Spandanirṇaya (Spanda Nirnaya) Section II (aphorisms 1 to 7) - Sanskrit & Trika Shaivism
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 Spandanirṇaya (Spanda Nirnaya) Section II (aphorisms 1 to 7) - Non-dual Shaivism of Kashmir

Normal translation


This is the first and only set of 7 aphorisms constituting the entire second Section (dealing with Sahajavidyodaya or the emergence of Natural Knowledge). As you know, the entire work is composed of 53 aphorisms of Spandakārikā-s plus their respective commentaries.

Of course, I will also insert the original aphorisms on which Kṣemarāja is commenting. Even though I will not comment on either the original sūtra-s or the Kṣemarāja's commentary, I will write some notes to make a particular point clear when necessary.

Kṣemarāja's Sanskrit will be in dark green color while the original Vasugupta's aphorisms will be shown in dark red color. In turn, within the transliteration, the original aphorisms will be in brown color, while the Kṣemarāja's comments will be shown in black. Also, within the translation, the original aphorisms by Vasugupta, i.e. the Spandakārikā-s, will be in green and black colors, while the commentary by Kṣemarāja will contain words in both black and red colors.

Read Spandanirṇaya and experience Supreme Ānanda or Divine Bliss, dear Śiva.

Important: All that is in brackets and italicized within the translation has been added by me in order to complete the sense of a particular phrase or sentence. In turn, all that is between double hyphen (--...--) constitutes clarifying further information also added by me.


 Summary of the second Section

एवं प्रथमनिःष्यन्देन स्वस्वरूपात्मकं युक्त्युपपन्नं साभिज्ञानं निमीलनसमाधिप्रत्यभिज्ञेयं स्पन्दतत्त्वं प्रतिपाद्य यथा सततं तत्स्वरूपसमासादनेन सुप्रबुद्धता प्राक्सूचिता भवति तथेदानीं तस्यैव वैश्वात्म्यमुन्मीलनसमाधिप्रत्यभिज्ञेयं युक्तितोऽपि निर्णेतुं सर्वत्र चिदभेदप्रकाशकं सहजविद्योदयाख्यमिमं द्वितीयं निःष्यन्दं तदाक्रम्य इत्यादिना शिवसद्भावदायिनी इत्यन्तेन श्लोकसप्तकेन निरूपयति। तत्र विश्वं शुद्धाशुद्धभेदेन द्विधा। तत्र शुद्धं मन्त्रादिरूपं तत एवोत्पन्नं तन्मयं तत्रैव विश्राम्यति— इति श्लोकद्वयेनोक्तम्। अशुद्धमपि तन्मयमेव— इत्यपरेण श्लोकद्वयेनाभिहितम्। तत्संवेदनाधिरूढो जीवन्मुक्तः— इति श्लोकेनोक्तम्। एतत्तत्त्वसमासादनेनैव साधकानां स्वेष्टसिद्धिः— इति श्लोकद्वयेनाभिहितमिति सङ्क्षेपः।

Evaṁ prathamaniḥṣyandena svasvarūpātmakaṁ yuktyupapannaṁ sābhijñānaṁ nimīlanasamādhipratyabhijñeyaṁ spandatattvaṁ pratipādya yathā satataṁ tatsvarūpasamāsādanena suprabuddhatā prāksūcitā bhavati tathedānīṁ tasyaiva vaiśvātmyamunmīlanasamādhipratyabhijñeyaṁ yuktito'pi nirṇetuṁ sarvatra cidabhedaprakāśakaṁ sahajavidyodayākhyamimaṁ dvitīyaṁ niḥṣyandaṁ tadākramya ityādinā śivasadbhāvadāyinī ityantena ślokasaptakena nirūpayati| Tatra viśvaṁ śuddhāśuddhabhedena dvidhā| Tatra śuddhaṁ mantrādirūpaṁ tata evotpannaṁ tanmayaṁ tatraiva viśrāmyati— Iti ślokadvayenoktam| Aśuddhamapi tanmayameva— Ityapareṇa ślokadvayenābhihitam| Tatsaṁvedanādhirūḍho jīvanmuktaḥ— Iti ślokenoktam| Etattattvasamāsādanenaiva sādhakānāṁ sveṣṭasiddhiḥ— Iti ślokadvayenābhihitamiti saṅkṣepaḥ|

In this way (evam), (Vasugupta) explained --lit. after explaining-- (pratipādya) that the principle of Spanda (spanda-tattvam), which is (ātmakam) one's own (sva) essential nature (sva-rūpa), is recognizable (pratyabhijñeyam) by nimīlanasamādhi --trance with closed eyes-- (nimīlana-samādhi), (and) that, (such a principle,) having signs or tokens which can serve as a proof (sa-abhijñānam), it is suitable to (upapannam) reasoning (yukti) --i.e. it can be proved by means of reasoning--. Just as (yathā) through the constant apprehension (satatam... samāsādanena) of that (tad) essential nature (sva-rūpa), the state of suprabuddha --the state of perfectly awakened-- (suprabuddhatā) has been --lit. is-- (bhavati) previously indicated (by Vasugupta --the author--) (prāk-sūcitā) in the first section (prathama-niḥṣyandena), so (tathā) now (idānīm), in order to explore (nirṇetum) Its --of the principle of Spanda-- (tasya eva) universality (vaiśvātmyam) —which is recognizable (pratyabhijñeyam) by unmīlanasamādhi --trance with open eyes-- (unmīlana-samādhi)— even (api) by means of reasoning (yuktitaḥ), he chooses (nirūpayati) this (imam) second (dvitīyam) section (niḥṣyandam) —which reveals (prakāśakam) unity (abheda) in Consciousness (cit) everywhere (sarvatra) (and) whose name (ākhyam) (is) 'The emergence of Natural Knowledge' (sahaja-vidyā-udaya)— consisting of seven (saptakena) stanzas (śloka), beginning with (ādinā) 'Grabbing hold of that (Force) (tad-ākramya iti)', (and) ending with (antena) '(And this initiation...) bestows the real state of Śiva (śiva-sat-bhāva-dāyinī iti)'|

In It --in Spanda-- (tatra), the universe (viśvam), with the division of (bhedena) pure and impure (śuddha-aśuddha), (is) two-fold (dvidhā)|

There --in this second section-- (tatra), by means of two stanzas --i.e. the first two stanzas-- (śloka-dvayena), it is declared that (iti... uktam) the pure (universe) (śuddham) comprising (rūpam) Mantra --the knower of Aham, in Sadvidyātattva-- (mantra), etc. (ādi) has arisen (utpannam) from It --from Spanda-- (tatas eva), is one with It (tad-mayam) (and finally) gets dissolved --lit. rests/ceases-- (viśrāmyati) in It (tatra)|

By means of another group of two stanzas --viz. stanzas 3 and 4-- (apareṇa śloka-dvayena), it is affirmed that (iti... abhihitam) the impure (universe) (aśuddham) (is) also (api) one with It --with Spanda-- (tad-mayam) certainly (eva)|

By means of one stanza --the fifth one-- (ślokena), it is said that (iti... uktam) the person who has attained --lit. ascended, mounted-- (adhirūḍhaḥ) the perception (saṁvedana) of That --of Spanda-- (tad) (is) liberated while living (jīvat-muktaḥ)|

By means of the (last) two stanzas (śloka-dvayena), it is stated that (iti... abhihitam) only (eva) by the (constant) apprehension (samāsādanena) of this (etad) principle (of Spanda) (tattva) (there is,) in the case of the spiritual aspirants (sādhakānām), success in achieving (siddhiḥ) their desired object (sva-iṣṭa). This has been a summary (of the second section) (iti saṅkṣepaḥ)1 |

1  In the section 1 of Spandakārikā-s, nimīlanasamādhi (trance with closed eyes) is emphasized, while now, in the second section, the emphasis is laid on unmīlanasamādhi (trance with open eyes). In the first section, Vasugupta showed that the principle of Spanda is not only an experience but it can also be proved by proper reasoning. As in the previous section nimīlanasamādhi was predominating, the final experience was an internal one. In other words, it was a recognition of one's own Self during formal meditation (e.g. when you sit in a cross-legged posture and close your eyes, etc.). During nimīlanasamādhi or trance with closed eyes, you attain a penetration into your own Self. This is called 'Ātmavyāpti' or 'inherence in the (inner) Self'. But this state, while regarded as the pinnacle by other philosophical systems, is looked down on by Trika followers. Why? Because it ends at the moment you leave your formal meditation in a cross-legged posture and so on. It just lasts for so long as you can be there sitting with your eyes closed. In the end it is a kind of extra bondage, because when you are with your open eyes during your daily activities, you cannot keep your identification with the inner Self.

But now, in the section 2, Vasugupta is showing the means to keep this identification even while one is functioning in the world (with open eyes). The state of identity with the Self while one is doing his daily activities is known as 'Śivavyāpti' or 'inherence in Śiva'. In Ātmavyāpti one attained full identification with the microcosmic Self, but now in Śivavyāpti, you get identified with the macrocosmic Self of all (i.e. Śiva). This experience is universal. So, the experience of Spanda is not limited to experiencing unity with the inner Self only, but you should go beyond and attain unity with the universal Self (Śiva). In this way, the experience of your divine nature will continue forever, never stopping because you left your cross-legged meditation. Therefore, Śivavyāpti is the highest ideal in the Trika system. The achievement of Śivavyāpti is therefore Liberation in the full sense of word.

Now, regarding the seven stanzas this second section is composed of, the division between pure and impure universes arises. Pure universe is the 'kingdom of God', it is the realm of unity where the highest beings dwell. It includes the tattva-s 3, 4 and 5 of the universal manifestation. You can visit the Tattvic Chart to understand this point better. It is called 'pure' because there is 'perception of unity'. In turn, the impure universe is the realm of differences (duality) where the lowest beings dwell. It includes the last 31 tattva-s (from Māyā down to Pṛthivī). It is not a realm where you would desire to reside. When you realized its 'undesirability', you are called a wise person treading the path of Yoga (the path leading to unity), i.e. a yogī (or yoginī, if you are woman). But when you remain still interested in this kingdom of duality, desiring something here, then you are called an unwise person treading the path of Saṁsāra (transmigration full of misery). It is called transmigration because one constantly moves from one thing to another thing, e.g. from one thought to another thought, from one mood to another mood, from one body to another body, etc. It is not a desirable state in the eyes of a yogī, obviously, but anyway it is embraced like the most beautiful lover by unwise people.

So, by the first two stanzas of the present section called 'The emergence of the Natural Knowledge', Vasugupta affirms that the pure universe is fully one with the principle of Spanda. Next, by the third and fourth stanzas, he speaks about the impure universe, and he affirms that it is fully one with the principle of Spanda too, even if it looks like 'another reality'. And by the fifth stanza, Vasugupta specifies that a person who is able to perceive Spanda at all times, in all the things, is liberated while living. Finally, by another set of two stanzas, Vasugupta declares that the only way for the spiritual aspirants to attain the 'desired object' (the state of Śiva, and not some minor accomplishment, of course) lies in constantly keeping the perception of Spanda. This is simple to understand.Return


 Aphorisms 1-2

अथ ग्रन्थो व्याख्यायते। यदुक्तम्

यत्र स्थितमिदं सर्वं कार्यं यस्माच्च निर्गतम्।

इति तत्र शुद्धं तावन्मन्त्रादिरूपं तद्यथा तत एवोत्पन्नं तद्वलेनैव प्रकाशमानं तत्रैव विश्राम्यति तत्प्रथमनिःष्यन्दपरिघटितदृष्टान्तपुरःसरं निरूपयति

तदाक्रम्य बलं मन्त्राः सर्वज्ञबलशालिनः।
प्रवर्तन्तेऽधिकाराय करणानीव देहिनाम्॥१॥
तत्रैव सम्प्रलीयन्ते शान्तरूपा निरञ्जनाः।
सहाराधकचित्तेन तेनैते शिवधर्मिणः॥२॥

तत् स्पन्दतत्त्वात्मकं बलं प्राणरूपं वीर्यमाक्रम्य अभेदेन आश्रयतया अवष्टभ्य भगवन्तोऽनन्तव्योमव्याप्यादयो मन्त्राः सर्वज्ञबलेन सर्वज्ञत्वादिसामर्थ्येन श्लाघमाना जृम्भमाणा अधिकाराय देहिनां प्रवर्तन्ते सृष्टिसंहारतिरोधानानुग्रहादि कुर्वन्तीत्यर्थः। सर्वज्ञशब्दो भावप्रधानः सर्वकर्तृत्वाद्युपलक्षयति। यथा देहिनां करणान्युपपादितदृशा तद्बलमाक्रम्य विषयप्रकाशादौ प्रवर्तन्त इति दृष्टान्तः। तथा निरञ्जनाः कृतकृत्यत्वान्निवृत्ताधिकारमलाः शान्तविशिष्टवाचकात्मस्वरूपास्तत्रैव स्पन्दात्मके बले सम्यगभेदापत्त्या प्रकर्षेणापुनरावृत्त्या लीयन्तेऽधिकारमलान्मुच्यन्त आराधकचित्तेनोपासकलोकसंवेदनेन सह। यथोक्तम्

अनुगृह्याणुसङ्घातं याताः पदमनामयम्।

इति। यतश्च तत एवोदितास्तद्बलेन विसृष्टास्तत्रैव लीयन्ते तेनैते मन्त्रमन्त्रेश्वरादयः शिवस्य परमेश्वरस्य सम्बन्धी धर्मः स्वभावो विद्यते येषां ते तथा सामान्यस्पन्दसारा इत्यर्थः। ननु करणानां मन्त्राणां च तत उदयादौ तुल्ये किमिति करणानि न सर्वज्ञादिरूपाणि। उच्यते परमेश्वरो मायाशक्त्या शरीरकरणानि भेदमयानि निर्मिमीते विद्याशक्त्या त्वाकाशीयविचित्रवाचकपरामर्शशरीरान्मन्त्रान्। वाचकस्य मायापदेऽपि

