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 O Paramārthasāra (Paramarthasara) de Abhinavagupta: Estrofes 87 a 91 - Shaivismo Não-dual da Caxemira

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 Introduction

Paramārthasāra continues with four more stanzas. This is the twenty-second set of stanzas, which is composed of 5 out of the 105 stanzas constituting the entire work.

Of course, I will also insert the original stanzas on which Yogarāja is commenting. I will write a lot of notes to make this book so understandable to the average reader as possible.

Yogarāja's Sanskrit will be in dark green color while the original Abhinavagupta's stanzas will be shown in dark red color. In turn, within the transliteration, the original stanzas will be in brown color, while the Yogarāja's comments will be shown in black. Also, within the translation, the original stanzas by Abhinavagupta, i.e. Paramārthasāra, will be in green and black colors, while the commentary by Yogarāja will contain words in both black and red colors.

Read Paramārthasāra and experience Supreme Ānanda or Divine Bliss, dear Śiva.

Important: All that is in brackets and italicized within the translation has been added by me in order to complete the sense of a particular phrase or sentence. In turn, all that is between double hyphen (--...--) constitutes clarifying further information also added by me.

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 Stanzas 87—88

ननु शेषवर्तनया यावच्छरीरावस्थितं योगिसंवेदनमधिगतस्वस्वरूपमपि देहोपाधिकृतमालिन्यस्यापि तावदंशेन विद्यमानत्वादशुद्धमेव — इति दृष्टान्तेन परिहरति


कुशलतमशिल्पिकल्पितविमलीभावः समुद्गकोपाधेः।
मलिनोऽपि मणिरुपाधेर्विच्छेदे स्वच्छपरमार्थः॥८७॥

एवं सद्गुरुशासनविमलस्थिति वेदनं तनूपाधेः।
मुक्तमप्युपाध्यन्तरशून्यमिवाभाति शिवरूपम्॥८८॥


यथा मणिरतिप्रवीणवैकटिकसमुद्द्योतितनैर्मल्यः सन्समुद्गकविश्लिष्टत्वान्मलिनोऽपि धूसरप्रायो भवति स एव पुनः समुद्गकोपाधिविच्छेद आवरणविशेषाभावे स्वच्छपरमार्थो यथावन्निर्मलस्वरूपः सम्पद्यते। एवमनेनैव प्रकारेणेदं वेदनं सद्गुरुशासनविमलस्थिति परिपूर्णस्वात्मज्ञानविद् यो दैशिकप्रवरस्तस्य यच्छासनं स्वात्मज्ञानरहस्यमुखाम्नायस्तस्य परिशीलनेन विगता कालिकारूपस्याणवमलस्य मायीयकार्ममलभित्तिभूतस्य स्थितिर्यस्य तदेवंविधं मौलिकमलप्रक्षयान्नभोरूपमपि वेदनं तनूपाधेस्तनुः शरीरं तल्लक्षणोपाधिर्विशेषणं ततो मुक्तं पृथक्कृतं विशेषणान्तराभावात्तच्छिवरूपमाभात्येव देहभङ्गात्परमशिवत्वेन भासते — इति यावत्। यथा समुद्गकोपाधिविरहान्मणिः स्वस्वरूपो भाति तथैव स्वस्वरूपावबोधाद्विमलमप्यशुद्धाभिमतशरीरोपाधिक्षयाद्विशुद्धमेव संवेदनं भासते। ननु मणिर्यथा समुद्गकोपाधेर्विमुक्तोऽपि पुनरन्यतमोपाधिपरिग्रहात्समलः सम्पद्यते तथैव तनूपाधेर्मुक्तमपि संवेदनं मणिवदुपाध्यन्तरं चेद्गृह्णाति तर्हि पुनरपि सोपाधित्वादशुद्धमेव — इति परिहरति उपाध्यन्तरशून्यमपीति। न दृष्टान्तदार्ष्टान्तिकयोः सर्वथा साम्यं यतः पिण्डपातात्तस्य महाप्रकाशवपुषः परमाद्वयरूपस्य सर्वमिदमुपाध्यभिमतं स्वाङ्गकल्पं भासतेऽतो व्यतिरिक्तस्योपाध्यन्तरस्याभावान्न पुनस्तद् उपाध्यन्तरेण विशिष्यते — इति न मणिनोपाधिग्रहणस्य साम्यम्। अज्ञानमूलं किल शरीरोपाधिग्रहणं तच्चेत्स्वात्मज्ञानकुठारेण दलितं कथङ्कारं पुनरुपाधिसंश्रयो भवेत्। यदुक्तम्

अज्ञानेनावृतं ज्ञानं तेन मुह्यन्ति जन्तवः॥
ज्ञानेन तु तदज्ञानं येषां नाशितमात्मनः।
तेषामादित्यवज्ज्ञानं प्रकाशयति तत्परम्॥

इति श्रीगीतासु। तस्मात्स्वस्वरूपज्ञानाद्योगिनः स्वसंवेदनं सदैव शुद्धमेव — इति॥८८॥

Nanu śeṣavartanayā yāvaccharīrāvasthitaṁ yogisaṁvedanamadhigatasvasvarūpamapi dehopādhikṛtamālinyasyāpi tāvadaṁśena vidyamānatvādaśuddhameva — Iti dṛṣṭāntena pariharati


