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Комментарии Вьясы (Vyāsa) о йоге: Глава I (афоризмы 1 - 13)

Стандартный перевод


 Introduction

Hi, Gabriel Pradīpaka once again. This is my translation of the Vyāsa's commentary on the first 13 aphorisms of the Section I (On concentration) in Pātañjalayogasūtra-s.

If you do not understand what Sattvaguṇa or Sattva, Rajoguṇa or Rajas, Tamoguṇa or Tamas, tattva-s, and so on are, you may consult the Trika glossary and Tattvic Chart. Granted, these documents contain knowledge pertaining to Trika system (Non-dual Shaivism of Kashmir), but with the respective "adaptations", they may be really useful.

What are those adaptations?: e.g. Trika enumerates 36 tattva-s or categories, while Pātañjalayoga (the present system being studied) only enumerates 25. Well, a first fix would be that you "might" consider Trika's tattvic scheme to be an enhancement of that of Pātañjalayoga. In short, the last 25 tattva-s (from Puruṣa to Pṛthivī) out of the 36 would be the scope studied by Pātañjalayoga. Granted, the definition of Puruṣa and Prakṛti given by Trika is not exactly the same as that given by Pātañjalayoga, but the information is still useful. Besides, the three Guṇa-s or qualities forming Prakṛti are also described to a certain point. In fact, read the entire Trika section if you like, specially that portion dedicated to give an overview of the Trika system. Ah!, also read all that is related to Sāṅkhya and Yoga in First Steps (1), First Steps (2) and First Steps (3).

Of course, I will also insert the Patañjali's aphorisms on which Vyāsa is commenting. Even though I will not comment on either the original sūtra-s or the Vyāsa's commentary, I will write some notes to make a particular point clear when necessary. Vyāsa's Sanskrit will be in dark green color while the original Patañjali's aphorisms will be shown in dark red color. In turn, within transliteration, the original aphorisms will be in brown color and have their correct number at the end. Note that the very Vyāsa's commentary will have a number similar to the commented aphorism. Finally, the translation of the original aphorisms by Patañjali will use deep red and black colors, while the commentary by Vyāsa will contain words in both black and red color.

Important: All that is in brackets and italicized within the translation has been added by me in order to complete the sense of a particular phrase or sentence. In turn, all that is between double hyphen (--...--) constitutes clarifying further information also added by me.

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 Aphorism 1

अथ योगानुशासनम्॥१॥

भष्यम् - अथेत्ययमधिकारार्थः। योगानुशासनं शास्त्रमधिकृतं वेदितव्यम्। योगः समाधिः स च सार्वभौमश्चित्तस्य धर्मः। क्षिप्तं मूढं विक्षिप्तम् एकाग्रं निरुद्धमिति चित्तभूमयः। तत्र विक्षिप्ते चेतसि विक्षेपोपसर्जनीभूतः समाधिर्न योगपक्षे वर्तते। यस्त्वेकाग्रे चेतसि सद्भूतमर्थम् प्रद्योतयति क्षिणोति च क्लेशान् कर्मबन्धनानि श्लथयति निरोधमभिमुखं करोति स सम्प्रज्ञातो योग इत्याख्यायते। स च वितर्कानुगतो विचारानुगत आनन्दानुगतोऽस्मितानुगत इत्युपरिष्टात् प्रवेदयिष्यामः। सर्ववृत्तिनिरोधे त्वसम्प्रज्ञातः समाधिः॥१॥

Atha yogānuśāsanam||1||

Bhāṣyam - Athetyayamadhikārārthaḥ| Yogānuśāsanaṁ śāstramadhikṛtaṁ veditavyam| Yogaḥ samādhiḥ| Sa ca sārvabhaumaścittasya dharmaḥ| Kṣiptaṁ mūdhaṁ vikṣiptam ekāgraṁ niruddhamiti cittabhūmayaḥ| Tatra vikṣipte cetasi vikṣepopasarjanībhūtaḥ samādhirna yogapakṣe vartate| Yastvekāgre cetasi sadbhūtamartham pradyotayati kṣiṇoti ca kleśān karmabandhanāni ślathayati nirodhamabhimukhaṁ karoti sa samprajñāto yoga ityākhyāyate| Sa ca vitarkānugato vicārānugata ānandānugato'smitānugata ityupariṣṭāt pravedayiṣyāmaḥ| Sarvavṛttinirodhe tvasamprajñātaḥ samādhiḥ||1||


And now begins (atha) the instruction (anuśāsanam) regarding Yoga (yoga)||1||


Commentary (bhāṣyam) - "Átha" (atha iti), this (word) (ayam) means (arthaḥ) (the beginning of) a topic (adhikāra)|

It is to be understood (vediyatavyam) that (this) scripture (śāstram) (dealing with) the instruction (anuśāsanam) regarding Yoga (yoga) (is) the subject (to be studied) (adhikṛtam)|

Yoga (yogaḥ) is Samādhi or Perfect Concentration (samādhiḥ)|

And (ca) this (Yoga) (saḥ) (is) a quality (dharmaḥ) related to all conditions (sārvabhauma) of the mind (cittasya)|

(Those) mental (citta) conditions (bhūmayaḥ) (are the following:) Kṣipta --restless-- (kṣiptam), Mūḍha --stupefied-- (mūḍham), Vikṣipta --distraught-- (vikṣiptam), Ekāgra --one-pointed-- (ekāgram) (and) Niruddha --arrested or suppressed-- (niruddham iti)|

In that (tatra) distraught (vikṣipte) mind --cetas-- (cetasi), Samādhi or Perfect Concentration (samādhiḥ) is (bhūtaḥ) subordinated (upasarjanī) to (its) distraction (vikṣepa). (This Samādhi) is not (na... vartate) on the Yoga's (yoga) side (pakṣe) --i.e. it does not belong to Yoga--|

However (tu) that (Samādhi) (yaḥ) (occurring) in an one-pointed (ekāgre) mind --cetas-- (cetasi) brings enlightenment (pradyotayati) about a real (sadbhūtam) entity (artham)1  and (ca) destroys (kṣiṇoti) the Kleśa-s or Afflictions (kleśān)2 , loosens (ślathayati) the bonds (bandhāni) of Karma (karma) (and) leads (abhimukham karoti) to the arrested or suppressed state of mind (nirodham). That (Samādhi) (saḥ) is to be called (ākhyāte) Samprajñātayoga (samprajñāto yogaḥ iti)|

Besides (ca), that (Samprajñātayoga) (saḥ) concerns (anugataḥ... anugataḥ... anugataḥ... anugataḥ) "Vitarka (vitarka), Vicāra (vicāra), Ānanda (ānanda) (and) Asmitā (asmitā... iti)"3 . We will make (this subject) known (pravedayiṣyāmaḥ) later on (upariṣṭāt)|

Nevertheless (tu), when all (sarva) (mental) modifications (vṛtti) are suppressed (nirodhe), (that is) Asamprajñātasamādhi (asamprajñātaḥ samādhiḥ)||1||

1  "Brings enlightenment about a real entity", this phrase means "reveals the real nature of things".Return 
2  Traditionally, five afflictions are enumerated: ignorance (avidyā), egoism (asmitā), attachment (rāga), aversion (dveṣa) and the will-to-live or fear of death (abhiniveśa).Return 
3  Firstly, do not worry about those kinds of Samādhi (Vitarka, etc.) as Vyāsa himself (as he says) will explain them to you later on.Return 

