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Spandanirṇaya (Спанда-нирная) Глава III (афоризмы 1 - 10) - Недвойственный Кашмирский Шиваизм
This is the first set of 10 aphorisms out of 19 aphorisms constituting the third Section (dealing with Vibhūtispanda or supernormal powers originating from Spanda). As you know, the entire work is composed of 53 aphorisms of Spandakārikā-s plus their respective commentaries.
Of course, I will also insert the original aphorisms on which Kṣemarāja is commenting. Even though I will not comment on either the original sūtra-s or the Kṣemarāja's commentary, I will write some notes to make a particular point clear when necessary. If you want a detailed explanation, go to "Scriptures (study)|Spandanirṇaya" in Trika section.
Kṣemarāja's Sanskrit will be in dark green color while the original Vasugupta's aphorisms will be shown in dark red color. In turn, within the transliteration, the original aphorisms will be in brown color, while the Kṣemarāja's comments will be shown in black. Also, within the translation, the original aphorisms by Vasugupta, i.e. the Spandakārikā-s, will be in green and black colors, while the commentary by Kṣemarāja will contain words in both black and red colors.
Read Spandanirṇaya and experience Supreme Ānanda or Divine Bliss, dear Śiva.
Important: All that is in brackets and italicized within the translation has been added by me in order to complete the sense of a particular phrase or sentence. In turn, all that is between double hyphen (--...--) constitutes clarifying further information also added by me.
एवं निमीलनोन्मीलनसमाधिद्वयसमाधेय उभयविसर्गारणीभूतः सुप्रबुद्धताभिव्यक्तये स्पन्दतत्त्वसमावेशो निःष्यन्दद्वयेन निर्णीतः। अथेदानीमेतदवष्टभ्याभ्यासेन परापरविभूत्युदयो भवतीत्यभिधाय सङ्क्षेपेण बन्धमोक्षस्वरूपं निरूप्य प्रथमोपक्रान्तं निगमयति— यथेच्छेत्यादिभिश्चक्रेश्वरो भवेदित्यन्तैरेकोनविंशत्या श्लोकैरनेन विभूतिस्पन्दाख्येन तृतीयनिःष्यन्देन। तत्र श्लोकद्वयेन जाग्रत्सिद्धस्वातन्त्र्यदृष्टान्तपुरःसरं स्वप्नस्वातन्त्र्यम्। एकेन तद्विपर्ययमभिदधता सततोद्युक्ततैवाश्रयणीयेति तात्पर्येणोक्तम्। द्वितयेनाभीष्टवस्तुज्ञानाविर्भावः। एकेन कर्तृशक्त्याविर्भूतिः क्षुधादिजयश्च। एकेन सर्वज्ञताप्राप्तिः। एकेन ग्लानिनाशश्चेत्यष्टके निरूपितम्। ततः स्पन्दात्मन उन्मेषस्यैकेन स्वरूपं लक्षितम्। एकेन परसमाधिविघ्नभूतानां सिद्धीनां हेयतोक्ता। एकेन द्वितीयनिःष्यन्दनिर्णीतविश्वात्मतास्वभावः समावेश उक्तः। ततः समाविष्टतालाभे युक्तिरुक्तैकेन। त्रयेण पशुपाशनिर्णय उक्तः। एकेन स्पन्दतत्त्वस्यैव बन्धमोक्षोभयपदाक्रान्तिरुक्ता। द्वयेनोच्छेद्यत्वेन बन्धस्वरूपमनूदितम्। एकेन तदुच्छित्त्युपायमभिदधतादिसूत्रोक्तार्थो निगमित इति सङ्क्षेपो निःष्यन्दस्य॥
Evaṁ nimīlanonmīlanasamādhidvayasamādheya ubhayavisargāraṇībhūtaḥ suprabuddhatābhivyaktaye spandatattvasamāveśo niḥṣyandadvayena nirṇītaḥ| Athedānīmetadavaṣṭabhyābhyāsena parāparavibhūtyudayo bhavatītyabhidhāya saṅkṣepeṇa bandhamokṣasvarūpaṁ nirūpya prathamopakrāntaṁ nigamayati— Yathecchetyādibhiścakreśvaro bhavedityantairekonaviṁśatyā ślokairanena vibhūtispandākhyena tṛtīyaniḥṣyandena| Tatra ślokadvayena jāgratsiddhasvātantryadṛṣṭāntapuraḥsaraṁ svapnasvātantryam| Ekena tadviparyayamabhidadhatā satatodyuktataivāśrayaṇīyeti tātparyeṇoktam| Dvitayenābhīṣṭavastujñānāvirbhāvaḥ| Ekena kartṛśaktyāvirbhūtiḥ kṣudhādijayaśca| Ekena sarvajñatāprāptiḥ| Ekena glānināśaścetyaṣṭake nirūpitam| Tataḥ spandātmana unmeṣasyaikena svarūpaṁ lakṣitam| Ekena parasamādhivighnabhūtānāṁ siddhīnāṁ heyatoktā| Ekena dvitīyaniḥṣyandanirṇītaviśvātmatāsvabhāvaḥ samāveśa uktaḥ| Tataḥ samāviṣṭatālābhe yuktiruktaikena| Trayeṇa paśupāśanirṇaya uktaḥ| Ekena spandatattvasyaiva bandhamokṣobhayapadākrāntiruktā| Dvayenocchedyatvena bandhasvarūpamanūditam| Ekena taducchittyupāyamabhidadhatādisūtroktārtho nigamita iti saṅkṣepo niḥṣyandasya||
In this way (evam), by means of two sections --sections I and II of Spandakārikā-s-- (niḥṣyanda-dvayena), the absorption (samāveśaḥ) into the principle of Spanda (spanda-tattva) —which --such absorption-- has to do with (bhūtaḥ) both (ubhaya) I --Aham-- and the emanated universe --Idam-- (visarga-araṇī), (and) is accomplished (samādheyaḥ) through the two kinds of trances (samādhi-dvaya), with closed eyes and with open eyes (nimīlana-unmīlana)— for the manifestation (abhivyaktaye) of the State of Perfectly Awakened (suprabuddhatā) has been investigated and ascertained (nirṇītaḥ)|
And now (atha idānīm), by saying that (iti abhidhāya) the emergence (udayaḥ) of higher and lower (para-apara) supernatural powers (vibhūti) takes place (bhavati) through the practice (abhyāsena) of grabbing hold of (avaṣṭabhya) It --of Spanda-- (etad) (and) by briefly describing (saṅkṣepeṇa... nirūpya) the nature (sva-rūpam) of bondage and Liberation (bandha-mokṣa), (Vasugupta) concludes (nigamayati) what he began (upakrāntam) in the first (section) (prathama) by means of this third section (anena... tṛtīya-niḥṣyandena) called (ākhyena) 'supernormal powers originating from Spanda' (vibhūti-spanda), which is composed of nineteen stanzas (ekona-viṁśatyā ślokaiḥ) beginning with (ādibhiḥ) 'Just as (yathā) (the Sustainer of this world, when requested) with desire (icchā iti)' and ending with (antaiḥ) 'he (also) becomes (bhavet) the Lord (īśvaraḥ) of the group (of śakti-s or powers) (cakra... iti)|
There --in this third section-- (tatra), by means of two stanzas --stanzas 1 and 2-- (śloka-dvayena), freedom (svātantryam) in dreaming state (svapna) (is mentioned) through (puraḥsaram) the example (dṛṣṭānta) of the well-known freedom (siddha-svātantrya) in wakefulness (jāgrat)|
By means of one (stanza) --the third one-- (ekena), by speaking (abhidadhatā) about its opposite --i.e. about the lack of freedom in both waking and dreaming states-- (tad-viparyayam), it is intentionally mentioned that (iti tātparyeṇa uktam) constant zealous perseverance (udyuktatā) should be resorted to (āśrayaṇīyā) indeed (eva)|
By means of (the next) couple (of stanzas) --stanzas 4 and 5-- (dvitayena), the appearance (āvirbhāvaḥ) of the knowledge (jñāna) of the desired (abhīṣṭa) object (vastu) (is described)|
(Next,) by means of one (stanza) --the sixth one-- (ekena), the manifestation (āvirbhūtiḥ) of the power (śakti) to do (apparently impossible things) (kartṛ) as well as (ca) conquest (jayaḥ) of hunger, etc. (kṣudh-ādi) (are mentioned)|
(After that,) by means of one (stanza) --the seventh one-- (ekena), the attainment (prāptiḥ) of omniscience (sarvajñatā) (is delineated)|
(And) by means of one (stanza again) (ekena) —i.e. in the eight one (aṣṭake)—, 'the destruction (nāśaḥ) of depression (glāni... ca iti)' is discussed (nirūpitam)|
After that (tatas), by means of one (stanza) --the ninth one-- (ekena), the nature (sva-rūpam) of Unmeṣa (unmeṣasya) whose essence is Spanda (spanda-ātmanaḥ) is defined (lakṣitam)|
(Immediately afterward,) by means of one (stanza) --the tenth one-- (ekena), renunciation (heyatā) of supernatural powers (siddhīnām) —which become (bhūtānām) an obstacle (vighna) regarding the supreme trance (para-samādhi)— is established (uktā)|
(Next,) by means of one (stanza again) --the eleventh one-- (ekena), the absorption (samāveśaḥ) whose nature (sva-bhāvaḥ) is identity with the Self of the universe (viśva-ātmatā) —(as) has been investigated (nirṇīta) in the second (dvitīya) section (niḥṣyanda)— is mentioned (uktaḥ)|
After that (tatas), by means of one (stanza) --the twelfth one-- (ekena), the device (yuktiḥ) to attain (lābhe) (such) state of absorption (samāviṣṭatā) is declared (uktā)|
(Then,) by means of three (stanzas) --the stanzas 13, 14 and 15-- (trayeṇa), an investigation (nirṇayaḥ) into bondage --lit. noose-- (pāśa) of a limited individual (paśu) is mentioned (uktaḥ)|
(Later,) by means of one (stanza) --the sixteenth one-- (ekena), transcendence --i.e. the state of surpassing all-- (ākrāntiḥ) of the principle of Spanda (spanda-tattvasya eva) with reference to both states (ubhaya-pada) of bondage and Liberation (bandha-mokṣa) (is) stated (uktā)|
(Next,) by means of two (stanzas) --the stanzas 17 and 18-- (dvayena), the nature (sva-rūpam) of bondage (bandha) is (here) dealt with again --lit. repeated-- (anūditam) in order to be eliminated (ucchedyatvena)|
(And now,) by means of one (stanza) --the nineteenth one-- (ekena), while speaking about (abhidadhatā) the means (upāyam) for extirpating (ucchitti) that (bondage) (tad), the meaning (arthaḥ) specified (ukta) in the first aphorism --i.e. in I, 1-- (ādi-sūtra) is inserted at the end (nigamitaḥ). (Therefore,) this has been a summary of the section (iti saṅkṣepaḥ niḥṣyandasya)1 ||
1 In this way, in the sections 1 and 2 of the present scripture, the absorption into the Spanda principle has been studied. In the first section, the emphasis was placed on Nimīlanasamādhi —absorption with closed eyes— while in the second section the emphasis was placed on Unmīlanasamādhi —absorption with open eyes—. At first (in the initial section), the state of Ātmavyāpti —inherence in the Self (in the inner Self)— was emphasized, while later (in the second section) Śivavyāpti —inherence in Śiva (in the universal Self)— was predominant.
And in this third section, Vasugupta (the author of Spandakārikā-s) finishes a topic he started before, in the first section. The topic is 'supernatural powers'. So, this present section is composed of 19 stanzas. The rest of the summary becomes very clear from reading the respective aphorisms and commentaries. Therefore, I do not need to explain anything additional about every aphorism here. What is to be explained about such aphorisms will be explained in the notes under each of the them.
अथ ग्रन्थो व्याख्यायते। यदुक्तं सुप्रबुद्धस्य सततं स्पन्दतत्त्वोपलब्धिरिति। तत्र अतः सततमुद्युक्त इत्यनेन जागरायां तत्परिशीलनेन शिक्षा प्रबुद्धस्य सुप्रबुद्धताप्राप्त्यर्थमुक्ता। यामवस्थामित्यादिना प्रतिपदोपायपरिशीलनपाटवेन योगिसुषुप्तावरणभङ्ग उक्तः।
इदाणीं लौकिकस्वप्नसुषुप्तविदलनेन सुप्रबुद्धतामेव साधयितुं स्वप्नोचितां विभूतिमस्य दर्शयितुमाह
यथेच्छाभ्यर्थितो धाता जाग्रतोऽर्थान् हृदि स्थितान्।
सोमसूर्योदयं कृत्वा सम्पादयति देहिनः॥१॥
नित्यं स्फुटतरं मध्ये स्थितोऽवश्यं प्रकाशयेत्॥२॥
धत्ते सर्वमात्मनीति धाता शङ्करात्मा स्वभावः। स यथा जाग्रतो जागरायामभिव्यक्तस्वस्वातन्त्र्यस्य देहिनो देहभूमिकायामेव प्रकटीभूतपिण्डस्थज्ञानस्य योगिनः सम्बन्धिन्येच्छयाभ्यर्थितोऽन्तर्मुखस्वरूपविमर्शबलेन प्रसादितो हृदि चेतसि स्थितानर्थानिति विन्दुनादादिज्ञानपुरःसरं क्षोभप्रतिभाचालनबोधस्तोभज्ञानसञ्चारादिप्रयोजनानि सम्पादयति। कथं सोमसूर्ययोर्ज्ञानक्रियाशक्त्योरुदयं कृत्वा ज्ञानशक्त्या भास्यमानं हि तत्तत्क्रियाशक्त्योन्मील्यते। समावेशोन्मिषत्प्रतिभात्मकमूलावष्टम्भयुक्तिस्फारितज्ञानक्रियाव्याप्तिसारसव्येतरमरीचिविस्फारणक्रमेण तत्तद्वेधसङ्क्रमणादि सम्पादयति योगिशरीरानुप्रविष्टः परमेश्वरः। यथा चैवं तथा
अनागतायां निद्रायां विनष्टे बाह्यगोचरे।
सावस्था मनसा गम्या परा देवी प्रकाशते॥
पीनां च दुर्बलां शक्तिं ध्यत्वा द्वादशगोचरे।
प्रविश्य हृदये ध्यायन् स्वप्नस्वातन्त्र्यमाप्नुयात्॥
इति सम्प्रदायस्थित्या वमनग्राससक्ततदुभयविसर्गारणिचितिशक्तिपरामर्शमुखेन नित्यं प्रणयमनतिक्रामतो भगवत्प्रार्थनापरस्य योगनिद्रारूढस्य स्फुटतरमनाच्छादितरूपतया मध्ये सौषुम्नधामनि स्थितो धाता स्वप्नेऽप्यभीष्टानेवाणवशाक्तशाम्भवसमावेशादीनन्यानपि समावेशाभ्यासरसोन्मृष्टमतिमुकुरस्य जिज्ञासितानर्थान्नवश्यं प्रकटीकरोति नास्य योगिनः स्वप्नसुषुप्तयोर्व्यामोहो भवतीत्यर्थः। स्वप्नेन सौषुप्तमप्युपलक्षितम्। अत्राभीष्टार्थप्रकाश आवृत्त्या अयमेव हेतुः प्रणयस्य प्रार्थनाया अन्तर्मुखस्वरूपपरिशीलनोपासासम्पाद्यस्य मायाकालुष्योपशमलक्षणस्य प्रसादस्य भगवतानतिक्रमात्। परमेश्वरो हि चिदात्मा यद्यन्तर्मुखोचितसेवाक्रमेणार्थ्यते तत्तत्सम्पादयत एव जाग्रतः— इति परतत्त्वे जागरूकस्य जागरावस्थास्थस्य चेति श्लेषोक्त्या व्याख्येयम्॥२॥
Atha grantho vyākhyāyate| Yaduktaṁ suprabuddhasya satataṁ spandatattvopalabdhiriti| Tatra ataḥ satatamudyukta ityanena jāgarāyāṁ tatpariśīlanena śikṣā prabuddhasya suprabuddhatāprāptyarthamuktā| Yāmavasthāmityādinā pratipadopāyapariśīlanapāṭavena yogisuṣuptāvaraṇabhaṅga uktaḥ|
Idāṇīṁ laukikasvapnasuṣuptavidalanena suprabuddhatāmeva sādhayituṁ svapnocitāṁ vibhūtimasya darśayitumāha
Yathecchābhyarthito dhātā jāgrato'rthān hṛdi sthitān|
Somasūryodayaṁ kṛtvā sampādayati dehinaḥ||1||
Nityaṁ sphuṭataraṁ madhye sthito'vaśyaṁ prakāśayet||2||
Dhatte sarvamātmanīti dhātā śaṅkarātmā svabhāvaḥ| Sa yathā jāgrato jāgarāyāmabhivyaktasvasvātantryasya dehino dehabhūmikāyāmeva prakaṭībhūtapiṇḍasthajñānasya yoginaḥ sambandhinyecchayābhyarthito'ntarmukhasvarūpavimarśabalena prasādito hṛdi cetasi sthitānarthāniti vindunādādijñānapuraḥsaraṁ kṣobhapratibhācālanabodhastobhajñānasañcārādiprayojanāni sampādayati| Kathaṁ somasūryayorjñānakriyāśaktyorudayaṁ kṛtvā jñānaśaktyā bhāsyamānaṁ hi tattatkriyāśaktyonmīlyate| Samāveśonmiṣatpratibhātmakamūlāvaṣṭambhayuktisphāritajñānakriyāvyāptisārasavyetaramarīcivisphāraṇakrameṇa tattadvedhasaṅkramaṇādi sampādayati yogiśarīrānupraviṣṭaḥ parameśvaraḥ| Yathā caivaṁ tathā
Anāgatāyāṁ nidrāyāṁ vinaṣṭe bāhyagocare|
Sāvasthā manasā gamyā parā devī prakāśate||
Pīnāṁ ca durbalāṁ śaktiṁ dhyatvā dvādaśagocare|
Praviśya hṛdaye dhyāyan svapnasvātantryamāpnuyāt||
iti sampradāyasthityā vamanagrāsasaktatadubhayavisargāraṇicitiśaktiparāmarśamukhena nityaṁ praṇayamanatikrāmato bhagavatprārthanāparasya yoganidrārūḍhasya sphuṭataramanācchāditarūpatayā madhye sauṣumnadhāmani sthito dhātā svapne'pyabhīṣṭānevāṇavaśāktaśāmbhavasamāveśādīnanyānapi samāveśābhyāsarasonmṛṣṭamatimukurasya jijñāsitānarthānnavaśyaṁ prakaṭīkaroti nāsya yoginaḥ svapnasuṣuptayorvyāmoho bhavatītyarthaḥ| Svapnena sauṣuptamapyupalakṣitam| Atrābhīṣṭārthaprakāśa āvṛttyā ayameva hetuḥ praṇayasya prārthanāyā antarmukhasvarūpapariśīlanopāsāsampādyasya māyākāluṣyopaśamalakṣaṇasya prasādasya bhagavatānatikramāt| Parameśvaro hi cidātmā yadyantarmukhocitasevākrameṇārthyate tattatsampādayata eva jāgrataḥ— Iti paratattve jāgarūkasya jāgarāvasthāsthasya ceti śleṣoktyā vyākhyeyam||2||
And now (atha) the (third) section (granthaḥ) is being explained (vyākhyāyate)|
As has been said (yad uktam) (in I, 17 of this scripture): 'To the perfectly awakened one (suprabuddhasya), (there is,) constantly (satatam), the perception (upalabdhiḥ) of the principle (tattva) of Spanda (spanda... iti)'|
There --in the first section of this scripture-- (tatra), (it has been affirmed that:) 'For this reason (atas), he who (is) constantly prepared (satatam udyuktaḥ) (for discerning the principle of Spanda, attains his own essential state or nature quickly, even in wakefulness)' (iti). By this (statement) (anena), a teaching (śikṣā) has been imparted (uktā) for the partially awakened to attain (prabuddhasya... prāpti-artham) the state of perfectly awakened (suprabuddhatā) through his constant practice (tat-pariśīlanena) in wakefulness (jāgarāyām)|