घटोऽयमित्यध्यवसा नामरूपातिरेकिणी।
परेशशक्तिरात्मेव भासते न त्विदन्तया॥

इति प्रत्यभिज्ञोक्तनीत्या प्रमातृभूम्यनतिक्रान्तेर्न शरीरपुर्यष्टकादिवद्बोधसङ्कोचकत्वमस्तीति युक्तमेवैषां सर्वज्ञत्वादि। एतच्च

भेदे त्वेकरसे भाते...॥

इति श्रीप्रत्यभिज्ञाकारिकाटीकायां वितत्य दर्शितम्। एवं विद्यापदावस्थितसृष्ट्यादिकार्यनन्तभट्टारकाद्यपेक्षयैतद्व्याख्येयम्। तथा दीक्षादिप्रवृत्तानामाचार्यादीनां करणरूपाः सर्वे मन्त्रास्तत्स्पन्दतत्त्वरूपं बलमाक्रम्य अनुप्राणकत्वेन अवष्टभ्य आचार्यादीनामेव सम्बन्धिनाराधकचित्तेन सह मोक्षभोगसाधनाद्यधिकाराय प्रवर्तन्ते तत्रैव शान्तवाचकशब्दात्मकशरीररूपा अत एव च निरञ्जनाः शुद्धाः सम्यक् प्रलीयन्ते विश्राम्यन्ति। अत्र व्याख्याने सहाराधकचित्तेनेति पूर्वश्लोकेन योज्यम्। एवं च मन्त्राणामुदयप्रलयकोटिव्यापि प्रवृत्तावपि भित्तिभूतमित्यभिहितम्। एवं च दशाष्टादशादिभेदेन भिन्ने शैवे मन्त्रानां स्पन्दतत्त्वसारतैवेत्युक्तं भवति॥२॥

Atha grantho vyākhyāyate| Yaduktam

Yatra sthitamidaṁ sarvaṁ kāryaṁ yasmācca nirgatam|

iti tatra śuddhaṁ tāvanmantrādirūpaṁ tadyathā tata evotpannaṁ tadvalenaiva prakāśamānaṁ tatraiva viśrāmyati tatprathamaniḥṣyandaparighaṭitadṛṣṭāntapuraḥsaraṁ nirūpayati

Tadākramya balaṁ mantrāḥ sarvajñabalaśālinaḥ|
Pravartante'dhikārāya karaṇānīva dehinām||1||
Tatraiva sampralīyante śāntarūpā nirañjanāḥ|
Sahārādhakacittena tenaite śivadharmiṇaḥ||2||

Tat spandatattvātmakaṁ balaṁ prāṇarūpaṁ vīryamākramya abhedena āśrayatayā avaṣṭabhya bhagavanto'nantavyomavyāpyādayo mantrāḥ sarvajñabalena sarvajñatvādisāmarthyena ślāghamānā jṛmbhamāṇā adhikārāya dehināṁ pravartante sṛṣṭisaṁhāratirodhānānugrahādi kurvantītyarthaḥ| Sarvajñaśabdo bhāvapradhānaḥ sarvakartṛtvādyupalakṣayati| Yathā dehināṁ karaṇānyupapāditadṛśā tadbalamākramya viṣayaprakāśādau pravartanta iti dṛṣṭāntaḥ| Tathā nirañjanāḥ kṛtakṛtyatvānnivṛttādhikāramalāḥ śāntaviśiṣṭavācakātmasvarūpāstatraiva spandātmake bale samyagabhedāpattyā prakarṣeṇāpunarāvṛttyā līyante’dhikāramalānmucyanta ārādhakacittenopāsakalokasaṁvedanena saha| Yathoktam

Anugṛhyāṇusaṅghātaṁ yātāḥ padamanāmayam|

iti| Yataśca tata evoditāstadbalena visṛṣṭāstatraiva līyante tenaite mantramantreśvarādayaḥ śivasya parameśvarasya sambandhī dharmaḥ svabhāvo vidyate yeṣāṁ te tathā sāmānyaspandasārā ityarthaḥ| Nanu karaṇānāṁ mantrāṇāṁ ca tata udayādau tulye kimiti karaṇāni na sarvajñādirūpāṇi| Ucyate parameśvaro māyāśaktyā śarīrakaraṇāni bhedamayāni nirmimīte vidyāśaktyā tvākāśīyavicitravācakaparāmarśaśarīrānmantrān| Vācakasya māyāpade'pi

Ghaṭo'yamityadhyavasā nāmarūpātirekiṇī|
Pareśaśaktirātmeva bhāsate na tvidantayā||

iti pratyabhijñoktanītyā pramātṛbhūmyanatikrānterna śarīrapuryaṣṭakādivadbodhasaṅkocakatvamastīti yuktamevaiṣāṁ sarvajñatvādi| Etacca

Bhede tvekarase bhāte...||

iti śrīpratyabhijñākārikāṭīkāyāṁ vitatya darśitam| Evaṁ vidyāpadāvasthitasṛṣṭyādikāryanantabhaṭṭārakādyapekṣayaitadvyākhyeyam| Tathā dīkṣādipravṛttānāmācāryādīnāṁ karaṇarūpāḥ sarve mantrāstatspandatattvarūpaṁ balamākramya anuprāṇakatvena avaṣṭabhya ācāryādīnāmeva sambandhinārādhakacittena saha mokṣabhogasādhanādyadhikārāya pravartante tatraiva śāntavācakaśabdātmakaśarīrarūpā ata eva ca nirañjanāḥ śuddhāḥ samyak pralīyante viśrāmyanti| Atra vyākhyāne sahārādhakacitteneti pūrvaślokena yojyam| Evaṁ ca mantrāṇāmudayapralayakoṭivyāpi pravṛttāvapi bhittibhūtamityabhihitam| Evaṁ ca daśāṣṭādaśādibhedena bhinne śaive mantrānāṁ spandatattvasārataivetyuktaṁ bhavati||2||

And now (atha) the (second) section (granthaḥ) is being explained (vyākhyāyate)|

According to (yad) what has been said (uktam) (in I, 2 of this scripture):

"... in whom (yatra) all (sarvam) this (idam) universe (kāryam) rests (sthitam) and (ca) from whom (yasmāt) it has come forth (nirgatam... iti)"|

in It --in Spanda-- (tatra), the pure (universe) (śuddham) is undoubtedly comprised of (tāvat... rūpam) Mantra, etc. (mantra-ādi), namely (tad yathā), (the pure universe) has arisen (utpannam) from It (tatas eva), by Its Force (tad-valena eva) it becomes manifest (prakāśamānam), (and finally) it gets dissolved (viśrāmyati) in It (tatra) indeed (eva). (Vasugupta) describes (nirūpayati) that (tad) through (puraḥsaram) an example (dṛṣṭānta) which has (already) been mentioned --lit. which has occurred-- (parighaṭita) in the first (prathama) section (niḥṣyanda)1 :

Grabbing hold (ākramya) of that (tad) Force (balam), the Mantra-s (mantrāḥ), full (śālinaḥ) of the omniscient (sarvajña) power (bala), proceed (pravartante) to occupy themselves with their (respective) functions (adhikārāya) (toward the embodied beings), just as (iva) the powers of perception and action (karaṇāni) of (those very) embodied beings (dehinām) (proceed to occupy themselves with their own functions by also getting hold of that Force)||1||
(Mantra-s,) whose denotation (as specific deities) has ceased (śāntarūpāḥ), (and) who are devoid of all limitations of office (nirañjanāḥ), get absorbed (sampralīyante) in that (Force or Spanda) (tatra eva) together (saha) with the mind (cittena) of (their) worshipers (ārādhaka). Therefore (tena), these (Mantra-s) (ete) are of the nature (dharmiṇaḥ) of Śiva (śiva)||2||

Grabbing hold (ākramya) of that (tad) Force (balam) —i.e. resting upon (avaṣṭabhya) (that) Power (vīryam) of the principle of Spanda (spanda-tattva-ātmakam), whose nature (rūpam) is Life (prāṇa), as if It were a support (āśrayatayā) because there is unity with It --lit. due to unity-- (abhedena) --i.e. resting upon Spanda as if this Spanda were their support...--—, the divine and glorious (bhagavantaḥ) Mantra-s (mantrāḥ) (such as) Ananta, Vyomavyāpī-s, etc. (ananta-vyomavyāpi-ādayaḥ), extolling (ślāghamānāḥ) (and) blossoming (jṛmbhamāṇāḥ) by the omniscient power (sarvajña-balena) —by the omniscient force/capacity, etc. (sarvajñatva-ādi-sāmarthyena)—, proceed (pravartante) to occupy themselves with their (respective) functions (adhikārāya) toward the embodied beings (dehinām). (In a nutshell,) they perform (kurvanti) (the acts of) manifestation and dissolution of the universe, concealment of one's own essential nature, Grace bestowal, etc. (sṛṣṭi-saṁhāra-tirodhāna-anugraha-ādi); this is the meaning (iti arthaḥ)2 |

The word (śabdaḥ) 'sarvajña' --omniscient-- (sarvajña) is predominantly (here) an abstract noun --i.e. sarvajñatva or omniscience-- (bhāva-pradhānaḥ) (and) includes (upalakṣayati) omnipotence (sarvakartṛtva) and so on (ādi)3 |

Just as (yathā) the powers of perception and action (karaṇāni) of those (very) embodied beings (dehinām) proceed to occupy with (pravartante) the manifestation of objects, etc. (viṣaya-prakāśa-ādau) by (also) getting hold of (ākramya) that (tad) Force (balam), according to the viewpoint (dṛśā) which was (already) presented (in the aphorisms 6 and 7 of the first section) (upapādita); this is the example (iti dṛṣṭāntaḥ)4 |

Likewise (tathā), (those Mantra-s,) who are 'nirañjana-s' or devoid of all limitations of office (nirañjanāḥ) —i.e. in whom (all) the limitations --lit. impurities-- (malāḥ) of office (adhikāra) have come to an end (nivṛtta) since they have done their duty (kṛtakṛtyatvāt)(and 'śāntarūpa-s') —viz. the ones whose nature (sva-rūpāḥ) consisting of (ātma) specific (viśiṣṭa) words (vācaka) has ceased (śānta)—, get rightly and completely absorbed (samyak... prakarṣeṇa... līyante) —i.e. attaining (āpattyā) unity (abheda) (and) not returning again (to the previous state) (a-punar-āvṛttyā) they are set free from (mucyante) (all) the limitations (malāt) of office (adhikāra)— in that (tatra eva) Force (bale) (or) Spanda (spanda-ātmake) together (saha) with the mind (cittena) of (their) worshipers (ārādhaka)(in other words, together) with the knowledge (saṁvedanena) of the people (loka) who were worshiping and serving (them) (upāsaka)5 |

As (yathā) has been said (uktam) (in Mālinīvijaya I, 41):

"After bestowing divine Grace (anugṛhya) on the multitude (saṅghātam) of limited beings --lit. atoms-- (aṇu), (thirty-five million Mantra-s created by Śiva) go (yātāḥ) to the state (padam) where there is no unhappiness --lit. sickness-- (anāmayam... iti)"|

And (ca) as (yatas) (they) have risen (uditāḥ) from That --from Spanda-- (tatas) indeed (eva), (as) they have been emitted (visṛṣṭāḥ) by that Force (tad-balena) (and) get absorbed (līyante) in That (tatra) only (eva), therefore (tena), these (ete) Mantra-s, Mantreśvara-s, etc. (mantra-mantra-īśvara-ādayaḥ) (are beings) whose (yeṣām) dharma or essential nature (dharmaḥ sva-bhāvaḥ) is (vidyate) closely connected with (sambandhī) Śiva (śivasya) —the Supreme Lord (parama-īśvarasya)—, (and) so (tathā) they (te) (are beings) whose essence (sārāḥ) is the general (sāmānya) Spanda (spanda). This is the meaning (iti arthaḥ)6 |

An objection (nanu): Both with respect to powers of perception/action (lit. senses) and Mantra-s (karaṇānām mantrāṇām ca) there is equally emergence, etc. (udaya-ādau tulye) from That --from Spanda-- (tatas), (then) why (kimiti) (are) the powers of perception/action (lit. senses) (karaṇāni) not (na... rūpāṇi) omniscient (sarvajña), etc. (ādi)?|

The Supreme Lord (parama-īśvaraḥ) is said to (ucyate) produce (nirmimīte) bodies and senses (śarīra-karaṇāni) full of duality (bheda-mayāni), but (tu) by means of (His) Power (śaktyā) of (Pure) Knowledge --not the tattva 5-- (vidyā), He creates (nirmimīte) Mantra-s (mantrān) whose bodies (śarīrān) refer to (parāmarśa) wonderful (vicitra) expressive powers --divine words-- (vācaka) whose essence is Cidākāśa --the Ether of Consciousness-- (ākāśīya). In the case of (such) expressive power(s) --divine word(s) of which the Mantra-s' bodies are made-- (vācakasya), since there is no transgression --i.e. as they do not transgress-- (anatikrānteḥ) of the stage (bhūmi) of knower/experient (pramātṛ) even (api) at the stage (pade) of Māyā (māyā), according to the precept (nītyā) mentioned (ukta) in Īśvarapratyabhijñā (I, 5, 20) (pratyabhijñā):

"The determinative knowledge (adhyavasā) 'this (ayam) (is) a pot (ghaṭaḥ... iti)' surpasses (atirekiṇī) name (nāma) (and) form (rūpa), (and truly is) the Power (śaktiḥ) of the Supreme (para) Lord (īśa). It shines (bhāsate) as (iva) the Self (ātmā) and not (na tu) (as mere) 'idam' or 'this' (idantayā... iti) --i.e. as a mere "this" or "object" separated from its Lord--".