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 Aphorism 2

भष्यम् - तस्य लक्षणाभिधित्सयेदं सूत्रम्प्रववृते -

योगश्चित्तवृत्तिनिरोधः॥२॥

सर्वशब्दाग्रहणात् सम्प्रज्ञातोऽपि योग इत्याख्यायते। चित्तं हि प्रख्याप्रवृत्तिस्थितिशीलत्वात् त्रिगुणम्। प्रख्यारूपं हि चित्तसत्त्वं रजस्तमोभ्यां संसृष्टमैश्वर्यविषयप्रियं भवति। तदेव तमसानुविद्धमधर्माज्ञानावैराग्यानैश्वर्योपगं भवति। तदेव प्रक्षीणमोहावरणं सर्वतः प्रद्योतमानमनुविद्धं रजोमात्रया धर्मज्ञानवैराग्यैश्वर्योपगं भवति। तदेव रजोलेशमलापेतं स्वरूपप्रतिष्ठं सत्त्वपुरुषान्यताख्यातिमात्रं धर्ममेघध्यानोपगं भवति। तत् परं प्रसङ्ख्यानमित्याचक्षते ध्यायिनः। चितिशक्तिरपरिणामिन्यप्रतिसङ्क्रमा दर्शितविषया शुद्धा चानन्ता च सत्त्वगुणात्मिका चेयमतो विपरीता विवेकख्यातिरिति। अतस्तस्यां विरक्तं चित्तं तामपि ख्यातिं निरुणद्धि तदवस्थं संस्कारोपगं भवति स निर्वीजः समाधिः न तत्र किञ्चित्सम्प्रज्ञायत इत्यसम्प्रज्ञातः। द्विविधः स योगश्चित्तवृत्तिनिरोध इति॥२॥

Bhāṣyam - Tasya laksaṇābhiditsayedaṁ sūtrampravavṛte -

Yogaścittavṛttinirodhaḥ||2||

Sarvaśabdāgrahaṇāt samprajñāto'pi yoga ityākhyāyate| Cittaṁ hi prakhyāpravṛttisthitiśīlatvāt triguṇam| Prakhyārūpaṁ hi cittasattvaṁ rajastamobhyāṁ saṁsṛṣṭamaiśvaryaviṣayapriyaṁ bhavati| Tadeva tamasānuviddhamadharmājñānāvairāgyānaiśvaryopagaṁ bhavati| Tadeva prakṣīṇamohāvaraṇaṁ sarvataḥ pradyotamānamanuviddhaṁ rajomātrayā dharmajñānavairāgyaiśvaryopagaṁ bhavati| Tadeva rajoleśamalāpetaṁ svarūpapratiṣṭhaṁ sattvapuruṣānyatākhyātimātraṁ dharmameghadhyānopagaṁ bhavati| Tat paraṁ prasaṅkhyānamityācakṣate dhyāyinaḥ| Citiśaktirapariṇāminyapratisaṅkramā darśitaviṣayā śuddhā cānantā ca sattvaguṇātmikā ceyamato viparītā vivekakhyātiriti| Atastasyāṁ viraktaṁ cittaṁ tāmapi khyātiṁ niruṇaddhi tadavasthaṁ saṁskāropagaṁ bhavati sa nirvījaḥ samādhiḥ na tatra kiñcitsamprajñāyata ityasamprajñātaḥ| Dvividhaḥ sa yogaścittavṛttinirodha iti||2||


Commentary (bhāṣyam) - With the desire of expressing (abhidhitsayā) the features (lakṣaṇa) of that --i.e. of Samprajñātayoga and Asamprajñātayoga-- (tasya), this (idam) aphorism (sūtram) arose (pravavṛte) -


Yoga (yogaḥ) is the suppression (nirodhaḥ) of the modifications (vṛtti) of mind (citta)||2||


On account of the absence (agrahaṇāt) of the word (śabda) "sarva" --i.e. "all"-- (sarva)1 , Yoga (yogaḥ) is to be also (api) called --i.e. Yoga should also include-- (iti ākhyāyate) Samprajñātayoga (samprajñātaḥ)|

Because (hi) the mind (cittam) has a (triple) nature (śīlatvāt) (appearing in the form of) Prakhyā --i.e. sentience, in which Sattvaguṇa is predominant-- (prakhyā), Pravṛtti --i.e. mutability, in which Rajoguṇa is predominant-- (pravṛtti) (and) Sthiti --i.e. inertia, in which Tamoguṇa is predominant-- (sthiti), it (must) consist of the three (tri) Guṇa-s or qualities (guṇam)|

Undoubtedly (hi), (when) the Cittasattva2  (cittasattvam), whose nature (rūpam) (is) Prakhyā (prakhyā), (is) combined (saṁsṛṣṭam) with Rajas (rajas) (and) Tamas (tamobhyām), it becomes (bhavati) fond (priyam) of power (aiśvarya) (and) external objects (viṣaya)|

(When) that (tad) very (Cittasattva) (eva) (is) mixed (anuviddham) with Tamas (tamasā), it becomes prone (upagam bhavati) to unrighteousness (adharma), ignorance (ajñāna), lack of renunciation and detachment (avairāgya) (and) weakness (anaiśvarya)|

(When) that (tad) very (Cittasattva) (eva) (has its) veil (āvaraṇam) of delusion and infatuation (moha) thoroughly (sarvatas) removed (prakṣīṇa) (and) begins to shine (pradyotamānam), (if) mixed (anuviddham) with a slight measure (mātrayā) of Rajas (rajas), it becomes (bhavati) prone (upagam) to righteousness (dharma), knowledge (jñāna), renunciation and detachment (vairāgya), (and) power (aiśvarya)|

(When) that (tad) very (Cittasattva) (eva) is free (apetam) from the sting (ala) (represented by that) small portion (leśam) of Rajas (rajas), stands firmly (pratiṣṭham) in its true nature (sva-rūpa) (and attains) the whole (mātram) knowledge (khyāti) about the difference (anyatā) between Buddhisattva3  (sattva) (and) Puruṣa (puruṣa)4 , it becomes (bhavati) prone (upagam) to the meditation (dhyāna) (known as) Cloud (megha) of Virtue (dharma)5 |

The meditators (dhyāninaḥ) describe (ācakṣate) that (form of meditation) (tad) as the highest (param) meditation (prasaṅkhyānam iti)6 |

The Power (śaktiḥ) of Consciousness (citi) (is) unchangeable (apariṇāminī), untransmissible (apratisaṅkramā), (illuminator of) things (viṣayā) presented or shown (darśita)7 , pure (śuddhā) and (ca... ca) infinite (anantā). This (iyam) Vivekakhyāti or Knowledge that discriminates or discerns the difference between Buddhi and Puruṣa (vivekakhyātiḥ iti) (is) of the nature (ātmikā) of the Sattva (sattva) quality (guṇa) (and) therefore (atas) opposed (to Citiśakti or the Power of Consciousness) (viparitā)|

For this reason (atas), (when) the mind (cittam) has no interest (viraktam) in that (Vivekakhyāti or Discriminative Knowledge) (tasyām), shuts out (niruṇaddhi) even (api) that (tām) knowledge (khyātim). Remaining in that (tad) state (avastham) (only) retains (upagam bhavati) the latent impression (saṁskāra)8 . That (saḥ) (is) Seedless --i.e. without any object-- (nirvīja) Samādhi or Perfect Concentration (samādhiḥ)9 . It is called (iti) Asamprajñātayoga (asamprajñātaḥ) (because) there is no Samprajñāna --i.e. knowledge of the tattva-s or categories attained and retained by an one-pointed mind through the way of Samprajñātayoga-- (na... kiñcit samprajñāyate) in that (state) (tatra)|

That (saḥ) Yoga (yogaḥ) (consisting of) suppression (nirodhaḥ) of the mental (citta) modifications (vṛtti) (is) of two kinds (dvividhaḥ)10 ||2||