(Next, in I, 23, 24 and 25,) starting with (iti-ādinā) '(Having taken hold) of that (yām) (supreme) state (of Spanda) (avasthām)', tearing (bhaṅgaḥ) of the veil (āvaraṇa) of yogī's deep sleep (yogi-suṣupta) by means of the intensity (pāṭavena) of the constant practice (pariśīlana) of the means (upāya) at every step (pratipada) has been mentioned (uktaḥ)|
Now (idāṇīm), in order to prove (sādhayitum) the state of perfectly awakened (suprabuddhatām) by means of (his --of the suprabuddha or perfectly awakened one-- capacity) to render asunder (vidalanena) the ordinary (laukika) dreaming and deep sleep states (svapna-suṣupta), (and) in order to show (darśayitum) dreaming-related --lit. suitable for the dreaming state-- (svapna-ucitām) supernatural power (vibhūtim) of this (suprabuddha) (asya), (Vasugupta) said (āha)1 :
Just as (yathā) the Sustainer (of this world) (dhātā), when requested (abhyarthitaḥ) with desire (icchā), produces (sampādayati) (all) things (arthān) which abide (sthitān) in the heart (hṛdi) of that embodied soul (dehinaḥ) who is awake (jāgrataḥ) after causing (kṛtvā) the emergence (udayam) of moon (soma) (and) sun (sūrya), so (tathā) also (api) in dream (svapne), by abiding (sthitah) in the central channel (madhye), does (He) certainly (avaśyam) reveal (prakāśayet) always (nityam) (and) most clearly (sphuṭataram) (his) desired (abhīṣṭa) things (arthān) to him who does not neglect (anatikramāt) his entreaty (praṇayasya)||1-2||
The Sustainer (of this world) (dhātā) is one who holds (dhatte) everything (sarvam) within Himself (ātmani iti), viz. the Self of Śaṅkara --Śiva-- (śaṅkara-ātmā) which is one's own essential nature (sva-bhāvaḥ)|
(In the first aphorism, the portion which reads 'Yathecchābhyarthito dhātā jāgrato'rthān hṛdi sthitān... sampādayati dehinaḥ' was translated as follows:) Just as (yathā) He --the Sustainer of this world, i.e. Śiva, who is one's own essential nature-- (saḥ), when requested (abhyarthitaḥ) with desire (icchayā), produces (sampādayati) (all) 'the things' (arthān iti) which abide (sthitān) in the heart (hṛdi) of that embodied soul (dehinaḥ) who is awake (jāgrataḥ). (Now the meaning of that portion: Just as He --the Great Lord who is one's own Self--,) when propitiated (prasāditaḥ) by force of (balena) awareness (vimarśa) of internal (antarmukha) nature (sva-rūpa) belonging --such force of awareness of internal nature-- (sambandhinyā) to a yogī (yoginaḥ) (endowed with qualities to be described further on), brings about (sampādayati), in virtue of (puraḥsaram) Knowledge (jñāna) (appearing in the form of) Bindu, Nāda, etc. (vindu-nāda-ādi), the means for attaining (prayojanāni) (various supernatural powers such as) 'kṣobha' --lit. agitation, viz. the power to generate agitation in the mind of others-- (kṣobha), 'pratibhācālana' --lit. shaking of knowledge, viz. the power to scatter others' knowledge-- (pratibhā-cālana), 'bodhastobha' --lit. paralyzing knowledge in others-- (bodha-stobha), 'jñānasañcāra' --lit. transmission of knowledge-- (jñāna-sañcāra), etc. (ādi), (all of which abide) in the mind (cetasi) of (that) yogī (yoginaḥ) —of the one whose knowledge (jñānasya) in wakefulness (piṇḍa-stha), at the stage (bhūmikāyām eva) of the body (deha), is manifest (prakaṭī-bhūta)— who is awake (jāgrataḥ), i.e. whose freedom (sva-svātantryasya) is manifest (abhivyakta) in waking state (jāgarāyām)2 |
How (does the Sustainer of this world do that) (katham)? By causing (kṛtvā) the emergence (udayam) of moon and sun (soma-sūryayoḥ), viz. of Powers of Knowledge and Action (jñāna-kriyā-śaktyoḥ). (All that --a tacit 'yadyad' here--) is being (ideally) manifested (bhāsyamānam) by the Power of Knowledge (jñāna-śaktyā) is certainly actualized --lit. becomes certainly visible-- (hi tad tad... unmīlyate) by the Power of Action (kriyā-śakti)|
The Supreme Lord (parama-īśvaraḥ), having entered (anupraviṣṭaḥ) the body (śarīra) of the yogī (yogi), brings about (sampādayati) various (supernatural powers) (tad-tad) (such as) transference (saṅkramaṇa) through penetration (vedha), etc. (ādi), by means of a gradual expansion (visphāraṇa-krameṇa) of (his) apānaśakti and prāṇaśakti (savya-itara-marīci) whose essence is (sāra) inherence (vyāpti) in (the Powers of) Knowledge and Action (jñāna-kriyā), which are opened --expanded-- (sphārita) by the device (yukti) of having recourse to (avaṣṭambha) the Root (mūla) —which is (ātmaka) the Supreme Speech --Pārāvāk-- (pratibhā) shining forth (unmiṣat) due to the absorption (of such a yogī) --due to his strong samādhi-- (samāveśa)—|
Just as (yathā ca) (this topic has been explained by me) in this way (evam), so also (tathā) (it has been explained here in the stanzas 75 and 55 of Vijñānabhairava):
"When the sleep has not yet come (anāgatāyāṁ nidrāyām) (and) when the external object(s) have disappeared (vinaṣṭe bāhya-gocare), the mind should concentrate on that state --lit. that state should be perceived by the mind-- (sā avasthā manasā gamyā). (As a result of this concentration,) the Supreme (parā) Goddess (devī) becomes visible (prakāśate... iti)"||
"By meditating (dhyatvā) on the (prāṇa)śakti (śaktim) —which is thick (at first) (pīnām) and (ca) weak --subtle-- (later) (durbalām)—, (and then) penetrating --viz. by making such subtle prāṇaśakti penetrate-- (praviśya) into the (external) dvādaśānta (dvādaśa-gocare) (or else by causing such subtle prāṇaśakti to enter) into the internal dvādaśānta --also called 'heart'-- (hṛdaye), the meditator (dhyāyan) acquires (āpnuyāt) freedom (svātantryam) in the dreaming state (svapna... iti) --i.e. he can dream about what he wishes, at will--3 "||
The sense is that (iti arthaḥ), according to (sthityā) the sacred tradition (sampradāya), the Sustainer (of this world) (dhātā), also (api) in dream (svapne), by abiding (sthitah) in the central channel (madhye) —in the abode (dhāmani) of Suṣumnā (sauṣumna)— certainly (avaśyam) reveals --makes manifest-- (prakaṭī-karoti) (always and) most clearly (sphuṭataram) —i.e. without any concealment --lit. with an unconcealed form-- (anācchādita-rūpatayā)— the desired things (abhīṣṭān eva... arthān) —i.e. (all) which is desired to be known (jijñāsitān), such as the absorptions or trances pertaining to Āṇavopāya, Śāktopāya and Śāmbhavopāya, etc. (āṇava-śākta-śāmbhava-samāveśa-ādīn) (and) also (api) other things (anyān)—. (To whom does He reveal all that?) To the (aforesaid yogī) who, having reached (ārūḍhasya) (the state of) yogic sleep (yoga-nidrā), does not neglect (anatikrāmataḥ) (his) entreaty (praṇayam) (and) is constantly (nityam) occupied with (parasya) praying to (prārthanā) the Fortunate One --the Great Lord-- (bhagavat) by means of (mukhena) remembrance (parāmarśa) of the Power of Consciousness --Spanda-- (citi-śakti) (to be found) in both (practices), i.e. in the concentration on prāṇaśakti and in the concentration on apānaśakti (visarga-araṇi), which --i.e. prāṇaśakti and apānaśakti-- are connected with (sakta) exhalation --lit. emission-- and inhalation --lit. mouthful-- (vamana-grāsa). (Where does He reveal all those things to the persevering yogī?) In the mirror (mukurasya) of (his) intelligence (mati) purified --lit. cleaned-- (unmṛṣṭa) by the sap (rasa) of (his) practice (abhyāsa) of absorption --of samādhi-- (samāveśa). In the case of this yogī (asya yoginaḥ), there is no confusion of mind/perplexity (na... vyāmohaḥ bhavati) whether in dreaming or deep sleep (svapna-suṣuptayoḥ)4 |
With (the word) 'svapna' --dreaming state-- (svapnena), deep sleep (sauṣuptam) is also included (api upalakṣitam)|
Here (atra), as regards the revelation (atra... prakāśe) of desired (abhīṣṭa) things (artha), by repetition (āvṛttyā), only (eva) this (ayam) (is) the cause (hetuḥ). (Why?) Because the Fortunate One --the Great Lord-- does not neglect (His) Favor --lit. due to the non-negligence of (His) Favor by the Fortunate One...-- (prasādasya bhagavatā anatikramāt), which --His Favor-- is characterized (lakṣaṇasya) by the cessation (upaśama) of the turbidness (kāluṣya) of Māyā (māyā) (and) which is to be brought about (sampādyasya) by means of a worship (upāsā) involving a pursuit of (pariśīlana) the internal (antarmukha) nature (sva-rūpa) of the entreaty (or) prayer (praṇayasya prārthanāyāḥ)5 |
If (yadi) the Supreme Lord (parama-īśvaraḥ), who is undoubtedly Consciousness (hi cit-ātmā), is requested (arthyate) by the appropriate (ucita) method (krameṇa) of inner (antarmukha) reverence/worship (sevā), He certainly produces (sampādayate eva) all that (tad tad) (He was asked for. The term) 'jāgrataḥ' --lit. of one who is awake-- (in the first half of the first aphorism here) (jāgrataḥ iti) should be understood --lit. should be explained-- (vyākhyeyam) as a word (uktyā) having a double entendre (śleṣa), viz. (as) 'of one who is awake (jāgarūkasya) with reference to the Highest Principle (para-tattve) as well as (ca) of one who is (sthasya) in the state (avasthā) of wakefulness (jāgarā... iti)6 ||2||
1 The suprabuddha or perfectly awakened (another name is jīvanmukta or liberated while living) is a person who constantly realizes the principle of Spanda. He is conscious of Aham as pervading it all, inside and outside. In fact, there is no inside and outside in his case as those two exist only where there is ignorance about Aham. The integration of inside and outside in a person marks his achievement of Liberation or Mukti. Therefore, one cannot say that a suprabuddha or jīvanmukta perceives two realities, one internal and the other external. So, this Aham pervades it all... plainly... in his perception. A being like this is rarely found in this world. While a physically strong man can travel to elsewhere and find a stronger man, this is not the case with the suprabuddha or jīvanmukta. He can travel around the globe and he is very likely not to find any other suprabuddha/jīvanmukta like him. What is the rest?: For the most part they are ignorant people (called abuddha-s or unawakened ones, beginners in spirituality included), but there is a small percentage of buddha-s (awakened ones, who are awake in dreaming more than they are in wakefulness) along with an extremely minute percentage of prabuddha-s (well-awakened ones —called 'partially awakened' in the context of Spandakārikā-s—, who are awake in deep sleep more than they are in wakefulness). The buddha-s are really yogī-s moving in an intermediate level, while prabuddha-s are very advanced yogī-s.
To the abuddha-s there is hardly ever perception of the Spanda principle due to their heavy state of ignorance about who they really are. If the abuddha is a beginner in spirituality, this heavy ignorance should be in process of being removed little by little. Anyway, there is no warranty of it happening, at least not at the speed it should take place. This accounts for the presence of so many ego-related problems in spiritual communities. It is not that the prabuddha-s (let alone suprabuddha-s) are creating unnecessary trouble, but this is mostly the fault of the abuddha-s there (the beginners). The buddha-s or intermediate practitioners are more prone to be moving away from those ego-related dramas, and the prabuddha-s are so fascinated about the perception of the Spanda principle at the beginning and at the end of the three states of consciousness (wakefulness, dreaming and deep sleep) that it is highly improbable for them to be interested in fighting for who has more power in the community. On the other hand, the suprabuddha-s, since they are awake in Turya (in the fourth state of consciousness) more than in wakefulness, are definitely in another world though their bodies are still here. The gradual disappearance of ego-related fights in the life of a yogī shows that he is moving to superior stages of spirituality.
It is a typical characteristic of the abuddha-s to resort to violence in the end. They are fully based on a violent behavior despite they affirm that they are like angels. It is about pressing them in the right way for them to start to develop all kind of verbal violence or even physical. Such persons should realize how wretched their lives are and begin moving to higher states of consciousness. Unfortunately, most of them cannot. Only some abuddha-s can do it and they are called 'beginners in spirituality'. As they move to superior stages in Yoga, they gradually abandon unnecessary violence. Why? Because it is absolutely useless. While there is a necessary violence that one has to resort to in order to preserve his life or others' lives, the massive remaining portion of violence is completely unnecessary and in fact a kind of obstacle to the achievement of Mukti or Liberation, as it were. One cannot enter the Kingdom of the Supreme Lord with a machine gun, you know. There is a moment in the development of a yogī when he understands that violence is generally useless. This process of awakening is always very gradual so the person can get used to the new states without collapsing. To be violent in the world is so common that the yogī who is a beginner in spirituality will run into issues when he has to deal with advanced people who are more peaceful than him. Why? Because he will feel like a sort of caveman in comparison.
Summing it up, the abuddha-s are based on violence in the end, the buddha-s are moving away from it, prabuddha-s are almost without it, and finally suprabuddha-s... oh well, they can do whatever they want because they are free from karmic fruits. Anyway, whether they are peaceful like doves or aggressive like lions, one cannot say that they are peaceful or aggressive. Why? Because they underwent a full divine transformation. After the touch of the Divine, what remains in you cannot be called peaceful or aggressive. It is just divine like the Lord Himself. Though he stays in a human body and apparently behaves like a human being, one cannot call him human really. He is indeed the personification of the Supreme Master. This great being can move in the shadows or else he can reveal himself. When he reveals himself to someone, it is obvious to this person that he is not a common person. Why? Because his knowledge and interests are quite different from those of ordinary people. This great Yogī has then constant perception of the principle of Spanda, i.e. he is constantly conscious of Aham, of 'I AM'. He fully realizes that he is Sat or Existence teeming with Absolute Freedom. The other beings are also Existence teeming with Absolute Freedom, but because they do not possess the treasure called 'realization', it is as if they are not Existence teeming with Absolute Freedom. OK, enough of this!