(For this reason, to them) there is no (na... asti) limitation (saṅkocakatvam) of knowledge (bodha) such as (vat) physical body (śarīra), subtle body (puryaṣṭaka), etc. (ādi). So (iti), their (eṣām) omniscience (sarvajñatva), etc. (ādi) (is) certainly (eva) appropriate (yuktam)7 |

And this point was also (etad ca) extensively (vitatya) proved (darśitam) in the commentary (ṭīkāyām) on venerable Pratyabhijñākārikā-s --a.k.a. Īśvarapratyabhijñā-- (III, 1, 8) (śrī-pratyabhijñākārikā):

"But when uniform --lit. with one taste-- duality appears (bhede tu ekarase bhāte... iti), [(and) when the not self, (whether it is) void, intellect or body, is considered to be the (real) 'I', (then) the power of Māyā arises]"||

This (matter) (etad) should be explained (vyākhyeyam) in this manner (evam) with regard to (apekṣayā) Anantabhaṭṭāraka, etc. --i.e. with regard to the Mantra-s-- (anantabhaṭṭāraka-ādi) who produce (kāri) manifestation, etc. (of the universe) (sṛṣṭi-ādi) while remaining (avasthita) in the stage (pada) of Sadvidyā --tattva 5-- (vidyā)8 |

Likewise (tathā), all (sarve) the mantra-s --the divine sounds-- (mantrāḥ) serving as instruments (karaṇa-rūpāḥ) of the spiritual teachers, etc. (ācārya-ādīnām) occupied with (pravṛttānām) initiation, etc. (dīkṣā-ādi), grabbing hold (ākramya) of the Force (balam) whose nature (rūpam) is that (tad) principle (tattva) of Spanda (spanda) —viz. resting upon --resorting to-- (avaṣṭabhya) (such Spanda) as (their) vivifier (anuprāṇakatvena)—, proceed (pravartante), together (saha) with the mind (cittena) of (their) worshipers (ārādhaka) —i.e. (with the mind) belonging to (sambandhinā) (the aforesaid) spiritual teachers, etc. (ācārya-ādīnām eva)—, to occupy themselves with their (respective) functions (adhikārāya) (such as) Liberation (mokṣa), enjoyment (bhoga), performance (of spiritual practices) (sādhanā), etc. (ādi). And (ca) after this (atas eva), when their bodily forms (śarīra-rūpāḥ) consisting of (ātmaka) expressed/articulate (vācaka) sound (śabda) vanish (śānta) --i.e. śāntarūpāḥ or when their denotation (as specific deities) has ceased--, being devoid of all limitations of office (nirañjanāḥ) —viz. having become (thoroughly) pure (śuddhāḥ)—, they get completely reabsorbed (samyak sampralīyante) —they (completely) get dissolve --lit. they rest/cease-- (viśrāmyanti) in that (Force or Spanda) (tatra eva)9 —|

In this explanation (atra vyākhyāne), (the expression) 'together (saha) with the mind (cittena) of (their) worshipers (ārādhaka... iti)' is to be united (yojyam) with the previous stanza (pūrva-ślokena)|

Thus (evam ca), it is declared that (iti abhihitam) That which penetrates --viz. the principle of Spanda-- (vyāpi) into the peaks --the highest points-- (koṭi) of emergence and dissolution (udaya-pralaya) of the Mantra-s (mantrāṇām) and even (api) into (the middle point) when they are moving --i.e. when they are working-- (pravṛttau) is (bhūtam) (their) basis or substratum (bhitti)|

So (evam ca), in (all) the Śiva's scriptures (śaive) divided (bhinne) in portions (bhedena) of ten, eighteen, etc. (books) (daśa-aṣṭādaśa-ādi), it is (bhavati) said that (iti uktam) the Mantra-s (mantrānām) have the principle of Spanda as their essence (spanda-tattva-sāratā) truly (eva)10 ||2||

1  Now Vasugupta is moving in the pure universe only, which is fully rooted in Spanda. Kṣemarāja says that 'Vasugupta describes that through an example which has (already) been mentioned in the first section', more precisely in the aphorism I, 6.

Mantra-s are pramātā-s or experients/knowers who dwell in the tattva 5 called Sadvidyā. By 'Mantra' here it is not intended to point out mantra-s like Om̐ namaḥ śivāya, Guru Om̐, etc. but 'Ahaṁvimarśa' (I-consciousness). As a result, Mantra is 'I-consciousness' as well an experient/knower who is conscious of this 'I-consciousness'. Mantra-s are extremely conscious of this Aham or I and are therefore positioned on that level 5, where the Power of Action predominates. Next, there are the Mantreśvara-s (lords of the Mantra). These beings reside in the tattva 4 known as Īśvara, where the Power of Knowledge predominates. They are even more conscious of Aham than Mantra-s. Finally we have the Mantramaheśvara-s (great lords of the Mantra), which are vastly conscious of Aham. They reside in the tattva 3 named Sadāśiva, where the Power of Will predominates. And above them we have the Śivapramātā (in tattva-s 1 and 2) who is no other than the Great Lord Himself.

It is to be noted that Abhinavagupta changes the Powers assigned to the tattva-s. He puts the Power of Will in the tattva 2 (in Śakti) instead of in tattva 3. In turn, he assigns the Power of Knowledge to the tattva 3 instead of to the tattva 4. And the Power of Action goes to the tattva 4 instead of to the tattva 5. And the tattva 5 would be a combination of the three Powers: Will, Knowledge and Action. If my memory serves me well, this is the way in which the Great Trika Master arranges the main Powers of the Lord in the whole scheme of universal manifestation. Oh yes, this is a topic for another moment as it is extremely complex.Return

2  Now the sage Kṣemarāja gives the names of some Mantra-s: Ananta, the Vyomavyāpī-s, etc. Ananta is the celebrated 'Anantabhaṭṭāraka' (the eminent Ananta) who creates the 70 millions of mantra-s (sacred formulas). He is also the chief of all Mantra-s, hence he is mentioned in the first place by the commentator. To understand the topic about the Mantra-s you need to realize that they have two aspects: The first aspect is themselves as experients/knowers of Aham to a certain extent, while the second aspect is the sacred formulas emanating from them, which act as their sound bodies, as it were. Without direct experience of this level 5 of the universal manifestation it is really difficult to understand what all this is indeed. So for now you should keep only this in mind in order to understand why Kṣemarāja sometimes speaks about 'beings' and at other times he speaks about 'divine sounds'.

One thing about which I do not agree with Kṣemarāja is in the functions of Mantra-s (and tacitly, Mantreśvara-s and Mantramaheśvara-s are included): manifestation, maintenance and dissolution of the universe (sṛṣṭi, sthiti and saṁhāra) plus concealment of one's own essential nature (tirodhāna) and Grace bestowal --a.k.a. revelation of one's essential nature-- (anugraha). These are the famous five 'acts' of Śiva, i.e. the Pañcakṛtya-s. Well, Kṣemarāja affirms that the Mantra-s (Mantreśvara-s and Mantramaheśvara-s are tacitly included too) perform the five acts. This is not completely true, because they perform only three 'by themselves', as it were: manifestation, maintenance and dissolution of the universe. Concealment and revelation of one's own essential nature are performed by the Śivapramātā only, i.e. by the Great Lord of all. Now, if He decides them to do these two acts of concealment and revelation of one's own essential nature on His behalf, this is another matter. So, if you cannot realize that you are Him and live a life full of limitations and never-ending miseries of all sort, all this is His Will. And, on the contrary, if you can realize that you are Him very easily and live a life full of Consciousness and Bliss, all this is again His Will. No Mantra, Mantreśvara or Mantramaheśvara decide these matters related to concealment and revelation about who you really are. The rest of acts related to the 'silly' huge universal manifestation are effectively carried out by Mantra-s, lords of the Mantra and great lords of the Mantra indeed!Return

3 The abstract nouns are formed from adding certain affixes to nouns (and adjectives too). The main two affixes you will see around are 'tva' and 'tal' (transformed into 'tā' when actually added to the noun or adjective). With 'tva' you create abstract nouns which are neuter in gender, while with 'tal' you form abstract nouns which are feminine in gender. Thanks to these two kinds of affixes, you have many times two ways to say something. For example: rūpatva and rūpatā (from adding 'tva' and 'tā' to 'rūpa' - 'form'). The meaning of those terms is 'the state of having a form/being formed', the only difference being that 'rūpatva' is neuter while 'rūpatā' is feminine.

Now, here the word to which you must add the affixes 'tva' or 'tal' to create the abstract noun is 'sarvajña' (omniscient): sarvajñatva or sarvajñatā (the state of being omniscient = omniscience). Anyway, sarvajñatva is more commonly seen in the Trika scriptures, according to my own experience. So, Kṣemarāja specifies here that 'sarvajña' is being used more like 'omniscience' than like 'omniscient'. Hence a translation by following his viewpoint would be: 'Grabbing hold of that Force, the Mantra-s, full of the power of omniscience'. Nonetheless, I used the adjectival form instead: 'Grabbing hold of that Force, the Mantra-s, full of the omniscient power'. Why? Because I thought that it sounded better. But now you have the two options in case you are not satisfied with my use of the adjective over the abstract noun.

And this omniscience includes the other powers too: 'omnipotence and divine Will'. The powers of Bliss and Consciousness are not to be included, in my opinion, since they exclusively belong to the Great Lord.Return

4 In the aphorism I, 6 of this scripture, Vasugupta taught the way in which the antaḥkaraṇa (intellect, ego and mind, tattva-s 14-16) plus the ten powers of perception and action (indriya-s, tattva-s 17-26), though insentient, by resorting to the principle of Spanda, proceed as if they were sentient. He is mentioning the same thing here, by saying that. Anyway, there is a subtle difference: In I, 6 Vasugupta wrote 'karaṇavarga' or group of organs/instruments which is comprised of intellect, ego, mind and ten powers of perception and action; but in II, 1 he merely wrote 'karaṇāni', which can be translated merely like 'senses' or 'sense organs'. Anyway, I expanded the translation to 'powers of perception and action' (without specifically including intellect, ego and mind since Kṣemarāja did not specified this), as these 3 tattva-s forming antaḥkaraṇa (the inner psychic organ) are the root of the powers of perception and action and therefore they are tacitly included, of course.Return

5  When those devotees who are worshiping and serving the Mantra-s (the higher beings whose bodies are the sacred sounds) finally please them, the Mantra-s has no other thing to perform, i.e. they do not need to continue manifesting, maintaining and dissolving the universe. They are at this stage 'nirañjana-s' or devoid of all limitations of office, viz. they are not any more limited by their functions (manifestation, maintenance and dissolution of the universe). At that moment, these pleased Mantra-s, whose bodies are the mantra-s or sacred words, cease to act as specific deities and get completely reabsorbed in the principle of Spanda. In the process, they drag the mind of all those worshipers into the state of Spanda too.

In practice, it is like this: The devotee repeats his mantra every day, and in due course the deity of that sacred word becomes pleased with him. Then, this deity stops manifesting, maintaining and dissolving the universe for that person, and instantaneously merges into Spanda. When this happens, the devotee's mind is dragged into Spanda as well. So, it is not that the devotee gets absorbed into Spanda by himself. No. It is that the deity of his mantra, feeling pleased, stopped performing his universal functions and merged into the Highest Reality (in which there is no universe). During this divine process, the mind of the person repeating the mantra is also dragged into the Highest Reality and the universe disappeared for him. This is also called the state of Turyātīta or 'state beyond the Fourth (beyond Turya)', which is completely autonomous (i.e. it never mixes with any other states of consciousness, e.g. wakefulness, etc. After dwelling for some time in the Highest Reality such as It is, he returns to the body and realizes that everything is the Highest Reality indeed. This is Liberation while living.

It is to be noted that Abhinavagupta explains the term 'nirañjana' as 'that which cannot appear as an object', that is, 'it is always subject'. In this way, both the Mantra-s (the higher beings) and the mantra-s (their sound bodies) cannot never shine forth as objects because they are eternally subjects.Return

6  Why did I translate that stanza I, 41 in Mālinīvijaya like this? Because the full stanza of the first chapter reads like this (in the present commentary, Kṣemarāja only mentioned the second half):

मन्त्राणां कोटयस्तिस्रः सार्धाः शिवनियोजिताः।
अनुगृह्याणुसङ्घातं याताः पदमनामयम्॥४१॥

Mantrāṇāṁ koṭayastisraḥ sārdhāḥ śivaniyojitāḥ|
Anugṛhyāṇusaṅghātaṁ yātāḥ padamanāmayam||41||

"After bestowing divine Grace (anugṛhya) on the multitude (saṅghātam) of limited beings --lit. atoms-- (aṇu), thirty-five million (koṭayaḥ tisraḥ sa-ardhāḥ) Mantra-s (mantrāṇām) created by Śiva (śiva-niyojitāḥ) go (yātāḥ) to the state (padam) where there is no unhappiness --lit. where there is no sickness-- (anāmayam)"||41||

Next, the commentator affirms that these Mantra-s, Mantreśvara-s, etc. are beings whose essential nature is closely connected with Śiva. This is because in the tattva-s 3, 4 and 5, the Idam (This) or universe being created is only 'ideal'. By 'ideal', I mean that it is not still completely a 'creation' apparently different from the Creator. No, Idam (universe) here is totally one with Aham (with 'I' or Śiva). Therefore, these higher beings are really ones whose essence is the general Spanda, i.e. they also participate in His --of Śiva-- characteristic of universality. This is the purport.Return

7  The divine words are the mantra-s (sacred words) which constitute the sound bodies of the Mantra-s (the higher beings). Seventy million mantra-s were created by the Lord through Anantabhaṭṭāraka (the chief of the Mantra-s). He did so by means of the Power of Pure Knowledge. The tattva 5 (the dwelling-place of Mantra-s) is called in two ways: Sadvidyā (true knowledge) or Śuddhavidyā (pure knowledge). Well, the Power of Pure Knowledge of the Lord is not the tattva 5 in this context but His Power of Absolute Freedom. That is why I decided to call the tattva 5 'Sadvidyā' always on this website, in order for people not to mistake it for His Power of Pure Knowledge/Absolute Freedom.

