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Комментарии Вьясы (Vyāsa) о йоге - Глава I (афоризмы 14 - 26)

Стандартный перевод


 Introduction

Hi, Gabriel Pradīpaka once again. This is my translation of the Vyāsa's commentary on the aphorisms 14 to 26 of the Section I (On concentration) in Pātañjalayogasūtra-s.

If you do not understand what Sattvaguṇa or Sattva, Rajoguṇa or Rajas, Tamoguṇa or Tamas, tattva-s, and so on are, you may consult the Trika glossary and Tattvic Chart. Granted, these documents contain knowledge pertaining to Trika system (Non-dual Shaivism of Kashmir), but with the respective "adaptations", they may be really useful.

What are those adaptations?: e.g. Trika enumerates 36 tattva-s or categories, while Pātañjalayoga (the present system being studied) only enumerates 25. Well, a first fix would be that you "might" consider Trika's tattvic scheme to be an enhancement of that of Pātañjalayoga. In short, the last 25 tattva-s (from Puruṣa to Pṛthivī) out of 36 would be the scope studied by Pātañjalayoga. Granted, the definition of Puruṣa and Prakṛti given by Trika is not exactly the same as that given by Pātañjalayoga, but the information is still useful. Besides, the three Guṇa-s or qualities forming Prakṛti are also described to a certain point. In fact, read the entire Trika section if you like, specially that portion dedicated to give an overview of the Trika system. Ah!, also read all that is related to Sāṅkhya and Yoga in First Steps (1), First Steps (2) and First Steps (3).

Of course, I will also insert the Patañjali's aphorisms on which Vyāsa is commenting. Even though I will not comment on either the original sūtra-s or the Vyāsa's commentary, I will write some notes to make a particular point clear when necessary. Vyāsa's Sanskrit will be in dark green color while the original Patañjali's aphorisms will be shown in dark red color. In turn, within transliteration, the original aphorisms will be in brown color and have their correct number at the end. Note that the very Vyāsa's commentary will have a number similar to the commented aphorism. Finally, the translation of the original aphorisms by Patañjali will use deep red and black colors, while the commentary by Vyāsa will contain words in both black and red color.

Important: All that is in brackets and italicized within the translation has been added by me in order to complete the sense of a particular phrase or sentence. In turn, all that is between double hyphen (--...--) constitutes clarifying further information also added by me.

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 Aphorism 14

स तु दीर्घकालनैरन्तर्यसत्कारासेवितो दृढभूमिः॥१४॥

भाष्यम् - दीर्घकालासेवितो निरन्तरासेवितस्तपसा ब्रह्मचर्येण विद्यया श्रद्धया च सम्पादितः सत्कारवान्दृढभूमिर्भवति व्युत्थानसंस्कारेण द्रागित्येवानभिभूतविषय इत्यर्थः॥१४॥

Sa tu dīrghakālanairantaryasatkārāsevito dṛḍhabhūmiḥ||14||

Bhāṣyam - Dīrghakālāsevito nirantarāsevitastapasā brahmacaryeṇa vidyayā śraddhayā ca sampāditaḥ satkāravāndṛḍhabhūmirbhavati vyutthānasaṁskāreṇa drāgityevānabhibhūtaviṣaya ityarthaḥ||14||


And that (practice) (saḥ), when endowed (sevitaḥ) with a uninterrupted (nairantarya) and true (sat) devotional attitude (kārā) for a long (dīrgha) time (kāla), (has) certainly (tu) firm (dṛḍha) foundations (bhūmiḥ)||14||


Commentary (bhāṣyam) - (When) continued (āsevitaḥ) for a long (dīrgha) time (kāla) (and) assiduously practiced (āsevitaḥ) in a uninterrupted manner (nirantara) together with austerity (tapasā), continence --brahmacarya-- (brahmacaryeṇa), knowledge --vidyā-- (vidyayā) and (ca) faith --śraddhā-- (śraddhayā), (that practice is said to have been) accomplished (sampāditaḥ) with care (satkāravān). (Therefore,) it is (bhavati) firmly established (dṛḍha-bhūmi). Thus (iti eva), the object or goal (of the practice) --i.e. mental tranquility-- (viṣaya) is not quickly overcome (drāk... anabhibhūta) by the latent impression(s) (saṁskāreṇa) of Vyutthāna --i.e. "any state but Samādhi or Perfect Concentration", that is, the ordinary fluctuating state of mind-- (vyutthāna). This is the sense (iti arthaḥ)||14||