Kuśalatamaśilpikalpitavimalībhāvaḥ samudgakopādheḥ|
Malino'pi maṇirupādhervicchede svacchaparamārthaḥ||87||

Evaṁ sadguruśāsanavimalasthiti vedanaṁ tanūpādheḥ|
Muktamapyupādhyantaraśūnyamivābhāti śivarūpam||88||


Yathā maṇiratipravīṇavaikaṭikasamuddyotitanairmalyaḥ sansamudgakaviśliṣṭatvānmalino'pi dhūsaraprāyo bhavati sa eva punaḥ samudgakopādhiviccheda āvaraṇaviśeṣābhāve svacchaparamārtho yathāvannirmalasvarūpaḥ sampadyate| Evamanenaiva prakāreṇedaṁ vedanaṁ sadguruśāsanavimalasthiti paripūrṇasvātmajñānavid yo daiśikapravarastasya yacchāsanaṁ svātmajñānarahasyamukhāmnāyastasya pariśīlanena vigatā kālikārūpasyāṇavamalasya māyīyakārmamalabhittibhūtasya sthitiryasya tadevaṁvidhaṁ maulikamalaprakṣayānnabhorūpamapi vedanaṁ tanūpādhestanuḥ śarīraṁ tallakṣaṇopādhirviśeṣaṇaṁ tato muktaṁ pṛthakkṛtaṁ viśeṣaṇāntarābhāvāttacchivarūpamābhātyeva dehabhaṅgātparamaśivatvena bhāsate — Iti yāvat| Yathā samudgakopādhivirahānmaṇiḥ svasvarūpo bhāti tathaiva svasvarūpāvabodhādvimalamapyaśuddhābhimataśarīropādhikṣayādviśuddhameva saṁvedanaṁ bhāsate| Nanu maṇiryathā samudgakopādhervimukto'pi punaranyatamopādhiparigrahātsamalaḥ sampadyate tathaiva tanūpādhermuktamapi saṁvedanaṁ maṇivadupādhyantaraṁ cedgṛhṇāti tarhi punarapi sopādhitvādaśuddhameva — Iti pariharati upādhyantaraśūnyamapīti| Na dṛṣṭāntadārṣṭāntikayoḥ sarvathā sāmyaṁ yataḥ piṇḍapātāttasya mahāprakāśavapuṣaḥ paramādvayarūpasya sarvamidamupādhyabhimataṁ svāṅgakalpaṁ bhāsate'to vyatiriktasyopādhyantarasyābhāvānna punastad upādhyantareṇa viśiṣyate — Iti na maṇinopādhigrahaṇasya sāmyam| Ajñānamūlaṁ kila śarīropādhigrahaṇaṁ taccetsvātmajñānakuṭhāreṇa dalitaṁ kathaṅkāraṁ punarupādhisaṁśrayo bhavet| Yaduktam

Ajñānenāvṛtaṁ jñānaṁ tena muhyanti jantavaḥ||
Jñānena tu tadajñānaṁ yeṣāṁ nāśitamātmanaḥ|
Teṣāmādityavajjñānaṁ prakāśayati tatparam||

Iti śrīgītāsu| Tasmātsvasvarūpajñānādyoginaḥ svasaṁvedanaṁ sadaiva śuddhameva — Iti||88||

An objection (nanu): "Even (api) the Knowledge (saṁvedanam) of the Yogī (yogi) in the form of an acquisition of his own essential nature (adhigata-sva-sva-rūpam) (is) impure (aśuddham eva) as long as (yāvat) (such a Knowledge) has its place or abode (avasthitam) in a physical body (śarīra) that stays (vartanayā) as a residue (śeṣa). (Why?) Because there is partially presence (aṁśena vidyamānatvāt) during that period of time (tāvat) of the impurity (mālinyasya api) produced (kṛta) by the limiting condition (upādhi) (called) the physical body (deha... iti)". (Abhinavagupta) dissipates (pariharati) (this doubt) by an example (dṛṣṭāntena):


Although (api) a gem (maṇiḥ), whose completely pure state (vimalī-bhāvaḥ) has been prepared (kalpita) by the most skillful (kuśalatama) jeweler (śilpi), (looks like) darkened (malinaḥ) due to the limiting condition (upādheḥ) (appearing as) the casket (samudgaka), (it nevertheless becomes) duly (parama-arthaḥ) spotless and very transparent (svaccha) when the limiting condition (called) casket is removed (upādheḥ vicchede). So (evam) (is this) Knowledge (vedanam) whose state (sthiti) (is) totally pure (vimala) due to the teachings (śāsana) of a genuine (sat) Guru (guru), (that) when It becomes liberated from (muktam api) the particularization (upādheḥ) (known as) the physical body (tanu) --viz. when the body falls at the time of death--, being devoid of (śūnyam iva) another (antara) limiting condition (upādhi), shines forth (ābhāti) as Śiva (śiva-rūpam) (indeed)||87-88||