1  Vyāsa refers to the fact that Patañjali did not write: "Yoga is the suppression of all modifications of mind". If so, he should have written: "Yogaḥ sarvacittavṛttinirodhaḥ". Note that I final "ś" in "yogaś" changes to "yogaḥ" before the new word "sarva". This change is regulated by the Rules of Sandhi or combination, specially those related to Visarga Sandhi, of course.Return 
2  This term indicates simply the mind which has evolved from Sattvaguṇa. In other words, in that mind Sattvaguṇa is predominant. That is why it is purely cognizant.Return 
3  "Buddhisattva" is simply the sattvic or pure Buddhi (intellect). By means of this "special" intellect that results from the yogic practice, one can realize the Self.Return 
4  "Puruṣa" is the Self or pure Consciousness. He will also be called Citiśakti or the Power of Consciousness by Vyāsa later. When someone realizes the difference between Buddhisattva (sattvic intellect) and Puruṣa, attains final Emancipation. The difference is that Buddhisattva is still "slightly" mutable, while Puruṣa is immutable. The means to attain that realization is the Eight-limbed Yoga (Aṣṭāṅgayoga), which will be studied in detail later.Return 
5  "Dharmamegha" or "Cloud of Virtue" is the final stage in meditation, when the meditator becomes indifferent even to the powers of omniscience, omnipotence, and so on. After this kind of Samādhi, the highest state accrues to a meditator. It is so called, because someone wanting to attain final Liberation must be thoroughly virtuous. Well, during the stage of Dharmamegha, all virtues are poured into the meditator and thus he is entitled to achieve complete Emancipation or Kaivalya.Return 
6  Another meaning of "Prasaṅkhyāna" is "Discriminative Knowledge" or "Vivekakhyāti".Return 
7  Citiśakti makes Buddhi (intellect) conscious of the objects. In other words, Citiśakti reveals the objects through Her Light so that Buddhi may behold them.Return 
8  Only the latent impressions of Vivekakhyāti or Discriminative Knowledge are retained, this is the meaning. The latent impressions are stored in the causal body. The aggregate of all latent impressions or saṁskāra-s constitutes ego or Ahaṅkāra.Return 
9  "Nirvījasamādhi" or "Samādhi without any object" is that Samādhi in which there is no object to meditate on. It is not always a synonymous with Asamprajñātasamādhi... careful! Asamprajñātasamādhi is that condition attained when you renounce to all Samprajñāna or knowledge of tattva-s (categories). You obtained that Samprajñāna through Samprajñātayoga, obviously. According to Pātañjalayoga, you cannot attain the highest Liberation without firstly entering into Asamprajñātasamādhi, and you cannot attain Asamprajñātasamādhi without firstly getting Samprajñāna. However, Nirvījasamādhi is not necessarily the same thing as Asamprajñātasamādhi. All that, along with Nirvījasamādhi, will be explained by Vyāsa later on, do not worry then. Besides, the term "nirvīja" (seedless --i.e. objectless--) may also be written "nirbīja".Return 
10  Final "iti" indicates the end of the present commentary.Return 

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 Aphorism 3

भष्यम् - तदवस्थे चेतसि विषयाभावाद्बुद्धिबोधात्मा पुरुषः किंस्वभाव इति -

तदा द्रष्टुः स्वरूपेऽवस्थानम्॥३॥

स्वरूपप्रतिष्ठा तदानीं चितिशक्तिर्यथा कैवल्ये व्युत्थानचित्ते तु सति तथापि भवन्ती न तथा॥३॥

Bhāṣyam - Tadavasthe cetasi viṣayābhāvādbuddhibodhātmā puruṣaḥ kiṁsvabhāva iti -

Tadā draṣṭuḥ svarūpe'vasthānam||3||

Svarūpapratiṣṭhā tadānīṁ citiśaktiryathā kaivalye vyutthānacitte tu sati tathāpi bhavantī na tathā||3||


Commentary (bhāṣyam) - When the mind --cetas-- (cetasi) is in that (tad) state (avasthe), due to the absence (abhāvāt) of objects (viṣaya), what (kim) (is) the nature (sva-bhāvaḥ iti) of Puruṣa (puruṣa), the knower (bodhātmā) of Buddhi or intellect (buddhi)? -


Then (tadā), there is an abiding (avasthānam) in the essential nature (sva-rūpe) of the Seer (draṣṭuḥ)||3||


At that time (tadānīm), Citiśakti or the Power of Consciousness (citiśaktiḥ) abides (pratiṣṭhā) in Her essential nature (sva-rūpa), just as (yathā) (She does) in Kaivalya --i.e. Final Liberation or the state in which the mind remains suppressed or arrested forever-- (kaivalye). However (tu), when the mind (citte) is (sati) in Vyutthāna --i.e. any state other than Samādhi, that is, the ordinary state of mind-- (vyuthāne), (Citiśakti abides) even (api) thus (tathā) --i.e. She also abides in Her essential nature--, (but) She does not (na) appear to be (bhavantī) so (tathā)||3||

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 Aphorism 4

भाष्यम् - कथं तर्हि दर्शितविषयत्वात्।

वृत्तिसारूप्यमितरत्र॥४॥

व्युत्थाने याश्चित्तवृत्तयस्तदविशिष्टवृत्तिः पुरुषः तथा च सूत्रम् एकमेव दर्शनं ख्यातिरेव दर्शनमिति। चित्तमयस्कान्तमणिकल्पं सन्निधिमात्रोपकारि दृश्यत्वेन स्वं भवति पुरुषस्य स्वामिनः। तस्माच्चित्तवृत्तिबोधे पुरुषस्यानादिस्सम्बन्धो हेतुः॥४॥

Bhāṣyam - Kathaṁ tarhi darśitaviṣayatvāt|

Vṛttisārūpyamitaratra||4||

Vyutthāne yāścittavṛttayastadaviśiṣṭavṛttiḥ puruṣaḥ tathā ca sūtram ekameva darśanaṁ khyātireva darśanamiti| Cittamayaskāntamaṇikalpaṁ sannidhimātropakāri dṛśyatvena svaṁ bhavati puruṣasya svāminaḥ| Tasmāccittavṛttibodhe puruṣasyānādissambandho hetuḥ||4||


Commentary (bhāṣyam) - How (katham) then (tarhi) (does that occur?) --i.e. How does Citiśakti appear not to abide in Her essential nature during Vyutthāna though She actually does?--. (It occurs so) because objects (viṣayatvāt) are presented (to Her) (darśita) -


On other occasions (itaratra), there is identity (sārūpyam) (between the Seer and) the modifications (of mind) (vṛtti)||4||


Those (yāḥ) mental (citta) modifications or fluctuations (vṛttayaḥ) (arise) during Vyutthāna --i.e. in any state except Samādhi-- (vyutthāne). (In Vyuthāna,) that (tad) Puruṣa or Self (purusaḥ) does not appear to be different (aviśiṣṭa) from (those) vṛtti-s or modifications (vṛttiḥ) --i.e. He appears to be identical with them--. Accordingly (tathā ca), a sūtra or aphorism (composed by the sage Pañcaśikha) (sūtram) (states the following:) "Consciousness (darśanam) (is) only (eva) one (ekam), the modification of Buddhi (khyātiḥ) (is) only (eva) Consciousness (darśanam iti)"|

The mind (cittam) is equal (kalpam) to a loadstone (ayaskāntamaṇi) (and) acts (upakāri) solely (mātra) in proximity (sannidhi). (Then, this mind,) due to its character of being a "dṛśya" or object (dṛśyatvena) (seems to) become (bhavati) the property (svam) of Puruṣa (puruṣaya), the owner --svāmī-- (svāminaḥ)|