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 Aphorism 15

दृष्टानुश्रविकविषयवितृष्णस्य वशीकारसञ्ज्ञा वैराग्यम्॥१५॥

भाष्यम् - स्त्रियोऽन्नपानमैश्वर्यमिति दृष्टविषयवितृष्णस्य स्वर्गवैदेह्यप्रकृतिलयत्वप्राप्तावानुश्रविकविषये वितृष्णस्य दिव्यादिव्यविषयसम्प्रयोगेऽपि चित्तस्य विषयदोषदर्शिनः प्रसङ्ख्यानबलादनाभोगात्मिका हेयोपादेयशून्या वशीकारसञ्ज्ञा वैराग्यम्॥१५॥

Dṛṣṭānuśravikaviṣayavitṛṣṇasya vaśīkārasañjñā vairāgyam||15||

Bhāṣyam - Striyo'nnapānamaiśvaryamiti dṛṣṭaviṣayavitṛṣṇasya svargavaidehyaprakṛtilayatvaprāptāvānuśravikaviṣaye vitṛṣṇasya divyādivyaviṣayasamprayoge'pi cittasya viṣayadoṣadarśinaḥ prasaṅkhyānabalādanābhogātmikā heyopādeyaśūnyā vaśīkārasañjñā vairāgyam||15||


Vairāgya or Renunciation (vairāgyam) is known (sañjñā) as the act of subjugating (vaśīkāra) the desire (vitṛṣṇasya) for objects (viṣaya) seen (dṛṣṭa) or repeatedly heard from the scriptures (ānuśravika)||15||


Commentary (bhāsyam) - Vaśīkārasañjñā (vaśīkārasañjñā) (is a mental state) devoid (śūnyā) of "abandoned" (heya) (and) "taken" (upādeya)1 . Its nature (ātmikā) (is) free from sensual enjoyment (anābhogaḥ) by virtue (balāt) of the discriminative knowledge (prasaṅkhyāna) (acquired) by a mind (cittasya) which is completely free (vitṛṣṇasya) from (such) perceivable (dṛṣṭa) things (viṣaya) (as) "women (striyaḥ), food and drink (anna-pānam), (as well as) power (aiśvaryam iti)". (This very mind) is (also) completely free (vitṛṣṇasya) from things (viṣaye) repeatedly heard from the scriptures (ānuśravika), (such as) the attainment --prāpti-- (prāptau) of heaven (svarga) --i.e. going to heaven--, Vaidehya --i.e. a discarnate state on which Vyāsa will comment in the aphorism I, 19-- (vaidehya) (or) the dissolution (layatva) in Prakṛti or Primordial Matter (prakṛti). Even (api) in the (actual) presence (samprayoge) of (those) things (viṣaya), (whether) divine (divya) (or) not divine (adivya), (that mind becomes free from them) by perceiving (darśinaḥ) their defects (viṣaya-doṣa). (This is, undoubtedly,) renunciation (vairāgyam)||15||

1  Vyāsa refers to a condition of complete detachment, in which one experiences neither attachment ("taken") nor aversion ("abandoned"). Note that detachment is not the same thing as "vulgar indifference". Vulgar indifference is a terrible flaw in a person, something that everybody should avoid to feel. At the most, detachment might be defined as "spiritually-oriented indifference", or a condition in which one person ceases experiencing attachment or aversion toward the external objects.Return 