Just as (yathā) though (api) a gem (maṇiḥ), whose state of purity (nairmalyaḥ) has been caused to shine (samuddyotita) (by the hands) of an extremely skillful (ati-pravīṇa) jeweler (vaikaṭika), is (san) "malina" --lit. darkened-- (malinaḥ) —i.e. (though) it is (bhavati) excessively (prāyaḥ) gray (dhūsara)— since it is separated from (viśliṣṭatvāt) the casket (samudgaka) (where such a jewel was kept), it becomes (saḥ eva... sampadyate) "svacchaparamārtha" (svaccha-paramārthaḥ) (or) duly (yathāvat) spotless and very transparent (nirmala-svarūpaḥ) when the limiting condition (called) casket is removed (samudgaka-upādhi-vicchede) —viz. when there is absence of (abhāve) a particular (viśeṣa) covering (āvaraṇa)—; so (evam) —i.e. in this way (anena eva prakāreṇa)(is) this (idam) Knowledge (vedanam) whose state (sthiti) (is) totally pure (vimala) due to the teachings (śāsana) of a genuine (sat) Guru (guru). (This Guru) who (yaḥ) is the best (pravaraḥ) of the spiritual teachers (daiśika) (is) the possessor of perfect Knowledge (paripūrṇa... jñāna-vit) about his own (sva) Self (ātma). (And) his (tasya) teaching (yad śāsanam) (is) the chief (mukha) doctrine (āmnāyaḥ) (containing) the secret (rahasya) (called) Knowledge (jñāna) about one's own (sva) Self (ātma). By the constant practice and the repeated study (pariśīlanena) of that (Knowledge) (tasya), his --i.e. of the disciple-- (yasya) state (sthitiḥ) of Āṇavamala (āṇava-malasya) —whose nature is being (rūpasya) like a fault or flaw --a dark spot-- (in gold) (kālikā)—, which is (bhūtasya) the canvas (bhitti) for Māyīyamala and Kārmamala (māyīya-kārma-mala), is totally gone (vigatā). (And) after the removal (prakṣayāt) of the original (maulika) impurity (mala) --viz. of the Āṇavamala--, that (tad... tad) Knowledge (vedanam) endowed with such qualities (evaṁvidham) (and) whose form is (rūpam api) the Ether (of Consciousness) (nabhas), when becomes liberated (muktam) (or) separated from (pṛthak-kṛtam) that (tatas) particularization --the limiting condition that particularizes It-- (upādheḥ) (known as) the physical body (tanu) —i.e. ("tanūpādheḥ" is the ablative case of "tanūpādhi", and the latter is composed of two words:) "upādhi" (upādhiḥ) (or) particularization (viśeṣaṇam) (and) "tanu" (tanuḥ) (or) the physical body (śarīram) (along with all that is) relating to (lakṣaṇā) it (tad)—, (and) in absence of (abhāvāt) another (antara) particularization (viśeṣaṇa), shines forth (ābhāti) as Śiva (śiva-rūpam) indeed (eva). (In other words,) after the downfall (bhaṅgāt) of the physical body (deha), (such a Knowledge) appears (with great brightness) (bhāsate) as the State of Paramaśiva (parama-śivatvena). This is the purport (iti yāvat).

As (yathā) the gem (maṇiḥ), which after getting separated (virahāt) from the limiting condition (upādhi) (called) casket (samudgaka) shines forth (bhāti) in its essential nature (sva-sva-rūpaḥ), in the same way (tathā eva), Knowledge (saṁvedanam), though immaculate (vimalam) since Its essence is Consciousness (sva-sva-rūpa-avabodhāt), appears (bhāsate) to be totally pure (viśuddham eva) after the removal (kṣayāt) of the limiting condition (upādhi) (known as) physical body (śarīra), which is thought of as (abhimata) impure (aśuddha).

An objection (nanu): "As (yathā) a gem (maṇiḥ), which although (api) completely liberated from (vimuktaḥ) the limiting condition (upādheḥ) (called) casket (samudgaka), can become impure (samalaḥ sampadyate) again (punar) if it is furnished with (parigrahāt) one of the many (anyatama) limiting conditions (upādhi) (that are available around,) in the same way (tathā eva), though (api) Knowledge (saṁvedanam) is liberated from (muktam) the limiting condition --particularization-- (upādheḥ) (known as) the physical body (tanu), if (ced) It receives (gṛhṇāti) another (antaram) limiting condition (upādhi) as in the case of the gem (maṇi-vat), then (tarhi) It is most assuredly impure (aśuddham eva) since It has an "upādhi" or limited condition (sa-upādhitvāt) even again (punar api... iti)". (Abhinavagupta) dissipates (pariharati) (that objection by saying:) "upādhyantaraśūnyamapi" (upādhi-antara-śūnyam api... iti) --in the stanza it reads "upādhyantaraśūnyamiva" or "upādhi-antara-śūnyam iva" because "api" and "iva" are synonymous in this context and they mean "even" in the sense of adding emphasis to the expression... hence they should not be translated as such here--. There is not at all (na... sarvathā) any equality (sāmyam) between the example (of the gem and) what is explained by such an example --i.e. Knowledge-- (dṛṣṭānta-dārṣṭāntikayoḥ), because (yatas) after the physical body falls (piṇḍa-pātāt) all (sarvam) this (idam) which could be thought of as (abhimatam) a limiting condition (upādhi) of the Beautiful Form (vapuṣaḥ) of the Great (mahā) Light (prakāśa) whose nature (rūpasya) is supreme (parama) non-dualism (advaya) shines forth (bhāsate) as equal to (kalpam) Its own (sva) Body (aṅga). (And) in the absence of (abhāvāt) another (antarasya) limiting condition (upādhi) which is different from (vyatiriktasya) It (atas) --from Knowledge appearing as the Luminous Lord--, that (Knowledge) (tad) is not (na) again (punar) particularized (viśiṣyate) by another (antareṇa) limiting condition (upādhi). Thus (iti), there is no equality (sāmyam) (between what happens to Knowledge after the body falls and) the act of receiving (grahaṇasya) (another) limiting condition --e.g. another casket-- (upādhi) on the part of the gem (maṇinā).