Afterwards, the sage Kṣemarāja mentioned teachings occurring in the first section. Finally, he affirms that now, in order to prove suprabuddhatā (the state of perfectly awakened) through the capacity of a suprabuddha to annihilate ordinary dreaming and deep sleep states, and also to show his supernormal powers, which are suitable for the dreaming state, Vasugupta formulated the first two aphorisms of this third section. This is clear and it does not require explanation.
2 One thing that it should be clear from the beginning: The suprabuddha is not at all interested in displaying supernatural powers. The one interested in these inferior things is a yogī treading the Vibhūtimārga (the path leading to superhuman powers). The suprabuddha has indeed a pile of these powers but he never touches them. They work by themselves, spontaneously. This is the difference between a suprabuddha (a yogī who attained Liberation after having trodden the Muktimārga —the path leading to Liberation—) and a yogī devoted to achieving supernormal capacities. In turn, on one hand, the entreaty in the case of the suprabuddha is automatic. He is not doing it by force. It just happens due to the mere existence of his state of enlightenment. On the other hand, the entreaty of a follower of Vibhūtimārga is not automatic and must be continued by force. The commentary is not clearly showing this difference. That is why it could seem as if the suprabuddha is requesting the Lord always and consequently the Sustainer of this world is rewarding him for that perseverance. But this is never happening, in my humble opinion. Because, if someone is a suprabuddha, he will not be interested in anything else apart from his beholding the Marvel (Absolute Freedom). Where is there room in him for limited powers such as the capacity to agitate the others' minds, to scatter others' knowledge, etc.? When there is nobody else in this universe apart from himself, where are the others and their minds/knowledge to be agitated, scattered, etc.? However, if all these powers appear in such suprabuddha, they do it spontaneously, viz. by themselves.
Because of this Mahāsiddhi (Great Accomplishment) which comes with Mukti or Liberation, everything spontaneously happens around the liberated Yogī without his special intervention. It just happens. So, there is no entreaty being continued by force of perseverance in his case but this entreaty (to call it somehow) just takes place naturally. That is why people around a great Yogī like this immediately feel blessed and many good states are coming to their minds, etc. etc., but the great Yogī never did anything in particular to generate all that. So, this is the difference between the great Yogī who attained the supreme goal known as Mukti or Liberation and the other follower of Vibhūtimārga (the path of supernatural powers), who has to constantly make efforts in order to get some limited capacities.
The terms Bindu (or Vindu) and Nāda have different meanings according to the contexts: Here they stand for Jñāna and Kriyā (moon and sun, as they will be called later on), i.e. Knowledge and Action. In practice, this Bindu will emerge as a supernormal dot of light from the space between the eyebrows and Nāda will be experienced as supernormal sound which expands from the crown of the head through Suṣumnā —the central channel which, running through the spinal column, pierces the main Cakra-s in the subtle body— (I explain this complex topic in Meditation 6).
3 The Sustainer of this world brings about the means for attaining various supernatural powers by causing the emergence of moon and sun (Powers of Knowledge and Action, respectively). The Śakti's viewpoint is being used by Kṣemarāja here, in his explanation. Why? Because soma and sūrya (moon and sun) symbolize different things across the different viewpoints (across Śāmbhavopāya, Śāktopāya and Āṇavopāya). In Śāmbhavopāya, they symbolize Vimarśa and Prakāśa (Śakti and Śiva), but, in Śāktopāya, they represent Jñānaśakti (Power of Knowledge) and Kriyāśakti (Power of Action), and finally, in Āṇavopāya, they stand for apāna (the vital energy accompanying the inhalation) and prāṇa (the vital energy accompanying the exhalation), respectively. So, in this context, according to Kṣemarāja, moon and sun must be understood from the Śāktopāya's viewpoint as Jñānaśakti and Kriyāśakti (Powers of Knowledge and Action). The first Power is more internal, as it were, and always relating to 'planning' (i.e. to all that is being ideally manifested), while the second Power has always to do with the final actualization of all that was planned by the first Power, i.e. Kriyāśakti will materialize all that which was ideally manifested (planned) by Jñānaśakti.
In the following paragraph, Kṣemarāja mentions the Āṇavopāya's viewpoint (moon and sun as apāna and prāṇa) as of the essence of the Śāktopāya's viewpoint (assigning moon and sun to Jñānaśakti and Kriyāśakti). The process is like this: By gradually expanding apāna in inhalation and prāṇa in exhalation, the breathing process slows down little by little till it comes to a stop. With this stoppage, samāna (the vital energy residing in the navel area) is developed. After its development, udāna starts to flow upward through Suṣumnā (running through the spinal cord). As udāna ascends more and more it becomes Jñānaśakti, and finally Jñānaśakti becomes Kriyāśakti. Now it is clear.
The sage expressed 'The Supreme Lord, having entered the body of the yogī', because the Lord is not inside in the way people like to think about Him. No. Why? Because He is beyond space and therefore one cannot affirm that He is inside or outside. It is just ego (a drop of His I-consciousness) which postulates that He is inside the physical body (a small place for Him if you consider the exiguous dimensions of the body!). But Paramaśiva is inside, outside and beyond inside/outside too. That is why Kṣemarāja used the expression 'anupraviṣṭaḥ' (having entered) regarding the body, in order to show that now He finally took up residence in a particular body due to the constant entreaty of the yogī.
After gradually expanding apāna and prāṇa in this way by resorting to the Root —to Pratibhā or Pārāvāk, the Supreme Speech— which has now shone forth because of the strong absorption of that yogī, the Supreme Lord produces various supernatural powers such as transference of knowledge, etc. The meaning of this is simple to understand, I guess. One thing you need to take into account: The above-mentioned Supreme Speech cannot be attained because She is ALL. You cannot attain the ALL, because the ALL already attained you. You can attain all other levels of speech before the Supreme Speech, but you cannot attain Supreme Speech Herself. Because She is You! Anyway, you can realize your unity with Her. And despite you can call this 'an attainment', it is not a real attainment but only a realization.
Now, to consolidate his comments, sage Kṣemarāja is quoting the stanzas 75 and 55 in Vijñānabhairava. In order to explain this, I will have recourse to the two authoritative commentaries: The one by Kṣemarāja/Śivopādhyāya (partly written by the former and partly written by the latter) and the other by Ānandabhaṭṭa (his commentary is generally known as Vijñānabhairavakaumudī). The partial commentary is just plainly called 'vivṛti' (exposition, comment, etc.), but the partial commentary by Śivopādhyāya is known as 'Vijñānabhairavoddyota' (Vijñānabhairava-uddyota).
Now the elucidation of the aphorism 75 of Vijñānabhairava by means of the Kṣemarāja/Śivopādhyāya's commentary... but as almost always, there is a slightly different reading in the version I have, i.e. there is a slight difference between the reading of the Vijñānabhairava's stanza 75 being quoted in Spandanirṇaya and the same stanza in the commentary by Kṣemarāja/Śivopādhyāya . In Spandanirṇaya, you can read 'vinaṣṭe' (from 'vinaṣṭa' - 'disappeared'), but in the commentary by Kṣemarāja/Śivopādhyāya you instead read 'praṇaṣṭe' (from 'praṇaṣṭa' - 'disappeared'). So the difference is only the use of different prefixes: 'vi' in the former and 'pra' in the latter. I will make all this very clear below:
अनागतायां निद्रायां प्रणष्टे बाह्यगोचरे।
सावस्था मनसा गम्या परा देवी प्रकाशते॥७५॥
अनागतायां निद्रायां - चित्तवृत्तेः तमश्छादने बाह्ये च विषयपञ्चके विनष्टदर्शने यावस्था निरावरणा मध्येऽस्ति सा मनसा गम्या - स्वसंविदवष्टम्भस्वीकार्या तथा सति सैव परादेवीत्वेन भातीति एषापि शाम्भवी भूः।
तथा च वासिष्ठे दर्शने
निद्रादौ जागरस्यान्ते यो भाव उपजायते।
तं भावं भावयन्साक्षादक्षयानन्दमश्नुते॥
Anāgatāyāṁ nidrāyāṁ praṇaṣṭe bāhyagocare|
Sāvasthā manasā gamyā parā devī prakāśate||75||
Anāgatāyāṁ nidrāyāṁ — cittavṛtteḥ tamaśchādane bāhye ca viṣayapañcake vinaṣṭadarśane yāvasthā nirāvaraṇā madhye'sti sā manasā gamyā — svasaṁvidavaṣṭambhasvīkāryā tathā sati saiva parādevītvena bhātīti eṣāpi śāmbhavī bhūḥ|
Tathā ca vāsiṣṭhe darśane
Nidrādau jāgarasyānte yo bhāva upajāyate|
Taṁ bhāvaṁ bhāvayansākṣādakṣayānandamaśnute||
"When the sleep has not yet come (anāgatāyāṁ nidrāyām) (and) when the external object(s) have disappeared (praṇaṣṭe bāhya-gocare), the mind should concentrate on that state --lit. that state should be perceived by the mind-- (sā avasthā manasā gamyā). (As a result of this concentration,) the Supreme (parā) Goddess (devī) becomes visible (prakāśate)||75||"
When the sleep has not yet come (anāgatāyāṁ nidrāyām) (and) when the dark covering of the mental fluctuations along with the group of external objects have vanished from sight (citta-vṛtteḥ tamas-chādane bāhye ca viṣaya-pañcake viniṣṭa-darśane), the mind should concentrate on that state (avasthā... sā manasā gamyā) which (yā) is (asti) manifest --which is devoid of any veil-- (nirāvaraṇā) in the middle --between upcoming sleep and cessation of wakefulness' mental fluctuations together with the group of external objects-- (madhye) —i.e. an acquisition (svīkāryā) based on firmly taking hold of (avaṣṭambha) one's own (sva) pure Consciousness (saṁvid)—. This (dhāraṇā or concentration) (eṣā) (is) also (api) the Śāmbhavopāya stage (śāmbhavī bhūḥ) because (iti) when she --the dhāraṇā-- takes place (sati) in this way --in the manner which was described-- (tathā), she (sā eva) shines (bhāti) as the Supreme Goddess (parā-devītvena)|
And likewise (tathā ca), (the same truth is established) in the philosophy (darśane) of Vasiṣṭha --the Guru of Rāmacandra-- (vāsiṣṭhe):
"(There is) a state (bhāvaḥ) which (yaḥ) appears (upajāyate) at the beginning (ādau) of sleep (nidrā) (and) at the end (ante) of wakefulness (jāgarasya). The one who contemplates (bhāvayan) that state (tam bhāvam) immediately (sākṣāt) attains (aśnute) the imperishable (akṣaya) Bliss (ānanda... iti)"||
The same reading problem with the commentary called Kaumudī by Ānandabhaṭṭa (i.e. 'praṇaṣṭe' instead of 'vinaṣṭe'). Besides, the constant problem with numbering, because practically always, the number of the stanza will be 'minus one'. In other words, the stanza 75 in all the texts will be 74 in the Kaumudī:
अनागतायां निद्रायां प्रणष्टे बाह्यगोचरे।
सावस्था मनसा गम्या परा देवी प्रकाशते॥७४॥
निद्रा जागरणरूपोन्मग्नावस्था परावस्थेति कथ्यते सैव च स्फुटीकरणावस्था चितेरिति हि स्थितम्। तथाहि
निद्रादौ जागरस्यान्ते यो भाव उपजायते।
तं भावं भावयन्साक्षादक्षयानन्दमश्नुते॥
Anāgatāyāṁ nidrāyāṁ praṇaṣṭe bāhyagocare|
Sāvasthā manasā gamyā parā devī prakāśate||74||
Nidrā jāgaraṇarūponmagnāvasthā parāvastheti kathyate saiva ca sphuṭīkaraṇāvasthā citeriti hi sthitam| Tathāhi
Nidrādau jāgarasyānte yo bhāva upajāyate|
Taṁ bhāvaṁ bhāvayansākṣādakṣayānandamaśnute||
"When the sleep has not yet come (anāgatāyāṁ nidrāyām) (and) when the external object(s) have disappeared (praṇaṣṭe bāhya-gocare), the mind should concentrate on that state --lit. that state should be perceived by the mind-- (sā avasthā manasā gamyā). (As a result of this concentration,) the Supreme (parā) Goddess (devī) becomes visible (prakāśate)||74||"
The state (avasthā) which appears (unmagna) (and) is sleep (and at the same time) wakefulness --in short, it is between wakefulness and sleep-- (nidrā jāgaraṇa-rūpā) is said to be (iti kathyate) the Supreme State (parā-avasthā) since (hi) it is established that (iti sthitim) this very state (sā eva... avasthā) makes Consciousness evident or manifest (sphuṭīkaraṇā... citeḥ)|
For example (tathāhi), by means of (the following aphorism in Yogavāsiṣṭha), etc. (iti-ādinā), (this teaching) has been --lit. is-- (asti) discussed (nirūpitam):
"(There is) a state (bhāvaḥ) which (yaḥ) appears (upajāyate) at the beginning (ādau) of sleep (nidrā) (and) at the end (ante) of wakefulness (jāgarasya). The one who contemplates (bhāvayan) that state (tam bhāvam) immediately (sākṣāt) attains (aśnute) the imperishable (akṣaya) Bliss (ānanda... iti)"||
All in all, the yogī desiring supernatural powers, enters Turya (the fourth state of Consciousness, the state of the essential Self) in order to attain his goal. However, the yogī desiring Mukti or Liberation does not have this limited goal. Instead, he is going for the experience of Turyātīta (the State beyond Turya, the State of Paramaśiva), which once gotten marks the achievement of Liberation. This is the difference between the two kinds of yogī-s. All this is, of course, Śāmbhavopāya as there is no support (e.g. an object, the middle point between inhalation and exhalation, etc.).
Now the commentaries on the stanza 55 in Vijñānabhairava:
Kṣemarāja/Śivopādhyāya have again a different reading, and this time the change is significant: 'svapnasvātantryamāpnuyāt' (quoted by Kṣemarāja in Spandanirṇaya) appears as 'muktaḥ svātantryamāpnuyāt'. So, the change in the meaning is important. Besides, in my opinion this commentary is not completely exact. I prefer the one by Ānandabhaṭṭa in his Kaumudī, as his description of the process is more exact. Let us see:
पीनं च दुर्बलां शक्तिं ध्यात्वा द्वादशगोचरे।
प्रविश्य हृदये ध्यायन्मुक्तः स्वातन्त्र्यमाप्नुयात्॥५५॥
प्राणशक्तिमादौ पीनां - पीवरां ततः क्रमेण कृशां - सूक्ष्मां भवन्तीं प्राणायामविधिना द्वादशान्ते ध्यात्वा हृदये च यो ध्यायन् स स्वतन्त्रपरमेश्वररूपः स्यात्॥५५॥
Pīnaṁ ca durbalāṁ śaktiṁ dhyātvā dvādaśagocare|
Praviśya hṛdaye dhyāyanmuktaḥ svātantryamāpnuyāt||55||
Prāṇaśaktimādau pīnāṁ — pīvarāṁ tataḥ krameṇa kṛśāṁ — sūkṣmāṁ bhavantīṁ prāṇāyāmavidhinā dvādaśānte dhyātvā hṛdaye ca yo dhyāyan sa svatantraparameśvararūpaḥ syāt||55||
"By meditating (dhyatvā) on the (prāṇa)śakti (śaktim) —which is thick (at first) (pīnām) and (ca) weak --subtle-- (later) (durbalām)—, (and then) penetrating --viz. by making such subtle prāṇaśakti penetrate-- (praviśya) into the (external) dvādaśānta (dvādaśa-gocare) (or else by causing such subtle prāṇaśakti to enter) into the internal dvādaśānta --also called 'heart'-- (hṛdaye), the meditator (dhyāyan) acquires (āpnuyāt) Absolute Freedom (svātantryam) (and accordingly becomes) liberated (muktaḥ)||55||"
By meditating (dhyātvā) on the prāṇaśakti (prāṇa-śaktim) —which is thick or dense (pīnām... pīvarām) at first (ādau), (but which) afterward --lit. after that-- (tatas) gradually becomes (krameṇa... bhavantīm), by the method (vidhinā) of prāṇāyāma (prāṇāyāma), thin or subtle (kṛśām... sūkṣmām)— (as residing) in the (external) dvādaśānta --at the end of twelve fingers from the tip of the nose-- (dvādaśānte) and (ca) in the internal dvādaśānta --also called 'heart'-- (hṛdaye), (such) meditator --lit. the one who meditates (so)-- (yaḥ dhyāyan saḥ) becomes (syāt) the Free and Supreme Lord (svatantra-parama-īśvara-rūpaḥ)||55||
Finally, the commentary by Ānandabhaṭṭa in his Kaumudī and again the same different reading like in the commentary by Kṣemarāja/Śivopādhyāya, and again the same 'minus one' effect regarding the number of the stanza (i.e. 54 and not 55):
पीनं च दुर्बलां शक्तिं ध्यात्वा द्वादशगोचरे।
प्रविश्य हृदये ध्यायन्मुक्तः स्वातन्त्र्यमाप्नुयात्॥५४॥
प्राङशक्तिमादौ पीनम् - अन्नपानादिभोजनदिशा पीनत्वं प्राप्तां ततोऽपि गुरूपदेशमार्गेण कुम्भकादिना सूक्ष्मां भवन्तीं ध्यात्वा ततस्तामेव हृदयादौ प्रावेश्य द्वादशान्ते वा ततः स्वतन्त्रपरमेश्वररूपः स्यादिति निश्चयः॥५४॥
Pīnaṁ ca durbalāṁ śaktiṁ dhyātvā dvādaśagocare|
Praviśya hṛdaye dhyāyanmuktaḥ svātantryamāpnuyāt||54||
Prāṅaśaktimādau pīnam — annapānādibhojanadiśā pīnatvaṁ prāptāṁ tato'pi gurūpadeśamārgeṇa kumbhakādinā sūkṣmāṁ bhavantīṁ dhyātvā tatastāmeva hṛdayādau prāveśya dvādaśānte vā tataḥ svatantraparameśvararūpaḥ syāditi niścayaḥ||54||
"By meditating (dhyatvā) on the (prāṇa)śakti (śaktim) —which is thick (at first) (pīnām) and (ca) weak --subtle-- (later) (durbalām)—, (and then) penetrating --viz. by making such subtle prāṇaśakti penetrate-- (praviśya) into the (external) dvādaśānta (dvādaśa-gocare) (or else by causing such subtle prāṇaśakti to enter) into the internal dvādaśānta --also called 'heart'-- (hṛdaye), the meditator (dhyāyan) acquires (āpnuyāt) Absolute Freedom (svātantryam) (and accordingly becomes) liberated (muktaḥ)||54||"
By meditating (dhyātvā) on the prāṅaśakti (prāṅa-śaktim) —which is thick (pīnam) at first (ādau) [i.e. she becomes thick (pīnatvam prāptām) due to the rule (diśā) with reference to the act of consuming (bhojana) food (anna), drinks (pāna), etc. (ādi)] (but) afterward (tatas api), by means of (mārgeṇa) the teachings (upadeśa) of the Guru (guru), by means of the breath stoppages, etc. (kumbhaka-ādinā), she becomes (bhavantīm) subtle (sūkṣmām)—, (and) after that (tatas), by making her --such subtle prāṅaśakti-- penetrate (tām eva... prāveśya) into the internal dvādaśānta --called hṛdaya--, etc. (hṛdaya-ādau) or (vā) into the (external) dvādaśānta (dvādaśānte), consequently (tatas) it is certain that (iti niścayaḥ) (the meditator) becomes (syāt) the Free and Supreme Lord (svatantra-parama-īśvara-rūpaḥ)||54||
As you can see, the commentary by Ānandabhaṭṭa is more complete and descriptive. This method given here starts with Āṇavopāya but leads to Śāmbhavopāya, and again, you can use it to go after Mukti (Liberation) or to go after ephemeral siddhi-s (supernatural powers).