And the essence of these divine words (mantra-s) is the Ether of Consciousness (Cidākāśa) which was already explained at the end of the first section, where it is called 'Great Ether'. And these mantra-s do not transgress the stage of knower/experient (i.e. of subject) even at the stage of Māyā. In a nutshell, as explained above (at the end of the fifth note), they are nirañjana or 'always subjects'. For that reason, when you repeat a mantra (e.g. Om̐ namaḥ śivāya), you need to identify yourself completely with the mantra, as if it be yourself. Not only that, you must regard the deity of the mantra (Śiva) as one with the mantra and as one with you. Without this triple unity between the one repeating the mantra, the deity of the mantra and the mantra itself, there is no meaningful fruit derived from the repetition of that divine word.

All the act of determining that 'this is a pot' is the Power of the Highest Lord, as Utpaladeva affirms in his Īśvarapratyabhijñā. And this Power is identical with Aham ('I' or Subject) and never an object. In this way, every time you determine something by means of words, the Power letting you do so is beyond name and form and one with the Supreme Subject.

Besides, because they are subjects, they have no limitation of knowledge such as physical body, subtle body, etc., as these are again mere objects. On account of all this, being their sound bodies like mentioned before, the Mantra-s have the proper right to be omniscient, etc., while the mere powers of perception and action, being they only by-products of the antaḥkaraṇa (intellect, ego and mind, which are all objects to the Supreme Subject), are 'objects' as well. The meaning of this portion of the commentary is now clear.Return

8  This matter was vastly proved in the commentary on Īśvarapratyabhijñā (III, 1, 8). Kṣemarāja mentioned only a little portion of the full stanza. Now I will show you why I added all that in brackets within my translation, i.e. [when the not self, (whether it is) void, intellect or body, is considered as the (real) 'I', (then) the power of Māyā arises]:

भेदे त्वेकसरे भातेऽहन्तयानात्मनीक्षिते।
शून्ये बुद्धौ शरीरे वा मायाशक्तिर्विजृम्भते॥८॥

Bhede tvekasare bhāte'hantayānātmanīkṣite|
Śūnye buddhau śarīre vā māyāśaktirvijṛmbhate||8||

"But when uniform --lit. with one taste-- duality appears (bhede tu ekarase bhāte), (and) when the not self (anātmani), (whether it is) void, intellect or body (śūnye buddhau śarīre vā), is considered (īkṣite) to be the (real) 'I' (ahantayā), (then) the power of Māyā (māyā-śaktiḥ) arises (vijṛmbhate)"||8||

Uniform duality means that it is a compact mass of consistent ignorance pervading everywhere. When this uniform duality appears and when the not self is regarded as Aham or real 'I', then the power of Māyā shows itself. This Māyā specified here is not the Māyātattva (category 6) but the power of the Lord to generate difference/duality. The Māyātattva is a by-product of this power then. That is why in his commentary on this aphorism, Utpaladeva calls this power of Māyā as 'viparyayadvayahetuḥ' or 'the cause of the two mistakes/calamities'. Which mistakes/calamities? The ones mentioned in the aphorism itself: (1) The rise of uniform duality, and (2) The wrong conception about the not self as being the real Self. In Sanskrit, the names of these two awful errors are: Pauruṣājñāna (ignorance about the nondual Paramaśiva) and Bauddhājñāna (intellectual ignorance). What could be more erroneous and unfortunate?

With regard to the Mantra-s (the higher beings) all this matter should be so explained, i.e. that they reside as 'subjects' in Sadvidyātattva (category 5) while at the same time they manifest, maintain and dissolve the universe which consists of myriad of objects (ego, mind, senses, etc.). They can never be reduced to the level of mere 'objects'. For all these reasons, they deserve to be omniscient, while mere powers of perception and action do not, as they are just objects. The meaning now is very clear!Return

9  Now, Mantra-s are explained as 'mantra-s' (divine sounds forming the bodies of the higher beings called Mantra-s). I elucidated this topic already in the above fifth note, the only difference being that now Kṣemarāja is describing the same thing but from the viewpoint of the sound bodies of those higher beings (i.e. from the viewpoint of the 'mantra-s').Return

10  All in all, Spanda is the basis or substratum for all the Mantra-s and their sound bodies (divine words or 'mantra-s'). This is affirmed in all the Śiva's scriptures (āgama-s) divided in portions of ten (Śivatantra-s), eighteen (Rudratantra-s) and sixty-four (Bhairavatantra-s). The first 28 āgama-s, dealing with dualism (Śivatantra-s) and mixture of dualism/non-dualism (Rudratantra-s), are worshiped by the followers of the southern Shaivism, the famous Śaivasiddhānta, while the 64 Bhairavatantra-s are worshiped by the followers of northern Shaivism (our dear Trika Shaivism). This division into three branches of Shaivism is rooted in the way the great sage Durvāsās spread the teachings received from Śiva. You can read my blog article about history of Trika Shaivism here.Return


 Aphorisms 3-4

एवं मन्त्रमन्त्रेश्वरादिरूपा शुद्धाभिमता सृष्टिः शिवस्वभावेति प्रतिपाद्याधुना अशुद्धाभिमतापि सा मायादिरूपा शिवस्वरूपैव— इत्युपपादयञ्च्छ्रीमतशास्त्रादिरहस्यदृष्टिमप्युपक्षिपति

यस्मात्सर्वमयो जीवः सर्वभावसमुद्भवात्।
तत्संवेदनरूपेण तादात्म्यप्रतिपत्तितः॥३॥
तस्माच्छब्दार्थचिन्तासु न सावस्था न या शिवः।
भोक्तैव भोग्यभावेन सदा सर्वत्र संस्थितः॥४॥

यतो जीवो ग्राहकः सर्वमयः शिववद्विश्वरूपस्तेन हेतुना शब्देषु वाचकेष्वर्थेषु वाच्येषु चिन्तासु विकल्पज्ञानादिरूपास्वादिमध्यान्तरूपा सावस्था नास्ति या शिवो न भवति सर्वमेव शिवस्वरूपमित्यर्थः। यतश्चैवमतो भोक्तैव चिदात्मा ग्राहको भोग्यभावेन देहनीलादिरूपेण सदा नित्यं सर्वत्र विचित्रतत्त्वभुवनादिपदे सम्यगनूनाधिकतया स्थितो न तु भोग्यं नाम किञ्चिद्भोक्तुर्भिन्नमस्ति। जीव इत्युपक्रम्य शिव इत्युपसंहारेण जीवशिवयोर्वास्तवो न कोऽपि भेदः— इति देहाद्यवस्थासु न कासुचिदप्यपूर्णमन्यता मन्तव्यापि तु चिद्घनशिवस्वभावतैवेति भङ्ग्योपदिशति। यथोक्तं शरीरमपि ये षट्त्रिंशत्तत्त्वमयं शिवरूपतया पश्यन्त्यर्चयन्ति च ते सिद्ध्यन्ति घटादिकमपि तथाभिनिविश्य पश्यन्त्यर्चयन्ति च तेऽपीति नास्त्यत्र विवाद इति श्रीप्रत्यभिज्ञाटीकायाम्। भट्टश्रीवामनेनाप्युक्तम्

आलम्ब्य संविदं यस्मात्संवेद्यं न स्वभावतः।
तस्मात्संविदितं सर्वमिति संविन्मयो भवेत्॥

इति। कस्माज्जीवः सर्वमय इत्यत्र हेतुः सर्वभावानां समुद्भवादुत्पत्तिहेतुत्वादपादानभावप्रधानश्च निर्देशः।

प्रमातृमितिमानमेयमयभेदजातस्य ते विहार इह हेतुतां समुपयाति यस्मात्त्वयि।
निवृत्तविवृत्तौ क्वचित्तदपयाति तेनाधुना नयेन पुनरीक्ष्यते जगति जातुचित्केनचित्॥

इति श्रीज्ञानगर्भस्तोत्रोक्तनीत्या संविद्येव प्रसृतायां जगतः सद्भावात्सर्वभावसमुद्भवत्वं जीवस्य। यतश्च जीवादेवोदयति विश्वमतोऽयं सर्वमयो विश्वशक्तिरिति यावत्। निर्णीतं चैतद्द्वितीयसूत्रवृत्तौ। सर्वमयत्वे हेत्वन्तरमाह तत्संवेदन इत्यर्धेन। तस्य सर्वस्य नीलसुखादेर्यत्संवेदनं प्रकाशस्तेन रूपेण स्वभावेन तादत्म्यप्रतिपत्तेः सर्वमयत्वस्योपलम्भात्। एवमनेन श्लोकद्वयेन रहस्यचर्याः सर्वभेदपादपोन्मूलनोपपत्तिपरिघटिताश्च ज्ञानोपदेशकथाः प्रथमचरमसूत्राभ्यां महार्थतत्त्वं जाग्रदादिसूत्रेण षडर्धपरमार्थस्तदाक्रम्य इत्यनेन सर्वोपासासारतेत्याद्युपक्षिप्तमिति स्पन्दतत्त्वेनैव विश्वोपदेशाः स्वीकृताः॥४॥

Evaṁ mantramantreśvarādirūpā śuddhābhimatā sṛṣṭiḥ śivasvabhāveti pratipādyādhunā aśuddhābhimatāpi sā māyādirūpā śivasvarūpaiva— Ityupapādayañcchrīmataśāstrādirahasyadṛṣṭimapyupakṣipati

Yasmātsarvamayo jīvaḥ sarvabhāvasamudbhavāt|
Tatsaṁvedanarūpeṇa tādātmyapratipattitaḥ||3||
Tasmācchabdārthacintāsu na sāvasthā na yā śivaḥ|
Bhoktaiva bhogyabhāvena sadā sarvatra saṁsthitaḥ||4||

Yato jīvo grāhakaḥ sarvamayaḥ śivavadviśvarūpastena hetunā śabdeṣu vācakeṣvartheṣu vācyeṣu cintāsu vikalpajñānādirūpāsvādimadhyāntarūpā sāvasthā nāsti yā śivo na bhavati sarvameva śivasvarūpamityarthaḥ| Yataścaivamato bhoktaiva cidātmā grāhako bhogyabhāvena dehanīlādirūpeṇa sadā nityaṁ sarvatra vicitratattvabhuvanādipade samyaganūnādhikatayā sthito na tu bhogyaṁ nāma kiñcidbhokturbhinnamasti| Jīva ityupakramya śiva ityupasaṁhāreṇa jīvaśivayorvāstavo na ko'pi bhedaḥ— Iti dehādyavasthāsu na kāsucidapyapūrṇamanyatā mantavyāpi tu cidghanaśivasvabhāvataiveti bhaṅgyopadiśati| Yathoktaṁ śarīramapi ye ṣaṭtriṁśattattvamayaṁ śivarūpatayā paśyantyarcayanti ca te siddhyanti ghaṭādikamapi tathābhiniviśya paśyantyarcayanti ca te'pīti nāstyatra vivāda iti śrīpratyabhijñāṭīkāyām| Bhaṭṭaśrīvāmanenāpyuktam

Ālambya saṁvidaṁ yasmātsaṁvedyaṁ na svabhāvataḥ|
Tasmātsaṁviditaṁ sarvamiti saṁvinmayo bhavet||

iti| Kasmājjīvaḥ sarvamaya ityatra hetuḥ sarvabhāvānāṁ samudbhavādutpattihetutvādapādānabhāvapradhānaśca nirdeśaḥ|

Pramātṛmitimānameyamayabhedajātasya te vihāra iha hetutāṁ samupayāti yasmāttvayi|
Nivṛttavivṛttau kvacittadapayāti tenādhunā nayena punarīkṣyate jagati jātucitkenacit||

iti śrījñānagarbhastotroktanītyā saṁvidyeva prasṛtāyāṁ jagataḥ sadbhāvātsarvabhāvasamudbhavatvaṁ jīvasya| Yataśca jīvādevodayati viśvamato'yaṁ sarvamayo viśvaśaktiriti yāvat| Nirṇītaṁ caitaddvitīyasūtravṛttau| Sarvamayatve hetvantaramāha tatsaṁvedana ityardhena| Tasya sarvasya nīlasukhāderyatsaṁvedanaṁ prakāśastena rūpeṇa svabhāvena tādatmyapratipatteḥ sarvamayatvasyopalambhāt| Evamanena ślokadvayena rahasyacaryāḥ sarvabhedapādaponmūlanopapattiparighaṭitāśca jñānopadeśakathāḥ prathamacaramasūtrābhyāṁ mahārthatattvaṁ jāgradādisūtreṇa ṣaḍardhaparamārthastadākramya ityanena sarvopāsāsāratetyādyupakṣiptamiti spandatattvenaiva viśvopadeśāḥ svīkṛtāḥ||4||