For that reason (tasmāt), the cause (hetuḥ) of knowledge or cognition (bodhe) of the mental (citta) modifications (vṛtti) is the beginningless (anādiḥ) association (sambandhaḥ) of Puruṣa (puruṣasya) (and the mind, which is an object to Him)||4||

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 Aphorism 5

भाष्यम् - ताः पुनर्निरोद्धव्या बहुत्वे सति चित्तस्य -

वृत्तयः पञ्चतय्यः क्लिष्टा अक्लिष्टाः॥५॥

क्लेशहेतुकाः कर्माशयप्रचयक्षेत्रीभूताः क्लिष्टाः ख्यातिविषया गुणाधिकारविरोधिन्योऽक्लिष्टाः। क्लिष्टप्रवाहपतिताप्यक्लिष्टाः क्लिष्टच्छिद्रेष्वप्यक्लिष्टा भवन्त्यक्लिष्टच्छिद्रेषु क्लिष्टा इति। तथाजातीयकाः संस्कारा वृत्तिभिरेव क्रियन्ते संस्कारैश्च वृत्तय इत्येवं वृत्तिसंस्कारचक्रमनिशमावर्त्तते तदेवम्भूतं चित्तमवसिताधिकारमात्मकल्पेन व्यवतिष्ठते प्रलयं वा गच्छतीति॥५॥

Bhāṣyam - Tāḥ punarniroddhavyā bahutve sati cittasya -

Vṛttayaḥ pañcatayyaḥ kliṣṭā akliṣṭāḥ||5||

Kleśahetukāḥ karmāśayapracayakṣetrībhūtāḥ kliṣṭāḥ khyātiviṣayā guṇādhikāravirodhinyo'kliṣṭāḥ| Kliṣṭapravāhapatitā apyakliṣṭāḥ kliṣṭacchidreṣvapyakliṣṭā bhavantyakliṣṭacchidreṣu kliṣṭā iti| Tathājātīyakāḥ saṁskārā vṛttibhireva kriyante saṁskāraiśca vṛttaya ityevaṁ vṛttisaṁskāracakramaniśamāvarttate tadevambhūtaṁ cittamavasitādhikāramātmakalpena vyavatiṣṭhate pralayaṁ vā gacchatīti||5||


Commentary (bhāṣyam) - Furthermore (punar), (even though) those (tāḥ) supressible (niroddhavyāḥ) (modifications or fluctuations) of mind (cittasya) are (sati) many (bahutve) -


The (mental) modifications (vṛttayaḥ), which form a group of 5 (pañcatayyaḥ), may be or may not be based upon Kleśa-s --afflictions-- (kliṣṭāḥ akliṣṭāḥ)||5||


The Kliṣṭa-s (kliṣṭāḥ) (are those modifications) caused (hetukāḥ) by the Kleśa-s or Afflictions (kleśa). They --i.e. the Kliṣṭa-s-- are (bhūtāḥ) the sources (kṣetrī) of the multitude (pracaya) of latent impressions (āśaya) of action (karma)1 . (In turn,) the Akliṣṭa-s (aklistāḥ) have Khyāti or Discriminative Enlightenment (khyāti) as (their) scope (viṣayāḥ), (and) are opposed (virodhinyaḥ) to the function or operation (adhikāra) of Guṇa-s2  or qualities of Prakṛti (guṇa)|

The Akliṣṭa(vṛtti-s) (akliṣṭāḥ) even (api) are (patitāḥ) in the stream or flow (pravāha) of Kliṣṭa(vṛtti-s) (kliṣṭāḥ). The Akliṣṭa(vṛtti-s) (akliṣṭāḥ) are (bhavanti) even (api) in the holes or gaps (chidreṣu) of Kliṣṭa(vṛtti-s) (kliṣṭa) (and) Kliṣṭa(vṛtti-s) (kliṣṭāḥ iti) (arise) in the holes or gaps (chidreṣu) of Akliṣṭa(vṛtti-s) (akliṣṭa)|

The latent impressions (saṁskārāḥ) of that kind (tathājātīyakāḥ) are brought about (kriyante) by the vṛtti-s or (mental) modifications --both Kliṣṭa(s) and Akliṣṭa(s)-- (vṛttibhiḥ eva), and (ca) (new mental) modifications or vṛtti-s (vṛttayaḥ iti) (are produced) by (these) latent impressions (saṁskāraiḥ). Thus (evam), the wheel (cakram) of (mental) modifications (vṛtti) (and) latent impressions (saṁskāra) turns round and round (āvarttate or āvartate) incessantly (aniśam). Therefore (tad), a mind (cittam) of that kind --i.e. with that wheel revolving and revolving within it-- (evam bhūtam) abides (vyavatiṣṭhate) in itself (ātma-kalpena) or (vā) becomes reabsorbed (in its matrix or Prakṛti, where the three Guṇa-s are in equilibrium) (pralayam... gacchati iti), (when) the function or operation (of those Guṇa-s) (adhikāram) has been terminated or ended (avasita)||5||

1  There is another type of latent impression which is based on "sentiments". It is known as Vāsanā. Vāsanā acts as a kind of recipient which is filled up by Karmāśaya or latent impression of action. Every time you perform actions, good or bad ones, you experience a sentiment or feeling. Also, when you reap the fruits of your own actions, you experience a particular sort of sentiment according to the quality of the fruit. In turn, the term "saṁskāra" is a usual term for designating "latent impressions" in general. Thus, do not mistake Vāsanā for Karmāśaya, as they are not the same thing.Return 
2  In other words, Sattva, Rajas and Tamas.Return 

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 Aphorism 6

भाष्यम् - ताः क्लिष्टाश्चाक्लिष्टाश्च पञ्चधा वृत्तयः -

प्रमाणविपर्ययविकल्पनिद्रास्मृतयः॥६॥

Bhāṣyam - Tāḥ kliṣṭāścākliṣṭāśca pañcadhā vṛttayaḥ -

Pramāṇaviparyayavikalpanidrāsmṛtayaḥ||6||


Commentary (bhāṣyam) - Those (tāḥ) (mental) fluctuations (vrittayaḥ), (both) Kliṣṭa-s --i.e. afflictive or born of the Kleśa-s or Afflictions-- (kliṣṭāḥ) and (ca... ca) Akliṣṭa-s --i.e. non-afflictive-- (akliṣṭāḥ) are of five kinds (pañcadhā) -


Correct knowledge (pramāṇa), false knowledge (viparyaya), verbal knowledge about something that is nonexistent (vikalpa), (deep) sleep (nidrā) and recollection --smṛti-- (smṛtayaḥ) (are the five modifications of mind)||6||

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 Aphorism 7

भाष्यम् - तत्र -

प्रत्यक्षानुमानागमाः प्रमाणानि॥७॥

इन्द्रियप्रणालिकया चित्तस्य वाह्यवस्तूपरागात्तद्विषया सामान्यविशेषात्मनोऽर्थस्य विशेषावधारणप्रधाना वृत्तिः प्रत्यक्षं प्रमाणम्। फलमविशिष्टः पौरुषेयश्चित्तवृत्तिबोधः। बुद्धेः प्रतिसंवेदी पुरुष इत्युपरिष्टादुपपादयिष्यामः। अनुमेयस्य तुल्यजातीयेष्वनुवृत्तो भिन्नजातीयेभ्यो व्यावृत्तः सम्बन्धो यस्तद्विषया सामान्यावधारणप्रधाना वृत्तिरनुमानम्। यथा देशान्तरप्राप्तेर्गतिमच्चन्द्रतारकं चैत्रवद्विन्ध्यश्चाप्राप्तिरगतिः। आप्तेन दृष्टोऽनुमितो वार्थः परत्र स्वबोधसंस्क्रान्तये शब्देनोपदिश्यते शब्दात्तदर्थविषया वृत्तिः श्रोतुरागमः। यस्याऽश्रद्धेयार्थो वक्ता न दृष्टानुमितार्थः स आगमः प्लवते मूलवक्तरि तु दृष्टानुमितार्थे निर्विप्लवः स्यात्॥७॥