4 Why is dreaming so important? Because when you are dreaming you are in subtle body (puryaṣṭaka) traveling on saṁskāra-s (impressions of past actions). And it is by means of the subtle body that you will move to another body after leaving the present one (after dying). So, if you can get rid of puryaṣṭaka, you can get rid of Saṁsāra (Transmigration full of pain). Hence the importance of dreaming.
During dreaming, in the case of the yogī who does not neglect his entreaty, the Lord remains in Suṣumnā and from there He reveals all that such a yogī desires. For example: The different absorptions or trances relating to Āṇavopāya, Śāktopāya, Śāmbhavopāya, etc. In other words, He makes that yogī understand and accomplish all the 112 dhāraṇā-s or concentrations postulated in venerable Vijñānabhairava. This yogī abides in yogic sleep (yoganidrā), which was achieved by the method given in the above-mentioned stanza of Vijñānabhairava. He is constantly busy with remembering Spanda to be found in both practices, viz. in the concentration on the vital energy moving with the exhalation as well as in the concentration on the vital energy moving with the inhalation.
Where is He revealing all those things to the persevering yogī? In the mirror of his buddhi or intellect. All the things that this yogī dedicated to the attainment of supernormal powers gets come through his intellect. In the same way, all the Bliss that the other yogī devoted to the achievement of Liberation obtains comes through his buddhi too. This intelligence is purified by the sap of his samādhi, and, I would add, by the studies of the Śiva's scriptures. No doubt that to this spiritual aspirant there is no mayic bewilderment. In this world replete with ignorance, it is very usual to see myriads of people confused about who they are or what is their goal in life or even, silly enough, confused about the existence of God. Well, nothing of this is happening to the referred to yogī. So simple as that!
5 Here Kṣemarāja establishes that by the word 'svapna' in the aphorism, deep sleep is also included. Because both bodies are interconnected (causal and subtle bodies). The passive saṁskāra-s (impressions manufactured by past actions) are stored in the causal body in deep sleep because they are not actively occupied in creating pleasure and pain during the present lifetime. These kinds of karma are known as sañcita and āgāmi (stored and future). On the other hand, the type of karma which is actively busy with granting the good and bad fruits during the current lifetime is called prārabdha (begun). It has started with this lifetime and will not be over till the body dies. As it is giving pleasure and pain, it is working at the level of the subtle body (and not at the level of the causal body as the previous two kinds of karma). During Liberation, if you are to retain your physical body, then sañcita and āgāmi are destroyed but prārabdha stays. Why? Because without the fuel of karma there is no life in a physical body. In the case of the videhamukta-s (the ones who abandon the body during Liberation), all the three types of karma are destroyed, but in the case of the jīvanmukta-s (the ones who retain the body during Liberation), only the first two types of karma are annihilated. Prārabdha must remain in their case or there will be no continuance of life.
Besides, as regards the question about why not leaving sañcita or āgāmi active instead of prārabdha, the answer is simple: Because the prārabdha already began and manufactured the physical body in order for it to experience the consequences of previous actions. If another type of karma could be left active instead of prārabdha after Liberation, so the form of the body would have to drastically change as the entire set of new saṁskāra-s getting enabled demand another kind of body for it experience the respective fruits. A dramatic change in the form of the body of Great Yogī would be disturbing to everybody around. As in general, the Great Yogī will tend to keep his achievement of Liberation hidden, this disturbance regarding the drastic bodily change is not welcome. OK, enough of revealing this!
The difference between a yogī (before Liberation) and the Lord is that the former could neglect his entreaty —he could forget to remember Him—, but He will never neglect His Favor in the form of cessation of the turbidness of Māyā. Māyā is extremely turbid. Hence the constant confusion among people. They experience confusion with reference to the Highest Reality because of her turbidness. When you are covered with this darkness, you move in the range starting with foolish atheists and ending in confused yogī-s who still cannot realize that they are the Supreme Lord. But, if you managed to please Him somehow (although there are standard methods to please Him, e.g. worship, service, etc., the reason why the Lord becomes pleased with a yogī is always shrouded in mystery), then He will confer you the capacity to realize that You are Him.
6 As I said in the previous note: There are standard methods to please Him (worship, service, etc.), but in the end, the right method for you is always a kind of customization of the standard ones. Certainly that the Lord, when pleased, will give the yogī all that he desires to get. But again, why should a yogī desire something apart from Liberation? The yogī-s desiring something else are ones who tread the path of Vibhūti (supernatural powers).
And finally, according to Kṣemarāja, the word 'jāgrataḥ' (lit. of the one who is awake) is used not only with reference to being awake in respect to the Highest Reality but also in respect to common wakefulness. In a nutshell, such a word refers to the one who stays in wakefulness, who does not go to sleep, after the Lord caused the emergence of moon and sun. Now the purport is clear.
यदि पुनरेवं सावधानो न भवति तदा नास्य योगितेत्याह
अन्यथा तु स्वतन्त्रा स्यात्सृष्टिस्तद्धर्मकत्वतः।
सततं लौकिकस्येव जाग्रत्स्वप्नपदद्वये॥३॥
यद्युक्तयुक्त्या नित्यं नाराध्यते धाता तदा स्वस्वरूपस्थित्यभावे सततम्प्रत्यहं लौकिकस्येव चास्य योगिनोऽपि जागरायां स्वप्ने च साधारणासाधारणार्थप्रकाशनतन्निश्चयनादिस्वभावा पारमेश्वरी सृष्टिः स्वतन्त्रा स्याल्लौकिकवद्योगिनमपि संसारावट एवासौ पातयेदित्यर्थः। यथोक्तम्
इति। तद्धर्मकत्वत इति स्वप्नजागरादिपदप्रकाशने भगवत्सृष्टेः स्वातन्त्र्यभावादित्यर्थः॥३॥
Yadi punarevaṁ sāvadhāno na bhavati tadā nāsya yogitetyāha
Anyathā tu svatantrā syātsṛṣṭistaddharmakatvataḥ|
Satataṁ laukikasyeva jāgratsvapnapadadvaye||3||
Yadyuktayuktyā nityaṁ nārādhyate dhātā tadā svasvarūpasthityabhāve satatampratyahaṁ laukikasyeva cāsya yogino'pi jāgarāyāṁ svapne ca sādhāraṇāsādhāraṇārthaprakāśanatanniścayanādisvabhāvā pārameśvarī sṛṣṭiḥ svatantrā syāllaukikavadyoginamapi saṁsārāvaṭa evāsau pātayedityarthaḥ| Yathoktam
iti| Taddharmakatvata iti svapnajāgarādipadaprakāśane bhagavatsṛṣṭeḥ svātantryabhāvādityarthaḥ||3||
(Vasugupta) said that (iti āha): 'However (punar), if (yadi) (someone) is not (na bhavati) attentive (sāvadhānaḥ) in this way (evam), then (tadā) he is not a yogī --lit. the state of a yogī is not his-- (na asya yogitā)'1 :
Otherwise (anyathā tu), the manifesting Power (sṛṣṭiḥ), according to its (tad) characteristics (dharmakatvataḥ), is (syāt) always (satatam) free (svatantrā) (to act) as (iva) in the case of the common people (laukikasya), during the two (dvaye) states (pada) of wakefulness (jāgrat) (and) dream (svapna)||3||
If (yadi), the Sustainer (of this world) (dhātā) is not constantly propitiated (nityam na ārādhyate) according to the aforesaid device (ukta-yuktyā), then (tadā), in the absence (abhāve) of (his --of the yogī--) abiding (sthiti) in his own essential nature (sva-svarūpa), the manifesting Power (sṛṣṭiḥ) —the Power of the Supreme Lord (pārama-īśvarī)—, whose nature (sva-bhāvā) is manifesting, determing, etc. (prakāśana... niścayana-ādi) common and uncommon (sādhāraṇa-asādhāraṇa) things (artha... tad) in wakefulness (jāgarāyām) and (ca) in dreaming state (svapne), is (syāt) always (satatam) —viz. every day (pratyaham)— free (svatantrā) (to act,) even (api) with respect to this yogī (asya yoginaḥ), as (iva) in the case of the common people (laukikasya ca) (regarding what to manifest during those states of waking and dreaming). The sense is that (iti arthaḥ) that --lack of propitiation of the Sustainer of this world, i.e. of the Great Lord-- (asau) makes even the yogī fall (yoginam api... pātayet) into the hole (avaṭe eva) of Transmigration (full of misery) (saṁsāra) as in the case of the ordinary people (laukika-vat)2 |
As (yathā) has been said (uktam):
"The outgoing inclination or tendency (pravṛttiḥ) of the living beings (bhūtānām) comes from the Lord --it is His Will-- (aiśvarī... iti)"|
'Taddharmakatvataḥ' (in the aphorism) --lit. according to its characteristics-- (tad-dharmakatvataḥ iti) (means) according to the condition of Freedom (svātantrya-bhāvāt) belonging to the manifesting Power of the Fortunate One --of the Lord-- (bhagavat-sṛṣṭeḥ) during the display (prakāśane) of the states (pada) of sleep, wakefulness, etc. (svapna-jāgarā-ādi). This is the purport (iti arthaḥ)3 ||3||
1 If someone does not have the treasure of such attention, then he is not a real yogī (whether one going for Liberation or for supernatural powers). By this statement, Vasugupta showed that the vast majority of reputed 'yogī-s' in this world are not real yogī-s. Because when you do not have this kind of constant state of alertness, then the Supreme Power (Śakti) will manifest the things She wishes so, and not what you desire to get. This is what Vasugupta is about to say by the aphorism 3 of this section.
2 Because the yogī forgets to propitiate the Sustainer constantly, then, His manifesting Power will treat him like if he were an ordinary person and make visible to him things like in the case of the common people. In other words, the yogī ceases to be a yogī due to his fault regarding constant ārādhana or propitiation. This marks his return to miserable Saṁsāra teeming with affliction.
By 'common and uncommon things', Kṣemarāja is referring to the 'common' things that are exhibited by the Supreme Power during wakefulness as well as the 'uncommon' things that the same Power display in dreaming. 'Common' in this context means 'perceived by everybody' (e.g. sea, mountains, etc.) and 'uncommon' means 'perceived only by an individual' (e.g. unicorns). The common things remain in wakefulness and can be perceived by everybody around, however, the uncommon things remain in dreaming state and can be perceived only by the dreamer.
3 Every tendency in every individual is the result of Paramaśiva's Will. The expression 'Taddharmakatvataḥ' (according to its characteristics) occurring in the aphorism refers to the characteristics of the Supreme Power. Another name for this Supreme Power is Svātantryaśakti (Power of Absolute Freedom). In a nutshell, She will decide what to manifest during waking, dreaming, etc. from Her own state of Freedom, as in the case of the ordinary people.