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 Aphorism 16

तत्परं पुरुषख्यातेर्गुणवैतृष्ण्यम्॥१६॥

भाष्यम् - दृष्टानुश्रविकविषयदोषदर्शी विरक्तः पुरुषदर्शनाभ्यासात्तच्छुद्धिप्रविवेकाप्यायितबुद्धिर्गुणेभ्यो व्यक्ताव्यक्तधर्मकेभ्यो विरक्त इति तद्द्वयं वैराग्यं तत्र यदुत्तरं तज्ज्ञानप्रसादमात्रम्। यस्योदये प्रत्युदितख्यातिरेवं मन्यते प्राप्तं प्रापणीयं क्षीणाः क्षेतव्याः क्लेशाश्छिन्नः श्लिष्टपर्वा भवसङ्क्रमो यस्याविच्छेदाज्जनित्वा म्रियते मृत्वा च जायत इति। ज्ञानस्यैव परा काष्टा वैराग्यमेतस्यैव हि नान्तरीयकं कैवल्यमिति॥१६॥

Tatparaṁ puruṣakhyāterguṇavaitṛṣṇyam||16||

Bhāṣyam - Dṛṣṭānuśravikaviṣayadoṣadarśī viraktaḥ puruṣadarśanābhyāsāttacchuddhipravivekāpyāyitabuddhirguṇebhyo vyaktāvyaktadharmakebhyo virakta iti taddvayaṁ vairāgyaṁ tatra yaduttaraṁ tañjñānaprasādamātram| Yasyodaye pratyuditakhyātirevaṁ manyate prāptaṁ prāpaṇīyaṁ kṣīṇāḥ kṣetavyāḥ kleśāśchinnaḥ śliṣṭaparvā bhavasaṅkramo yasyāvicchedājjanitvā mriyate mṛtvā ca jāyata iti| Jñānasyaiva parā kāṣṭā vairāgyametasyaiva hi nāntarīyakaṁ kaivalyamiti||16||


Indifference (vaitṛṣṇyam) to the Guṇa-s, (the qualities of nature) (guṇa), because of a knowledge (khyāteḥ) of Puruṣa (puruṣa) is called the highest (Vairāgya or Renunciation) (tad param)||16||


Commentary (bhāṣyam) -Through the practice (abhyāsāt) of perceiving (darśana) Puruṣa or the Self (puruṣa), (a yogī,) having seen (darśī) the defects (doṣa) in things (viṣaya) visible (dṛṣṭa) (or) described in the scriptures (ānuśravika), (becomes) indifferent (viraktaḥ). (He, owning) an intellect (buddhiḥ) improved and increased (āpyāyita) by the discriminative knowledge (praviveka) (resulting) from that (tad) clarification or purity (śuddhi) --i.e. resulting from that state of indifference--, (becomes) "indifferent" (viraktaḥ iti) to the manifest (vyakta) (and) unmanifested (avyakta) conditions (dharmakebhyaḥ) of the Guṇa-s or qualities of Prakṛti --i.e. Sattva, Rajas and Tamas-- (guṇebhyaḥ). Therefore (tad), renunciation (vairāgyam) (is) two-fold (dvayam). Of those (two kinds of Vairāgya or Renunciation) (tatra), the latter (yad uttaram) (is) a mere (mātram) clarification or clearness (prasāda) of that (tad) knowledge (jñānam)|

When there is emergence (udaye) of that (last type of Vairāgya or Renunciation) (yasya), (the yogī, full of that) emerged (pratyudita) knowledge (khyātiḥ), thinks (manyate) thus (evam): "(I have) gotten (prāptam) what is to be gotten (prāpaṇīyam); Kleśa-s or Afflictions (kleśāḥ), which have to be diminished (kṣetavyāḥ), have been diminished (kṣīṇāḥ); the succession (saṅkramaḥ) of existences --i.e. Saṁsāra or succession of birth-death-rebirth-- (bhava), (which is like a chain) consisting of members --i.e. the links-- (parvā) being joined together (śliṣṭa), (and) from whose (yasya) continuity (avicchedāt), having been born (janitvā) (man) dies (mṛyate) and (ca) having died (mṛtvā) he is born (again) (jāyate), has been cut (chinnaḥ... iti)"|

Renunciation (vairāgyam) is the culminating point (parā kāṣṭhā) of knowledge (jñānasya) indeed (eva), because (hi) Kaivalya or Final Liberation (kaivalyam) is not (na) different (antarīyakam) from this --i.e. from Vairāgya or Renunciation-- (etasya eva... iti)||16||