Bhāṣyam - Tatra -

Pratyakṣānumānāgamāḥ pramāṇāni||7||

Indriyapraṇālikayā cittasya vāhyavastūparāgāttadviṣayā sāmānyaviśeṣātmano'rthasya viśeṣāvadhāraṇapradhānā vṛttiḥ pratyakṣam pramāṇam| Phalamaviśiṣṭaḥ pauruṣeyaścittavṛttibodhaḥ| Buddheḥ pratisaṁvedī puruṣa ityupariṣṭādupapādayiṣyāmaḥ| Anumeyasya tulyajātīyeṣvanuvṛtto bhinnajātīyebhyo vyāvṛttaḥ sambandho yastadviṣayā sāmānyāvadhāraṇapradhānā vṛttiranumānam| Yathā deśāntaraprāptergatimaccandratārakaṁ caitravadvindhyaścāprāptiragatiḥ| Āptena dṛṣṭo'numito vārthaḥ paratra svabodhasaṅkrāntaye śabdenopadiśyate śabdāttadarthaviṣayā vṛttiḥ śroturāgamaḥ| Yasyā'śraddheyārtho vaktā na dṛṣṭānumitārthaḥ sa āgamaḥ plavate mūlavaktari tu dṛṣṭānumitārthe nirviplavaḥ syāt||7||


Commentary (bhāṣyam) - Of those (tatra) -


Direct perception (pratyakṣa), inference (anumāna) and testimony --āgama-- (āgamāḥ) are the Pramāṇa-s (pramāṇāni)||7||


The Pramāṇa (pramāṇam) (known as) direct perception (pratyakṣam) is the mental (cittasya) modification (vrittiḥ) (which is caused) by the influence (uparāgāt) of the external (vāhya) object (vastu) (on the mind) through the channel (praṇālikayā) of the Indriya-s --i.e. five Jñānendriya(s) and Manas, in this context1 -- (indriya), (and) whose (tad) scope (viṣayā) is mainly (pradhānā) the accurate determination (avadhāraṇa) of the special (features) (viśeṣa) of the object (arthasya), which is characterized (ātmanaḥ) by (both) special (viśeṣa) (and) general (features) (sāmānya)|

The fruit or result (of Pratyakṣa or direct perception) (phalam) (is) the awareness (bodhaḥ) of (this) mental (citta) modification (vṛtti) as undistinguished (aviśiṣṭaḥ) from Puruṣa or Self (pauruṣeyaḥ)|

"Puruṣa or Self (purusaḥ) is the one who is conscious (pratisaṁvedī) of Buddhi or intellect (buddheḥ... iti)", we will examine (this subject) (upapādayiṣyāmaḥ) later on (upariṣṭāt)|

The (mental) modification (vṛttiḥ) (known as) Anumāna or inference (anumānam) is mainly (pradhānā) the accurate determination (avadhāraṇa) of the general (features) (sāmānya) (of an object,) whose scope (viṣayā) (is) that --i.e. the entity or mark-- (tad). (The entity or mark is) that (yaḥ) relationship (sambandhaḥ) which is present (anuvṛttaḥ) in the stages where the thing to be inferred occurs (anumeyasya tulyajātīyeṣu) (and) which is absent (vyāvṛttaḥ) in the stages where that very thing does not occur (anumeyasya... bhinnajātīyebhyaḥ)|

For instance (yathā), the moon (candra) (and) the stars (tārakam) (are) possessed of motion (gatimat) as (vat) Caitra --i.e. John Doe-- (caitra) because both of them change (antara-prapteḥ) (their) position (deśa). On the other hand (ca), the Vindhya range (vindhyaḥ) does not arrive (at any new position) (aprāptiḥ), (and therefore) it is not possessed of motion (agatiḥ)|

A thing --i.e. something, anything-- (arthaḥ) which has been directly perceived (dṛṣṭaḥ) or (vā) inferred (anumitaḥ) by a trustworthy (person) (āptena) is taught (by him) (upadiśyate) through words (śabdena) elsewhere (paratra) for the sake of conveying (saṅkrāntaye) his own (sva) knowledge (bodha) (to other people). (Well,) Āgama or testimony (āgamaḥ) (is) the (mental) modification (vṛttiḥ) arising in the hearer (śrotuḥ), (and) whose scope (viṣaya) (is) that (tad) (very) thing (arthaḥ) verbally (described by the aforesaid reliable person) (śabdāt)|

(When) the speaker or exponent (vaktā) of those things (yasyāḥ) (is) untrustworthy (aśraddheya-arthaḥ), (or) is one who has neither (na) directly perceived (dṛṣṭa) nor (na) inferred (anumita) what he wants to convey (arthaḥ), (then) that (saḥ) Āgama or testimony (āgamaḥ) gets lots --i.e. it is not valid-- (plavate). However (tu), (as far as) that thing (arthe) directly perceived (dṛṣṭa) (or) inferred (anumita) by the original (mūla) exponent (vaktari) (is concerned,) it is (syāt) not lost --i.e. it is valid-- (nirviplavaḥ) (when transferred to other people)||7||

1  The term "indriya" generally comprehends "Jñānendriya-s" (Powers of perception) and "Karmendriya-s" (Powers of action), but in this particular situation, Vyāsa is referring only to Jñānendriya-s plus Manas (mind as controller of the senses and creator of thoughts). Jñānendriya-s arise from Manas, while Karmendriya-s emerge from Ahaṅkāra or ego. Thus, Vyāsa is here mentioning only the five Jñānendriya-s along with their source or Manas.Return 

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 Aphorism 8

विपर्ययो मिथ्याज्ञानमतद्रूपप्रतिष्ठम्॥८॥

भाष्यम् - स कस्मान्न प्रमाणं यतः प्रमाणेन बाध्यते भूतार्थविषयत्वात् प्रमाणस्य तत्र प्रमाणेन बाधनमप्रमाणस्य दृष्टं तद्यथा द्विचन्द्रदर्शनं सद्विषयेणैकचन्द्रदर्शनेन बाध्यत इति। सेयं पञ्चपर्वा भवत्यविद्याविद्यास्मितारागद्वेषाभिनिवेशाः क्लेशा इत्येत एव स्वसञ्ज्ञाभिस्तमोमोहो महामोहस्तामिस्रोऽन्धतामिस्र इत्येते चित्तमलप्रसङ्गेनाभिधास्यन्ते॥८॥

Viparyayo mithyājñānamatadrūpapratiṣṭham||8||

Bhāṣyam - Sa kasmānna pramāṇaṁ yataḥ pramāṇena bādhyate bhūtārthaviṣayatvāt pramāṇasya tatra pramāṇena bādhanamapramāṇasya dṛṣṭaṁ tadyathā dvicandradarśanaṁ sadviṣayeṇaikacandradarśanena bādhyata iti| Seyaṁ pañcaparvā bhavatyavidyāvidyāsmitārāgadveṣābhiniveśāḥ kleśā ityeta eva svasañjñābhistamomoho mahāmohastāmisro'ndhatāmisra ityete cittamalaprasaṅgenābhidhāsyante||8||