एवं स्वप्नसौषुप्तनिर्दलनोपायं सुप्रबुद्धतायै संसाध्य स्पन्दतत्त्वसमावेशोपायं सुप्रबुद्धस्य दृष्टान्तयुक्तिपूर्वकं निरूपयति जिज्ञासितार्थज्ञप्तिरपीत्थं भवतीत्यादिशति
यथा ह्यर्थोऽस्फुटो दृष्टः सावधानोऽपि चेतसि।
भूयः स्फुटतरो भाति स्वबलोद्योगभावितः॥४॥
तथा यत्परमार्थेन येन यत्र यथा स्थितम्।
तत्तथा बलमाक्रम्य न चिरात्सम्प्रवर्तते॥५॥
हिशब्दः किलशब्दार्थे। सावधानेऽपि चेतसि दूरत्वादिदोषैर्यथा किलार्थोऽस्फुटो दृष्टो भूयोऽध्यक्षनिरीक्षणात्मना स्वबलोद्योगेन भावितो भृशमालोकितो न केवलं स्फुटो यावत्स्फुटतरोऽपि भाति तथा यत्स्पन्दतत्त्वात्मकं बलं येनानन्दघनतात्मना परमार्थेन यत्रेति शङ्करात्मनि स्वस्वभावे यथेत्यभेदव्याप्त्या स्थितं तत्कर्तृ तथेति स्वबलोद्योगेनान्तर्मुखतदेकात्मतापरिशीलनप्रयत्नेन सम्भावितं शीघ्रमेव स्फुटतरत्वेन प्रवर्तत अभिव्यज्यते। कथमाक्रम्याराधकस्य कल्पितदेहादिप्रमातृभूमिं स्वात्मन्येव निमग्नां कृत्वाथच स्पन्दात्मकं बलमाक्रम्य स्थितस्य कल्पितदेहबुद्धिप्रमातृभूमिमसकृदुत्तेजयतः साधकस्य योगिनो यज्जिज्ञासितं निधानादि यत्र देशादौ येन हेमादिना परमार्थेन यथा सन्निवेशेन स्थितं तथा तदचिरादेव प्रकाशते॥५॥
Evaṁ svapnasauṣuptanirdalanopāyaṁ suprabuddhatāyai saṁsādhya spandatattvasamāveśopāyaṁ suprabuddhasya dṛṣṭāntayuktipūrvakaṁ nirūpayati jijñāsitārthajñaptirapītthaṁ bhavatītyādiśati
Yathā hyartho'sphuṭo dṛṣṭaḥ sāvadhāno'pi cetasi|
Bhūyaḥ sphuṭataro bhāti svabalodyogabhāvitaḥ||4||
Tathā yatparamārthena yena yatra yathā sthitam|
Tattathā balamākramya na cirātsampravartate||5||
Hiśabdaḥ kilaśabdārthe| Sāvadhāne'pi cetasi dūratvādidoṣairyathā kilārtho'sphuṭo dṛṣṭo bhūyo'dhyakṣanirīkṣaṇātmanā svabalodyogena bhāvito bhṛśamālokito na kevalaṁ sphuṭo yāvatsphuṭataro'pi bhāti tathā yatspandatattvātmakaṁ balaṁ yenānandaghanatātmanā paramārthena yatreti śaṅkarātmani svasvabhāve yathetyabhedavyāptyā sthitaṁ tatkartṛ tatheti svabalodyogenāntarmukhatadekātmatāpariśīlanaprayatnena sambhāvitaṁ śīghrameva sphuṭataratvena pravartata abhivyajyate| Kathamākramyārādhakasya kalpitadehādipramātṛbhūmiṁ svātmanyeva nimagnāṁ kṛtvāthaca spandātmakaṁ balamākramya sthitasya kalpitadehabuddhipramātṛbhūmimasakṛduttejayataḥ sādhakasya yogino yajjijñāsitaṁ nidhānādi yatra deśādau yena hemādinā paramārthena yathā sanniveśena sthitaṁ tathā tadacirādeva prakāśate||5||
Thus (evam), after establishing --i.e. proving-- (saṁsādhya) the means (upāyam) to cleave asunder (nirdalana) the states of dreaming and deep sleep (svapna-sauṣupta) for attaining the state of the perfectly awakened (suprabuddhatāyai), (Vasugupta) defines (nirūpayati), based on (pūrvakam) example and reasoning (dṛṣṭānta-yukti), the means (upāyam) of absorption (samāveśa) into the principle (tattva) of Spanda (spanda) for the perfectly awakened (suprabuddhasya), (and) points out that (iti ādiśati) the process of knowing (jñaptiḥ) the object (artha) which is desired to be known (jijñāsita) takes also place (bhavati) in this way (ittham)1 :
Undoubtedly (hi), just as (yathā) a thing (arthaḥ) that is perceived (dṛṣṭaḥ) indistinctly (asphuṭam) (at first), even though (api) an (extremely) attentive (sa-avadhāne) mind (cetasi) (might be involved in the process of perception), appears (bhāti) more clearly (sphuṭataraḥ) afterward (bhūyas), when beheld (bhāvitaḥ) with the vigorous exertion (udyoga) of one's own (sva) power (bala), so (tathā), by grabbing hold (ākramya) of the (Cosmic) Force (balam), whatever thing (yad) which actually (paramārthena) exists (sthitam) in any form (yena), in any place (yatra), in any condition (yathā), that (very thing) (tad) is immediately (na cirāt) manifested (sampravartate) in that manner (tathā)||4-5||
The word (śabdaḥ) 'hi' (hi) means 'kila' --indeed, certainly, undoubtedly, etc.-- (kila-arthe)|
Undoubtedly (kila), just as (yathā) a thing (arthaḥ) that is perceived (dṛṣṭaḥ) as indistinct (asphuṭaḥ) (at first), even though (api) an (extremely) attentive (sa-avadhāne) mind (cetasi) (might be involved in the process of perception) —due to the errors (in such perception) (doṣaiḥ) relating to the distance (dūratva), etc. (ādi)—, appears (bhāti) not only (na kevalam) clearly (sphuṭaḥ) but (yāvat) even (api) more clearly (sphuṭataraḥ) afterward (bhūyas) when beheld (bhāvitaḥ) —when minutely examined --lit. strongly looked at-- (bhṛśam ālokitaḥ)— with the vigorous exertion (udyoga) of one's own (sva) power (bala) connected with seeing (nirīkṣaṇa-ātmanā) something perceptible (adhyakṣa), so (tathā), whatever thing (yad) —i.e. whatever (yad) power (balam) of the principle of Spanda (spanda-tattva-ātmakam)— which actually (parama-arthena) exists (sthitam) in any form (yena) —i.e. in anything whose nature (ātmanā) is a compact mass (ghana) of Bliss (ānanda)—, 'in any place' (yatra iti) —i.e. in one's own essential nature (sva-svabhāve) that is Śaṅkara --Śiva-- (śaṅkara-ātmani)—, 'in any condition' (yathā iti) —i.e. in the form of a penetration (vyāptyā) into non-duality (abheda)—, that (very thing) (tad) —the subject of the sentence --viz. 'tad' is in nominative case-- (kartṛ)— quickly (śīghram eva) arises (pravartate) —i.e. becomes manifest (abhivyajyate)— more clearly (sphuṭataratvena) 'in that manner' (tathā iti) —(that very thing) is (quickly) brought about (sambhāvitam) by the vigorous exertion (udyoga) of one's own (sva) power (bala) —i.e. by means of the persevering effort (prayatnena) of the practice (pariśīlana) of unity (ekātmatā) with that (compact mass of Bliss) (tad) which resides inside (antarmukha)—2 |
How? (katham) By grabbing hold (ākramya) (of the Cosmic Force of Spanda, in other words), by submerging (nimagnām kṛtvā) the invented stage (kalpita... bhūmim) of experient/knower (pramātṛ) of body, etc. (deha-ādi) belonging --the invented stage-- to the worshiper (ārādhakasya) in his own Self (sva-ātmani eva). And likewise (athaca), (this would be another interpretation of the stanza 5:) In the case of a yogī/spiritual aspirant who keeps (sthitasya... sādhakasya yoginaḥ) grabbing hold (ākramya) of the (Cosmic) Force (balam) of Spanda (spanda-ātmakam) by repeatedly instigating/provoking (asakṛt uttejayataḥ) the stage (bhūmim) of invented (kalpita) experient/knower (pramātṛ) of body and intellect (deha-buddhi), whatever thing (yad) desired to be known (jijñāsitam) (by him), e.g. a treasure, etc. (nidhāna-ādi), (situated) in any place (yatra) —in a (certain) region, etc. (deśa-ādau)—, in any form (yena) —as actual gold, etc. (hema-ādinā parama-arthena), in any condition (yathā) —having a (certain) appearance --lit. remaining with an appearance-- (sanniveśena sthitam)—, that (very thing) (tad) becomes immediately manifest (acirāt eva prakāśate) in that manner (tathā)3 ||5||
1 By means of all the knowledge displayed by Vasugupta, a yogī endowed with persevering effort and alertness can destroy the play of the three states of consciousness (waking, dreaming and deep sleep). These three are kṛtrima or artificial, and the proof of it lies in their constant rotating. What is Real is permanent. The state of Turya is 'akṛtrima' or non-artificial. It is Real because it is permanent. But, how did one arrive at the condition in which waking, dreaming and deep sleep reign supreme? Due to the primordial ignorance (Āṇavamala) that massively contracts the Will of the Lord. But despite that heavy contraction, the state of Turya runs through the other three states like a thread through beads in a necklace. Though Turya is present at all moments in the background, only a very advanced disciple (or directly an enlightened person) can realize it during the unfoldment of the ordinary states (wakefulness, dreaming and deep sleep). To the vast majority of spiritual aspirants will be much easier to detect Turya in the union between such states: Between waking and dreaming, between dreaming and deep sleep, and between deep sleep and waking. Obviously that the first case (between waking and dreaming) is the most simple approach at first, but the other points of revelation are also possible as one advances in spirituality. These unions, these gaps between the states, are just points of entrance to Turya. Turya is the essential state of every living being. It is the state of the Self. Anyway, due to the abnormality unleashed by Āṇavamala, now the individual lives in the wretched wakefulness, dreaming and deep sleep, which are considered to be real treasures by the ignorant.
Now Vasugupta defines, based on example and reasoning, the means of samādhi into the Supreme Power which is Svātantryaśakti or Power of Absolute Freedom. But this is now in the case of the suprabuddha or perfectly awakened one, and not in the case of spiritual aspirants (disciples). Why? Because with all the previous explanation Vasugupta already gave is enough to generate a suprabuddha. As this is the firm conviction of the author (Vasugupta), now he is elucidating everything but in the case of the suprabuddha. In these aphorisms 4 and 5, Vasugupta establishes the process of knowing the object which is desired to be known. This process takes place in this way, that is, as pointed out in the aphorisms 4 and 5.
2 At first, Kṣemarāja indicates that the particle 'hi' is to be understood as having the meaning of 'kila', i.e. 'indeed, certainly, undoubtedly, etc.'. He did so because 'hi' has other meanings, e.g. because. But now, thanks to the indication by Kṣemarāja, the purport is very clear.
The analogy is related to someone seeing something from a long distance at first. The object being seen looks like indistinct even if the one watching has an attentive mind. But later, through the strenuous exertion of one's cakṣurindriya or power of seeing, the same thing appears not only clearly but even more clearly. In the same way, whatever power or śakti of the Spanda principle, which actually exists in any form, in any place and in any condition, that very thing quickly becomes manifest more clearly in that manner by the vigorous exertion of one's own power. According to Kṣemarāja, the meaning of 'in any form' is 'in anything which is of the nature of a compact mass of Bliss, viz. Paramaśiva'. In turn, 'in any place' would mean 'in one's own Self who is Śiva', because He is a compact mass and therefore occupies every place. And 'in any condition' should be interpreted as 'in the form of a penetration into non-duality'. Why? Because however the condition of that thing may be, it is a power or śakti of the Spanda principle. Therefore, it is fit for being penetrated by the non-dualistic viewpoint. In other words, it is fit for being assimilated into His Light. And because all this is so, that thing can be quickly brought about by the strenuous exertion of one's own power, viz. by means of the device of alaṁgrāsa, which has to do with constant perception of unity in all the things. Because the compact mass of Bliss exists in oneself as it exists in the thing which is desired, by constant practice of unity with the internal compact mass of Bliss there is revelation of such thing which is also nothing else but a compact mass of Bliss. OK, now it is clear, I guess. The key to success in Yoga is always 'to be aware of one's own Self'.
3 How to do all this? By being aware of one's own Self (as I pointed out at the end of the previous note of explanation). By grabbing hold of the Cosmic Force of Spanda, i.e. by dissolving the invented ego in the ocean-like Self of everybody. Following, Kṣemarāja indicates another interpretation of the aphorisms:
If a yogī or spiritual aspirant becomes extremely conscious of the Cosmic Force of Spanda in himself. How? By repeatedly instigating/provoking his limited individuality which is nothing but an invention, i.e. by challenging his sense of individuality by means of constant remembrance of the unity of all things. Then, as a result, whatever thing he wants to know, e.g. a treasure, etc. situated in any region, etc., as actual gold, silver, etc., and having any appearance, that very thing immediately appears before him in that manner. And there is no doubt about it. Anyway, the final way to find out if all this is true lies in developing a firm grip on Spanda at all times. Without this actual development of awareness, the entire thing just becomes mere bookish theory.
कर्तृशक्त्यादिरप्यमुत एव बलात्प्रादुर्भवतीत्याह
दुर्बलोऽपि तदाक्रम्य यतः कार्ये प्रवर्तते।
आच्छादयेद्बुभुक्षां च तथा योऽतिबुभुक्षितः॥६॥
यथा क्षीणधातुरृषिप्रायः सोऽपि स्पन्दात्मकं बलमाक्रम्य स्पन्दसमावेशबलेन प्राणप्रमातृभूमिमसकृदुत्तेज्य कार्येऽवश्यकर्तव्ये कर्मणि प्रवर्ततेऽशक्यमपि वस्तु तद्बलाक्रमणेनैव करोतीत्यर्थः। तथा योऽप्यतिबुभुक्षितः सोऽपि तद्बलाक्रान्त्या क्षुत्पिपासादि शमयति। नहि चिद्घनां भूमिमनुप्रविष्टस्य द्वन्द्वाभिभवः कश्चित्प्राणादिभुव एव तदाश्रयत्वात्तस्याश्चेह चिद्भूमौ निमग्नत्वात्॥६॥
Kartṛśaktyādirapyamuta eva balātprādurbhavatītyāha
Durbalo'pi tadākramya yataḥ kārye pravartate|
Ācchādayedbubhukṣāṁ ca tathā yo'tibubhukṣitaḥ||6||
Yathā kṣīṇadhāturṛṣiprāyaḥ so'pi spandātmakaṁ balamākramya spandasamāveśabalena prāṇapramātṛbhūmimasakṛduttejya kārye'vaśyakartavye karmaṇi pravartate'śakyamapi vastu tadbalākramaṇenaiva karotītyarthaḥ| Tathā yo'pyatibubhukṣitaḥ so'pi tadbalākrāntyā kṣutpipāsādi śamayati| Nahi cidghanāṁ bhūmimanupraviṣṭasya dvandvābhibhavaḥ kaścitprāṇādibhuva eva tadāśrayatvāttasyāśceha cidbhūmau nimagnatvāt||6||
(Vasugupta) said that (iti āha): 'Hence (amutas eva) even (api) the power (śakti) of doing (kartṛ), etc. (ādiḥ) become manifest --lit. becomes manifest-- (prādurbhavati) from the (Cosmic) Force (balāt)1 ':
Even (api) a weak person (durbalaḥ), by grabbing hold (ākramya) of that (Spanda or Cosmic Force) (tad), is engaged (in doing) (pravartate) what is to be done (kārye) (and succeeds subsequently) through that very Principle (yatas). Likewise (ca tathā), he who (yaḥ) is extremely hungry (ati-bubhukṣitaḥ) conceals (āchādayet) (his) desire to eat (bubhukṣām)||6||
The sense is that (iti arthaḥ), just as (yathā) even (api) the sage who abstains from eating (ṛṣi-prāyaḥ saḥ), whose essential bodily ingredients (dhātuḥ) are weakened (kṣīṇa), by grabbing hold (ākramya) of the (Cosmic) Force (balam) of Spanda (spanda-ātmakam) (and) by repeatedly instigating (asakṛt uttejya) the stage (bhūmim) of experient/knower (pramātṛ) of the vital energy (prāṇa), is engaged (in doing) (pravartate) what is to be done (kārye) —the action (karmaṇi) which is necessary to be done (avaśyakartavye)—, i.e. he does (karoti), by taking hold (ākramaṇena eva) of that (Cosmic) Force (tad-bala), what seemed impossible (aśakyam api vastu); likewise (tathā), even (api... api) he who (yaḥ... saḥ) is extremely hungry (ati-bubhukṣitaḥ) appeases (śamayati) (his) hunger, thirst, etc. (kṣut-pipāsā-ādi) by grabbing (ākrāntyā) that (Cosmic) Force (tad-bala)2 |
For someone who has entered (anupraviṣṭasya) the stage (bhūmim) of the compact mass of Consciousness (cit-ghanām), there is no (nahi... kaścid) subjugation (abhibhavaḥ) under the pairs of opposite (dvandva) because the stage of vital energy, etc. is the substratum of that --of the pairs of opposite-- (prāṇa-ādi-bhuva eva tad-āśrayatvāt), and (ca) since here --i.e. in the context of a fully liberated person-- that --the stage of vital energy, etc.-- is submerged in the stage of Consciousness (tasyāḥ... iha cit-bhūmau nimagnatvāt)3 ||6||
1 Now Vasugupta is on the point of showing the key to be successful in the achievement of supernatural powers which are based on power of doing, etc. It is always the same grabbing hold of the Spanda principle. And even in the case of the yogī who is only interested in Mukti or Liberation, the same rule is valid, viz. one should constantly grab hold of the principle of Spanda. One way to do it is to realize that Spanda in the body is behind the senses. Most senses are residing in the skull. In this way, concentration on the center of the skull as the dwelling place of Spanda is a way to gain entrance to It. Very simple method, but anyway it is so difficult to practice. Why? Because one's Māyā will insist on keeping you busy, outside and inside, with a pile of idiocy (a pile of trifles which, nonetheless, rob you of your time every day). This is the force of ignorance being rooted in Āṇavamala. Without this in the middle, the attainment of Liberation and supernatural powers would be almost like a stroll in the park. However, a few people among the mass of ignorant beings can start to practice like this during longer and longer periods of time. This kind of being is known as yogī or a person endowed with knowledge and capacity enough as to find time for keeping his attention concentrated on higher pursuits in life. That is why Vasugupta warned about this in the aphorism 3, when affirmed that if the practitioner is not constantly attentive to the principle of Spanda, i.e. that if the practitioner is not a real yogī, then Spanda can do as It wishes, as in the case of common people.
2 Even a sage who is fasting, in whom the seven essential ingredients of his body (chyle, blood, flesh, fat, bone, marrow and semen) are weakened, if he holds on to the Cosmic Force of Spanda while at the same time repeatedly instigates his limited individuality (by challenging it, by casting doubt on it) --he believes that he depends on vital energy because he is convinced that if he cannot breathe for some reason, he will cease to exist--, then he will be successful in all his undertakings. And what it seemed to be impossible becomes possible. And in the same way, someone who is hungry, thirsty, etc. can appease his strong desire to eat, drink, etc. by the same device of holding on to the Spanda principle.
3 If a yogī has penetrated into the stage of the compact mass of Consciousness (Paramaśiva), then for him there is no subjugation under 'dvandva-s' or pairs of opposite (e.g. heat/cold, pleasant/unpleasant, etc.). Why? Because prāṇa (vital energy) is the foundation of those pairs of opposite. Therefore, since the stage of prāṇa is submerged in the stage of the compact mass of Consciousness, in Paramaśiva, it is impossible for him to be under the sway of dvandva-s.