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 Aphorism 17

भाष्यम् - अथोपायद्वयेन निरुद्धचित्तवृत्तेः कथमुच्यते सम्प्रज्ञातः समाधिरिति -

वितर्कविचारानन्दास्मितारूपानुगमात्सम्प्रज्ञातः॥१७॥

वितर्कश्चित्तस्यालम्बने स्थूलोऽभोगः सूक्ष्मो विचार आनन्दो ह्लाद एकात्मिका संविदस्मिता। तत्र प्रथमश्चतुष्टयानुगतः समाधिः सवितर्कः। द्वितीयो वितर्कविकलः सविचारः। तृतीयो विचारविकलः सानन्दः। चतुर्थस्तद्विकलोऽस्मितामात्र इति। सर्व एते सालम्बनाः समाधयः॥१७॥

Bhāṣyam - Athopāyadvayena niruddhacittavṛtteḥ kathamucyate samprajñātaḥ samādhiriti -

Vitarkavicārānandāsmitārūpānugamātsamprajñātaḥ||17||

Vitarkaścittasyālambane sthūlo'bhogaḥ sūkṣmo vicāra ānando hlāda ekātmikā saṁvidasmitā| Tatra prathamaścatuṣṭayānugataḥ samādhiḥ savitarkaḥ| Dvitīyo vitarkavikalaḥ savicāraḥ| Tṛtīyo vicāravikalaḥ sānandaḥ| Caturthastadvikalo'smitāmātra iti| Sarva ete sālambanāḥ samādhayaḥ||17||


Commentary (bhāṣyam) - Now (atha), "how (katham) (is) Samprajñātasamādhi (samprajñātaḥ samādhiḥ iti) described (ucyate) (in the case of) a mind (citta) whose modifications (vṛtteḥ) have been arrested or stopped (niruddha) through the (aforesaid) couple (dvayena) of methods or means (upāya... iti)?" -


Samprajñātasamādhi (samprajñātaḥ) (is achieved) by means of (anugamāt) Vitarka, Vicāra, Ānanda and Asmitā (vitarkavicārānandāsmitārūpa)||17||


(When) the gross (sthūlaḥ) enjoyment (abhogaḥ) --i.e. the delight in gross objects-- (acts) as a support (ālambane) of a (concentrated) mind (cittasya), it is (called) Vitarka (vitarkaḥ). (When that enjoyment is) a subtle one --i.e. delight in subtle objects-- (sūkṣmaḥ), (it is known as) Vicāra (vicāraḥ). (In turn, if there is) delight or happiness (hlādaḥ), (it is named) Ānanda (ānandaḥ). (Again, when there is) awareness (saṁvid) of individual personality (eka-ātmikā), (it is called) Asmitā (asmitā). Under those circumstances (tatra), the first (prathamaḥ) (kind of) Samādhi (samādhiḥ) (or Perfect Concentration called) Savitarka (savitarkaḥ), --i.e. with or endowed with Vitarka-- contains (anugataḥ) the set of four --i.e. Vitarka, Vicāra, Ānanda and Asmitā-- (catuṣṭaya). The second (dvitīyaḥ) (kind of Samādhi, called) Savicāra --i.e. with or endowed with Vicāra-- (savicāraḥ), is deprived (vikalaḥ) of Vitarka (vitarka). The third (tṛtīyaḥ) (kind of Samādhi, known as) Sānanda --i.e. with or endowed Ānanda-- (sānandaḥ), is devoid (vikalaḥ) of Vicāra (vicāra). The fourth (caturthaḥ) (is) "only (mātraḥ) I-sense (asmitā... iti)". (This last kind of Samādhi is even) without (vikalaḥ) that --i.e. it is without Ānanda-- (tad). All (sarve) these (ete) Samādhi-s (samādhayaḥ) are endowed with (sa) support (ālambanāḥ)1 ||17||

1  In other words, they need some type of support for concentration, whether it is gross objects (Savitarkasamādhi), subtle objects (Savicārasamādhi), I-sense (Sānandasamādhi) or pure I-sense (Sāsmitāsamādhi).Return 