Viparyaya (viparyayaḥ) is illusory (mithyā) knowledge (jñānam) based (pratiṣṭham) on mistaking a particular form for something completely different (atad-rūpa)||8||


Commentary (bhāṣyam) - Why (kasmāt) (is) it --i.e. Viparyaya or false knowledge-- (saḥ) not (na) Pramāṇa or valid means of acquiring knowledge (prāmāṇam)? Because (yatas) it is annulled (bādhyate) by Pramāṇa (pramāṇena), since the object (viṣayatvāt) of Pramāṇa (pramāṇasya) really exists (bhūta-artha). Therefore (tatra), the annulment (bādhanam) of false knowledge (apramāṇasya) by Pramāṇa (pramāṇena) is (often or commonly) seen (dṛṣṭam), namely (tad yathā), (e.g.) the act of viewing (darśanam) two (dvi) moons (candra) (is) annulled (bādhyate iti) by the real or true (sat) object (viṣayeṇa), (that is,) by the direct perception (darśanena) of only one (eka) moon (candra)|

This (iyam) very (sā) ignorance --i.e. false knowledge-- (avidyā) is (bhavati) five-limbed (pañcaparvā), (viz.) nescience (avidyā), egoism (asmitā), attachment (rāga), aversion (dveṣa) (and) will to live or fear of death --abhiniveśa-- (abhiniveśāḥ), i.e. (the five) "Kleśa-s or Afflictions" (kleśāḥ iti). They (ete eva) (are also known) by their own (sva) technical names (sañjñābhiḥ), (namely,) "Tamas (tamas), Moha (mohaḥ), Mahāmoha (mahāmohaḥ), Tāmisra (tāmisraḥ) (and) Andhatāmiśra (andhatāmisraḥ iti)". These (ete) will be explained (abhidhāsyante) in connection (prasaṅgena) with the mental (citta) impurities (mala)||8||

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 Aphorism 9

शब्दज्ञानानुपाती वस्तुशून्यो विकल्पः॥९॥

भाष्यम् - स न प्रमाणोपारोही न विपर्ययोपारोही च वस्तुशून्यत्वेऽपि शब्दज्ञानमाहात्म्यनिबन्धनो व्यवहारो दृश्यते तद्यथा चैतन्यं पुरुषस्य स्वरूपमिति यदा चितिरेव पुरुषस्तदा किमत्र केन व्यपदिश्यते भवति च व्यपदेशे वृत्तिर्यथा चैत्रस्य गौरिति। तथा प्रतिषिद्धवस्तुधर्मो निष्क्रियः पुरुषस्तिष्ठति वाणः स्थास्यति स्थित इति गतिनिवृत्तौ धात्वर्थमात्रं गम्यते। तथानुत्पत्तिधर्मा पुरुष इत्युत्पत्तिधर्मस्याभावमात्रमवगम्यते न पुरुषान्वयी धर्मस्तस्माद्विकल्पितः स धर्मस्तेन चास्ति व्यवहार इति॥९॥

Śabdajñānānupātī vastuśūnyo vikalpaḥ||9||

Bhāṣyam - Sa na pramāṇoparohī na viparyayopārohī ca vastuśūnyatve'pi śabdajñānamāhātmyanibandhano vyavahāro dṛśyate tadyathā caitanyaṁ puruṣasya svarūpamiti yadā citireva puruṣastadā kimatra kena vyapadiśyate bhavati ca vyapadeśe vṛttiryathā caitrasya gauriti| Tathā pratiṣiddhavastudharmo niṣkriyaḥ puruṣastiṣṭhati vāṇaḥ sthāsyati sthita iti gatinivṛttau dhātvarthamātraṁ gamyate| Tathānutpattidharmā puruṣa ityutpattidharmasyābhāvamātramavagamyate na puruṣānvayī dharmastasmādvikalpitaḥ sa dharmastena cāsti vyavahāra iti||9||


Vikalpa (vikalpaḥ) proceeds (anupātī) from a verbal (śabda) cognition (jñāna) about something which is devoid (śūnyaḥ) of reality (vastu)||9||


Commentary (bhāṣyam) - It --i.e. Vikalpa-- (saḥ) does not (na) reach (upārohī) (the category of) Pramāṇa (pramāṇa), (and) does not (na) reach (upārohī) (the category of) Viparyaya (viparyaya) either (ca). Although (api) it is devoid (śūnyatve) of reality (vastu), the use (vyavahāraḥ) (of Vikalpa) is seen (dṛśyate) to be related (nibandhanaḥ) to the power (māhātmya) of verbal (śabda) knowledge (jñāna). For instance (tad yathā), "Caitanya or Consciousness (caitanyam) (is) the essential nature (sva-rūpam) of Puruṣa --the Self-- (puruṣasya... iti)". When (yadā) Consciousness (citiḥ) Itself (eva) (is) Puruṣa (puruṣaḥ), then (tadā) what (kim) (is) here (atra) indicated (vyapadiśyate) (and) by what (kena)? (Vikalpa)vṛtti (vṛttiḥ) is (bhavati ca) in the statement --i.e. the statement creates the vṛtti or mental modification called Vikalpa in the mind of the hearer-- (vyapadeśe), as (in the phrase) (yathā) "The cow (gauḥ) of Caitra --i.e. John Doe-- (caitrasya... iti)"|

Similarly (tathā), "Puruṣa or Self (puruṣaḥ) (is) inactive (niṣkriyaḥ) (and) devoid (pratiṣiddha) of material (vastu) characteristics (dharmaḥ)", "The arrow (vāṇaḥ) stands (tiṣṭhati), will stand (sthāsyati) (and has) stood (sthitaḥ iti)"; (in these examples,) in the absence (nivṛttau) of movement (gati), only (mātram) the verb (dhātu-artha) is (being) moved (gamyate)|

Likewise (tathā), "Puruṣa (puruṣaḥ) has the characteristic (dharmā) of not being created or produced (anutpatti... iti)"; (here,) no (na) (positive) characteristic or feature (dharmaḥ) related (anvayī) to Puruṣa (puruṣa) is considered (avagamyate) (but) only (mātram) the absence (abhāva) of the characteristic (dharmasya) of being created or produced (utpatti). For that reason (tasmāt), that (saḥ) characteristic (dharmaḥ) is considered to be Vikalpa (vikalpitaḥ), and (ca) it has its use (asti vyavahāraḥ iti) through that (process of indicating an idea about something which is nonexistent) (tena)||9||

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 Aphorism 10

अभावप्रत्ययालम्बना वृत्तिर्निद्रा॥१०॥

भाष्यम् - सा च सम्प्रबोधे प्रत्यवमर्शात्प्रत्ययविशेषः कथं सुखमहमस्वाप्सं प्रसन्नं मे मनः प्रज्ञां मे विशारदीकरोति दुःखमहमस्वाप्सं स्त्यानं मे मनो भ्रमत्यनवस्थितं गाढं मूढोऽहमस्वाप्सं गुरूणि मे गात्राणि क्लान्तं मे चित्तमलसं - अलमिति पठान्तरम् - मुषितमिव तिष्ठतीति। स खल्वयं प्रबुद्धस्य प्रत्यवमर्शो न स्यादसति प्रत्ययानुभवे तदाश्रिताः स्मृतयश्च तद्विषया न स्युः। तस्मान् प्रत्ययविशेषो निद्रा। सा च समाधावितरप्रत्ययवन्निरोद्धव्येति॥१०॥

