaḥ eva) --as his essential nature--, (and) when his physical body falls (deha-pāte), (He) is not (na... bhavati) otherwise (anyathā) --the Self remains revealed and never covered or veiled by anything--||92-93||


"Tad" (tad) —i.e. "therefore" (tasmāt)—, the "puruṣa" or "individual soul" --the limited being-- (puruṣaḥ) that stays (niviṣṭaḥ) in a physical body (śarīra), a pot (ghaṭa), etc. (ādi) (is) the Self (ātmā) of everyone (sarvasya) (but) perfumed (adhivāsitaḥ) by Kārmamala (kārma-mala). (When) his --of the individual soul-- inner (psychic) organ (antaḥ-karaṇaḥ) is influenced by (vāsita) tendencies (vāsanā) related to fruits (phala) of actions (karma) which were done (kṛta) previously (pūrva) (and) whose purpose (abhiprāya) was heaven (svarga), etc. (ādi), (such an "individual soul") is heaven (svarga-mayaḥ) (and consequently he becomes) the enjoyer (bhoktā) of the fruit (phala) (called) heaven (svarga) since he is characterized by (viśiṣṭatvāt) full-grown (prarūḍha) tendencies (vāsanā) (corresponding to) the fruit (phala) (known as) heaven (svarga). This is the purport (iti yāvat).

In this way (too) (evam), when he has fully developed (prarūḍhaḥ) tendencies (vāsanā) pertaining to bad actions (dus... karma) which were performed (kṛta) before (pūrva), (becomes) the enjoyer (bhoktā) of the fruit (phala) (whose name is) hell (naraka). Only one (kevalam) physical body (dehaḥ) (is) the resting-place (āyatanam) for the enjoyment (bhoga) of both (types of) (ubhaya) fruit (phala) (derived from his) actions (karma). (The expression) "tadbhaṅge svaucityāt" (tad-bhaṅge svaucityāt iti) (means that) when (his) physical body is eliminated (tasmin deha-kṣaye), (then) immediately after (samanantaram) comes up (upayāti) a connection (sambandham) with another (antareṇa) physical body (śarīra), viz. with another (anyena) resting-place (āyatanena) for the enjoyment (bhoga) according to (anuguṇyāt) the tendencies (vāsanā) which are adequately (yathā) suitable (hita) for "sva" (svasya) (or) himself (ātmanaḥ) --because the word "svaucityāt" is composed of "sva" plus "aucityāt", and literally means "according to what is suitable for himself, for the individual soul"--. Afterwards (uttarakālam), he becomes (bhavati) as a result (yena) someone who partakes in (bhāgī) the enjoyment (bhoga) of the fruit (phala) given (datta) by the particular (viśiṣṭa) karmic (karma) tendencies (vāsanā).

Similarly (tathā eva), "jñānāvasare" --lit. at the moment when Knowledge (is revealed)-- (jñānāvasare) (or) at the time (kāle) of the revelation (prakāśana) to the disciple (upadeśyasya) of his (sva) spiritual essence (ātma) as instructed (upadiṣṭa) by (his) Guru (guru), "svātmā" --lit. "his own Self"-- (sva-ātmā) (or) Consciousness in Absolute Freedom (caitanyam) "sakṛt" (sakṛt) (or) at once (ekavāram) appears (avabhātaḥ) "yādṛk"(yādṛk) (or) as such (yādṛśaḥ), i.e. He enters into a state (daśām gataḥ) of "parāmarśa" (parāmarśa) --viz. a state where He is mentally seized, where He is experienced, where He is remembered or realized-- (which --the state-- may be either) characterized by (lakṣaṇām) the totally Full and Perfect (paripūrṇa) Absolute Freedom (svātantrya) or (vā) moderate and measured (mitām) in accordance with (anusāreṇa) the method (krama) of teaching (upadeśa). As a result (yena eva), He (asau), (his) own Self (sva-ātmā), is always experienced --realized, mentally seized-- (sadā... parāmṛṣṭaḥ) —i.e. all the time (sarva-kālam)— by the Knower of the Self (jñāninā) like that (tādṛśaḥ eva), as his essential nature (sva-rūpeṇa). (In other words), in his case --in the case of the Knower of the Self-- (tasya), He appears (prathate) in identity (with himself) --He appears as identical with the Knower of the Self-- (tādrūpyeṇa) due to the sprouting (prarohāt) of the tendencies (formed at the time of his becoming an enlightened person) (vāsanā). Moreover (punar), the revealed (prakāśitaḥ api) Self (sva-ātmā) of the Knower of the Self (jñāninaḥ) is not (na... bhavati) otherwise (anyathā) —He is not covered or veiled (samācchāditaḥ)— when (his) physical body falls (deha-pāte) --when mother death comes to the body of the Knower of the Self--.