The act of receiving (grahaṇam) the limiting condition (upādhi) (known as) the physical body (śarīra) (is) certainly (kila) rooted in (mūlam) ignorance (ajñāna). If (ced) that (ignorance) (tad) is destroyed (dalitam) with the axe (kuṭhāreṇa) of the Knowledge (jñāna) of one's own (sva) Self (ātma), how (kathaṅkāram) could it become (bhavet) the refuge (saṁśrayaḥ) of a limiting condition (upādhi) again (punar)?

That (very truth) (yad) has been expressed (uktam) by the verses of venerable Bhagavadgītā (śrī-gītāsu):

"Knowledge (jñānam) (is) covered or hidden (āvṛtam) by ignorance (ajñānena). The creatures (jantavaḥ) are bewildered (muhyanti) because of that (tena).
But (tu), by knowledge (jñānena) of the Self (ātmanaḥ), that (tad) ignorance (ajñānam) of theirs --i.e. of the aforesaid creatures-- (yeṣam) is destroyed (nāśitam), (and) their (teṣam) knowledge (jñānam), like (vat) Āditya --viz. the Sun-- (āditya), reveals (prakāśayati) that (tad) Supreme (Reality) (param... iti)".

Therefore (tasmāt), through the Knowledge (jñānāt) of his own (sva) essential nature (sva-rūpa), Knowledge (saṁvedanam) about the Self (sva) in the case of the Yogī (yoginaḥ) (is) always (sadā eva) pure (śuddham) indeed (eva... iti)||88||


Without notes of explanation yet

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 Stanza 89

सर्वोपाध्युत्पत्तौ यथावत्परिशीलितव्यापारमनःसंस्कारप्ररूढिरेव निमित्तं न पुनर्नूतनत्वेन किमप्यायाति — इत्यावेदयति


शास्त्रादिप्रामाण्यादविचलितश्रद्धयापि तन्मयताम्।
प्राप्तः स एव पूर्वं स्वर्गं नरकं मनुष्यत्वम्॥८९॥


आगमप्रामाण्याद्गुरूपदेशपारम्पर्यकथनाद्युक्तिपरिशीलनात्प्राग्वासनाप्ररूढया श्रद्धया वा स्वात्मज्ञान इष्टापूर्ते पाशवे कर्मणि वा कृताभ्यासः प्रमाता तदैव तत्संस्कारप्ररोहेण तन्मयतां तत्तदभ्यस्तवस्तुस्वरूपतां प्राप्तः सन्नुत्तरत्र देहपाताद्वासनानुगुण्येन स्वर्गं निरतिशयां प्रीतिं नरकमवीच्यादिदुःखं मनुष्यत्वं सुखदुःखोभयरूपं मनुष्यभावं प्राप्नोति न पुनरनभ्यस्तवासनस्यापि पुरुषस्य देहपातादेव यत्किञ्चिदापतति। यतः सर्वः प्रमाता येनाशयेन यदभ्यस्यति तदैव स तद्रूपो भवति किन्तु मरणसमये स्फुटतया यद् अभिलषितं वस्तु तत्प्रमातुरभिव्यक्तिं याति — इति नाभ्यस्तवस्तुनः कदाचिद्विपर्ययः स्यान्नाप्यनभ्यस्तवस्तुस्वरूपं किञ्चिदपूर्वत्वेनापतेत् — इति सर्वत्र पूर्वाभ्यास एव कारणम् — इति भावः॥८९॥

Sarvopādhyutpattau yathāvatpariśīlitavyāpāramanaḥsaṁskāraprarūḍhireva nimittaṁ na punarnūtanatvena kimapyāyāti — Ityāvedayati


Śāstrādiprāmāṇyādavicalitaśraddhayāpi tanmayatām|
Prāptaḥ sa eva pūrvaṁ svargaṁ narakaṁ manuṣyatvam||89||