अनेनाधिष्ठिते देहे यथा सर्वज्ञतादयः।
तथा स्वात्मन्यधिष्ठानात्सर्वत्रैवं भविष्यति॥७॥
अनेन स्वस्वभावात्मना स्पन्दतत्त्वेनाधिष्ठिते व्याप्ते देहे सति यथा तदवस्थोचितार्थानुभवकरणादिरूपाः सर्वज्ञतासर्वकर्तृतादयो धर्मा आविर्भवन्ति देहिनस्तथा यद्ययं कूर्माङ्गसङ्कोचवत्सर्वोपसंहारेण महाविकासयुक्त्या वा स्वस्मिन्ननपायिन्यात्मनि चिद्रूपेऽधिष्ठानं करोत्युक्ताभिज्ञानप्रत्यभिज्ञाते तत्रैव समावेशस्थितिं बध्नाति तदा सर्वत्रेति शिवादौ क्षित्यन्त एवमिति शङ्करतदुचितसर्वज्ञतासर्वकर्तृतादिरूपो भविष्यति॥७॥
Anenādhiṣṭhite dehe yathā sarvajñatādayaḥ|
Tathā svātmanyadhiṣṭhānātsarvatraivaṁ bhaviṣyati||7||
Anena svasvabhāvātmanā spandatattvenādhiṣṭhite vyāpte dehe sati yathā tadavasthocitārthānubhavakaraṇādirūpāḥ sarvajñatāsarvakartṛtādayo dharmā āvirbhavanti dehinastathā yadyayaṁ kūrmāṅgasaṅkocavatsarvopasaṁhāreṇa mahāvikāsayuktyā vā svasminnanapāyinyātmani cidrūpe'dhiṣṭhānaṁ karotyuktābhijñānapratyabhijñāte tatraiva samāveśasthitiṁ badhnāti tadā sarvatreti śivādau kṣityanta evamiti śaṅkarataducitasarvajñatāsarvakartṛtādirūpo bhaviṣyati||7||
As (yatas) in this way (evam), by following (anusāreṇa) the reasoning-based (upapatti) method (krama) (shown) in the aforesaid (ukta) aphorism (sūtra) --in the previous aphorism--, '(does) take place (bhavati) (the appearance of) a multitude (samudāyaḥ) of such (īdṛk) supernatural powers (siddhi) from this --from the application of that method-- (asmāt... iti)', therefore (atas)1 :
Just as (yathā) (there is) omniscience (sarvajñatā), etc. (ādayaḥ) (with regard to the body) when the body is governed or presided (adhiṣṭhite dehe) by this (principle of Spanda) (anena), so (also) (tathā), through the establishment (adhiṣṭhānāt) in one's own (sva) Self (ātmani), there will be (bhaviṣyati) thus (evam) everywhere (sarvatra)||7||
Just as (yathā) the attributes (dharmāḥ) of omniscience, omnipotence, etc. (sarvajñatā-sarvakartṛtā-ādayaḥ) —in the form of (rūpāḥ) experiences, instruments, etc. (anubhava-karaṇa-ādi) with reference to things (artha) suitable (ucita) to that state (tad-avasthā)— get manifest (āvirbhavanti) to the embodied being (dehinaḥ) when the body is governed or presided —i.e. pervaded— (adhiṣṭhite vyāpte dehe sati) by this principle of Spanda (anena... spanda-tattvena) which is his own essential nature (sva-sva-bhāva-ātmanā), so (also) (tathā) if (yadi) this (embodied being) (ayam), by withdrawing (upasaṁhāreṇa) all (sarva) like (vat) the contraction (saṅkoca) of a tortoise's limbs (kūrma-aṅga) or (vā) by the device (yuktyā) of the great (mahā) expansion (vikāsa), gets established (adhiṣṭhānam karoti) in his own imperishable Self (svasmin anapāyini ātmani) who is Consciousness (cid-rūpe) —(in other words,) he directs (badhnāti) (his) state (sthitim) of absorption (samāveśa) toward That Itself --toward this imperishable Self-- (tatra eva), which is recognized (pratyabhijñāte) by the aforesaid (ukta) signs or tokens serving as a proof (abhijñāna)—, then (tadā) there will be (bhaviṣyati) thus (evam) omniscience, omnipotence, etc. (sarvajñatā-sarvakartṛtā-ādi-rūpaḥ) —which are adequate (tad-ucita) to Śaṅkara --Śiva-- (śaṅkara)— 'everywhere' (sarvatra iti), from Śivatattva --category 1 of the universal manifestation-- (śiva-ādau) down to the element earth --category 36-- (kṣiti-ante)2 ||7||
2 Omniscience, omnipotence, etc. with regard to the body appear when the yogī realizes Spanda in the body. But these powers will only reside where the body resides. This is the goal of a yogī only interested in supernatural powers. However, if such yogī turns the attention away from those limited powers and, by the devices of saṅkoca (contraction of a tortoise's limbs) or vikāsa (great expansion), direct it to the Core of Spanda, to Paramaśiva Himself, then his omniscience, omnipotence, etc. will reside everywhere (from the first to the last tattva or category of manifestation) and not only in the body. This is the difference between a yogī who is only interested in miserable supernatural powers tied to the body and a yogī who goes after Liberation.
The device of saṅkoca consists in retracting all the senses inward. It is related to Nimīlanasamādhi (trance with closed eyes). In turn, the device of vikāsa consists in the opposite, i.e. in fully opening all the senses while at the same time the attention is firmly concentrated on the inner Reality. It is related to Unmīlanasamādhi (trance with closed eyes). The first device is connected with Ātmavyāpti (inherence in the inner Self) while the second one is connected with Śivavyāpti (inherence in Śiva, in the Cosmic Self). Obviously, the second device is much more important than the first one. A beautiful example of vikāsa is given by Kṣemarāja while commenting on I, 11 of this Spandanirṇaya.
Besides, this Paramaśiva or Supreme Śiva is recognizable by the aforesaid signs or tokens serving as a proof, i.e. it is possible to recognize Him as dwelling in the state of Turyātīta (beyond Turya). But firstly one must enter Turya in the way which was explained before. Also, it is possible to reason about Him in the way which has been taught in this scripture and in many other ones.
ग्लानिर्विलुण्ठिका देहे तस्याश्चाज्ञानतः सृतिः।
तदुन्मेषविलुप्तं चेत्कुतः सा स्यादहेतुका॥८॥
देहे या ग्लानिरर्थाद्देहाभिमानिनः पुंसो यो हर्षक्षयोऽसौ विलुण्ठिका परसंविद्द्रविणापहारेण पारिमित्यदौर्गत्यप्रदा तस्याश्च ग्लानेरज्ञानतश्चिदानन्दघनस्वस्वरूपाप्रत्यभिज्ञानात्सृतिरुद्भवोऽवस्थितिश्च। तदज्ञानं प्रदर्शयिष्यमाणस्वरूपेणोन्मेषरूपेण चेद्विलुप्तं निकृत्तं तदासौ ग्लानिरज्ञानात्मनो हेतोरभावात्कुतः स्यान्न भवेदित्यर्थः। ग्लान्यभावे च देहेऽवश्यं भाविन्यो व्याध्यादिसन्तापावस्था अपि यथा यथा योगिनोऽपकृष्यन्ते तथा तथा हेम्न इवातिताप्यमानस्य कालिकापगमे स्वस्वरूपं देदीप्यत एव। एवं च देहावस्थितस्यापि सर्वदा ग्लान्यभाव एव परयोगिनो विभूतिः। यथोक्तं परमयोगिन्या मदालसया बालदारकान् प्रयोगीकुर्वत्या
त्वं कञ्चुके शीर्यमाणे निजेऽस्मिन्देहे हेये मूढतां मा व्रजेथाः।
शुभाशुभैः कर्मभिर्देहमेतन्मदादिभिः कञ्चुकस्ते निबद्धः॥
इति मितसिद्ध्यभिलाषिणो योगिनः समावेशाभ्यासरसेन देहं विध्यतो वलीपलितादिव्याधिजयो भवतीत्यपि भङ्ग्यानेन प्रतिपादितम्॥८॥
Glānirviluṇṭhikā dehe tasyāścājñānataḥ sṛtiḥ|
Tadunmeṣaviluptaṁ cetkutaḥ sā syādahetukā||8||
Dehe yā glānirarthāddehābhimāninaḥ puṁso yo harṣakṣayo'sau viluṇṭhikā parasaṁviddraviṇāpahāreṇa pārimityadaurgatyapradā tasyāśca glānerajñānataścidānandaghanasvasvarūpāpratyabhijñānātsṛtirudbhavo'vasthitiśca| Tadajñānaṁ pradarśayiṣyamāṇasvarūpeṇonmeṣarūpeṇa cedviluptaṁ nikṛttaṁ tadāsau glānirajñānātmano hetorabhāvātkutaḥ syānna bhavedityarthaḥ| Glānyabhāve ca dehe'vaśyaṁ bhāvinyo vyādhyādisantāpāvasthā api yathā yathā yogino'pakṛṣyante tathā tathā hemna ivātitāpyamānasya kālikāpagame svasvarūpaṁ dedīpyata eva| Evaṁ ca dehāvasthitasyāpi sarvadā glānyabhāva eva parayogino vibhūtiḥ| Yathoktaṁ paramayoginyā madālasayā bāladārakān prayogīkurvatyā
Tvaṁ kañcuke śīryamāṇe nije'smindehe heye mūḍhatāṁ mā vrajethāḥ|
Śubhāśubhaiḥ karmabhirdehametanmadādibhiḥ kañcukaste nibaddhaḥ||
iti mitasiddhyabhilāṣiṇo yoginaḥ samāveśābhyāsarasena dehaṁ vidhyato valīpalitādivyādhijayo bhavatītyapi bhaṅgyānena pratipāditam||8||
(Vasugpta) said that (iti āha) even (api) this (idam) (takes place) through His Favor (etad-prasādena)1 :
Depression (glāniḥ) (is like) a plunderer (viluṇṭhikā) in the body (dehe). It glides (tasyāḥ ca... sṛtiḥ) from ignorance (ajñānataḥ). If (ced) it is destroyed (viluptam) by that (tad) Unmeṣa --see the next aphorism-- (unmeṣa), how (kutas) might that (depression) exist (sā syāt) without (its) cause (ahetukā)?||8||
As a matter of fact (arthāt), depression (glāniḥ) which resides in the body (dehe yā) (amounts to) the destruction of Joy (yaḥ harṣa-kṣayaḥ) belonging to a person (puṁsaḥ) who is proud (abhimāninaḥ) of (his) body (deha) --i.e. who erroneously considers his body to be his Self--. That (asau) plunderer (viluṇṭhikā), by taking away (apahāreṇa) the wealth (draviṇa) of the Highest Consciousness (para-saṁvid), grants (pradā) misery (daurgatya) in the form of limitation (pārimitya). And (ca) that depression glides, springs and continues --lit. there is gliding, springing and continuance in the case of that depression-- (tasyāḥ... glāneḥ... sṛtiḥ udbhavaḥ avasthitiḥ ca) from ignorance (ajñānataḥ) —from non-recognition (apratyabhijñānāt) that one's own essential nature (sva-sva-rūpa) is a compact mass (ghana) of Consciousness and Bliss (cit-ānanda)2 |
If (ced) that ignorance (tad-ajñānam) is destroyed/cut off (viluptam nikṛttam) by Unmeṣa (unmeṣa-rūpeṇa), whose nature (sva-rūpeṇa) will be shown later on (pradarśayiṣyamāṇa), then (tadā) that (asau) depression (glāniḥ), due to the absence (abhāvāt) of (its) cause (hetoḥ) whose essence is ignorance (ajñāna-ātmanaḥ), how (kutas) might it exist (syāt)? It might not exist (na bhavet). This is the meaning (iti arthaḥ)3 |
And (ca) in the absence of depression (glāni-abhāve) in the body (dehe), the future/inevitable (bhāvinyaḥ) states (avasthāḥ) of affliction (santāpa) (such as) physical sickness (vyādhi), etc. (ādi) (are) also (absent) (api) indeed (avaśyam). In the case of the yogī (yoginaḥ), the more (yathā yathā) (such states of affliction) will diminish ---lit. they diminish- (apakṛṣyante), the more (tathā tathā) his essential nature (sva-sva-rūpam) will shine intensely --lit. shines intensely-- (dedīpyate eva) like (iva) with reference to gold (hemnaḥ), which when gets very hot (atitāpyamānasya) shines intensely (dedīpyate eva) when the dross is removed (kālikā-apagame)4 |
In this way (evam ca), the absence (abhāvaḥ eva) of depression (glāni) while he is still residing (avasthitasya api) in the body (deha) (is) the glory/the manifestation of might (vibhūtiḥ) of the highest Yogī (para-yoginaḥ)|
As has been said (yathā uktam) by the supreme Yoginī Madālasā (parama-yoginyā madālasayā) while addressing (prayogī-kurvatyā) (her) little child --lit. young child-- (bāla-dārakān):
"You (tvam), do not become a fool (mūḍhatām mā vrajethāḥ) as regards this body (asmin dehe) of yours (nije), which is a decaying sheath (kañcuke śīryamāṇe) (and) which is to be abandoned (heye). This (etad) body (deham) (is) a sheath (kañcukaḥ) tied (nibaddhaḥ) to you (te) by (your) good and bad actions (śubha-aśubhaiḥ karmabhiḥ) (and) by (your) arrogance, etc. (madā-ādibhiḥ... iti)5 "||
(See Mārkaṇḍeyapurāṇa 25, 14)
By means of this --by means of the stanza of Madālasā-- (anena) it has also been explained indirectly that (iti api bhaṅgyā... pratipāditam) to the yogī desirous of limited supernatural powers (mita-siddhi-abhilāṣiṇaḥ yoginaḥ) who pierces/perforates (vidhyataḥ) (his) body (deham) with the sap (rasena) of the practice (abhyāsa) of absorption --samādhi-- (samāveśa) there is (bhavati) conquest (jayaḥ) of ailments (vyādhi) (such as) wrinkles, gray hairs, etc. (valī-palita-ādi)6 ||8||
2 Depression in this context amounts to the psychological one (the one based on mental processes) and not to the organic one (the one based on problems with the organs of the body), in my opinion. People suffering from madness are not included here either. The author, in my humble opinion, is speaking about the usual depression related to lack of accomplishments in life (about not having a good job, a family and similar trivialities).
Depression in a person indicates that that person is not in the possession of a real I (the essential nature). This depression destroys all possibility of Joy. This occurs in a person who is proud of his body, who is attached to his body as if it were his own Self. This act of considering the body to be the real Self is the direct outcome of the second aspect of Āṇavamala (primordial ignorance) called Bauddhājñāna (intellectual ignorance). The first aspect is Pauruṣājñāna or ignorance about the Self.
Depression is considered to be a plunderer since it takes away the wealth of the Highest Consciousness and gives instead misery in the form of limitation replete with pain. Depression sucks a lot of energy and leaves the person in a horrible condition. When it is strong, even people around that person start to feel their own energy down. Depression comes from ignorance, i.e. from not recognizing that one's essential nature is a compact mass of Consciousness and Bliss. The liberated person is always beholding the Marvel which is his own essential nature, so how could he be depressed? In the presence of such Consciousness and Bliss, how could depression survive in him? It could not!
3 But, if by Unmeṣa (which will be defined in the next aphorism) such ignorance is totally destroyed, then depression can never become manifest due to the absence of its cause. This is clear, isn't it?
4 And, if there is no depression in the body, then all the future states full of pain such as physical sickness, etc. are absent too. The more these states full of pain are removed, the more one's essential nature will shine, i.e. the more it will be recognized. Like gold getting very hot due to the increasing fire fully shines when all the impurities in it are removed.
5 And this is the mark of the highest Yogī, that he is completely devoid of depression. He is not a constant winner in life (he is not superhero!). He can lose too, but he does not become depressed. He is not attached to the fruits of his actions. As this is so, how could depression overpower him?
Arrogance regarding the body is pretty usual. If you cannot see it in yourself, you can see it in other people, specially in the ones who are considered to be 'famous' in this world. All the time carrying this ignorant viewpoint about their miserable physical bodies that are now and tomorrow will be dumped in a hole. And all the rest of fans always fascinated about the bodies of their idols. All this is just ignorance which will unleash tremendous affliction sooner or later. A liberated person cannot be a fan of anyone because he has perceived his own Self. Once you perceive the Highest Reality, there is nothing 'higher' to perceive and become fascinated about. He cannot admire anyone specifically because the Self is one in all of them and because their bodies, due to their fleeting nature, are anything but something to be admired. The teachings are completely clear then.
6 By means of the aforesaid stanza of Madālasā, there is something which is indirectly insinuated: That the yogī looking for supernormal faculties, due to his practice of samādhi in which the body is just secondary, gets the capacity of being free from usual ailments such as wrinkles, gray hairs, etc. This is the meaning.