In this way (evam), after explaining that (iti pratipādya) the manifestation (sṛṣṭiḥ) regarded as (abhimatā) pure (śuddha) (and) composed of --lit. whose form or nature is-- (rūpā) Mantra-s, Mantreśvara-s, etc. (mantra-mantra-īśvara-ādi) is of the nature of Śiva (śiva-sva-bhāvā), now (adhunā), by affirming that (iti upapādayan) the manifestation --lit. it-- (sā) regarded as (abhimatā api) impure (aśuddha) (and) composed of (rūpā) Māyā, etc. (māyā-ādi) is (also) certainly of the nature of Śiva (śiva-svarūpā eva), (Vasugupta --the author--) also hints at (api upakṣipati) the secret/mysterious (rahasya) viewpoint (dṛṣṭim) of venerable Mataśāstra, etc. (śrī-mataśāstra-ādi)1 :

Because (yasmāt) the individual soul (jīvaḥ) is identical (mayaḥ) with all (sarva) since all entities arise (sarva-bhāva-samudbhavāt) (from him, and) inasmuch as he has the feeling or perception (pratipattitaḥ) of identity (tādātmya) (with those entities) due to the knowledge (saṁvedanarūpeṇa) of them all (tad), therefore (tasmāt), there is no (na) state (sā avasthā) that (yā) is not (na) Śiva (śivaḥ), (whether) in word (śabda), object (artha) (or) thought --cintā-- (cintāsu). The experient (bhoktā) himself (eva), always (sadā) (and) everywhere (sarvatra), remains (saṁsthitaḥ) in the form (bhāvena) of the experienced (bhogya)||3-4||

Since (yatas) the individual soul (jīvaḥ) —the experient/knower (at the stage of tattva 12 or Puruṣa) (grāhakaḥ)— is identical (mayaḥ) with all (sarva)(since he) has the universe as his form (viśva-rūpaḥ) such as Śiva has (śiva-vat)—, therefore --lit. on that account-- (tena hetunā) there is no (na asti) state (sā avasthā) that (yā) is (bhavati) not (na) Śiva (śivaḥ), (whether) it is (rūpā) the beginning, the middle or the end (ādi-madhya-anta), (and whether) in words (śabdeṣu) —in denoting sounds, i.e. words (vācakeṣu)—, in objects (artheṣu) —in what is denoted by the words (vācyeṣu)(or) in thoughts (cintāsu) —in those whose nature is knowledge communicated through mental fluctuations, etc. (vikalpa-jñāna-ādi-rūpāsu). The meaning is that (iti arthaḥ) (absolutely) everything (sarvam eva) is of the nature of Śiva (śiva-sva-rūpam)|

And (ca) as (yatas) this is so (evam), consequently (atas) the experient (bhoktā) himself (eva) whose essence is Consciousness (cit-ātmā) —i.e. the knower at the stage of tattva 12 or Puruṣa (grāhakaḥ)— always (sadā) —constantly (nityam)(and) everywhere (sarvatra) —in the various states (vicitra... pade) of tattva, bhuvana, etc. --category of manifestation, world, etc.-- (vicitra-tattva-bhuvana-ādi)— fully (samyak) —neither more nor less (anūna-adhikatayā)— remains (sthitaḥ) in the form (bhāvena) of the experienced (bhogya) —in the form (rūpeṇa) of body (deha), blue color (nīla), etc. (ādi)—; and not (na tu) that what is called (nāma) 'the experienced' --i.e. the objects-- (bhogyam) is (asti) something (kiñcid) different and separate (bhinnam) from the experient/knower (bhoktuḥ)|

Beginning with (upakramya) 'jīva' --the individual soul-- (jīvaḥ iti) (and) concluding with (upasaṁhāreṇa) Śiva (śivaḥ iti), there is no (na kaḥ api) real (vāstavaḥ) difference (bhedaḥ) between jīva and Śiva (jīva-śivayoḥ). So (iti), (Vasugupta) indirectly teaches that (iti bhaṅgyā upadiśati) the notion (manyatā) of imperfection --lack of Fullness-- (apūrṇa) should not be held in mind --lit. should not be thought-- (na... mantavyā) in any (na kāsucid api) states (avasthāsu) (such as) body, etc. (deha-ādi), but rather (api tu) (the notion that) one's own essential nature (sva-bhāvatā eva) is Śiva (śiva), who is a compact mass (ghana) of Consciousness (cit), (should be held in mind). As (yathā) has been said (uktam) (by Utpaladeva) in his venerable commentary on (his own) Īśvarapratyabhijñā (śrī-pratyabhijñā-ṭīkāyām): 'Those (te) who (ye) see --consider-- (paśyanti) even (api) the body (śarīram) made up of (mayam) thirty-six (ṣaṭ-triṁśat) categories --tattva-s-- (tattva) as having the form/nature of Śiva (śiva-rūpatayā) and (ca) honor (it) (arcayanti), attain Perfection --are successful in getting Liberation-- (siddhyanti); and (ca) also (api) those (te) (who) see --consider-- (paśyanti) even (api) a pot, etc. (ghaṭa-ādikam) by resorting to a similar attitude --i.e. that it is Śiva-- (tathā abhiniviśya) and (ca) honor (it) (arcayanti... iti), (attain Perfection too); there is no (na asti) controversy (vivādaḥ) regarding this (atra... iti)'2 |

It has also been declared (api uktam) by Bhaṭṭaśrīvāmana (bhaṭṭaśrīvāmanena):

"Since (yasmāt) an object comes to be known (saṁvedyam) by having recourse to (ālambya) Pure Consciousness --Paramaśiva-- (saṁvidam) (and) not (na) by itself (sva-bhāvataḥ), therefore (tasmāt) all (sarvam) (exists as) known (saṁviditam). In this way (iti), (a person) should become (bhavet) identical with (mayaḥ) Pure Consciousness (saṁvid... iti)"||

Why (kasmāt) (is it said that) the individual soul --the limited experient or knower-- (jīvaḥ) is identical (mayaḥ) with all (sarva... iti)? The reason (hetuḥ) for that (atra) (is as follows:) Since all entities arise from him --lit. since he is the origin or source of all entities-- (sarva-bhāvānām samudbhavāt) —i.e. since he is the cause (hetutvāt) of the production (of all the entities) (utpatti)—. And (ca) it is indicated --lit. indication-- (nirdeśaḥ) that the sense conveyed by the abstract noun in ablative is predominant (apādāna-bhāva-pradhānaḥ) (in this context)3 |

"Your --or old Thy-- (te) pastime (vihāraḥ) here --in this world-- (iha) becomes the cause (hetutām samupayāti) of the whole aggregate of (jātasya) the divisions of (maya-bheda) knower (with objects), the state of knowing but without any objects, knowledge and knowable (pramātṛ-miti-māna-meya). Because (yasmāt) when Your expansion --i.e. pastime-- ceases (tvayi... nivṛtta-vivṛttau), that --viz. the whole aggregate of the divisions of knower (with objects), the state of knowing but without any objects, knowledge and knowable-- (tad) withdraws (apayāti) into somewhere (kvacid). Now (adhunā), He is perceived (īkṣyate) again (punar) so --lit. in that way-- (tena... nayena) in this world (jagati) perhaps (jātucid) by someone (kenacid... iti)"||

According to (this) precept (nītyā) mentioned (ukta) in a hymn (stotra) of venerable Jñānagarbha (śrī-jñānagarbha), the individual soul is the origin or source of all entities --lit. in the case of the individual soul (there is) a state of being the origin or source of all entities-- (sarva-bhāva-samudbhavatvaṁ jīvasya) because the existence (sadbhāvāt) of the world (jagataḥ) (can happen only) in (its) prevalence (prasṛtāyām) as (iva) Pure Consciousness (saṁvidyā)4 |

The sense is that (iti yāvat) as (yatas ca) the universe (viśvam) arises (udayati) only (eva) from the individual soul (jīvāt), for this reason (atas), he --the individual soul-- (ayam) is identical (mayaḥ) with all (sarva) (and) has all the powers (viśva-śaktiḥ)|

This (point) (etad) has (already) been ascertained (nirṇītam) in the commentary (vṛttau) on the second aphorism (dvitīya-sūtra)|

(Vasugupta) expressed (āha) another (antaram) reason (hetu) for the identity with all (on the part of the individual soul) (sarva-mayatve) by means of the (second) half (of the aphorism 3) (ardhena): '(due to) the knowledge (saṁvedana...) of them all (tad... iti)'|

(In other words, the individual soul or limited individual is identical with all since all entities arise from him, and) inasmuch as he has the feeling or perception (pratipattitaḥ) of identity (tādātmya) (with those entities) —i.e. because of (his) acquisition/perception (upalambhāt) of identity (mayatvasya) with all (those entities) (sarva)— due to the knowledge (saṁvedanam... tena rūpeṇa) —due to that whose nature (sva-bhāvena) is Light (prakāśaḥ)— of that --lit. of which-- (yad) —viz. (due to the knowledge) of all that --of all the entities-- (tasya sarvasya), i.e. of blue color, pleasure, etc. (nīla-sukha-ādeḥ)|

Thus (evam), by means of these two stanzas (anena śloka-dvayena), have been alluded --lit. has been alluded-- (upakṣiptam) the secret practices (rahasya-caryāḥ) and (ca) the talks (kathāḥ) (replete with) teachings (upadeśa) of wisdom (jñāna) produced --such talks-- (parighaṭitāḥ) by reasoning (upapatti) which uproots (unmūlana) the tree (pādapa) of all (sarva) dualities (bheda). By means of the first and last aphorisms (of the first section) (prathama-carama-sūtrābhyām), the principle (tattva) of the Great Reality/Great Meaning (mahā-artha) --viz. the Krama school-- has been insinuated (upakṣiptam). By means of the aphorism (sūtreṇa) (starting with) 'Jāgradādi' --aphorism 3 of the first section-- (jāgrat-ādi), the Highest Reality (parama-arthaḥ) of Trika system --lit. half of six-- (ṣaṭ-ardha) has been alluded (upakṣiptam). (And) by means of this (aphorism) (anena) (beginning with) 'Tadākramya' --first aphorism of the second section-- (tad-ākramya), the essence (sāratā) of all (sarva) worship and service, etc. (upāsā-iti-ādi) has been hinted at (upakṣiptam). So (iti), all the teachings (viśva-upadeśāḥ) are accepted or admitted (svīkṛtāḥ) (to have been transmitted) by the principle of Spanda (spanda-tattvena) only (eva)5 ||4||

1  So, now it will be explained that even the impure universe composed of all the tattva-s from the 6th down to the last one (the 36th) together with the respective experients/knowers (pralayākala-s and sakala-s) is also of the nature of Śiva even though it does not look like this. There is a type of experient/knower who is in the middle of the tattva-s 5 and 6: the vijñānākala-s. They are sort of combination of divine and not divine. They are beings who realize that they are Śiva but anyway they cannot move (they have no Śakti, or better said, only Śakti as I-consciousness --that is why they know that they are Śiva-- but no Kriyāśakti or Power of Action... this would be a better explanation of their state, I guess).

Regarding the secret/mysterious viewpoint of venerable Mataśāstra, etc. Vasugupta is hinting at, this would seem to be a mention about a similar viewpoint held in the scriptures of the Triśiromata system (the system dealing with the three-headed Bhairava), but it is difficult for me to be sure as Kṣemarāja is not very specific here.Return

2  In this context, the words 'grāhaka' or 'jīva' refer to the individual soul (Puruṣatattva, the twelfth tattva). If you dislike 'individual soul' as it introduces the term 'soul', which is very difficult to precisely define so that everybody will be glad, then you can call it: 'limited individual', 'limited being', etc. The point here is that this 'grāhaka' or 'jīva' is the Supreme Subject after His having assumed limitation in the form of mala-s, Māyā, etc. In turn, when you want to speak about the Supreme Subject before His having assumed limitation, then you use generally this term: 'Paragrāhaka' (I never saw 'parajīva'!) or 'Supreme Subject/Experient/Knower'. But in the end, there is no real difference between 'Paragrāhaka' and 'grāhaka', because both of them are the same Lord before and after assuming limitation. We have to use all these different terms only for the sake of studying His processes.

So, because there is actually no difference between 'Paragrāhaka' and 'grāhaka', one should not think about it in any states (except in this case, when one has to study them) such as body, etc., i.e. even when one is residing in a body, etc. On the contrary, one should think all the time that oneself is Śiva, because this kind of thought will elevate him. Kṣemarāja goes further in this, by quoting the Utpaladeva's teachings, that even if you consider the body as having the form/nature of Śiva and honor it in this way, you attain Liberation. Or even if you consider a mere external object to be Him and honor it accordingly, you attain Liberation. There is no controversy or difference of opinion about this since it follows the celebrated rule: 'Every portion of Brahma contains full Brahma'.

Now, there seem to be a contradiction between the teachings about unity with all here and the teachings about 'difference' in Īśvarapratyabhijñā-- (III, 1, 8) quoted by the commentator inside his commentary on the aphorisms 1-2 of this section:

"But when uniform --lit. with one taste-- duality appears, [when the not self, (whether it is) void, intellect or body, is considered as the (real) 'I', (then) the power of Māyā arises]"||

Utpaladeva specified here (in the aphorism) and in his commentary on this aphorism (see the respective note of explanation number 8 I wrote about it) that void, intellect or body are the not self (i.e. that they are NOT the Self or real 'I'), and that it is a mistake/calamity to mistake them for the Self or real 'I'. This teaching seems to be completely the opposite to the one affirming that the experient/knower is the source of all the entities and consequently he is 'one with them all'. There is no contradiction but two levels of teaching according to the level of the disciple:

(1) Following the viewpoint of 'viveka' or 'discernment'; and (2) Following the viewpoint of 'yoga' or 'union'.

Why is all this happening? Because in order to attain Liberation, you have to go through two 'penetrations' (two kinds of inherence, technically speaking) in this order (no way to change the order):

(1) Ātmavyāpti (inherence in the Self - individual experience) and (2) Śivavyāpti (inherence in Śiva - universal experience).