Āgamaprāmāṇyādgurūpadeśapāramparyakathanādyuktipariśīlanātprāgvāsanāprarūḍhayā śraddhayā vā svātmajñāna iṣṭāpūrte pāśave karmaṇi vā kṛtābhyāsaḥ pramātā tadaiva tatsaṁskārapraroheṇa tanmayatāṁ tattadabhyastavastusvarūpatāṁ prāptaḥ sannuttaratra dehapātādvāsanānuguṇyena svargaṁ niratiśayāṁ prītiṁ narakamavīcyādiduḥkhaṁ manuṣyatvaṁ sukhaduḥkhobhayarūpaṁ manuṣyabhāvaṁ prāpnoti na punaranabhyastavāsanasyāpi puruṣasya dehapātādeva yatkiñcidāpatati| Yataḥ sarvaḥ pramātā yenāśayena yadabhyasyati tadaiva sa tadrūpo bhavati kintu maraṇasamaye sphuṭatayā yad abhilaṣitaṁ vastu tatpramāturabhivyaktiṁ yāti — Iti nābhyastavastunaḥ kadācidviparyayaḥ syānnāpyanabhyastavastusvarūpaṁ kiñcidapūrvatvenāpatet — Iti sarvatra pūrvābhyāsa eva kāraṇam — Iti bhāvaḥ||89||

(Abhinavagupta) makes known (āvedayati) (by the stanza 89 that:) "The development (prarūḍhiḥ eva) of mental (manas) impressions --latencies-- (saṁskāra) relating to practices (vyāpāra) duly (yathāvat) performed (pariśīlita) (is) the cause (nimittam) of the production (utpattau) of all (sarva) the limiting conditions (upādhi). However (punar), nothing at all (na... kim api) appears (āyāti) to be new (nūtanatvena) (here) --i.e. nothing new is generated in spite of the many limiting conditions being produced--":


Through the authority (prāmāṇyāt) of the scriptures (śāstra) and so forth (ādi), (and) by a unwavering faith (avicalita-śraddhayā api), he --a person-- (saḥ eva) previously (pūrvam) attains (prāptaḥ) identity (mayatām) with that (tad) (which he longs for. Subsequently, after the body falls, he goes either) to heaven (svargam) (or) to hell (narakam) (or) to the human condition (manuṣyatvam)||89||


The subject (pramātā) (who, either) through the authority (prāmāṇyāt) of the revealed scriptures (āgama), (or) through the information (kathanāt) coming from (his) spiritual tradition (pāramparya) (in the form of) the teachings (upadeśa) of (his own) Guru (guru), or (vā) through a constant occupation with (pariśīlanāt) reasoning (yukti), has performed practices (kṛta-abhyāsaḥ) by a faith (śraddhayā) developed (prarūḍhayā) from previous (prāk) tendencies (vāsanā) (whether) for attaining Knowledge (jñāne) about his own (sva) Self (ātma) or (vā) for carrying out rituals (karmaṇi) involving animals (pāśave) in order to store up merit in heaven (iṣṭāpūrte), attains (prāptaḥ san) then (tadā eva), by the development (praroheṇa) of those (tad) accumulated impressions (saṁskāra), identity (mayatām) with that (tad), i.e. (he assumes) the nature (sva-rūpatām) of the various (tad-tad) realities (vastu) for which he has practiced (so much) (abhyasta). Subsequently (uttaratra), after (his) body falls (deha-pātāt), he arrives at (prāpnoti) (either) heaven (svargam) —unsurpassed (niratiśayām) pleasure (prītim)—, (or) hell (narakam) —pain (duḥkham) in Avīci (avīci), etc. (ādi)—, (or even) the human condition (manuṣyatvam) —the state of (bhāvam) being a human creature (manuṣya) whose nature (rūpam) consists of both (ubhaya) pleasure (sukha) (and) pain (duḥkha)—, according to (ānuguṇyena) (his) tendencies (vāsanā). However (punar), nothing whatsoever (na... yad kiñcid) happens to (āpatati) the person (puruṣasya) who is without (an) the tendencies (vāsanasya api) relating to something that was practiced (by him while living) (abhyasta).

Because (yatas) what (yad) every (sarvaḥ) subject (pramātā) practices (abhyasyati) with a clear intention (yena āśayena), in that case (tadā eva) he (saḥ) becomes (bhavati) that very thing (tad-rūpaḥ) (he longs for). Nonetheless (kintu), at the time (samaye) of dying (maraṇa), that (tad) reality (vastu) which (yad) is clearly (sphuṭatayā) desired (abhilaṣitam) (at that precise moment,) becomes manifest (abhivyaktiṁ yāti) to (such a) subject (pramātuḥ). Thus (iti), there is never (na... kadācid... syāt) change or transposition --i.e. the manifestation of something which is opposite-- (viparyayaḥ) of the reality (vastunaḥ) for which one has practiced (abhyasta). No (na api... kiñcid) reality (vastu-sva-rūpam) for which one has not practiced (an-abhyasta) could appear (āpatet) without the precedent (and respective practice) (apūrvatvena). So (iti), the previous (pūrva) practice (abhyāsaḥ) alone (eva) (is) the cause (kāraṇam) everywhere (sarvatra). This is the meaning (iti bhāvaḥ)||89||


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 Stanzas 90—91

एवं सदा तद्भावभावितत्वं स्वात्मविदो देहत्यागावसरे पूर्णप्रथाहेतुर्न पुनर्लोकपरिदृश्यः पुण्यापुण्यरूपो मरणावसरः कश्चित्स्वर्गनिरयादिकारणं परिकल्पनीयम् — इत्याह