अथ योऽयमुन्मेषः स किंस्वरूपः किमुपायलभ्यश्चेत्याकाङ्क्षायामाह
एकचिन्ताप्रसक्तस्य यतः स्यादपरोदयः।
उन्मेषः स तु विज्ञेयः स्वयं तमुपलक्षयेत्॥९॥
भावे त्यक्ते निरुद्धा चिन्नैव भावान्तरं व्रजेत्।
तदा तन्मध्यभावेन विकसत्यति भावना॥
इति नीत्यैकस्यां कस्याञ्चिदालम्बनविशेषनिभृतविकारात्मिकायां चिन्तायां प्रसक्तस्यैकाग्रीभूतस्य योगिनो यत इति तदेकाग्रताप्रकर्षोल्लसत्संवित्स्फारतस्तदालम्बननिमीलनाज्झटिति ग्रस्तसमस्तचिन्तासन्ततेरग्नीषोमाविभेदात्मनः स्पन्दतत्त्वादपर एवोदयश्चिच्चमत्कारात्मान्य एव लोकोत्तर उल्लासः स्यात्स तच्चमत्कारोन्मेषकत्वादेवोन्मेषो विज्ञातव्योऽन्वेषणीय इत्थमेव योगिना ज्ञातुं शक्यस्ततश्च स्वयमिति इदन्ताविषयत्वाभावादकृतकप्रयत्नात्मनावधानेनाहन्तयैवोपेत्यात्मनि लक्षयेदसाधारणेन चमत्करात्मना प्रत्यभिजानीयात्। यत एकस्यां विषयविचारादिचिन्तायां प्रसक्तस्यापरस्याश्चिन्ताया झटित्युदयः स्यात्स चिन्ताद्वयव्यापक उन्मेष इत्यन्ये॥९॥
Atha yo'yamunmeṣaḥ sa kiṁsvarūpaḥ kimupāyalabhyaścetyākāṅkṣāyāmāha
Ekacintāprasaktasya yataḥ syādaparodayaḥ|
Unmeṣaḥ sa tu vijñeyaḥ svayaṁ tamupalakṣayet||9||
Bhāve tyakte niruddhā cinnaiva bhāvāntaraṁ vrajet|
Tadā tanmadhyabhāvena vikasatyati bhāvanā||
Iti nītyaikasyāṁ kasyāñcidālambanaviśeṣanibhṛtavikārātmikāyāṁ cintāyāṁ prasaktasyaikāgrībhūtasya yogino yata iti tadekāgratāprakarṣollasatsaṁvitsphāratastadālambananimīlanājjhaṭiti grastasamastacintāsantateragnīṣomāvibhedātmanaḥ spandatattvādapara evodayaściccamatkārātmānya eva lokottara ullāsaḥ syātsa taccamatkāronmeṣakatvādevonmeṣo vijñātavyo'nveṣaṇīya itthameva yoginā jñātuṁ śakyastataśca svayamiti idantāviṣayatvābhāvādakṛtakaprayatnātmanāvadhānenāhantayaivopetyātmani lakṣayedasādhāraṇena camatkarātmanā pratyabhijānīyāt| Yata ekasyāṁ viṣayavicārādicintāyāṁ prasaktasyāparasyāścintāyā jhaṭityudayaḥ syātsa cintādvayavyāpaka unmeṣa ityanye||9||
Now (atha), with reference to the doubt (ākāṅkṣāyām) about this which is Unmeṣa (yaḥ ayam unmeṣaḥ), i.e. 'What is its nature (saḥ kim-svarūpaḥ) and (ca) by what means is it obtainable (kim-upāya-labhyaḥ... iti)?, (Vasugupta) said (āha):
That (saḥ) is to be certainly known (tu vijñeyaḥ) as Unmeṣa (unmeṣaḥ) wherefrom (yatas) there is (syāt) emergence (udayaḥ) of another (awareness --according to Kṣemarāja-- or thought --according to others--) (apara) in one (person) who is (already) occupied (prasaktasya) with one (eka) thought (cintā). One should perceive (upalakṣayet) that (Unmeṣa) (tam) by himself (svayam)||9||
"When an object (of meditation) is about to leave (bhāve tyakte), consciousness (cit) is controlled (niruddhā) (and) does not move indeed (na eva... vrajet) toward another object (bhāva-antaram), then (tadā) by resting in the middle of that --between the two objects, the manifested and the unmanifested-- (tad-madhya-bhāvena) the impression of such repose on the middle state (bhāvanā) exceedingly expands --fully awakes-- (vikasati ati... iti)1 "||
According to (this) precept (stated in Vijñānabhairava 62) (nītyā), that (saḥ) Unmeṣa (unmeṣaḥ), since it makes that Bliss of I-consciousness to appear/blossom (tad-camatkāra-unmeṣakatvāt), is to be certainly known and investigated (eva... vijñātavyaḥ anveṣaṇīyaḥ) 'wherefrom' (yatas iti) —viz. from the principle (tattvāt) of Spanda (spanda) in which there is no division of pramāṇa --knowledge/means of knowledge-- and prameya --object-- --lit. of fire and moon-- (agnīṣomā-avibheda-ātmanaḥ), where the entire multitude of thoughts has been instantly swallowed up (jhaṭiti grasta-samasta-cintā-santateḥ) due to the cessation --lit. shutting of the eyes-- (nimīlanāt) of their (tad) support (ālambana) because of the throbbing (sphārataḥ) of pure Consciousness (saṁvid) shining forth (ullasat) from the intensity (prakarṣa) of the concentration (ekāgratā) on it --on the middle state, as pointed out in the above stanza in Vijñānabhairava-- (tad)— there is (syāt) emergence of another (aparaḥ eva udayaḥ) —i.e. (there is) another (anyaḥ eva) extraordinary (loka-uttaraḥ) manifestation (ullāsaḥ) whose essence (ātmā) is the amazing Bliss (camatkāra) of Consciousness (cit)— in one (person) who is (already) occupied (prasaktasya) with one thought (ekasyām... cintāyām) —(that is to say,) in a yogī (yoginaḥ) who is one-pointed (ekāgrī-bhūtasya) on something (kasyāñcid), viz. on a particular (viśeṣa) support (ālambana) through which the mental fluctuations (vikāra-ātmikāyām) can come to a halt (nibhṛta)—. (Such Unmeṣa) can be known (jñātum śakyaḥ) by the yogī (yoginā) in this way (ittham) indeed (eva), and (ca) after that (tatas) (he should perceive that Unmeṣa by himself, in other words,) he should perceive (lakṣayet) (It) 'by himself' (svayam iti), viz. in himself (ātmani) by approaching (It) (upetya) in the form of I-consciousness (ahantayā eva) with an attention/attentiveness (avadhānena) devoid of artificial efforts (a-kṛtaka-prayatna-ātmanā) —(why?), because of the absence (in It --Unmeṣa--) (abhāvāt) of objectivity (viṣayatva) in the form of 'this' (idantā)— (and also) he should recognize (this Unmeṣa) (pratyabhijānīyāt) as being an extraordinary Bliss full of amazement (asādhāraṇena camatkara-ātmanā)2 |
Others (anye) (say that this aphorism should be interpreted like this:) 'In one (person) who is (already) occupied (prasaktasya) with one thought (ekasyām... cintāyām) (such as) reflection on an object, etc. (viṣaya-vicāra-ādi), that (saḥ) wherefrom (yatas) there is (syāt) instantly (jhaṭiti) emergence (udayaḥ) of another thought (aparasyāḥ cintāyāḥ) (and) which penetrates (vyāpakaḥ) both thoughts (cintā-dvaya) (is) Unmeṣa (unmeṣaḥ iti)'3 ||9||
1 And now, as I usually do, the commentaries on Vijñānabhairava. First, the one by Kṣemarāja/Śivopādhyāya. Regarding 'reading', there is only one discrepancy between the version in Spandanirṇaya and that of the Kṣemarāja/Śivopādhyāya's commentary: 'nyakte' (from 'nyakta' - 'disappeared') instead of 'tyakte' (from 'tyakta' - 'left'):
भावे न्यक्ते निरुद्धा चिन्नैव भावान्तरं व्रजेत्।
तदा तन्मध्यभावेन विकसत्यति भावना॥६२॥
न्यक्तेऽन्तर्हिते - अदृष्टे भावे पदार्थे त्रिनेत्रचतुर्भुजाद्याकारे ध्येयवस्तुनि चिच् चेतना निरुद्धा अभ्यासपाटवेन नितरां रुद्धा स्थापिता सती भावान्तरम् अन्यपदार्थं दृष्टदेहघटादिकं नैव व्रजेत्। न्यक्तं - ब्रुडितं तिरोहितम् - अन्तर्हितमिति वेदभाष्यकारः। न्यक्तमिति छान्दसः प्रयोगः। भावेऽव्यक्त इति पाठे त्वकारप्रश्लेषेणाप्यव्यक्त इति पूर्वोक्त एवार्थः। एवं सालम्बनध्यानयोगेऽपि
ध्यातृध्याने परित्यज्य क्रमाद्ध्येयैकगोचरम्।
इति योगशास्त्रनीत्या ध्यातृध्याने विहाय ध्येयनिरालम्बनशून्यमध्यधामविश्रान्तेरुपेयत्वात्तयोर्व्यक्ताव्यक्तयोर्भावयोर्मध्यभावेन न किञ्चिद्रूपमध्यधामविश्रान्त्या भावना मध्यदशाविश्रान्तिसंस्कारोऽतिशयेन विकसत्युद्बोधमायाति तेन व्यक्ताव्यक्तभावद्वयादिमध्यान्तदशाव्यापकतद्द्वयैकानुसन्धातृचिन्मात्ररूपमध्यविश्रान्तिर्भवेदित्यर्थः॥६२॥
Bhāve nyakte niruddhā cinnaiva bhāvāntaraṁ vrajet|
Tadā tanmadhyabhāvena vikasatyati bhāvanā||62||
Nyakte'ntarhite - adṛṣṭe bhāve padārthe trinetracaturbhujādyākāre dhyeyavastuni cic cetanā niruddhā abhyāsapāṭavena nitarāṁ ruddhā sthāpitā satī bhāvāntaram anyapadārthaṁ dṛṣṭadehaghaṭādikaṁ naiva vrajet| Nyaktaṁ - bruḍitaṁ tirohitam - antarhitamiti vedabhāṣyakāraḥ| Nyaktamiti chāndasaḥ prayogaḥ| Bhāve'vyakta iti pāṭhe tvakārapraśleṣeṇāpyavyakta iti pūrvokta evārthaḥ| Evaṁ sālambanadhyānayoge'pi
Dhyātṛdhyāne parityajya kramāddhyeyaikagocaram|
iti yogaśāstranītyā dhyātṛdhyāne vihāya dhyeyanirālambanaśūnyamadhyadhāmaviśrānterupeyatvāttayorvyaktāvyaktayorbhāvayormadhyabhāvena na kiñcidrūpamadhyadhāmaviśrāntyā bhāvanā madhyadaśāviśrāntisaṁskāro'tiśayena vikasatyudbodhamāyāti tena vyaktāvyaktabhāvadvayādimadhyāntadaśāvyāpakataddvayaikānusandhātṛcinmātrarūpamadhyaviśrāntirbhavedityarthaḥ||62||
"When an object (of meditation) is about to disappear (bhāve nyakte), consciousness (cit) is controlled (niruddhā) (and) does not move indeed (na eva... vrajet) toward another object (bhāva-antaram), then (tadā) by resting in the middle of that --between the two objects, the manifested and the unmanifested-- (tad-madhya-bhāvena) the impression of such repose on the middle state (bhāvanā) exceedingly expands --fully awakes-- (vikasati ati)||62||"
When the bhāva or object —the thing which one is meditating on, (such as) the form (of Śiva) endowed with three eyes, four arms, etc.— is about to disappear —when it is about to be vanished, when it is about to become invisible— (nyakte antarhite - adṛṣṭe bhāve padārthe tri-netra-catur-bhuja-ādi-ākāre dhyeya-vastuni), cit or consciousness (cit cetanā) is controlled (niruddhā) —viz. it is completely checked (nitarāṁ ruddhā)— (because) the intensity of practice has made it firmly fixed --concentrated-- (abhyāsa-pāṭavena... sthāpitā satī) (and) does not move indeed (na eva vrajet) toward another 'bhāva' (bhāva-antaram) —i.e. toward another object (anya-padārtham) (such as) a body, pot, etc. which are visible (dṛṣṭa-deha-ghaṭa-ādikam)—|
According to the author of the commentary on Veda --probably Sāyaṇa and his Vedārthaprakāśa-- (iti veda-bhāṣya-kāraḥ), 'nyakta' --the crude form of 'nyakte', which is declined in Locative case-- (nyaktam) (means) immersed (bruḍitam), concealed (tirohitam) (and) disappeared (antarhitam)|
(And) 'nyakta' (nyaktam iti) (means too) Vedic recitation (chāndasaḥ prayogaḥ)|
However (tu), with reference to the reading (pāṭhe) 'Bhāve'vyakte' (bhāve avyakte iti), (then the second word would be) 'avyakte' (avyakte iti) through the coalescence (praśleṣeṇa api) of the letter 'a' (a-kāra) (with the final 'e'), (and its sense would be practically the same as) the meaning which was mentioned before --i.e. disappeared, invisible, etc.-- (pūrva-uktaḥ eva arthaḥ)|
Thus (evam), with regard to Dhyānayoga --Yoga of meditation-- (dhyāna-yoge) with support (sa-ālambana) (has) also (api) (been stated that):
"Trance --full absorption-- (samādhiḥ) is said to be (abhidhīyate) the mind (cittam) (that), abandoning (parityajya) (the duality of) meditator-meditation (dhyātṛ-dhyāne), gradually (kramāt) has the object of concentration as its sole sphere of action (dhyeya-eka-gocaram) (and is) like (vat) a lamp (dīpa) in a place sheltered from the wind (nivāta... iti)"||
According to the precept (nītyā) (stated) in the Yoga scripture (yoga-śāstra), by abandoning (vihāya) (the duality of) meditator and meditation (dhyātṛ-dhyāne), by arriving --lit. since there is arrival-- at one repose on the middle state which is a void without the support of an object of concentration (dhyeya-nirālambana-śūnya-madhya-dhāma-viśrānteḥ upeyatvāt), i.e. by resting in the middle (madhya-bhāvena) of those objects —the manifested and the unmanifested— (tayoḥ vyakta-avyaktayoḥ bhāvayoḥ), (then) through a repose (viśrāntyā) on the middle state (madhya-dhāma) in which there is no form (na kiñcid-rūpa), the bhāvanā (bhāvanā) (or) impression (saṁskāraḥ) of (such) a repose (viśrānti) on the middle state (madhya-daśā) exceedingly (atiśayena) expands (vikasati) —fully awakes (udbodham āyāti)—. The sense is that (iti arthaḥ), on that account (tena), there is (bhavet) a repose (viśrāntiḥ) on the middle (state) (madhya) whose nature (rūpa) is only (mātra) consciousness (cit) joining (anusandhātṛ) those two --the manifested and unmanifested objects-- (tad-dvaya) into one (eka) (and) pervading (vyāpaka) the initial, middle and final states (ādi-madhya-anta-daśā) of (such) two objects (bhāva-dvaya) —manifested and unmanifested (vyakta-avyakta)—||62||
So, according to Kṣemarāja/Śivopādhyāya, there are two ways to practice this dhāraṇā or concentration:
(1) In the first method you just concentrate on an object and keep concentrating till the moment when it is about to disappear. However, you do not permit it to be vanished but on the contrary you keep it manifest by the force of your concentration. At the end of this process, only the object of concentration will be your only object during trance or samādhi, which will lead you to an experience of your own Self. This type of trance is taught in the famous Pātañjalayogasūtra-s too.
(2) In the second method you start the same (concentrating on one object) but next you permit it to disappear. Anyway, you do not permit any second object attracting your attention to appear. In this way, you just rest on the middle state between one object and another. There, you experience a full expansion of the impression of such repose on the middle state, i.e. you have a revelation about your own Self who is nothing but the principle of Spanda.
All this is Śāktopāya, of course, because your final goal is to rest on I-consciousness (Śakti or Spanda), which is revealed in the origin and end of everything.
Now, the commentary on this stanza by Ānandabhaṭṭa in his Kaumudī. The reading in this book is fortunately the same reading as in Spandanirṇaya. Anyway, the number of the aphorism in Kaumudī is again one less number, i.e. 61 instead of 62:
भावे त्यक्ते निरुद्धा चिन्नैव भावान्तरं व्रजेत्।
तदा तन्मध्यभावेन विकसत्यति भावना॥६१॥
एकस्मिन्वस्तुनि स्वीकृते निरुद्धा चिन्नैव भावान्तरं व्रजेदन्यद्वस्तुनि न व्रजेत्तत्र तन्मध्ये शून्यरूपस्थित्या भावनातिविकसत्यद्भुतफुल्लन्यायेन मनश्चातिविकासत्वं यायात् - ब्रह्मैव सम्पद्यत इत्यर्थः॥६१॥
Bhāve tyakte niruddhā cinnaiva bhāvāntaraṁ vrajet|
Tadā tanmadhyabhāvena vikasatyati bhāvanā||61||
Ekasminvastuni svīkṛte niruddhā cinnaiva bhāvāntaraṁ vrajedanyadvastuni na vrajettatra tanmadhye śūnyarūpasthityā bhāvanātivikasatyadbhutaphullanyāyena manaścātivikāsatvaṁ yāyāt — brahmaiva sampadyata ityarthaḥ||61||
"When an object (of meditation) is about to leave (bhāve tyakte), consciousness (cit) is controlled (niruddhā) (and) does not move indeed (na eva... vrajet) toward another object (bhāva-antaram), then (tadā) by resting in the middle of that --between the two objects, the manifested and the unmanifested-- (tad-madhya-bhāvena) the impression of such repose on the middle state (bhāvanā) exceedingly expands --fully awakes-- (vikasati ati)||61||"
When an object (of meditation) has been accepted (ekasmin vastuni svīkṛte), consciousness (cit) is controlled (niruddhā) (and) does not move indeed (na eva... vrajet) toward another object (bhāva-antaram) —viz. it does not move (na vrajet) toward another thing (anyat vastuni)—, then (tatra), bhāvanā --the mind, according to the commentator-- (bhāvanā), in the form of a state (sthityā) whose nature (rūpa) is a void (śūnya) in the middle of both (objects) (tan-madhye), exceedingly expands (ativikasati) —i.e. by way of (nyāyena) an extraordinary (adbhuta) blossoming (phulla), the mind (cittam) attains (yāyāt) a superlative expansion (ativikāsatvam) indeed (ca). The sense is that (iti arthaḥ), (through this dhāraṇā), Brahma Himself --the Absolute Himself-- (brahma eva) arises (sampadyate)||61||
2 There might be confusion to understand 'the first sentence' of this commentary due to the involved style of sage Kṣemarāja. I had to add between long hyphens the lengthy translation of '... tadekāgratāprakarṣollasatsaṁvitsphāratastadālambananimīlanājjhaṭiti grastasamastacintāsantateragnīṣomāvibhedātmanaḥ spandatattvād...', and next I continued to add other Kṣemarāja's pompous additions between long hyphens too. But the main problem is the long first addition. You are not understanding me? I will make it clearer by showing the text (without red translations, obviously) in two ways:
First, the text as it occurs in my translation of the first sentence:
"According to (this) precept (stated in Vijñānabhairava 62), that Unmeṣa, since it makes that Bliss of I-consciousness to appear/blossom, is to be certainly known and investigated 'wherefrom' —viz. from the principle of Spanda in which there is no division of pramāṇa --knowledge/means of knowledge-- and prameya --object- --lit. of fire and moon--, where the entire multitude of thoughts has been instantly swallowed up due to the cessation --lit. shutting of the eyes-- of their support because of the throbbing of pure Consciousness shining forth from the intensity of the concentration on it --on the middle state, as pointed out in the above stanza in Vijñānabhairava-- — there is emergence of another —i.e. (there is) another extraordinary manifestation whose essence is the amazing Bliss of Consciousness— in one (person) who is (already) occupied with one thought —(that is to say,) in a yogī who is one-pointed on something, viz. on a particular support through which the mental fluctuations can come to a halt—."