The first penetration is attained by 'viveka', by discerning (and discarding) all the things that are not the real Self. Void is not the Self, intellect is not the Self, body is not the Self. Next, with the attainment of nimīlanasamādhi (trance with closed eyes, which the first section of this scripture deals with), you fully attain a penetration into the inner Self and you completely realize that your real 'I' is a Witness to all the rest of things which constitute the 'not self'. But this attainment (Ātmavyāpti) is not real Liberation according to Trika Shaivism. Why? Because you are only conscious of your Self when you are in trance with closed eyes (normally in a sitting posture). However, when you leave that trance and open your eyes, you cannot retain the experience. So, your achievement is incomplete and not real Liberation. In fact, after some time, it starts to look like another kind of bondage because you are all the time limited to a trance with closed eyes in order to be conscious of your real essential nature.

After attaining Ātmavyāpti, you must jump up to the next and final level: Śivavyāpti. You do so by means of the viewpoint of 'yoga', i.e. by realizing that you are one with all. You feel that you are one with void, with intellect, with body, with all around too, etc. Finally, with the attainment of unmīlanasamādhi (trance with open eyes), you fully attain a penetration into the Cosmic Self (viz. Śiva) and you totally realize that You are truly the Self of the universe. And this Śivavyāpti marks the achievement of real Liberation, because even with open eyes and functioning in this world, you can retain the experience of your real Self.

Therefore, there is no contradiction in the teachings. They only pertain to different levels of experience. To attain Ātmavyāpti you experience a sort of 'dualism with wisdom', in which you try to isolate your true Self from the rest. After accomplishing this, you should jump to an experience of integration with all. This is Śivavyāpti. These processes are complex and they would require one book to be fully explained, but with this short exposition by me you are hopefully understood the core of this mysterious teaching.Return

3 Because of the presence of many people with this name, 'Bhaṭṭaśrīvāmana', at that time, it is impossible to know exactly who was the one mentioned by the commentator.

The grammatical commentary about the abstract noun in ablative there is easy to understand by means of this explanation, by following the rules I specified for abstract nouns in the note 3 under the aphorisms 1-2 here: 'samudbhavāt' is the ablative of 'samudbhava' (lit. origin or source). Normal translation of this ablative (samudbhavāt) would be: 'from/through the origin/source'. Anyway, from studying Sanskrit grammar in depth it is clear that ablative can also be translated in the sense of 'because of, since, as, etc.' (which is generally expressed by the respective abstract noun), e.g. in this case 'samudbhavāt' would mean: 'since he is the origin/source' or 'as he is the origin/source' or 'because of his being the origin/source', etc. The abstract noun of 'samudbhava' is generally formed from adding 'tva': samudbhavatva (the state of being the origin/source). Therefore, its ablative is: 'samudbhavatvāt' (because of his being the origin/source, etc.).

What Kṣemarāja meant to say then is that 'samudbhavāt' in this context should NOT be translated as usually, i.e. as 'from/through the origin/source'. It should be translated in the sense communicated by the ablative (samudbhavatvāt) of the respective abstract noun (samudbhavatva). Now the meaning is completely clear.Return

4 In the precept mentioned in a hymn of venerable Jñānagarbha, it is declared that it is His divine Play which is the cause of the whole group of the divisions of knower (with objects), knowledge and knowable, i.e. perceiver, perception and perceived, or else, subject, perception and object. Many words to describe the same group. That knower with objects is the grāhaka described by me before in a previous note. He is not the Highest Self because the Highest Self dwells in the state of pramiti (state of knowing but without any objects). This glorious Lord lives in a state of pure subjectivity with no objects at all. Pramiti is related to the state of Śiva, in Turya, beyond this universe of objects. You can enter pramiti by penetrating into the junction between wakefulness and dreaming, between dreaming and deep sleep, etc. Anyway, if you try to do it, you will not be able to do it (except you are an accomplished yogī to a certain extent). You must develop attention to 'junctions' between two movements first. You practice this as a part of the method called Śāktopāya. Usually, you will practice concentration on the middle of two thoughts or on the middle of inhalation and exhalation. As you practice this more and more, you will notice that you finally can easily penetrate into the junction between two states of consciousness, e.g. between wakefulness and dreaming. These junctions are the entrance to pramiti which is firmly rooted in Turya. OK, it is enough with this.

When Śiva ceases His Play in the form of this expansion, then, all the divisions between all those states go somewhere, i.e. they go into Him again and there is no more difference there between pramātā, pramiti, pramāṇa and prameya, viz. between knower with objects, state of knowing but without any objects, knowledge and knowable. In short, since all enters into Him at the end, all is Him right now too. And because there is inherently no difference between jīva (the individual soul or limited individual) and Śiva (the universal Self), it is reasonable to affirm that the individual soul is the origin or source of all entities. Without the prevalence of 'I', of Pure Consciousness, it is impossible for this world to exist. Why? Because the existence of the world makes sense only when there is presence of its Knower.

And only some beings can realize that they are really Him by means of His Grace. Their realization of the full unity with the Great Lord is certainly Liberation. These liberated beings have been called in many ways across the various systems. In Trika they are usually called videhamukta-s or jīvanmukta-s, depending on if they leave the body or not at the time of getting Liberation. The purport is clear now!Return

5  The individual soul is one with all entities due to his knowledge of them all. What is this? Knowledge here is not book knowledge, etc. but 'perception'. So, the individual soul (the perceiver or subject) is one with his perception or he could never perceive. Next, the perception is one with that which is perceived (the object) or the process of perception would be impossible. In this way, by logical connection, the subject/perceiver is one with the object being perceived by him. For example: When you see a tree, you are one with the tree. Why? Because of your knowledge/perception of it. As your perception is one with you and with the tree, you are also one with the tree. Therefore, you are one with all the universe you can perceive, and there is no way to deny this simple teaching. Anyway, in practice, only a few ones (the beings who received His Grace) will be able to fully understand and realize this simple fact showing unity everywhere.

The rest of the text looks very clear. Only one note maybe about the Krama system (also called Mahārtha or the Great Reality/Meaning): I explains this system to a certain extent in this blog article dealing with the four schools of Trika system.Return


 Aphorism 5

अथैतत्प्रतिपत्तिसारतैव मोक्ष इत्यादिशति

इति वा यस्य संवित्तिः क्रीडात्वेनाखिलं जगत्।
स पश्यन्सततं युक्तो जीवन्मुक्तो न संशयः॥५॥

वाशब्दः प्रथमनिःष्यन्दोक्तनिमीलनसमाधिप्रकारं विकल्पयन् अस्याः समापत्तेर्दुर्लभतां ध्वनयति। तेनायमर्थः— ईदृशी तावत्संवित्तिर्दुर्लभा यस्य कस्यचिदेवापश्चिमजन्मनो भवति सोऽखिलं जगत्क्रीडात्वेन पश्यन् निजसंविदुन्मेषनिमेषाभ्यां सृजन् संहरंश्च

मय्यावेश्य मनो ये मां नित्ययुक्ता उपासते।

इति स्थित्या सततसमाविष्टो महायोगी जीवन्नेव प्राणादिमानपि विज्ञानाग्निनिर्दग्धाशेषबन्धनो देहपाते तु शिव एव जीवंश्चेदृङ्मुक्त एव न तु कथञ्चिदपि बद्धः। न संशय इत्यनेनेदं ध्वनयति दीक्षादिना गुरुप्रत्ययतो मुक्तिरीदृशात्तु ज्ञानात्समाचाराद्वा स्वप्रत्ययत एवेति॥५॥

Athaitatpratipattisārataiva mokṣa ityādiśati

Iti vā yasya saṁvittiḥ krīḍātvenākhilaṁ jagat|
Sa paśyansatataṁ yukto jīvanmukto na saṁśayaḥ||5||

Vāśabdaḥ prathamaniḥṣyandoktanimīlanasamādhiprakāraṁ vikalpayan asyāḥ samāpatterdurlabhatāṁ dhvanayati| Tenāyamarthaḥ— Īdṛśī tāvatsaṁvittirdurlabhā yasya kasyacidevāpaścimajanmano bhavati so'khilaṁ jagatkrīḍātvena paśyan nijasaṁvidunmeṣanimeṣābhyāṁ sṛjan saṁharaṁśca

Mayyāveśya mano ye māṁ nityayuktā upāsate|

iti sthityā satatasamāviṣṭo mahāyogī jīvanneva prāṇādimānapi vijñānāgninirdagdhāśeṣabandhano dehapāte tu śiva eva jīvaṁścedṛṅmukta eva na tu kathañcidapi baddhaḥ| Na saṁśaya ityanenedaṁ dhvanayati dīkṣādinā gurupratyayato muktirīdṛśāttu jñānātsamācārādvā svapratyayata eveti||5||

Now (atha), (Vasugupta) indicates that (iti ādiśati) the essence (sāratā) of this (etad) perception (of identity or oneness with all) (pratipatti) (is) without a doubt (eva) Liberation (mokṣa)1 :

Or (iti vā) he (saḥ) who has that (yasya) knowledge or realization (saṁvittiḥ) (and) is constantly (satatam) united (with the Supreme Self) (yuktaḥ) views (paśyan) the whole (akhilam) world (jagat) as a (divine) play (krīḍātvena). He is liberated while living (jīvanmuktaḥ), there is no (na) doubt (saṁśayaḥ) (about it)||5||

The word (śabdaḥ) 'or' (vā) admits as optional (vikalpayan) the method (prakāram) of nimīlanasamādhi --trance with closed eyes-- (nimīlana-samādhi) mentioned (ukta) in the first (prathama) section (niḥṣyanda) (and) hints at (dhvanayati) the rarity (durlabhatām) of that attainment of unity with all (asyāḥ samāpatteḥ) --in short, it insinuates how rare and difficult it is to become conscious of one's own identity/unity with all--|

For that reason (tena), this (ayam) (is) the meaning (of the aphorism) (arthaḥ): Such (īdṛśī) knowledge or realization (saṁvittiḥ) of this extent (tāvat) is difficult to be attained (durlabhā) (and) takes place (bhavati) in whoever --lit. in the case of whoever-- (yasya kasyacid eva) is in his last birth (apaścima-janmanaḥ). He --that person with such knowledge or realization-- (saḥ) views (paśyan) the whole (akhilam) world (jagat) as a (divine) play (krīḍātvena), (and) through the opening and closing (unmeṣa-nimeṣābhyām) of his own (nija) Pure Consciousness (saṁvid), he manifests (it) (sṛjan) and (ca) dissolves (it) (saṁharan). As established --or 'according to the axiom or maxim'-- (in Bhagavadgītā XII, 2) (sthityā):

"(Among the ones endowed with the highest faith, I consider them to be yuktatamā-s' --the ones who are most devoted to Me--) who (ye), after fixing (āveśya) (their) mind(s) (manas) on Me (mayi), constantly --lit. constantly intent on or devoted to-- (nitya-yuktāḥ) worship/serve (upāsate) Me (mām... iti)2 "||

the great (mahā) Yogī (yogī) remains constantly absorbed (in Paramaśiva --in the Supreme Self--) --he remains in trance or samādhi/samāveśa-- (satata-samāviṣṭaḥ) even (api) while living (jīvat eva) —i.e. even (api) while he has his vital energy, etc. working (prāṇa-ādi-mān)(and) all of his bondage (aśeṣa-bandhanaḥ) is burnt up (nirdagdha) by the fire (agni) of (divine) knowledge (vijñāna); and when his body falls --lit. during the fall of the body-- (deha-pāte tu), (he becomes) Śiva Himself (śivaḥ eva). While such liberated person lives (jīvan ca īdṛk-muktaḥ eva), there is by no means (na tu kathañcid api) bondage (baddhaḥ) (to him)|

'There is no (na) doubt (saṁśayaḥ) (about it)'; by means of this (final expression) (anena), (Vasugupta) hints at (dhvanayati) this (idam): 'Through initiation, etc. (dīkṣa-ādinā), Liberation (muktiḥ) (takes place) by means of firm faith (pratyayataḥ) in the Guru (guru), but (tu) through such knowledge or practice --about the identity/unity with the whole universe-- (īdṛśāt... jñānāt samācārāt vā), (Liberation takes place) by means of one's own experience (sva-pratyayataḥ) indeed (eva iti)'3 ||5||

1  According to other systems, only Ātmavyāpti (inherence in the Self) is Liberation. Ātmavyāpti is attained by nimīlanasamādhi (trance with closed eyes). In it, you fully realize that you are the inner Self beyond void, intellect and body. However, Trika only accepts Śivavyāpti as the real achievement of Liberation. In Śivavyāpti you perceive not only that you are the inner Self but that you are the outer Self too (the cosmic Self called Śiva), and that there is no difference between both of them. So, the experience of Śivavyāpti is integral as inside and outside are the same thing to you. This is the perception of You in all, inside and outside. This is real Liberation. Ātmavyāpti is only a temporary phase which 'should lead' to Śivavyāpti. If it is not leading to Śivavyāpti and you only stay satisfied with Ātmavyāpti, then your liberation is not real Liberation, or you might call it: incomplete Liberation.Return

2  In the first section of this scripture, nimīlanasamādhi (trance with closed eyes) leading to Ātmavyāpti was recommended, while the present second section points to unmīlanasamādhi (trance with open eyes) as being conducive to Śivavyāpti. This state of perceiving unity with all is really very rare, maybe one person in millions can achieve it. Why? Because He does not want to. This is mysterious but true anyway. His power of tirodhāna (concealment of one's own essential nature) is maximum in most people. That is why, even when simple means to access an experience of their own Self are available for them around, they do not see those means or if they see them they do not care about them. In this way, what looked very simple to be accomplish turns into mission impossible. Such is the power of His tirodhāna.