अन्त्यः क्षणस्तु तस्मिन्पुण्यां पापां च वा स्थितिं पुष्यन्।
मूढानां सहकारीभावं गच्छति गतौ तु न स हेतुः॥९०॥

येऽपि तदात्मत्वेन विदुः पशुपक्षिसरीसृपादयः स्वगतिम्।
तेऽपि पुरातनसम्बोधसंस्कृतास्तां गतिं यान्ति॥९१॥


एवम्प्रतिपादिते ज्ञानिनि अन्त्यः क्षणश्चरमो देहविनाशसहभावी कालो धातुदोषवशेन दुष्टव्याध्यनुभवाद्वा समीपस्थितैः प्रमातृभिरनुमितां पुण्यां पापमयीं वा स्थितिं पुष्यन् सेवमानः सन् मूढानां देहात्ममानिनां प्रमातॄणामेव सहकारीभावं कारणत्वं गच्छति। गच्छतु वराको नैतावता निर्भग्नदेहात्ममानित्वे सदा स्वात्ममहेश्वरनिभालनचतुरे तस्मिन् योगिनि सोऽन्त्यः क्षणो गतौ देहाद्देहान्तरप्राप्तौ हेतुः कारणं भवेत्। कुत एतदागतम् — इति निदर्शयन्नाह येऽपि इति। येऽपि केनाप्याशयवशेन शापादिना वा पापयोनयः पशुरूपतामपि प्राप्ताः स्वगतिमात्मस्थितिं मरणावसर आत्मत्वेन जानीयुस्ते मूढाः सन्तोऽपि प्रागभ्यस्तस्वात्मज्ञानवासनाप्रबोधानुगृहीताः स्वात्मस्थितिं च लभन्ते। गजेन्द्रमोक्षणादौ यथा हस्तिना पशुस्वभावेनापि सता प्राक्परिशीलितपरमेश्वरभक्तिसंस्कारप्रबुद्धेन विष्णुं भगवन्तं स्तुत्वा सम्यक्कञ्चुकं विहाय स्वस्वरूपमुपलब्धं कस्तत्र स्मरणे हेतुरभूत्। अयं भावः शरीराद्युत्थधातुदोषवशात्काष्ठपाषाणचेष्टो ज्ञानी पुण्यं पापमालबिडालादिकं वा यत्किञ्चित्प्रलपन्देहं त्यजति नैतावता स्वस्थचेष्टतया यदभ्यस्तं ज्ञानादिकं तस्य विप्रलोपः स्याच्छरीरादिगता धर्माः शरीरादावेव निपतन्ति न पुनः सदा भावितं वस्तु स्थगयितुं प्रभवन्ति — इत्यामरणक्षणं सर्वत्र प्ररूढिरेव परमार्थः। यथा गीतासूक्तम्

यं यं वापि स्मरन्भावं त्यजत्यन्ते कलेवरम्।
तं तमेवैति कौन्तेय सदा तद्भावभावितः॥

तथा

तेषां सततयुक्तानां भजतां प्रीतिपूर्वकम्।
ददामि बुद्धियोगं तं येन मामुपयान्ति ते॥

इति भावितान्तःकरणतैव पर्यन्तगतिदानहेतुः॥९१॥

Evaṁ sadā tadbhāvabhāvitatvaṁ svātmavido dehatyāgāvasare pūrṇaprathāheturna punarlokaparidṛśyaḥ puṇyāpuṇyarūpo maraṇāvasaraḥ kaścitsvarganirayādikāraṇaṁ parikalpanīyam — Ityāha


Antyaḥ kṣaṇastu tasminpuṇyāṁ pāpāṁ ca vā sthitiṁ puṣyan|
Mūḍhānāṁ sahakārībhāvaṁ gacchati gatau tu na sa hetuḥ||90||

Ye'pi tadātmatvena viduḥ paśupakṣisarīsṛpādayaḥ svagatim|
Te'pi purātanasambodhasaṁskṛtāstāṁ gatiṁ yānti||91||


Evampratipādite jñānini antyaḥ kṣaṇaścaramo dehavināśasahabhāvī kālo dhātudoṣavaśena duṣṭavyādhyanubhavādvā samīpasthitaiḥ pramātṛbhiranumitāṁ puṇyāṁ pāpamayīṁ vā sthitiṁ puṣyan sevamānaḥ san mūḍhānāṁ dehātmamānināṁ pramātṝṇāmeva sahakārībhāvaṁ kāraṇatvaṁ gacchati| Gacchatu varāko naitāvatā nirbhagnadehātmamānitve sadā svātmamaheśvaranibhālanacature tasmin yogini so'ntyaḥ kṣaṇo gatau dehāddehāntaraprāptau hetuḥ kāraṇaṁ bhavet| Kuta etadāgatam — Iti nidarśayannāha ye'pi iti| Ye'pi kenāpyāśayavaśena śāpādinā vā pāpayonayaḥ paśurūpatāmapi prāptāḥ svagatimātmasthitiṁ maraṇāvasara ātmatvena jānīyuste mūḍhāḥ santo'pi prāgabhyastasvātmajñānavāsanāprabodhānugṛhītāḥ svātmasthitiṁ ca labhante| Gajendramokṣaṇādau yathā hastinā paśusvabhāvenāpi satā prākpariśīlitaparameśvarabhaktisaṁskāraprabuddhena viṣṇuṁ bhagavantaṁ stutvā samyakkañcukaṁ vihāya svasvarūpamupalabdhaṁ kastatra smaraṇe heturabhūt| Ayaṁ bhāvaḥ śarīrādyutthadhātudoṣavaśātkāṣṭhapāṣāṇaceṣṭo jñānī puṇyaṁ pāpamālabiḍālādikaṁ vā yatkiñcitpralapandehaṁ tyajati naitāvatā svasthaceṣṭatayā yadabhyastaṁ jñānādikaṁ tasya vipralopaḥ syāccharīrādigatā dharmāḥ śarīrādāveva nipatanti na punaḥ sadā bhāvitaṁ vastu sthagayituṁ prabhavanti — Ityāmaraṇakṣaṇaṁ sarvatra prarūḍhireva paramārthaḥ| Yathā gītāsūktam