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 Aphorism 18

भाष्यम् - अथासम्प्रज्ञातसमाधिः किमुपायः किं स्वभावो वेति -

विरामप्रत्ययाभ्यासपूर्वः संस्कारशेषोऽन्यः॥१८॥

सर्ववृत्तिप्रत्यस्तमये संस्कारशेषो निरोधश्चित्तस्य समाधिरसम्प्रज्ञातस्तस्य परं वैराग्यमुपायः। सालम्बनो ह्यभ्यासस्तत्साधनाय न कल्पत इति विरामप्रत्ययो निर्वस्तुक आलम्बनीक्रियते स चार्थशून्यस्तदभ्यासपूर्वं चित्तं निरालम्बनमभावप्राप्तमिव भवतीत्येष निर्वीजः समाधिरसम्प्रज्ञातः॥१८॥

Bhāṣyam - Athāsamprajñātasamādhiḥ kimupāyaḥ kiṁ svabhāvo veti -

Virāmapratyayābhyāsapūrvaḥ saṁskāraśeṣo'nyaḥ||18||

Sarvavṛttipratyastamaye saṁskāraśeṣo nirodhaścittasya samādhirasamprajñātastasya paraṁ vairāgyamupāyaḥ| Sālambano hyabhyāsastatsādhanāya na kalpata iti virāmapratyayo nirvastuka ālambanīkriyate sa cārthaśūnyastadabhyāsapūrvaṁ cittaṁ nirālambanamabhāvaprāptamiva bhavatītyeṣa nirvījaḥ samādhirasamprajñātaḥ||18||


Commentary (bhāṣyam) - Now (atha), "what (kim) (is) the means (upāyaḥ) (of attaining) Asamprajñātasamādhi (asamprajñātasamādhiḥ) and (vā)1  what (kim) (is its) nature (sva-bhāvaḥ... iti)? -


(Asamprajñātasamādhi is the) other (type of Samādhi) (anyaḥ) that is preceded (pūrvaḥ) by the practice (abhyāsa) of stopping (virāma) the mental fluctuations (pratyaya) (which is the natural fruit of the highest Vairāgya or Renunciation, but that) it (still) contains a residue (śeṣaḥ) of latent impressions (saṁskāra)||18||


(When) all (sarva) mental modifications (vṛtti) are thrown down (pratyastam-aye), the arrested state (nirodhaḥ) of mind (cittasya) together with the rest (śeṣaḥ) of latent impressions (saṁskāra) (is known as) Asamprajñātasamādhi (samādhiḥ asamprajñātaḥ). The supreme (param) renunciation (vairāgyam) (is) the means (upāyaḥ) of attaining it (tasya)|

"(Any) practice (abhyāsaḥ) endowed with (sa) support --i.e. with an object of concentration, whatever it may be-- (ālambanaḥ) (is) doubtless (hi) not (na) favorable (kalpate) in order to attain (sādhanāya) that (tad... iti)". When (all) mental fluctuations (pratyayaḥ) are stopped (virāma), an objectless state (nirvastukaḥ) becomes (kriyate) the support (ālambhanī) and (ca) that (condition) (saḥ) is devoid (śūnyaḥ) of things (artha). "A mind (cittam) accompanied (pūrvam) by that (tad) practice (abhyāsaḥ)2  is (bhavati) without support (nirālambanam) (and) attains (prāptam) a condition of nonexistence (abhāva), as it were (iva... iti)". This (eṣaḥ) objectless (nirvījaḥ) Samādhi or Perfect Concentration (samādhiḥ) (is) Asamprajñāta (asamprajñātaḥ)||18||

1  Even though "vā" generally means "or", it is sometimes interchangeable with "ca" (and). This is what occurs here in the present text. Should it be translated as usual (i.e. as "or"), the sentence would make no sense, except the one asking is addict to give absurd options in his questions.Return 
2  In other words, a mind which practices that supreme renunciation or Vairāgya and attains a state or condition devoid of all objects.Return 

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 Aphorism 19

भाष्यम् - स खल्वयं द्विविधोऽपायप्रत्ययो भवप्रत्ययश्च तत्रापायप्रत्ययो योगिनां भवति -