This person who is in his last birth, who will never return to this physical plane by force (he can at will though), realizes that he is always the One manifesting and dissolving this entire world. Therefore, the world is no more a kind of obstacle but a divine Play of his divine Consciousness. This state of enlightenment, of spiritual freedom, is very difficult to attain for the aforesaid reasons.Return

3 Such fortunate being is no more bound by anything, even if he looks so. To him the entire universe is just the garden of Śiva. And after the body falls, when death arrives, he completely merges into Śiva forever.

At the end, Kṣemarāja specifies that through this knowledge about the unity of all and the respective practice in order to realize such unity, Liberation happens by means of one's own experience. You do not need to have faith in a Guru for that, because you can directly perceive the truth contained in the teachings by yourself. This is the purport!Return


 Aphorisms 6-7 and end of Section II

इयमेव महासमापत्तिः साधकाचार्यादीनामभीष्टप्राप्तिहेतुः— इति श्लोकद्वयेनाह

अयमेवोदयस्तस्य ध्येयस्य ध्यायिचेतसि।
तदात्मतासमापत्तिरिच्छतः साधकस्य या॥६॥
इयमेवामृतप्राप्तिरयमेवात्मनो ग्रहः।
इयं निर्वाणदीक्षा च शिवसद्भावदायिनी॥७॥

इह शिवो भूत्वा शिवं यजेदिति यदुद्घोष्यते तत्र ध्यायिनश्चेतसि संवेदने तस्येति न सावस्था न या शिव इति प्रतिपादितशिवस्वभावस्य ध्येयस्यान्यस्य वा कस्यचित्तत्तत्सिद्धिहेतोर्मन्त्रदेवताविशेषस्यायमेवोदयः प्रकटीभावो या साधकस्य ध्यातुराचार्यादेः

तस्माच्छब्दार्थचिन्तासु न सावस्था न या शिवः।

इति प्रतिपादितरूपा तदात्मतासमापत्तिः शिवैक्यावेशो न तु पञ्चवक्त्रादेर्व्यतिरिक्तस्याकारस्य दर्शनं न तु निश्चयमात्रेण तदात्मतासमापत्तिरपि त्विच्छतोऽविकल्पविश्वाहन्तात्मकशिवैक्यरूपेच्छापरामर्शाधिरूढस्य। एतदुक्तं भवत्यहमेव तत्संवेदनरूपेण तादात्म्यप्रतिपत्तितो विश्वशरीरश्चिदानन्दघनः शिव इति सङ्कल्पो यस्याविकल्पशेषीभूतत्वेन फलति तस्य ध्येयमन्त्रदेवतादि किं न नाम अभिमुखीभवति सर्वस्यैतदद्वयप्रथालग्नत्वात्। यथोक्तमस्मत्परमेष्ठिपाधैः

साक्षाद्भवन्मये नाथ सर्वस्मिन्भुवनान्तरे।
किं न भक्तिमतां क्षेत्रं मन्त्रः क्वैषां न सिध्यति॥

इति। इयमेव च समापत्तिः परमाद्वयरूपस्यामृतस्य प्राप्तिरन्यस्मिँस्त्वमृते कतिपयकालशरीरदार्ढ्यदायिनि प्राप्तेऽपि साधकैर्मरणमवश्यमवाप्यत एवेत्येवकाराशयः। एवं सर्वत्रानेनैवाशयेन श्रीस्वच्छन्दे स्थूलदृष्ट्यामृतप्राप्तिप्रकरणे

नैव चामृतयोगेन कालमृत्युजयो भवेत्।

इत्युक्त्योपसंहृत्य तात्त्विकस्तत्प्राप्तिप्रकारः

अथवा परतत्त्वस्थः सर्वकालैर्न बाध्यते॥


... सर्वं शिवशक्तिमयं स्मरेत्।

इति मध्येन

जीवन्नेव विमुक्तोऽसौ यस्येयं भावना सदा।
यः शिवं भावयेन्नित्यं न कालः कलयेत्तु तम्।
योगी स्वच्छन्दयोगेन स्वच्छन्दगतिचारिणा।
स स्वच्छन्दपदे युक्तः स्वच्छन्दसमतां व्रजेत्।
स्वच्छन्दश्चैव स्वच्छन्दः स्वच्छन्दो विचरेत्सदा॥

इत्यनेन सहजसन्दर्भेण सप्रशंसं पश्चादुपदिष्टः। अयमेवात्मनो ग्रहो ज्ञानं यदुच्यत आत्मा ज्ञातव्य इति तत्रेदमेव सर्वज्ञसर्वकर्तृस्वतन्त्रशिवस्वरूपतया प्रत्यभिज्ञानमात्मनो ज्ञानं न तु

पुरुष एवेदं सर्वम्।

इति श्रुत्यन्तविदुक्तं

त आत्मोपासकाः सर्वे न गच्छन्ति परं पदम्।

इत्याम्नायोक्तेः। तथा दीक्षावसरे योजनिकाद्यर्थमयमेव शिष्यात्मनोऽनुग्रह इमामेव समापत्तिं विद्वानाचार्यः शिष्यात्मानं शिवे योजयन्नाचार्यो भवतीत्यर्थः। इयं स्वप्रत्ययसिद्धा पुत्रकादेः शिवात्मनः सद्भावस्य पारमार्थिकस्वरूपस्य दायिनी निर्वाणदीक्षा। यथोक्तम्

एवं यो वेद तत्त्वेन तस्य निर्वाणदायिनी।
दीक्षा भवत्यसन्दिग्धा तिलाज्याहुतिवर्जिता॥

इति। हौत्री दीक्षापि दीक्षैव तत्र मा भूत्कस्यचिदनाश्वास इत्याशयेनात्रैवकारो न कृतः श्रीमहागुरुप्रवरेणेति शिवम्॥७॥

इति श्रीमहामाहेश्वराचार्यक्षेमराजानकनिर्मिते स्पन्दनिर्णये सहजविद्योदयस्पन्दो द्वितीयो निःष्यन्दः॥२॥

Iyameva mahāsamāpattiḥ sādhakācāryādīnāmabhīṣṭaprāptihetuḥ— Iti ślokadvayenāha

Ayamevodayastasya dhyeyasya dhyāyicetasi|
Tadātmatāsamāpattiricchataḥ sādhakasya yā||6||
Iyamevāmṛtaprāptirayamevātmano grahaḥ|
Iyaṁ nirvāṇadīkṣā ca śivasadbhāvadāyinī||7||

Iha śivo bhūtvā śivaṁ yajediti yadudghoṣyate tatra dhyāyinaścetasi saṁvedane tasyeti na sāvasthā na yā śiva iti pratipāditaśivasvabhāvasya dhyeyasyānyasya vā kasyacittattatsiddhihetormantradevatāviśeṣasyāyamevodayaḥ prakaṭībhāvo yā sādhakasya dhyāturācāryādeḥ

Tasmācchabdārthacintāsu na sāvasthā na yā śivaḥ|

iti pratipāditarūpā tadātmatāsamāpattiḥ śivaikyāveśo na tu pañcavaktrādervyatiriktasyākārasya darśanaṁ na tu niścayamātreṇa tadātmatāsamāpattirapi tvicchato'vikalpaviśvāhantātmakaśivaikyarūpecchāparāmarśādhirūḍhasya| Etaduktaṁ bhavatyahameva tatsaṁvedanarūpeṇa tādātmyapratipattito viśvaśarīraścidānandaghanaḥ śiva iti saṅkalpo yasyāvikalpaśeṣībhūtatvena phalati tasya dhyeyamantradevatādi kiṁ na nāma abhimukhībhavati sarvasyaitadadvayaprathālagnatvāt| Yathoktamasmatparameṣṭhipādhaiḥ

Sākṣādbhavanmaye nātha sarvasminbhuvanāntare|
Kiṁ na bhaktimatāṁ kṣetraṁ mantraḥ kvaiṣāṁ na sidhyati||

iti| Iyameva ca samāpattiḥ paramādvayarūpasyāmṛtasya prāptiranyasmim̐stvamṛte katipayakālaśarīradārḍhyadāyini prāpte'pi sādhakairmaraṇamavaśyamavāpyata evetyevakārāśayaḥ| Evaṁ sarvatrānenaivāśayena śrīsvacchande sthūladṛṣṭyāmṛtaprāptiprakaraṇe

Naiva cāmṛtayogena kālamṛtyujayo bhavet|

ityuktyopasaṁhṛtya tāttvikastatprāptiprakāraḥ

Athavā paratattvasthaḥ sarvakālairna bādhyate||


... sarvaṁ śivaśaktimayaṁ smaret|

iti madhyena

Jīvanneva vimukto'sau yasyeyaṁ bhāvanā sadā|
Yaḥ śivaṁ bhāvayennityaṁ na kālaḥ kalayettu tam|
Yogī svacchandayogena svacchandagaticāriṇā|
Sa svacchandapade yuktaḥ svacchandasamatāṁ vrajet|
Svacchandaścaiva svacchandaḥ svacchando vicaretsadā||

ityanena sahajasandarbheṇa sapraśaṁsaṁ paścādupadiṣṭaḥ| Ayamevātmano graho jñānaṁ yaducyata ātmā jñātavya iti tatredameva sarvajñasarvakartṛsvatantraśivasvarūpatayā pratyabhijñānamātmano jñānaṁ na tu

Puruṣa evedaṁ sarvam|

iti śrutyantaviduktaṁ

Ta ātmopāsakāḥ sarve na gacchanti paraṁ padam|

ityāmnāyokteḥ| Tathā dīkṣāvasare yojanikādyarthamayameva śiṣyātmano'nugraha imāmeva samāpattiṁ vidvānācāryaḥ śiṣyātmānaṁ śive yojayannācāryo bhavatītyarthaḥ| Iyaṁ svapratyayasiddhā putrakādeḥ śivātmanaḥ sadbhāvasya pāramārthikasvarūpasya dāyinī nirvāṇadīkṣā| Yathoktam

Evaṁ yo veda tattvena tasya nirvāṇadāyinī|
Dīkṣā bhavatyasandigdhā tilājyāhutivarjitā||

iti| Hautrī dīkṣāpi dīkṣaiva tatra mā bhūtkasyacidanāśvāsa ityāśayenātraivakāro na kṛtaḥ śrīmahāgurupravareṇeti śivam||7||

Iti śrīmahāmāheśvarācāryakṣemarājānakanirmite spandanirṇaye sahajavidyodayaspando dvitīyo niḥṣyandaḥ||2||

To spiritual aspirants, spiritual teachers, etc. (sādhaka-ācārya-ādīnām), this very (iyam eva) great realization --this state of realizing that oneself is identical/one with all-- (mahā-samāpattiḥ) is the cause (hetuḥ) of the attainment (prāpti) of the desired object (abhīṣṭa) — In this way (iti), by two stanzas (śloka-dvayena), (Vasugupta) said (āha)1 :

Only (eva) this (ayam) (is) the emergence (udayaḥ) of that (tasya) object of meditation (dhyeyasya) in the mind (cetasi) of the meditator (dhyāyi). (In short,) for a sādhaka or spiritual aspirant (sādhakasya) with firm will (icchataḥ), there is realization (samāpattiḥ... yā) of (his) identity (with that dhyeya or object of meditation) (tadātmatā)||6||
Only (eva) this (iyam) (is) the obtainment (prāptiḥ) of the Nectar leading to Immortality (amṛta), only (eva) this (ayam) (is) the perception (grahaḥ) of the Self (ātmanaḥ). And (ca) this (iyam) initiation (dīkṣā) conducive to Nirvāṇa or Final Emancipation (nirvāṇa) bestows (dāyinī) the real (sat) state (bhāva) of Śiva (śiva)||7||

It is proclaimed (udghoṣyate) here (iha) that (yad) 'One should worship (yajet) Śiva (śivam) by becoming (bhūtvā) Śiva (śivaḥ... iti)'. Only (eva) this (ayam) (is) the emergence (udayaḥ) (or) manifestation (prakaṭībhāvaḥ) 'of that' (tasya iti), i.e. of the object of meditation (dhyeyasya) —whose essential nature (sva-bhāvasya) is Śiva (śiva) as explained (pratipādita) (within the first portion of II, 4) 'there is no (na) state (sā avasthā) that (yā) is not (na) Śiva (śivaḥ iti)'— or (vā) of some other thing (anyasya... kasyacid) (such as) the particular (viśeṣasya) deity (devatā) of the mantra (mantra) who is the cause (hetoḥ) of the attainment (siddhi) of this or that (tad-tad). (Where?) There (tatra), i.e. in the mind (cetasi) —in the perception and knowledge (saṁvedane)— of the meditator (dhyāyinaḥ). (In short,) for a sādhaka or spiritual aspirant (sādhakasya) —i.e. for the meditator (dhyātuḥ), whether he is a spiritual teacher, etc. (ācārya-ādeḥ)—, there is realization (yā... samāpattiḥ) of (his) identity (with that dhyeya or object of meditation) (tadātmatā) such as it has been explained (pratipādita-rūpā) (above, in II, 4:)

"Therefore (tasmāt), there is no (na) state (sā avasthā) that (yā) is not (na) Śiva (śivaḥ), (whether) in word (śabda), object (artha) (or) thought --cintā-- (cintāsu... iti)2 "|