That which has shone forth (bhātam) could not at all disappear (nahi... abhātam syāt). Otherwise (aparathā), nobody (na kaścid) would practice (abhyaset) anything (na... kiñcid). In this manner (iti), there would be (bhavet) destruction (vipralopaḥ) of all (sarva) the common practices (vyavahāra) (too, such as:)

"By means of dharma --the practice of good works-- (dharmeṇa), (there is) the going (gamanam) to higher regions (ūrdhvam), (but) by means of adharma --the opposite to dharma-- (adharmeṇa) there is (bhavati) the going (gamanam) to lower regions (adhastāt). And (ca) by means of Knowledge (jñānena) (there is) Liberation (apavargaḥ), (but) by means of (its) opposite --ignorance-- (viparyayāt), bondage (bandhaḥ) is promoted (iṣyate)".

etc. (iti-ādi), and (ca) (consequently,) all (sarvam) would get broken (truṭyet). Therefore (tasmāt), at the time (kāle) of death (maraṇa), let the physical body be like this or like that (śarīram yathā astu tathā astu)! Only (kevalam) the sprouting (prarohaḥ) of the tendencies (vāsanā), which has to do with (gataḥ) one's own (sva) Self (ātma), (is) the cause (hetuḥ) of bondage (bandhe) and (ca) Liberation (mokṣe) of everyone (sarvasya... iti)||93||


Without notes of explanation yet

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 Stanzas 94—95

यदि पुनर्धातुवैषम्याच्छरीरे मरणव्यथोपलब्धिः स्यान्नैतावताभ्यासप्ररोहे काचित्क्षतिः — इत्यावेदितामेव स्थितिमुपलब्धुं परिघटयते


करणगणसम्प्रमोषः स्मृतिनाशः श्वासकलिलता च्छेदः।
मर्मसु रुजाविशेषाः शरीरसंस्कारजो भोगः॥९४॥

स कथं विग्रहयोगे सति न भवेत्तेन मोहयोगेऽपि।
मरणावसरे ज्ञानी न च्यवते स्वात्मपरमार्थात्॥९५॥