भवप्रत्ययो विदेहप्रकृतिलयानाम्॥१९॥

विदेहानां देवानां भवप्रत्ययः ते हि स्वसंस्कारमात्रोपयोगेन चित्तेन कैवल्यपदमिवानुभवन्तः स्वसंस्कारविपाकं तथाजातीयकमतिवाहयन्ति तथा प्रकृतिलयाः साधिकारे चेतसि प्रकृतिलीने कैवल्यपदमिवानुभवन्ति यावन्न पुनरावर्ततेऽधिकारवशाच्चित्तमिति॥१९॥

Bhāṣyam - Sa khalvayaṁ dvividho'pāyapratyayo bhavapratyayaśca tatrāpāyapratyayo yogināṁ bhavati -

Bhavapratyayo videhaprakṛtilayānām||19||

Videhānāṁ devānāṁ bhavapratyayaḥ te hi svasaṁskāramātropayogena cittena kaivalyapadamivānubhavantaḥ svasaṁskāravipākaṁ tathājātīyakamativāhayanti tathā prakṛtilayāḥ sādhikāre cetasi prakṛtilīne kaivalyapadamivānubhavanti yāvanna punarāvartate'dhikāravaśāccittamiti||19||


Commentary (bhāṣyam) - This (ayam) very (saḥ) (Nirbījasamādhi or objectless Samādhi is) certainly (khalu) of two kinds (dvividhā): [(1) Upāyapratyaya or] a mental state (pratyayaḥ) attained through a upāya or means --e.g. knowledge, devotion and so on-- (upāya); and (ca) [(2) Bhavapratyaya or] a mental state (pratyayaḥ) attained through a bhava or latent impression of ignorance (bhava) -


(There are two types of causes for Nirvījasamādhi --a Samādhi without an object to meditate on--: "upāyapratyaya" --the mental condition that is the outcome of a conscious effort by using a method-- and "bhavapratyaya" --the mental condition that is the outcome of latent impressions of ignorance--. The first type produces "Asamprajñātasamādhi", while the second one brings about a similar but not identical state).

(Thus, Nirvījasamādhi is caused by) the mental condition (pratyayaḥ) (that is the outcome) of latent impressions of ignorance (bhava) in the case of both the Videha-s or (discarnate) Deva-s (videha) and the Prakṛtilaya-s or those who have dissolved themselves in the primeval constituent principle (prakṛtilayānām)||19||


Bhavapratyaya (bhavapratyayaḥ) pertains to the discarnate (videhānām) gods (devānām)1  because (hi) they (te), experiencing (anubhavantaḥ) a state (padam) like (iva) that of Kaivalya --i.e. Final Liberation-- (kaivalya) by means of a mind (cittena) which uses (upayogena) only (mātra) its own (sva) latencies (saṁskāra), get through (ativāhayanti) that sort (tathā-tātīyakam) of karmic result or consequence (vipākam), (which also derives) from their own (sva) latent impressions (saṁskāra). Likewise (tathā), the Prakṛtilaya-s --i.e. those who have dissolved themselves in the primeval constituent principle, that is, in Prakṛti or Pradhāna-- (prakṛti-layāḥ)2  experience (anubhavanti) a state (padam) like (iva) that of Kaivalya or Final Liberation (kaivalya) when (their) mind(s) (cetasi) dissolve (līne) in Prakṛti or Pradhāna (prakṛti). (That state lasts for) so long as (yāvat) (their) mind(s) (cittam) do not (na) turn round and round (āvartate) again (punar) by force (vaśāt) of (that very) substratum --i.e. latencies-- (adhikāra... iti)||19||