Yaṁ yaṁ vāpi smaranbhāvaṁ tyajatyante kalevaram|
Taṁ tamevaiti kaunteya sadā tadbhāvabhāvitaḥ||

Tathā

Teṣāṁ satatayuktānāṁ bhajatāṁ prītipūrvakam|
Dadāmi buddhiyogaṁ taṁ yena māmupayānti te||

Iti bhāvitāntaḥkaraṇataiva paryantagatidānahetuḥ||91||

Thus (evam), in the case of a Knower (vidaḥ) of his own (sva) Self (ātma), the manifestation (bhāvitatvam) of that (tad) State (of Knowledge) (bhāva) at the moment (avasare) of abandoning (tyāga) the physical body (deha) (is) always (sadā) cause (hetuḥ) of the expansion (prathā) of Fullness (pūrṇa). However (punar), it should not be assumed (parikalpanīyam) that the cause (kāraṇam) (for his going to) heaven (svarga), hell (niraya), etc. (ādi) (is) something (kaścid) considered as (paridṛśyaḥ) belonging to (this) world (loka) (and) associated with merit and demerit (puṇya-apuṇya-rūpaḥ), (and) which appears at the moment (avasaraḥ) of death (maraṇa) (of that Knower of the Self. Abhinavagupta) said (āha) so (iti) (in the following two stanzas:)


The last (antyaḥ) moment (kṣaṇaḥ tu) nourishes or fosters (puṣyan) a virtuous (puṇyām) or (ca vā) sinful (pāpām) state (sthitim), (and) becomes the cause (sahakārī-bhāvam gacchati) (of the course of destiny) in the case of the ones deluded by Māyā (mūḍhānām). But (tu) it --i.e. the last moment-- (saḥ) is not (na) the cause (hetuḥ) of (such a) course of destiny (gatau) with respect to him --viz. the Knower of the Self-- (tasmin). Even (api... api) those (te) who (ye) have been previously favored and sanctified by Knowledge (purātana-sambodha-saṁskṛtāḥ), (even though) they are domestic animals, birds, reptiles, etc. (paśu-pakṣi-sarīsṛpa-ādayaḥ), if they know (viduḥ) their state (sva-gatim) to be That of their own Self (tad-ātmatvena) (at the time of death, then such beings) attain (yānti) that (tām) State (gatim)||90-91||


In this way (evam), with reference to the Knower of the Self who has been explained (in detail in previous stanzas) (pratipādite jñānini), the "antyaḥ kṣaṇaḥ" (antyaḥ kṣaṇaḥ) —i.e. the last (caramaḥ) moment (kālaḥ) connected with (sahabhāvī) the annihilation (vināśa) of the physical body (deha)— nourishes (puṣyan) (or) fosters (sevamānaḥ) a virtuous (puṇyām) or (vā) a sinful (pāpa-mayīm) state (sthitim) (such) as inferred (anumitām) by the subjects (pramātṛbhiḥ) who are near (samīpa-sthitaiḥ) (the Knower of the Self that is dying. They deduct in that way because such a holy being is about to die, for example,) by force of (vaśena) an alteration (doṣa) in (his) bodily humors (dhātu) or (vā) because he is experiencing (anubhavāt) a malignant (duṣṭa) disease (vyādhi). (Their reasoning about the last moment nourishing a virtuous or a sinful state which will lead the dead person to heaven, hell or another human birth) is true (san) only (eva) in the case of the subjects (pramātṝṇām) deluded by Māyā (mūḍhānām) who erroneously think (māninām) (their) physical bodies (deha) to be the Self (ātma), (and so the last moment) becomes (gacchati) "sahakārībhāva" (sahakārī-bhāvam) (or) the cause (kāraṇatvam) (of the course their souls will go after the bodies pass away).

Let the miserable (last moment) (varākaḥ) become (gacchatu) (whatever it wishes to become)! When the act of thinking (mānitve) the physical body (deha) to be the Self (ātma) is broken down (nirbhagna), then, at that time (etāvatā), the last moment (saḥ antyaḥ kṣaṇaḥ) is not (na... bhavet) "hetu" (hetuḥ) (or) cause (kāraṇam) of the course of destiny (after death comes) (gatau) —viz. (it is not cause) of the acquisition (prāptau) of another (antara) body (deha) once the (previous) body (was abandoned) (dehāt)— with reference to the Yogī (tasmin yogini) who is always (sadā) quick (cature) in perceiving (nibhālana) that himself (sva-ātma) is the Great Lord (mahā-īśvara).