करणगणस्य बाह्यान्तर्गतस्य त्रयोदशात्मकस्य सम्यक्प्रमोषः स्वरूपविप्रलोपो यथा चक्षुरादीनीन्द्रियाणि रूपादिविषयालोचनायां न प्रगल्भन्ते वागादिकर्मेन्द्रियाण्यप्येवं वचनादानादौ न प्रवर्तन्ते नापि बुद्धिर्यथार्थमर्थमध्यवस्यति मनसोऽनवस्थितिरहङ्कारोऽपि मध्ये मध्ये संस्कारतयास्ते। तथा स्मृतिनाशोऽनुभूतविषयस्य सम्प्रमोषो बन्धुभिरर्थ्यमानोऽपि मुमूर्षुः पुरोऽवस्थितं वस्तु शतशोऽनुभूतमपि न प्रत्यभिजानात्यत एव सदा तद्भावभावितत्वं विना ब्रह्मविद्यादिकथनमन्तकाले दानमन्यत्किञ्चिद्वा तस्यामवस्थायां नभश्चित्रमिव न चित्ते प्ररोहति किन्तु तद् इतिकर्तव्यतामात्रं कार्यम् — इति नियोगः। तथा श्वासः कण्ठ्यो वायुस्तस्य कलिलता कण्ठदेशे गद्गदिका हिक्का वा। अन्यच्च मर्मसु च्छेदोऽस्थिसन्धिषु त्रोटः। तथा रुजाविशेषा ज्वरातीसारप्रभृतयः — इति। एवं यः शरीरस्य भूतकञ्चुकस्य वातपित्तश्लेष्मधातुवैषम्यात्शरीरसंस्कारजो भोगो देहजो दुःखानुभवः स कथं केन प्रकारेण विग्रहयोगे सति ज्ञानिनोऽपि न भवेत्स्यादेव। तेन हेतुना ज्ञानी सदाधस्पदीकृतदेहाद्यभिमानः समाविष्टस्वात्ममहेश्वरभावश्च मरणक्षणजनितशारीराज्ञानसम्बन्धेऽपि स्वात्मपरमार्थात्प्ररूढचैतन्यप्रत्यवमर्शसतत्त्वान्न च्यवते नान्यथाभावं याति। यतोऽसौ ज्ञानी न्यक्कृतदेहसम्बन्धो न तज्जेन भोगेन तन्मयीकर्तुं पार्यते केवलं लोकवच्चेच्छरीरपातसमनन्तरं क्षणं नोपलभते — इत्येतावता तस्य स्वस्थहृदयस्य स्वसङ्कल्पिताभिप्रायेण स्वस्थचेष्टतयाभ्यस्तभगवद्भक्तेर्न किञ्चिदपूर्वं समापतति तस्माज्ज्ञानी स्वात्मप्रथासमनन्तरमेव मुक्तो न शरीरसंस्कारोऽस्य बन्धदायी — इति शतशः प्राक् प्रतिपादितम्। यस्तु सदा देहात्ममानी पुण्यपापमयः स कथं देहसंस्कारोद्भूतसुखदुःखादिभोगजनितं तन्मयत्वं नायाति। यदुक्तम्

यदा सत्त्वे प्रवृद्धे तु प्रलयं याति देहभृत्।
तदोत्तमविदां लोकानमलान्प्रतिपद्यते॥

इत्यादि। सत्त्वादयो गुणाः प्रकृतिधर्मास्तन्मयस्यैव नियन्त्रणां विदधते येन पुनस्ततो विविक्ततया परिशीलिता न तं प्रत्येते केचन — इति ज्ञानिनोऽन्य एव पन्थाः। ये पुनरदृष्टगुरुचरणाः पशुप्रमातारस्ते स्वगतान्धर्मानन्यत्रापादयन्ति। यथा यद्ययं ज्ञानी स्यात्किमिति व्याध्याद्युपहतशरीरो भुङ्क्ते परिदधाति च यदि वा मरणसमये जाड्यमायातः स्मृतमनेन न किञ्चित् — इत्येवं बहुप्रकारमविद्योपहतत्वाद्विवदमानाश्च केन पर्यनुयुज्यन्ताम्। यद्ययं ज्ञानी स्याद्देहधर्मसंस्कारयुक्तश्च भवेत्किमेतावता च तस्य दुष्येत्। ज्ञानिनः स्वात्मप्रकाशस्तत्तदवस्थाविचित्रोऽपि स्वात्मप्रकाश एव न पुनस्तस्य स्वात्मानुभवितृतया विप्रलोपः स्याद्येन ज्ञानं नश्येत्। पूर्णषाड्गुण्यमहिमापि भगवान्वासुदेवः कृष्णावतारे व्याधशराघातजनितव्यथो भूतशरीरं त्यक्तवान् — इत्येवं कृत्वा किं तस्य जगत्प्रभोः स्वस्वरूपविप्रलोपोऽभूत् — इति आ कीटात्सदाशिवान्तस्यापि देहसंस्कार एतादृश एव किन्त्वेकः स्वात्मप्रत्यवमर्शमात्रसनाथदेहोऽपरस्तु देहाद्यात्ममानितासतत्त्वः — इतीयान्विशेषः। तस्माच्छरीरधर्मा ज्ञान्यज्ञानिनोः सदृशा एव नैतावता फलसाम्यम् — इत्येतदेव गीतासूक्तम्

सदृशं चेष्टते स्वस्याः प्रकृतेर्ज्ञानवानपि।
प्रकृतिं यान्ति भूतानि निग्रहः किं करिष्यति॥