1  This is a technical term used to call those yogī-s who have realized the true nature of Mahābhūta-s (ether, air, fire, water and earth) and thus developed the respective latent impressions associated with that realization. Consequently, some of them renounce to run after external objects while others remain glad by beholding those Mahābhūta-s in all around them. This state brings about a type of bliss in them, and they consider the attainment of that bliss to be the highest Liberation. When they abandon their physical bodies the former enter into a kind of objectless Samādhi (Nirbījasamādhi) which is similar to that of Final Emancipation while the latter go to various divine worlds. Of course, such a condition lasts for a limited period of time, according to how strong their corresponding latent impressions are.Return 
2  Prakṛtilaya-s are those yogī-s who simply have dissolved themselves in Prakṛti or Pradhāna (the primeval constituent principle) since they have not realized the true nature of all tattva-s or categories. From Prakṛti all tattva-s from Buddhi through earth emerge. It is the origin of all that is material. Thus, this type of yogī-s do not attain to the state of Puruṣa or Self, but something similar to it, which lasts for a limited period of time.Return 

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 Aphorism 20

श्रद्धावीर्यस्मृतिसमाधिप्रज्ञापूर्वक इतरेषाम्॥२०॥

भाष्यम् - उपायप्रत्ययो योगिनां भवति। श्रद्धा चेतसः सम्प्रसादः सा हि जननीव कल्याणी योगिनं पाति तस्य हि श्रद्धानस्य विवेकार्थिनः वीर्यमुपजायते समुपजातवीर्यस्य स्मृतिरूपतिष्ठते स्मृत्युपस्थाने च चित्तमनाकुलं समाधीयते समाहितचित्तस्य प्रज्ञाविवेक उपावर्तते येन यथावद्वस्तु जानाति तदभ्यासात्तद्विषयाच्च वैराग्यादसम्प्रज्ञातः समाधिर्भवति॥२०॥

Śraddhāvīryasmṛtisamādhiprajñāpūrvaka itareṣām||20||

Bhāṣyam - Upāyapratyayo yogināṁ bhavati| Śraddhā cetasaḥ samprasādaḥ sā hi jananīva kalyāṇī yoginaṁ pāti tasya hi śraddhānasya vivekārthinaḥ vīryamupajāyate samupajātavīryasya smṛtirūpatiṣṭhate smṛtyupasthāne ca cittamanākulaṁ samādhīyate samāhitacittasya prajñāviveka upāvartate yena yathāvadvastu jānāti tadabhyāsāttadviṣayācca vairāgyādasamprajñātaḥ samādhirbhavati||20||


(However,) in the case of those who tread the path of the conscious effort by using a method --upāya-- (itareṣām), (Nirvījasamādhi --which is now "real Asamprajñātasamādhi"--) is preceded (pūrvakaḥ) by faith (śraddhā), vigor (vīrya), recollection (smṛti), full concentration (samādhi) (and) true knowledge (prajñā)||20||


Commentary (bhāṣyam) - Upāyapratyaya (upāyapratyayaḥ) pertains to yogī-s (yoginām)|

Faith (śraddhā) (is) serenity (samprasādaḥ) of mind (cetasaḥ). That (faith) (sā) certainly (hi) protects (pāti) the yogī (yoginam) like (iva) a virtuous (kalyāṇī) mother (jananī). Undoubtedly (hi), vigor (vīryam) appears (upajāyate) in that (tasya) person who has faith (śraddhānasya) (and) looks for (arthinaḥ) discriminative knowledge (viveka). Recollection (smṛtiḥ) is present (upatiṣṭhate) in a person in whom (that) vigor (vīryasya) has emerged (samupajāta). And (ca) in the presence (upasthāne) of recollection (smṛti), the mind (cittam), (by becoming) calm and unperplexed (anākulam), is perfectly absorbed in concentration (samādhīyate). (In turn,) Prajñāviveka or discernment pertaining to true knowledge (prajñā-vivekaḥ) approaches (upāvartate) a person whose mind (cittasya) is perfectly concentrated (samāhita). By means of that (Prajñāviveka) (yena), (such a person) knows (jānāti) the thing(s) (vastu) properly --i.e. as they really are-- (yathāvat). From the practice (abhyāsāt) of that --i.e. faith, vigor, etc.-- (tad) and (ca) from renunciation (vairāgyāt) in respect of knowable(s) (tad-viṣayāt)1 , Asamprajñātasamādhi (asamprajñātaḥ samādhiḥ) ensues (bhavati)||20||

1  Another possible translation would be "from having that (tad) for its object (viṣayāt)", i.e. "from having Asamprajñātasamādhi for its object".Return 

to be continued

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