Abhāvapratyayālambanā vṛttirnidrā||10||

Bhāṣyam - Sā ca samprabodhe pratyavamarśātpratyayaviśeṣaḥ kathaṁ sukhamahamasvāpsaṁ prasannaṁ me manaḥ prajñāṁ me viśāradīkaroti duḥkhamahamasvāpsaṁ styānaṁ me mano bhramatyanavasthitaṁ gāḍhaṁ mūḍho'hamasvāpsaṁ gurūṇi me gātrāṇi klāntaṁ me cittamalasaṁ muṣitamiva tiṣṭhatīti| Sa khalvayaṁ prabuddhasya pratyavamarśo na syādasati pratyayānubhave tadāśritāḥ smṛtayaśca tadviṣayā na syuḥ| Tasmātpratyayaviśeṣo nidrā| Sā ca samādhāvitarapratyayavanniroddhavyeti||10||


The modification (vṛttiḥ) (known as) Nidrā (or deep sleep) (nidrā) is based (ālambanā) upon the mental state (pratyaya) of nonexistence (abhāva)||10||


Commentary (bhāṣyam) - That (Nidrā or deep sleep) (sā ca) is characterized (viśeṣaḥ) by pratyaya or mental cognitions (pratyaya), --i.e. Nidrā is a vṛtti or mental modification--, since there is recollection (pratyavamarśāt) when one wakes up (samprabodhe)|

How (is that made evident) (katham)?... (in this way:) "I (aham) slept (asvāpsam) well (sukham), my (me) mind (manas) (is) clear (prasannam); (that sleep) has cleared (viśāradī-karoti)1  my (me) understanding (prajñā)"; (or else,) "I (aham) slept (asvāpsam) poorly (duḥkham), my (me) mind (manas) has become sluggish (styānam) (and) wanders (bhramati) unsteadily (anavasthitam)", (or) "I (aham) slept (asvāpsam) heavily (gāḍham) as fallen into a profound stupor (mūḍhaḥ), my (me) limbs (gātrāṇi) (feel) heavy (gurūṇi), my (me) mind (cittam) (is) exhausted (klāntam) (and) languid (alasam), (and) remains (tiṣṭhati) as if (iva) stolen (by somebody else) (muṣitam... iti)"|

Certainly (khalu), this (ayam) very (sah) recollection (pratyavamarśaḥ) of what has been known (during deep sleep) (prabuddhasya) would not (na) exist (syāt) if there was no (asati) experience (anubhave) of pratyaya or mental cognition (pratyaya). Also (ca), the memories (smṛtayaḥ) concerning (āśṛtāḥ) that --i.e. deep sleep-- (tad), (and) whose sphere of influence (viṣayāḥ) is that (state itself) (tad), would not (na) exist (syuḥ)|

For that reason (tasmāt), deep sleep (nidrā) (is) characterized (viśeṣaḥ) by pratyaya or mental cognition (pratyaya), --in short, Nidrā is a vṛtti or mental modification--|

During Samādhi or Perfect Concentration (samādhau), that (Nidrā or deep sleep) (sā ca) is to be suppressed (niroddhavyā iti) just as (vat) (in the case of) other (itara) mental cognitions (pratyaya)||10||

1  Even though it is conjugated in the Present Tense, that is, "clears", I had to translate it in the Past Tense to keep the coherence within the sentence.Return 

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 Aphorism 11

अनुभूतविषयासम्प्रमोषः स्मृतिः॥११॥

भाष्यम् - किं प्रत्ययस्य चित्तं स्मरत्याहोस्विद्विषयस्येति ग्राह्योपरक्तः प्रत्ययो ग्राह्यग्रहणोभयाकारनिर्भासस्तथाजातीयकं संस्कारमारभते स संस्कारः स्वव्यञ्जनस्तदाकारामेव ग्राह्यग्रहणोभयात्मिकां स्मृतिं जनयति तत्र ग्रहणाकारपूर्वा बुद्धिर्ग्राह्याकारपूर्वा स्मृतिः सा च द्वयी भावितस्मर्तव्या चाभावितस्मर्तव्या च स्वप्ने भावितस्मर्तव्या जाग्रत्समये स्वभावितस्मर्तव्येति सर्वाः स्मृतयः प्रमाणविपर्ययविकल्पनिद्रास्मृतीनामनुभवात्प्रभवन्ति। सर्वाश्चैता वृत्तयः सुखदुःखमोहात्मिकाः सुखदुःखमोहाश्च क्लेशेषु व्याख्येयाः। सुखानुशयी रागो दुःखानुशयी द्वेषो मोहः पुनरविद्येति। एताः सर्वा वृत्तयो निरोद्धव्याः। आसां निरोधे सम्प्रज्ञातो वा समाधिर्भवत्यसम्प्रज्ञातो वेति॥११॥

Anubhūtaviṣayāsampramoṣaḥ smṛtiḥ||11||

Bhāṣyam - Kiṁ pratyayasya cittaṁ smaratyāhosvidviṣayasyeti| Grāhyoparaktaḥ pratyayo grāhyagrahaṇobhayākāranirbhāsastathājātīyakaṁ saṁskāramārabhate sa saṁskāraḥ svavyañjakāñjanastadākārāmeva grāhyagrahaṇobhayātmikāṁ smṛtiṁ janayati tatra grahaṇākārapūrvā buddhirgrāhyākārapūrvā smṛtiḥ sā ca dvayī bhāvitasmartavyā cābhāvitasmartavyā ca svapne bhāvitasmartavyā jāgratsamaye tvabhāvitasmartavyeti sarvāḥ smṛtayaḥ pramāṇaviparyayavikalpanidrāsmṛtīnāmanubhavātprabhavanti| Sarvāścaitā vṛttayaḥ sukhaduḥkhamohātmikāḥ sukhaduḥkhamohāśca kleśeṣu vyākhyeyāḥ| Sukhānuśayī rāgo duḥkhānuśayī dveṣo mohaḥ punaravidyeti| Etāḥ sarvā vṛttayo niroddhavyāḥ| Āsāṁ nirodhe samprajñāto vā samādhirbhavatyasamprajñāto veti||11||


Smṛti (or recollection) (smṛtiḥ) is the reproduction, without taking anything from any other sources (asampramoṣaḥ), of the thing (viṣaya) that was (previously) experienced (anubhūta)||11||


Commentary (bhāṣyam) - "Does (kim) the mind (cittam) remember (smarati) the mental cognition (pratyayasya) or (āhosvit) the object (viṣayasya iti)?"|

The mental cognition (pratyayaḥ) influenced --i.e. produced-- (uparaktaḥ) by an object (grāhya) reveals (nirbhāsaḥ) the form or nature (ākāra) of both (ubhaya) object (grāhya) (and) the process of knowing (grahaṇa), (and) produces (ārabhate) latent impressions (saṁskāram) of similar kind (tathā-jātīyakam)|

The latent impression (saḥ saṁskāraḥ) (is) indeed (eva) that (tad) form (ākāram) which is colored or pigmented (añjanaḥ) by what causes its own manifestation --i.e. by the external cause that formed the latent impression-- (sva-vyañjaka). (In turn, saṁskāra or latent impression) generates (janayati) recollection (smṛtim) consisting (ātmikām) of both (ubhaya) the object (grāhya) (and) the process of knowing (grahaṇa)|

Of those (tatra), Buddhi or intellect (buddhiḥ) (is) the form (ākāra) of the previous or original (pūrvā) process of knowing --i.e. cognitive process-- (grahaṇa), (while) recollection (smṛtiḥ) (is the reappearance of) the form (ākāra) of the previously (experienced) (pūrvā) object (grāhya). Again (ca), that (recollection) (sā) is of two kinds (dvayī): (1) Recollection (smartavyā) of an imagined (thing) --i.e. a unreal thing-- (bhāvita), and (ca... ca), (2) Recollection (smartavyā) of (a thing) not imagined --i.e. a real thing-- (abhāvita). During sleep (svapne), (there is) recollection (smartavyā) of imagined (things) (bhāvita), but (tu) at the time (samaye) of wakefulness (jāgrat) (there is only) recollection (smartavyā) of (things) not imagined (abhāvita... iti)|