इति॥९५॥

Yadi punardhātuvaiṣamyāccharīre maraṇavyathopalabdhiḥ syānnaitāvatābhyāsaprarohe kācitkṣatiḥ — Ityāveditāmeva sthitimupalabdhuṁ parighaṭayate


Karaṇagaṇasampramoṣaḥ smṛtināśaḥ śvāsakalilatā cchedaḥ|
Marmasu rujāviśeṣāḥ śarīrasaṁskārajo bhogaḥ||94||

Sa kathaṁ vigrahayoge sati na bhavettena mohayoge'pi|
Maraṇāvasare jñānī na cyavate svātmaparamārthāt||95||


Karaṇagaṇasya bāhyāntargatasya trayodaśātmakasya samyakpramoṣaḥ svarūpavipralopo yathā cakṣurādīnīndriyāṇi rūpādiviṣayālocanāyāṁ na pragalbhante vāgādikarmendriyāṇyapyevaṁ vacanādānādau na pravartante nāpi buddhiryathārthamarthamadhyavasyati manaso'navasthitirahaṅkāro'pi madhye madhye saṁskāratayāste| Tathā smṛtināśo'nubhūtaviṣayasya sampramoṣo bandhubhirarthyamāno'pi mumūrṣuḥ puro'vasthitaṁ vastu śataśo'nubhūtamapi na pratyabhijānātyata eva sadā tadbhāvabhāvitatvaṁ vinā brahmavidyādikathanamantakāle dānamanyatkiñcidvā tasyāmavasthāyāṁ nabhaścitramiva na citte prarohati kintu tad itikartavyatāmātraṁ kāryam — Iti niyogaḥ| Tathā śvāsaḥ kaṇṭhyo vāyustasya kalilatā kaṇṭhadeśe gadgadikā hikkā vā| Anyacca marmasu cchedo'sthisandhiṣu troṭaḥ| Tathā rujāviśeṣā jvarātīsāraprabhṛtayaḥ — Iti| Evaṁ yaḥ śarīrasya bhūtakañcukasya vātapittaśleṣmadhātuvaiṣamyātśarīrasaṁskārajo bhogo dehajo duḥkhānubhavaḥ sa kathaṁ kena prakāreṇa vigrahayoge sati jñānino'pi na bhavetsyādeva| Tena hetunā jñānī sadādhaspadīkṛtadehādyabhimānaḥ samāviṣṭasvātmamaheśvarabhāvaśca maraṇakṣaṇajanitaśārīrājñānasambandhe'pi svātmaparamārthātprarūḍhacaitanyapratyavamarśasatattvānna cyavate nānyathābhāvaṁ yāti| Yato'sau jñānī nyakkṛtadehasambandho na tajjena bhogena tanmayīkartuṁ pāryate kevalaṁ lokavacceccharīrapātasamanantaraṁ kṣaṇaṁ nopalabhate — Ityetāvatā tasya svasthahṛdayasya svasaṅkalpitābhiprāyeṇa svasthaceṣṭatayābhyastabhagavadbhakterna kiñcidapūrvaṁ samāpatati tasmājjñānī svātmaprathāsamanantarameva mukto na śarīrasaṁskāro'sya bandhadāyī — Iti śataśaḥ prāk pratipāditam| Yastu sadā dehātmamānī puṇyapāpamayaḥ sa kathaṁ dehasaṁskārodbhūtasukhaduḥkhādibhogajanitaṁ tanmayatvaṁ nāyāti| Yaduktam

Yadā sattve pravṛddhe tu pralayaṁ yāti dehabhṛt|
Tadottamavidāṁ lokānamalānpratipadyate||