"Where (kutas) has this (etad) come from (āgatam... iti)?". (Abhinavagupta,) the Teacher (nidarśayan), said (āha): "Ye'pi (ye api iti)". Even (api... api) those (te) that are (santaḥ) deluded by Māyā (mūḍhāḥ) (but simultaneously) favored (anugṛhītāḥ) by the understanding (prabodha) (derived) from the tendencies (vāsanā) related to Knowledge (jñāna) about their own (sva) Self (ātma), (for obtaining which) they have practiced (abhyasta) previously (prāk), (who,) being born in a bad womb (as a punishment for their sins) (pāpa-yonayaḥ) due to some karmic content (kenāpi āśaya-vaśena) or (vā) to a curse, etc. (śāpa-ādinā), took (prāptāḥ) even (api) the form (rūpatām) of an animal (paśu)... if they know (jānīyuḥ) "svagatim" (sva-gatim) —i.e. their state (ātma-sthitim)— to be That of the Self (ātmatvena) at the time (avasare) of death (maraṇa), (then) they most assuredly attain (ca labhante) the State (sthitim) of their own (sva) Self (ātma).

As (yathā) with regard to the liberation (mokṣaṇa) of Gajendra (gaja-indra) and so forth (ādau). (This emancipation was) carried out by the (celebrated) elephant (hastinā), which, though it was an animal (paśu-sva-bhāvena api satā), could awaken (prabuddhena) because of the impressions (saṁskāra) of devotion (bhakti) to the Supreme Lord (parama-īśvara) accumulated by means of a previous practice (prāk-pariśīlita). After praising (stutvā) Lord (bhagavantam) Viṣṇu (viṣṇum), he could completely leave behind (samyak... vihāya) (his) sheath (of ignorance) (kañcukam) (and) realize (upalabdham) his own (sva) essential nature (sva-rūpam). What (kaḥ) was (abhūt) the cause (hetuḥ) of (such a) remembrance (smaraṇe) in him (tatra)?

This (ayam) (is) the purport (bhāvaḥ): By force of (vaśāt) an alteration (doṣa) of the bodily humors (dhātu) derived from (uttha) the physical body (śarīra), the Knower of the Self (jñānī) comes to act (ceṣṭaḥ) like a piece of wood (kāṣṭha) (or) a stone (pāṣāṇa). (Then) he abandons (tyajati) virtue --merit-- (puṇyam) (and) sin --demerit-- (pāpam) (if he has a human form,) or (vā) (the body of) an ape (āla), of a cat (biḍāla), etc. (ādikam) (if he has an animal form,) while he tells (pralapan) anything whatsoever (yat kiñcid). At that time (etāvatā), there is no (na... syāt) destruction (vipralopaḥ) of that Knowledge, etc. (jñāna-ādikam) that (yad) he achieved by spiritual practices (abhyastam) when he was fully active --i.e. when he was alive in a human body-- (sva-stha-ceṣṭatayā). The qualities (dharmāḥ) that reside (gatāḥ) in the physical body (śarīra), etc. (ādi), befall --viz. exist in-- (nipatanti) the physical body, etc. (śarīra-ādau) only (eva). However (punar), (such qualities) are always unable (na... sadā... prabhavanti) to cover --i.e. to cause to disappear-- (sthagayitum) (this) Reality (vastu) which has become manifest (bhāvitam) --viz. Knowledge about one's own Self--. So (iti), the spiritual Knowledge (parama-arthaḥ) (undergoes) growth and development (prarūḍhiḥ eva) everywhere (sarvatra) until the moment of dying (ā-maraṇa-kṣaṇam).

As (yathā) has been declared (uktam) in the verses of Bhagavadgītā (gītāsu) (here:)

"Whatever (yam yam vā api) state (bhāvam) he remembers (smaran) at the end (ante) when he abandons (tyajati) the physical body (kalevaram), he attains that (state) (tam tam eva eti), oh son of Kuntī (kaunteya), since he has constantly cultivated --i.e. thought about, meditated on-- (sadā... bhāvitaḥ) that (tad) state (bhāva)".

similarly (tathā),

"To those (teṣām) who are constantly united (with Me) (satata-yuktānām) (and) who worship (Me) (bhajatām) with (pūrvakam) love (prīti), I give (dadāmi) the Yoga (yogam tam) of the Intellect (buddhi), by which (yena) they (te) come (upayānti) to Me (mām... iti)".

(Therefore,) having an inner (psychic) organ (antaḥkaraṇatā) which is (duly) cultivated and purified (bhāvita) (is) indeed (eva) the cause (hetuḥ) of the gift (dāna) (known as) the Ultimate (paryanta) State (gati)||91||


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 Further Information

Gabriel Pradīpaka

Este documento foi concebido por Gabriel Pradīpaka, um dos dois fundadores deste site, e guru espiritual versado em idioma Sânscrito e filosofia Trika.

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