All (sarvāḥ) recollections (smṛtayaḥ) appear (prabhavanti) from the experience(s) (anubhavāt) of Pramāṇa --correct knowledge-- (pramāṇa), Viparyaya --false knowledge-- (viparyaya), Vikalpa --verbal knowledge about something that is nonexistent-- (vikalpa), Nidrā --deep sleep-- (nidrā) (and) Smṛti --recollection-- (smṛtīnām)|

Besides (ca), all (sarvāḥ) these (etāḥ) mental modifications or vṛtti-s (vṛttayaḥ) are of the nature (ātmikāḥ) of pleasure (sukha), pain (duḥkha) (and) delusion or stupefaction (moha). Pleasure (sukha), pain (duḥkha) and (ca) delusion or stupefaction --moha-- (mohāḥ) will be explained (vyākhyeyāḥ) in connection with Kleśa-s or Afflictions (kleśeṣu)|

Attachment (rāgaḥ) is the consequence (anuśayī) of pleasure (sukha); aversion (dveṣaḥ) is the consequence (anuśāyī) of pain (duḥkha); and (punar1 ) delusion or stupefaction (mohaḥ) (is) ignorance (avidyā iti)|

All (sarvāḥ) these (etāḥ) mental modifications (vṛttayaḥ) are to be suppressed (niroddhavyāḥ)|

When there is suppression (nirodhe) of these (mental fluctuations) (āsām), Samprajñātasamādhi (samprajñātaḥ... samādhiḥ) or (vā... vā) Asamprajñātasamādhi (samādhiḥ... asamprajñātaḥ) occurs (bhavati... iti)2 ||11||

1  As a matter of fact, the word "punar" would mean here "besides, moreover", but it was translated as "and" for the sake of easy reading.Return 
2  Samprajñātasamādhi literally means "Perfect Concentration or Samādhi pertaining to Samprajñātayoga". Samprajñātayoga is a sort of Yoga in which you look to attain Samprajñāna or a profound knowledge of the tattva-s or categories of Creation which is gained and retained through concentration. In other words, you attempt to grasp the core of the mystery behind this universal Manifestation. Samprajñātasamādhi is the culminating stage in Samprajñātayoga. Anyway, this will be explained by Vyāsa in detail in I, 17. On the other hand, Asamprajñātasamādhi literally means "Perfect Concentration or Samādhi pertaining to Asamprajñātayoga". Asamprajñātayoga is a type of Yoga which lies even beyond Samprajñātayoga. This will be explained by Vyāsa in I, 18.Return 

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 Aphorism 12

भाष्यम् - अथासां निरोधे क उपाय इति -

अभ्यासवैराग्याभ्यां तन्निरोधः॥१२॥

चित्तनदी नाम उभयतोवाहिनी वहति कल्याणाय वहति पापाय च। या तु कैवल्यप्राग्भारा विवेकविषयनिम्ना सा कल्याणवहा। संसारप्राग्भारा अविवेकविषयनिम्ना पापवहा। तत्र वैराग्येण विषयस्रोतः खिलीक्रियते विवेकदर्शनाभ्यासेन विवेकस्रोत उद्घाट्यते। इत्युभयाधीनश्चित्तवृत्तिनिरोधः॥१२॥

Bhāṣyam - Athāsāṁ nirodhe ka upāya iti -

Abhyāsavairāgyābhyāṁ tannirodhaḥ||12||

Cittanadī nāma ubhayatovāhinī vahati kalyāṇāya vahati pāpāya ca| Yā tu kaivalyaprāgbhārā vivekaviṣayanimnā sā kalyāṇavahā| Saṁsāraprāgbhārā avivekaviṣayanimnā pāpavahā| Tatra vairāgyeṇa viṣayasrotaḥ khilīkriyate vivekadarśanābhyāsena vivekasrota udghāṭyate| Ityubhayādhīnaścittavṛttinirodhaḥ||12||


Commentary (bhāṣyam) - Now (atha), what (kaḥ) (is) the means (upāyaḥ iti) for suppressing (nirodhe) these (mental modifications) (āsām)? -


There is suppression (nirodhaḥ) of that (i.e. "of the previous five mental modifications") (tad) by means of Abhyāsa --practice-- and Vairāgya --renunciation-- (abhyāsavairāgyābhyām)||12||


That which is known (nāma) as the river (nadī) of mind (citta) flows (vāhinī) in both directions (ubhayataḥ). It flows (vahati) toward good (kalyāṇāya) and also (ca) flows (vahati) toward evil or sin (pāpāya)|

Certainly (tu), that (sā) which (yā) (is) inclined (nimnā) toward the sphere (viṣaya) of Viveka --i.e. Vivekakhyāti or discriminative knowledge which allows a person to perceive the difference between Buddhi or intellect and Puruṣa or Self-- (viveka) leading (prāgbhārā) to Kaivalya or Final Liberation (kaivalya), flows (vahā) toward the good (kalyāṇa)|

(On the other hand, that which is) inclined (nimnā) toward the sphere (viṣaya) of Aviveka --i.e. non-discrimination of the difference existing between Buddhi and Puruṣa-- (aviveka) leading (prāgbhārā) to Saṁsāra or Transmigration (saṁsāra), flows (vahā) toward the evil (pāpa)|

Of those (tatra), the flow (srotaḥ) toward (external) objects (viṣaya) is made powerless (khilīkriyate) through renunciation (vairāgyeṇa). (In turn,) through the practice (abhyāsena) of contemplating (darśana) Viveka --i.e. discriminative knowledge-- (viveka) is unlocked (udghāṭyate) the flow (srotaḥ) of (that very) Viveka (viveka)|

Thus (iti), the suppression (nirodhaḥ) of mental (citta) modifications (vṛtti) is depending (adhīnaḥ) on both (means) (ubhaya) --i.e. renunciation and practice of discriminating--||12||

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 Aphorism 13

तत्र स्थितौ यत्नोऽभ्यासः॥१३॥

भाष्यम् - चित्तस्यावृत्तिकस्य प्रशान्तवाहिता स्थितिस्तदर्थः प्रयत्नो वीर्यमुत्साहस्तत्सम्पिपादयिषया तत्साधनानुष्ठानमभ्यासः॥१३॥

Tatra sthitau yatno'bhyāsaḥ||13||

Bhāṣyam - Cittasyāvṛttikasya praśāntavāhitā sthitistadarthaḥ prayatno vīryamutsāhastatsampipādayiṣayā tatsādhanānuṣṭhānamabhyāsaḥ||13||


Abhyāsa or practice (abhyāsaḥ) is the effort (yatnaḥ) to attain to that (tatra) Sthiti or mental peace (sthitau)||13||


Commentary (bhāṣyam) - Sthiti (sthitiḥ) (is) a continuity of calmness and tranquility (praśāntavāhitā) in a mind (cittasya) devoid of vṛtti-s or fluctuations (avṛttikasya). For obtaining (arthaḥ) that (state of mental serenity) (tad), the effort (prayatnaḥ), the energy (vīryam) (and) the strength of resolution (utsāhaḥ) along with a desire to accomplish (sampipādayiṣayā) that (goal) (tad), (that is,) the practice or repeated effort (anuṣṭhānam) leading straight (sādhana) to that (Sthiti) (tad) (is) Abhyāsa or practice (abhyāsaḥ)||13||

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