Ityādi| Sattvādayo guṇāḥ prakṛtidharmāstanmayasyaiva niyantraṇāṁ vidadhate yena punastato viviktatayā pariśīlitā na taṁ pratyete kecana — Iti jñānino'nya eva panthāḥ| Ye punaradṛṣṭagurucaraṇāḥ paśupramātāraste svagatāndharmānanyatrāpādayanti| Yathā yadyayaṁ jñānī syātkimiti vyādhyādyupahataśarīro bhuṅkte paridadhāti ca yadi vā maraṇasamaye jāḍyamāyātaḥ smṛtamanena na kiñcit — Ityevaṁ bahuprakāramavidyopahatatvādvivadamānāśca kena paryanuyujyantām| Yadyayaṁ jñānī syāddehadharmasaṁskārayuktaśca bhavetkimetāvatā ca tasya duṣyet| Jñāninaḥ svātmaprakāśastattadavasthāvicitro'pi svātmaprakāśa eva na punastasya svātmānubhavitṛtayā vipralopaḥ syādyena jñānaṁ naśyet| Pūrṇaṣāḍguṇyamahimāpi bhagavānvāsudevaḥ kṛṣṇāvatāre vyādhaśarāghātajanitavyatho bhūtaśarīraṁ tyaktavān — Ityevaṁ kṛtvā kiṁ tasya jagatprabhoḥ svasvarūpavipralopo'bhūt — Iti ā kīṭātsadāśivāntasyāpi dehasaṁskāra etādṛśa eva kintvekaḥ svātmapratyavamarśamātrasanāthadeho'parastu dehādyātmamānitāsatattvaḥ — Itīyānviśeṣaḥ| Tasmāccharīradharmā jñānyajñāninoḥ sadṛśā eva naitāvatā phalasāmyam — Ityetadeva gītāsūktam

Sadṛśaṁ ceṣṭate svasyāḥ prakṛterjñānavānapi|
Prakṛtiṁ yānti bhūtāni nigrahaḥ kiṁ kariṣyati||

Iti||95||

Nonetheless (punar), if (yadi), because of imbalance (vaiṣamyāt) of the bodily humors (dhātu), there is (syāt) perception (upalabdhiḥ) of agitation and pain (vyathā) (when) death (comes) (maraṇa), there is no annihilation (na... kācid kṣatiḥ) during this period of time (etāvatā) with reference to the sprout (prarohe) (called) spiritual practices (abhyāsa... iti). (By the stanzas 94 and 95, Abhinavagupta) urges (the reader) (parighaṭayate) to fully understand (upalabdhum) the state (sthitim) which has been communicated (previously) (āveditām eva):


Complete destruction (sampramoṣaḥ) of the group (gaṇa) of (thirteen) organs (karaṇa), loss (nāśaḥ) of memory (smṛti), stammering (kalilatā) of the air (in the region of the throat) (śvāsa) --i.e. spasmodic movement of the air in that area--, separation (chedaḥ) in the joints (marmasu) (and) various (viśeṣāḥ) ailments (such as fever, dysentery, etc.) (rujā) (constitute) the experience of pain (bhogaḥ) that is caused by (jaḥ) the accumulated impressions (saṁskāra) relating to the physical body (śarīra). How (katham) could it --the abovementioned experience of pain-- not happen (saḥ... na... bhavet) when there is contact with the physical body (vigraha-yoge sati)? On that account (tena), the Knower of the Self (jñānī), even if (api) there is a relationship with (yoge) Māyā --viz. ignorance connected with the physical body-- (moha) (being generated) at the time (avasare) of death (maraṇa), does not deviate (na cyavate) from the Highest Reality (parama-arthāt) (called) his own (sva) Self (ātma)||94-95||


(At the time of death, there is) complete (samyak) "pramoṣa" (pramoṣaḥ) —i.e. (complete) destruction (vipralopaḥ) of one's own form (sva-rūpa)— of the group (gaṇasya) of thirteen (trayodaśa-ātmakasya) organs (karaṇa) situated (gatasya) outside --viz. five Powers of perception and five Powers of action-- (bāhya) (and) inside --viz. intellect, ego and mind-- (antar). For instance (yathā), Indriya-s or Powers (of perception) (indriyāṇi) (such as that of) seeing, etc. (cakṣus-ādīni), are not capable (na pragalbhante) of seeing (ālocanāyām) what is in (their) sphere or field of action (viṣaya), i.e. forms, etc. (rūpa-ādi). The Powers of action (karma-indriyāṇi) (are) also (api) like that (evam), (and therefore) they are not engaged in (na pravartante) talking, taking, etc. (vacana-ādāna-ādau). Nor does (na api) the intellect (buddhiḥ) suitably (yathārtham) determines (adhyavasyati) an "artha" or "object" (artham). Unsteadiness (anavasthitiḥ) in the case of the mind (manasaḥ). Even (api) the ego (ahaṅkāraḥ) remains (āste) from time to time (madhye madhye) as a mere accumulated impression (saṁskāratayā).