It is specially confusing the first part of the sentence because of the presence of that long addition between long hyphens. Let us remove it now for you to have the meaning of this sentence presented in a more understandable way:
"According to (this) precept (stated in Vijñānabhairava 62), that Unmeṣa, since it makes that Bliss of I-consciousness to appear/blossom, is to be certainly known and investigated 'wherefrom' there is emergence of another —i.e. (there is) another extraordinary manifestation whose essence is the amazing Bliss of Consciousness— in one (person) who is (already) occupied with one thought —(that is to say,) in a yogī who is one-pointed on something, viz. on a particular support through which the mental fluctuations can come to a halt—."
Now reading the sentence should not be that complicated. I left the other additions but I could remove them too. Look:
"According to (this) precept (stated in Vijñānabhairava 62), that Unmeṣa, since it makes that Bliss of I-consciousness to appear/blossom, is to be certainly known and investigated 'wherefrom' there is emergence of another in one (person) who is (already) occupied with one thought."
OK, after stripping the first sentence of all the additions between long hyphens, the underlying translation is clear and not messy. The sage Kṣemarāja, in his efforts to make the things so simple as possible, usually makes them even more complicated. All those extra explanations of different terms should be communicated by another sentence and not added to the same sentence, which transforms it into something extremely long and difficult to understand.
And Unmeṣa method is precisely that abiding in the middle state between two awareness (according to Kṣemarāja) or between two thoughts (according to others). Unmeṣa causes Camatkāra (Bliss of I-consciousness) to emerge. For this reason, it should be known and investigated (i.e. one should practice it). From Unmeṣa, which literally means 'opening of the eyes', from the place where Consciousness reveals Itself —since it is devoid of the divisions of knowledge/means of knowledge and object, since it is devoid of thoughts as they have no support due to the vibration of pure Consciousness appearing from the intensity of the concentration on this middle state—, another reality emerges in one person who is already having one thought. According to Kṣemarāja, what is emerging is another awareness. That is why he said: 'there is another extraordinary manifestation whose essence is amazing Bliss of Consciousness'. The core of this new awareness is, obviously, I-consciousness (Aham). But according to others, what is emerging is another cintā or thought. And this person who is occupied with one thought is not a common person merely flowing in Saṁsāra, but a yogī practicing concentration on something through which his thoughts can be stopped.
And this Unmeṣa —which is called 'method' but it really is just the efflorescence of divine Consciousness—, should be approached by the yogī in the form of I-consciousness (i.e. he should consider Unmeṣa to be Aham Itself, or, as Kṣemarāja put it: He should recognize this Unmeṣa as being extraordinary Camatkāra or Bliss full of amazement). No artificial efforts are needed. Why? Because all the artificial efforts pertain to the inferior Āṇavopāya, in which one uses mantra repetition, concentration on breath, an object, etc. as a support. Here, in Unmeṣa, since it is Aham, there is no need for those artificial efforts since there is no 'idam' or 'this'. That is why concentration on Unmeṣa is not for all the spiritual aspirants but only for the ones treading Śāktopāya.
3 As I said before, other authors consider Unmeṣa to be the origin of another thought in the case of a person who was already occupied with one thought. And this Unmeṣa penetrates both thoughts, i.e. It joins both thoughts into one. Without Unmeṣa joining thoughts like this, there would not be continuity of coherent thinking and memory. Though this gap between thoughts was described like a 'void' above (in the first note on this aphorism), it is not the Buddhist void. Why? Because Buddhist void just does not exist. By Buddhist void I mean 'absolute void'. There is no absolute void because in order to have it we should not be conscious of it. What do I mean? That if someone knows that absolute void exists, his knowing denies the existence of absolute void. Because if it is 'absolute' void, nobody can be perceiving it. If someone perceives it, then it is not absolute due to the presence of two realities: The person perceiving the void and the void itself. This problem with the nonexistent void is extremely foolish, but anyway Buddhism and other systems postulating this 'absolute' absurd still thrive in this world. Their thriving here shows how ignorant most people here are.
So, to have an absolute void you need to be completely ignorant about it. If you know about it, so it is not really absolute after all. This is so simple to understand to the wise but extremely difficult to understand to the unwise. OK, this topic called 'absolute void' was already investigated in this scripture. I just refreshed your memory. So, the void of Unmeṣa is not absolute, it is not a void where there is absolute nothing. No! It is full of divine Consciousness, which is always Subject and never an object. It is called a void in the scriptures of Trika because there is no object there (no 'idam' or 'this') and not because there is nothing at all. Oh my God, to have to explain these things is just childish, but here you have it.
इदानीं मितयोगिजनप्रयत्नसाध्यस्वपि तासु तासु सिद्धिषून्मेषपरिशीलनमात्रोदितासु परयोगिनो हेयत्वमेव मन्तव्यमित्यादिशति
अतो विन्दुरतो नादो रूपमस्मादतो रसः।
प्रवर्तन्तेऽचिरेणैव क्षोभकत्वेन देहिनः॥१०॥
अत उन्मेषादुपलक्ष्यमाणादप्रलीयमानस्थूलसूक्ष्मादिदेहाहम्भावस्य योगिनोऽचिरेणैव भ्रूमध्यादौ तारकाप्रकाशरूपो विन्दुरशेषवेद्यसामान्यप्रकाशात्मा नादः सकलवाचकाविभेदिशब्दनरूपोऽनाहतध्वनिरूपो रूपमन्धकारेऽपि प्रकाशनं तेजो रसश्च रसनाग्रे लोकोत्तर आस्वादः क्षोभकत्वेन स्पन्दतत्त्वसमासादनविघ्नभूततावत्सन्तोषप्रदत्वेन वर्तन्ते। यदाहुः
ते समाधावुपसर्गा व्युत्थाने सिद्धयः।
इति। एवमुन्मेषनिभालनोद्युक्तस्यापि देहात्ममानिनो योगिनो विन्दुनादादयः क्षोभका भवन्तीत्युक्तम्॥१०॥
Idānīṁ mitayogijanaprayatnasādhyasvapi tāsu tāsu siddhiṣūnmeṣapariśīlanamātroditāsu parayogino heyatvameva mantavyamityādiśati
Ato vindurato nādo rūpamasmādato rasaḥ|
Pravartante'cireṇaiva kṣobhakatvena dehinaḥ||10||
Ata unmeṣādupalakṣyamāṇādapralīyamānasthūlasūkṣmādidehāhambhāvasya yogino'cireṇaiva bhrūmadhyādau tārakāprakāśarūpo vinduraśeṣavedyasāmānyaprakāśātmā nādaḥ sakalavācakāvibhediśabdanarūpo'nāhatadhvanirūpo rūpamandhakāre'pi prakāśanaṁ tejo rasaśca rasanāgre lokottara āsvādaḥ kṣobhakatvena spandatattvasamāsādanavighnabhūtatāvatsantoṣapradatvena vartante| Yadāhuḥ
Te samādhāvupasargā vyutthāne siddhayaḥ|
iti| Evamunmeṣanibhālanodyuktasyāpi dehātmamānino yogino vindunādādayaḥ kṣobhakā bhavantītyuktam||10||
Now (idānīm), (Vasugupta) points out that (iti ādiśati), with reference to each of those supernatural powers (tāsu tāsu siddhiṣu) which merely arise from the practice of Unmeṣa (unmeṣa-pariśīlana-mātra-uditāsu) (and) which even limited yogī-s can summon by means of effort (mita-yogi-jana-prayatna-sādhyasu api), the supreme Yogī should consider them to be rejectable indeed (para-yoginaḥ heyatvam eva mantavyam)1 :
From this (Unmeṣa) (atas... atas... asmāt atas), Vindu --divine light-- (vinduḥ), Nāda --divine sound-- (nādaḥ), Rūpa --divine form-- (rūpam) (and) Rasa --divine taste-- (rasaḥ) soon (acireṇa eva) appear (pravartante) to an embodied soul (dehinaḥ) as a disturbing factor (kṣobhakatvena)||10||
From this Unmeṣa which is being observed (atas unmeṣāt upalakṣyamāṇāt), Vindu --divine light-- (vinduḥ) —in the form of (rūpaḥ) the light (prakāśa) of a star (tārakā) which is the generic light (sāmānya-prakāśa-ātmā) (containing) all (aśeṣa) the knowables (vedya)—, Nāda --divine sound-- (nādaḥ) —in the form of (rūpaḥ) an unstruck (anāhata) sound (dhvani) which is a sound (śabdana-rūpaḥ), (if you will excuse the repetition), that integrates (avibhedi) all (sakala) the words (vācaka)—, Rūpa --divine form-- (rūpam) —a glare (tejas) shining (prakāśanam) even (api) in darkness (andhakāre)— and (ca) Rasa --divine taste-- (rasaḥ) —an extraordinary (loka-uttaraḥ) taste (āsvādaḥ) (experienced) in the tip (agre) of the tongue (rasanā)— soon (acireṇa eva) appear (vartante) in the space between the eyebrows, etc. (bhrū-madhya-ādau) of the yogī (yoginaḥ), whose 'I' --lit. state of 'I'-- (aham-bhāvasya) (situated) in the gross, subtle bodies, etc. (sthūla-sūkṣma-ādi-deha) has not (yet) been dissolved (apralīyamāna), as a disturbing factor (kṣobhakatvena) —as a factor granting (pradatvena) satisfaction (santoṣa) (but) which certainly is (bhūta-tāvat) an obstacle (vighna) for the attainment (samāsādana) of the principle (tattva) of Spanda (spanda)—|
As (yad) (Patañjali) said (āhuḥ) (in Yogasūtra-s III, 37):
"Those (supernormal powers) (te) are obstacles or hindrances (upasargāḥ) in Samādhi (samādhau), (but) accomplishments (siddhayaḥ) in Vyutthāna --i.e. the ordinary state of consciousness in which the mind fluctuates-- (vyutthāne... iti)"||37||
Thus (evam), it has been said (in such aphorism) that (iti uktam): Even (api) in the case of a yogī (yoginaḥ) who is intent on (udyuktasya) perceiving (nibhālana) Unmeṣa (unmeṣa), (but still erroneously) considers (māninaḥ) the body (deha) to be the Self (ātma), (then) Vindu, Nāda, etc. (vindu-nāda-ādayaḥ) become (bhavanti) factors which cause agitation/disturbance (kṣobhakāḥ)2 ||10||
1 And now Vasugupta, after describing supernatural powers during nine aphorisms, is about to say in the 10th aphorism that all that is just a disturbing factor. Why? Because there is no Liberation! Obviously, he is about to say this to the person following Muktimārga (the path of Liberation) and not to the one following Vibhūtimārga (the path of supernormal capacities). The latter will be very happy with his new powers, but the former will be disturbed by the presence of these temptations. And if the yogī seeking Liberation indulges in those inferior powers over and over again, then he will gradually lose all his progress in Muktimārga. So simple as that!
All these powers such as omniscience, omnipotence, etc., if they are not renounced, they remain tied only to a body and a particular ego. So they are just called 'limited powers'. But if the yogī renounces them in order to embrace divine Consciousness, then all those powers become universal. In other words, if you do not renounce them, your omniscience, omnipotence, etc. will remain only tied to your body and personality. However, if you renounce them, your omniscience, omnipotence, etc. will be everywhere. This has already been explained before, but now I am refreshing your memory once again.
2 Vindu or Bindu (it is usual that 'v' and 'b' are interchangeable in many Sanskrit words). Bindu is supernatural light emerging in the form of a dot from the space between the eyebrows. In this dot of light which is a compact form of Śakti, lies the entire universe of objects. But now Kṣemarāja specified that Bindu has the form of a star. What a problem! No problem really. It is the same dot of light but it takes the form of a 'tārakā' or 'star' in order to move you to the innumerable worlds of experience. These worlds of experience are comprised not only of the 118 worlds but also of all the different kinds of life an embodied soul has experienced in the past, experiences at present and will experience in the future. So, with the destruction of the star during meditation in the form of an explosion, there is no possibility of a future life. All in all, no reincarnation for that lucky person. This experience happens before Liberation and it is a sign that Absolute Freedom is coming very soon.
Nāda or divine sound appears from inside a yogī who is concentrated on Unmeṣa. It is unstruck sound, like the humming of bees, or like the sound emitted by a brook. Rūpa or divine form is a glare shining even in darkness and Rasa is an amazing taste a yogī experiences in the tip of his tongue.
All those experiences are rooted in the 5 Tanmātra-s which are the generic aspects of sounds, touches, forms, taste and smells. The experience of all these supernatural powers is a stage in the process of getting final Liberation. It is sometimes called 'the attack of Tanmātra-s'. And to reject them is a very hard fight indeed! When most people are completely caught by mere sounds, touches, forms, taste and smells, which generate just a minute quantity of pleasure, it is easy to understand how difficult is to move beyond Tanmātra-s, which contain all the possible sounds, touches, forms, taste and smells. It is a tremendous temptation! Anyway, the yogī following the path of Liberation should relinquish them one way or another.
This yogī experiencing all those extraordinary realities is not very elevated indeed —that is why he is still struggling against supernatural powers—. He is one who believes that he is the gross body or the subtle body or the causal body. For example: He believes that all that happens to the physical body happens to him. Or he believes that if he could not breathe for some reason, he would die. Or when he is sleeping deeply, he believes that he has disappeared due to the experience of the void.
These supernormal powers give satisfaction but not Liberation. In Pātañjalayogasūtra-s (Patañjali's Yogasūtra-s), this topic is elucidated in III, 37 (in the aphorism 37 of the third section dealing with supernatural powers). I will add the famous commentary by Vyāsa on this aphorism:
ते समाधावुपसर्गा व्युत्थाने सिद्धयः॥३७॥
भाष्यम् — ते प्रातिभादयः समाहितचित्तस्योत्पद्यमाना उपसर्गास्तद्दर्शनप्रत्यनीकत्वाद्व्युत्थितचित्तस्योत्पद्यमानाः सिद्धयः॥३७॥
Te samādhāvupasargā vyutthāne siddhayaḥ||37||
Bhāṣyam — Te prātibhādayaḥ samāhitacittasyotpadyamānā upasargāstaddarśanapratyanīkatvādvyutthitacittasyotpadyamānāḥ siddhayaḥ||37||
"Those (supernormal powers) (te) are obstacles or hindrances (upasargāḥ) in Samādhi (samādhau), (but) accomplishments (siddhayaḥ) in Vyutthāna --i.e. the ordinary state of consciousness in which the mind fluctuates-- (vyutthāne)||37||"
Commentary (bhāṣyam) — To a mind (cittasya) absorbed in samādhi --trance-- (samāhita), those (supernormal powers) (te) —(such as) prātibha --foreknowledge--, etc. (prātibha-ādayaḥ) which spring up (utpadyamānāḥ) (are) obstacles or hindrances (upasargāḥ) since they oppose (pratyanīkatvāt) to the perception --realization-- (darśana) of That --of the Self-- (tad). (Nonetheless,) to a mind (cittasya) remaining in Vyutthāna --in any state but samādhi-- (vyutthita), (those supernormal powers) which spring up (utpadyamānāḥ) (are) accomplishments (siddhayaḥ)||37||
Very well, now the Patañjali's aphorism should be easier to understand. The teachings are again repeated then, because the yogī whose mind is 'vyutthita' (extremely active in any state but samādhi) will consider all those supernormal powers to be accomplishments. Anyway, the yogī who is in samādhi, who is seeking Liberation, will consider all those things such as Vindu, Nāda, etc. to be obstacles or hindrances to his state of absorption in the Self. Enough for now!
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|Вернуться II. 1-7||Продолжить чтение III. 11-19|