Similarly (tathā), (there is) "smṛtināśa" (smṛti-nāśaḥ) (or) loss (sampramoṣaḥ) (in one's memory) of the thing(s) (viṣayasya) which were experienced (before) (anubhūta). Even if (api) the moribund (mumūrṣuḥ) is asked (arthyamānaḥ) by the relatives (bandhubhiḥ), he does not recognize (api na pratyabhijānāti) an object (vaste) standing (avasthitam) in front (of himself) (puras) though (api) it has been experienced (anubhūtam) a hundred times (śataśas) (by such a person). For this very reason (atas eva), at the moment of dying (anta-kāle), without (vinā) having always cultivated --pondered over, meditated on-- (sadā... bhāvitatvam) that (tad) State (bhāva) (and without) instruction (kathanam) about the Knowledge (vidyā) of Brahma (brahma), etc. (ādi), (such good works as) charity (dānam) or (vā) any other (action of that type) whatsoever (anyat kiñcid) (are) like (iva) a picture (citram) (painted) on the sky (nabhas) with respect to that State (tasyām avasthāyā), (and accordingly they) do not (na) shoot forth and grow (like a plant) (prarohati) in (his) mind (citte), (figuratively speaking) --i.e. they do not leave a strong impression--. Nevertheless (kintu), (all) that (tad) should be performed (kāryam) only (mātra) as something which is proper or necessary to be done under certain circumstances --viz. as a kind of duty-- (itikartavyatā). This is the injunction (iti niyogaḥ).

Likewise (tathā), (there is) "kalilatā" (kalilatā) —stammering (gadgadikā) or (vā) hiccup (hikkā)— of that (tasya) "śvāsa" (śvāsaḥ) —guttural (kaṇṭhyaḥ) air (vāyuḥ)— in the region (deśe) of the throat (kaṇṭha) --i.e. spasmodic movement of the air in that area--.

Besides (anyat ca), a "cheda" (chedaḥ) —a separation (troṭaḥ)— in the "marma-s" (marmasu) (or) joints (asthi-sandhiṣu) (takes place). In like manner (tathā), various (viśeṣāḥ) ailments (rujā) (such as) fever (jvara), dysentery (atīsāra), etc. (prabhṛtayaḥ... iti) (happen too).

Thus (evam), (the expression) "śarīrasaṁskārajo bhogaḥ" (śarīra-saṁskāra-jaḥ bhogaḥ) (at the end of the stanza 94 means:) The experience (anubhavaḥ) of pain (duḥkha) that (yaḥ) is connected with (jaḥ) the physical body (deha) (and arises) due to an imbalance (vaiṣamyāt) of the humors (dhātu) (known as) wind (vāta), bile (pitta) (and) phlegm (śleṣma) belonging to (this very) physical body (śarīrasya), which is a sheath (kañcukasya) made out of gross elements (bhūta). (The phrase) "Sa kathaṁ vigrahayoge sati na bhavet" (saḥ katham... vigraha-yoge sati... na bhavet) (at the beginning of the stanza 95 means:) In what manner (kena prakāreṇa) could it --the abovementioned experience of pain-- not happen (saḥ... na... syāt eva) even (api) to the Knower of the Self (jñāninaḥ) when he is in contact with (yoge sati) (his) physical body (vigraha)? --i.e. this experience of pain takes place even in the case of an enlightened person--.

On that account (tena hetunā), the Knower of the Self (jñānī) in whom the erroneous conceptions (abhimānaḥ) about the body (deha), etc. (ādi) are always placed under his feet (sadā adhas-padī-kṛta) --viz. he has crushed those false notions-- and (ca) who has entered into (samāviṣṭa) the state (bhāvaḥ) where the Great Lord (mahā-īśvara) (is perceived) as his own (sva) Self (ātma), even if (api) there is a relationship with (sambandhe) the ignorance (ajñāna) connected with the physical body (śārīra) being generated (janita) at the time (kṣaṇa) of death (maraṇa) (in his case too), he does not deviate (na cyavate) from the Highest Reality (parama-arthāt) (called) his own (sva) Self (ātma). (In other words, at the moment of leaving the body,) he does not become different (anyathā-bhāvam yāti) from the real nature (satattvāt) of his full-grown experience (prarūḍha... pratyavamarśa) as Consciousness in Absolute Freedom (caitanya).

Because (yatas) that (asau) Knower of the Self (jñānī) who has brought down (nyakkṛta) (his) connection (sambandhaḥ) with the physical body (deha) cannot be made (kartum pāryate) identical with that (body) (tanmayī) through the "bhoga" or experience of pain (bhogena) springing from (jena) it --i.e. from the body-- (tad), if (cet) only (kevalam), like (vat) the ordinary people (loka), he is not conscious of (na upalabhate) the moment (kṣaṇam) immediately before (samanantaram) the downfall (pāta) of (his) physical body (śarīra). In this manner (iti), during this period of time (etāvatā), nothing (na kiñcid) new (apūrvam) happens (samāpatati) to him (tasya) who has a pure heart (svastha-hṛdayasya) on account of the devotion (bhakteḥ) to the Fortunate One (bhagavat) cultivated --lit. practiced-- (abhyasta) when he was fully active --viz. when he was fully alive-- (sva-stha-ceṣṭatayā) by a wish (abhiprāyeṇa) created (saṅkalpita) by himself (sva). Therefore (tasmāt), the Knower of the Self (jñānī) (becomes) liberated (muktaḥ) immediately after (samanantaram eva) the expansion (prathā) of his own (sva) Self (ātma). The (group of) accumulated impressions (saṁskāraḥ) related to the physical body (śarīra) does not give (na... dāyī) bondage (bandha) to him (asya). This has been explained (iti... pratipāditam) a hundred times (śataśaḥ) before (prāk). But (tu) how (katham) (can) the one who always think that the physical body is himself (yaḥ... sadā deha-ātma-mānī), being replete with (mayaḥ) virtues (puṇya) (and) sins (pāpa), not become identified with that --with the physical body-- (tad-mayatvaṁ na āyāti)? That (very truth) (yad) was established (uktam) (in venerable Bhagavadgītā:)

"When (yadā) a living being (deha-bhṛt) experiences the dissolution (of his physical body) (pralayam yāti) at the moment in which sattva predominates (sattve pravṛddhe) indeed (tu), then (tadā) he attains (pratipadyate) the spotless (amalān) worlds (lokān) of the most elevated Knowers (uttama-vidām)".

etc. (iti-ādi).

The qualities (guṇāḥ) sattva, etc. (sattva-ādayaḥ), the constituents (dharmāḥ) of Prakṛti (prakṛti), create (vidadhate) restriction (niyantraṇām) to him who is identified (mayasya eva) with her --with Prakṛti-- (tad). However (punar), when (Prakṛti) is constantly contemplated (pariśīlitā) by somebody (yena) with a state of separation (viviktatayā) from herself (tatas) --when constantly someone does not identify with her--, (then) none of these (constituents --viz. sattva, rajas and tamas--) (na... ete kecana) (will go) toward (prati) him --i.e. will affect him-- (tam... iti). (As this is so,) the path (panthāḥ) of the Knower of the Self (jñāninaḥ) (is) another --it is different-- (anyaḥ eva).

But (punar) those (te) limited individuals (paśu-pramātāraḥ) who (ye) have not seen the feet of the Guru (adṛṣṭa-guru-caraṇāḥ) project (āpādayanti) the qualities or properties (dharmān) that reside within themselves (sva-gatān) onto another person (anyatra).

For example (yathā): "If (yadi) he (ayam) is (syāt) a Knower of the Self (jñānī), why (kimiti), having a body (śarīraḥ) afflicted (upahata) by a disease (vyādhi) and so forth (ādi), does he suffer (bhuṅkte) and (ca) (continue to) make use (of it --of the body--) (paridadhāti)?", or (vā) "If (yadi) (he is a Knower of the Self, why) did he become inert (jāḍyam āyātaḥ) at the time of death (maraṇa-samaye)?", (or even) "(If he is a Knower of the Self, why) does he not remember anything (smṛtam anena na kiñcid... iti)?". Thus (evam), (may) the ones who dispute (vivadamānāḥ ca) in many ways (bahu-prakāram) as they are impeded (upahatatvāt) by ignorance (avidyā) be plied with questions (paryanuyujyantām) about "why" (this or that) (kena) (with respect to an enlightened person)! If (yadi) he (ayam) is (syāt) a Knower of the Self (jñānī) and (ca) is (also) (bhavet) furnished with (yuktaḥ) the accumulated impressions (saṁskāra) relating to the peculiar nature (dharma) of the body (deha), while that process goes on (etāvatā ca), what (kim) would be wrong (duṣyet) with that (tasya)?

The Light (prakāśa) of the Jñānī's Self (jñāninaḥ sva-ātma) --the Light of the Essence of a Knower of the Self-- (remains) the Light (prakāśaḥ eva) of his own (sva) Self (ātma) even (api) in the middle of the various (tad-tad... vicitraḥ) states (avasthā). Nevertheless (punar), there is not (na... syāt) Its (tasya) destruction (vipralopaḥ) as the State of the Experient --i.e. the State of the Supreme Knower-- (anubhavitṛtayā) (called) one's own (sva) Self (ātma). As a result (yena), Knowledge (jñāna) does not (na) perish (naśyet).

Having reflected in this way (iti evam kṛtvā): "Lord (bhagavān) Vāsudeva (vāsudevaḥ), though (api) (endowed with) the Greatness (mahimā) of (His) six perfect attributes (pūrṇa-ṣāḍguṇya), left (tyaktavān) the physical body (śarīram) made out of gross elements (bhūta) in (His) incarnation (avatāre) as Kṛṣṇa (kṛṣṇa) when He was mortally wounded (janita-vyatha) by a hunter's (vyādha) arrow-shot (śarā-ghāta)"... (one should ask the following:) "Was there (kim... abhūt) the destruction (vipralopaḥ) of the own essential nature (sva-svarūpa) of the Lord (tasya prabhoḥ) of the world (jagat... iti)?". From a worm (ā kīṭāt) up to even (antasya api) Sadāśiva (sadāśiva), the (group of) accumulated impressions (saṁskāraḥ) relating to the physical body (deha) (is) certainly (eva) of such a kind (etādṛśaḥ). However (kintu), one (of them) (ekaḥ) has a body (dehaḥ) endowed with (sanātha) the experience --a recognition-- (pratyavamarśa) of his own (sva) Self (ātma), but (tu) another (being) (aparaḥ) really thinks (mānitā-satattvaḥ) that the body (deha), etc. (ādi) (are his true) Self (ātma). The difference (viśeṣaḥ) (among the various sorts of beings) is of such a magnitude (iti iyān).

Therefore (tasmāt), (even though) the bodily characteristics (śarīra-dharmāḥ) (are) similar (sadṛśāḥ eva) whether in Knowers of the Self or in ignorant people (jñāni-ajñāninoḥ), there is not such (na etāvatā) similarity (sāmyam) with regard to the fruits or results (phala... iti) --i.e. the Knower of the Self is a "real success", while the ignorant person, however important, rich, famous, etc. he may be, is a "real tragedy" from a spiritual viewpoint--. This (etad) very (thing) (eva) was declared (uktam) in the verses of Bhagavadgītā (gītāsu):

"Even (api) one who is endowed with knowledge (jñānavān) acts (ceṣṭate) according (sadṛśam) to his own (svasyāḥ) nature (prakṛteḥ). The living beings (bhūtāni) follow (yānti) (their own) nature (prakṛtim). (So,) what (kim) will (mere) restraint accomplish (nigrahaḥ... kariṣyati... iti)?".

||95||


Without notes of explanation yet

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