(And this realization of his identity with the object of meditation) is an absorption/entrance into (āveśaḥ) the unity (aikya) with Śiva (śiva) and not (na tu) the vision (darśanam) of a separate form (vyatiriktasya ākārasya) such as a five-faced (deity), etc. (pañca-vaktra-ādeḥ). (And this) realization (samāpattiḥ) of (his) identity (with the object of meditation) (tadātmatā) is not (na tu) (achieved) by mere (mātreṇa) resolution (niścaya) but rather (api tu) (it takes place only in the case of a spiritual aspirant) with firm will (icchataḥ) —viz. in the case of (a spiritual aspirant) who is fully engrossed --who constantly remembers-- (parāmarśa-adhirūḍhasya) in the will (icchā) of becoming one (aikya-rūpa) with Śiva (śiva), who is (ātmaka) thoughtless --He is totally devoid of vikalpa-s-- (avikalpa) (and) 'I-consciousness' (ahantā) in all (viśva)3 |

(So,) this (etad) is (bhavati) (the meaning of) what has been declared (before) (uktam): (The realization of his identity/unity with the object of meditation) comes as a result --lit. results as an outcome-- (śeṣī-bhūtatvena phalati) of a state without thoughts (avikalpa). (For that reason and) since everything is closely associated with (sarvasya... lagnatvāt) this (etad) non-dual (advaya) expansion (prathā) --with Spanda--, the deity (devatā), etc. (ādi) in the mantra (mantra) being meditated on (dhyeya) will not at all be favorable --lit. is not at all favorable-- (kim na nāma abhimukhī-bhavati) with him (tasya) whose (yasya) definite determination is (iti saṅkalpaḥ) (like this): 'I (aham) myself (eva), inasmuch as I have the feeling or perception (pratipattitaḥ) of identity (tādātmya) (with those entities --with all that exists in the universe--) due to the knowledge (saṁvedana-rūpeṇa) of them all (tad), (am) Śiva (śivaḥ), a compact mass (ghanaḥ) of Consciousness and Bliss (cit-ānanda) whose body (śarīraḥ) is the universe (viśva)4 '|

As (yathā) has been said (uktam) by my --lit. our-- (asmad) glorious great grand Guru --i.e. Utpaladeva-- (parameṣṭhi-pādhaiḥ):

"Oh Lord (nātha), in (this) entire world (sarvasmin bhuvanāntare) which is (maye) You Yourself --or old 'Thou Thyself'-- (bhavat) in person (sākṣāt), what (kim) place (kṣetram) is not (auspicious) (na) to (Your --or old 'Thy'--) devotees (bhaktimatām) (and) where (kva) does their mantra (mantraḥ... eṣām) not (na) bear fruit (sidhyati... iti)?"||
(Śivastotrāvalī I, 4)

And (ca) only (eva) this (iyam) realization (samāpattiḥ) (is) the obtainment (prāptiḥ) of the Nectar leading to Immortality (amṛtasya) whose nature --of the Nectar-- (rūpasya) is supreme (parama) non-dualism (advaya). The sense (āśayaḥ) of the word (kāra) 'only' (eva) (in this context is as follows): But (tu), even if (api) the spiritual aspirants get (prāpte... sādhakaiḥ) another (kind of) nectar (anyasmin... amṛte) which gives (dāyini) (their) bodies (śarīra) firmness (dārḍhya) for some time (katipaya-kāla), (even so,) death (maraṇam) is certainly to be reached --death will come anyway-- (avaśyam avāpyate eva iti)|

Thus (evam), in venerable Svacchandatantra (śrī-svacchande), everywhere (sarvatra) in the chapter (prakaraṇe) (dealing with) the acquisition (prāpti) of the Nectar leading to Immortality (amṛta) from a gross viewpoint (sthūla-dṛṣṭyā), (this sacred book) contains this meaning (anena eva āśayena), concluding (upasaṁhṛtya) the statements with (ukti):

"There is not at all (na eva ca) conquest (jayaḥ) of death (mṛtyu) (produced by) time (kāla) by means of (yogena) nectar (amṛta... iti)5 "|

The real (tāttvikaḥ) way (prakāraḥ) to acquire (prāpti) that (Nectar leading to Immortality) (tad) (is certainly described in Svacchandatantra,) by starting with (iti-ādinā):

"Or (athavā) someone who is established (sthaḥ) in the Highest (para) Principle (tattva) is not (na) taken prisoner (bādhyate) by all (the kinds of) time (sarva-kālaiḥ)"||
(Svacchandatantra VII, 226 - second part of the stanza)

(And) in the middle (iti madhyena):

"... (the Yogī always) remembers (smaret) that all (sarvam) is Śiva and Śakti (śiva-śakti-mayam)"|
(Svacchandatantra VII, 244 - the very last portion)

(And) finally (paścāt), by means of this natural composition (anena sahaja-sandarbheṇa) in a tone of praise (sapraśaṁsam), it has been taught the following (iti... upadiṣṭaḥ):

"He (asau) is completely liberated (vimuktaḥ) while living (jīvan) indeed (eva) in whom (yasya) (there is) always (sadā) this (iyam) contemplation (bhāvanā). Time (kālaḥ) does not (na) certainly incite (kalayet tu) him (tam) who (yaḥ) constantly (nityam) contemplates (bhāvayet) on Śiva (śivam)|
That (saḥ) Yogī (yogī) who lives (cāriṇā) in the condition (gati) of an independent being --a liberated being-- (svacchanda) through Svacchandayoga --the type of Yoga taught in Svacchandatantra-- (svacchanda-yogena), being united (yuktaḥ) with the state (pade) of Svacchanda (svacchanda) --with the state of the Free One, i.e. Śiva--, attains (vrajet) equality (samatā) with Svacchanda --with the Free One, with Śiva-- (svacchanda)|
(The lord of the Yogī-s) rambles about (vicaret) always (sadā) free (svacchandaḥ ca eva svacchandaḥ svacchandaḥ), (whether in the beginning, in the middle or at the end)"||
(Svacchandatantra VII 259, 260 and first part of 261)6 

Only (eva) this (ayam) (is) the perception (grahaḥ) (or) knowledge (jñānam) of the Self (ātmanaḥ). This (idam) knowledge (jñānam) which (yad) is spoken of (ucyate) here --lit. there-- (tatra), 'The Self (ātmā) must be known (jñātavyaḥ iti)', is knowledge (jñānam) of the Self (ātmanaḥ), viz. recognition (pratyabhijñānam) that the Self or essential nature (sva-rūpatayā) (is) the omniscient, omnipotent and free (sarvajña-sarvakartṛ-svatantra) Śiva (śiva), and not (na tu) the one mentioned (uktam) by the knowers of the Vedānta (system) (śruti-anta-vid) (in this way:)

"Only (eva) Puruṣa --the Supreme Person-- (puruṣaḥ) (is) all (sarvam) this (idam... iti)7 "|
(Śvetāśvataropaniṣad III, 15)

(And also,) from (another) statement (ukteḥ) to be found in the (abovementioned) sacred text --i.e. in Svacchandatantra-- (āmnāya):

"All (sarve) those (te) worshipers/servants (upāsakāḥ) of the Self (ātma) do not reach (na gacchanti) the Supreme (param) State (padam... iti)8 "|
(Svacchandatantra IV, 392 - the first half of the stanza)

Likewise (tathā), on the occasion (avasare) of initiation (dīkṣā) for (artham) uniting (the Self of the disciple with the Self of the universe) and so on (yojanika-ādi), this itself --i.e. the perception or knowledge of the Self-- (ayam eva) (is) the divine favor (anugrahaḥ) of the Self (ātmanaḥ) of the disciple (śiṣya). The spiritual teacher (ācāryaḥ), knowing (vidvān) this (imām eva) realization (samāpattim), is (bhavati) (called) 'ācārya' (ācāryaḥ) (because of) his leading (yojayan) the Self (ātmānam) of the disciple (śiṣya) toward Śiva (śive); this is the purport (iti arthaḥ)9 |

This (iyam) initiation (dīkṣā) conducive to Nirvāṇa or Final Emancipation (nirvāṇa), proved (siddhā) by one's own experience (sva-pratyaya), bestows --lit. bestower-- (dāyinī) the real state (sat-bhāvasya) of the Self of Śiva (śiva-ātmanaḥ) —the essential nature (sva-rūpasya) of the Highest Reality (pāramārthika)— on the putraka --spiritual son--, etc. (putraka-ādeḥ). As (yathā) has been said (uktam):

"In the case of the one who (yaḥ... tasya) really/truly (tattvena) knows (vetti) (the mantra Sauḥ) in this way (evam) takes place (bhavati) an initiation (dīkṣā) bestowing (dāyinī) Nirvāṇa or Final Emancipation (nirvāṇa), which --the initiation-- is without any doubts (asandigdhā) (and) devoid of (varjitā) offerings (āhuti) with sesame and clarified butter (tila-ājya... iti)"||
(Parātrīśikā 26)

The hotā-related --the 'hotā-s' are the priests offering oblations to the fire during a sacrifice-- (hautrī) initiation (dīkṣā) (is) also (api) initiation (dīkṣā) indeed (eva). That being so (tatra), here --in the seventh aphorism-- (atra), the word (kāraḥ) 'only' (eva) has not been uttered (na kṛtaḥ) by the venerable and principal (śrī... pravareṇa) great (mahā) Guru (guru) so that --lit. with the intention that-- (āśayena) there will not be --lit. let not there be!-- (mā bhūt) lack of confidence (an-āśvāsaḥ) in anybody (kasyacid) (with respect to receiving hotā-related initiation). May there be welfare for all (iti śivam)!10 ||7||

Here ends (iti) the second (dvitīyaḥ) section (niḥṣyandaḥ) (called) Spanda (spandaḥ) as the emergence (udaya) of natural (sahaja) Knowledge (vidyā), in the Spandanirṇaya (spanda-nirṇaye) composed (nirmite) by eminent (śrī) Kṣemarājānaka --Kṣemarāja-- (kṣema-rājānaka), spiritual preceptor (ācārya) (and) great (mahā) devotee of Maheśvara, the Great Lord --epithet of Śiva-- (māheśvara)||2||

1  To spiritual aspirants, teachers (advanced spiritual aspirants), etc., this realization that everything is identical with oneself (i.e. that oneself is one with the entire universe) is the cause of the attainment of the desired object. In other words, it is the cause of their getting Śivavyāpti (inherence in Śiva) directly leading to Liberation. Obviously, in this context 'the desired object' is not supernatural powers, residing in some higher world and so on, but the divine state of Śiva.Return

2  The desired object is the state of Śiva, as explained in the previous note. And this state of Śiva is achieved, according to this mysterious instruction, by becoming Śiva. By arduously remembering in his mind that everything is Śiva, that there is no state which is not Śiva, he finally becomes Śiva, i.e. he realizes his identity/unity with Him. The particular deity of the mantra being mentioned by Kṣemarāja is not different from Śiva either, though he appears to be someone else. For example, if your mantra is Guru Om̐, the deity of your mantra is Guru, and this Guru is not at all different from Śiva. Now it is clear!Return

3 Even if the deity of your mantra is the terrifying five-faced Śiva, when you attain this realization of identity with the object of meditation (of identity with the state of Śiva), you just enter into a condition where you perceive your unity with Śiva. You do not see any deity there. He just emerges as a mass of Consciousness and Bliss and you confirm that He is effectively You (the real You). When that happens, since He is one with the entire universe, you become one with the universe too. This is Śivavyāpti leading to Liberation.

You cannot attain this state of Śiva by merely resolving 'all of a sudden' in your mind that you will attain it. Why? Because it is beyond vikalpa-s or thoughts. Instead, it is the fruit of your firm will that persists in the direction of such an achievement. Every day you remember this goal, and you persist every day in your request about becoming one with the Lord who is thoughtless (He is beyond the realm of vikalpa-s) and I-consciousness in all (He is the Aham or 'I' in all the beings). This firm will is not merely mental resolution but something deeper and stronger.Return

4 According to Trika Shaivism, Śāmbhavopāya is the final means to the attainment of Liberation (the acquisition of the state of Śiva). In Śāmbhavopāya there is full thoughtlessness, i.e. the yogī just patiently waits for Śiva's decision. It is the only thing that he can do (to remain without thoughts and await) because his Liberation is not in his hands, viz. Liberation is the attainment of universality (like Śiva Himself). If someone will achieve this or not, or when, or where, etc., it is not decision of any 'individual'. Why? Because individual is considered to be incapacitated to do so as the last impurity situated between the tattva-s 5 and 6 cannot be crossed over by means of effort. This is a law and I have explained how it works in different parts of my website and also in the blog.Return

5  To someone who is liberated, all places are 'holy'. Only the ignorant think that only certain places are 'holy' while others are not. This all-pervading ignorance is just lack of Fullness. Because they feel themselves in the wrong way as they lack enough Grace from Śiva, they identify themselves with their bodies, intellects, etc. As a result of their wrong viewpoint, they perceive that Śiva is present only in some places which they call 'holy places', while in the rest of the world, Śiva looks like if absent or at least 'no so present like in the sacred places'. With this kind of mentality not forged by the fire of Tantra-s and the teachings of Guru, nobody goes nowhere. You see this wrong mentality in millions of people going to special 'tīrtha-s' (places of pilgrimage) where there is 'more Power', as they usually say. Do not be like them! Instead, embrace the Śiva's teaching given by glorious Utpaladeva in that stanza.

While you resort to dualism (e.g. I am here but not there, I exist now but not after, etc.), you are doomed to die. But when you go in the direction of non-dualism, in the direction of the acquisition of full unity with Śiva, then you become immortal. This immortality is obtained then by attaining the state of Absolute Freedom in which Śiva dwells. Any other kind of nectar you can enjoy (e.g. the nectar descending from Nādabindu through Lalanācakra down to the tongue, as taught in Haṭhayogapradīpikā), it will not give you immortality, i.e. death will defeat you in the end. This is specified by the quote of Svacchandatantra, that is, that an ordinary nectar is not competent to make you triumph over death. Only the Nectar of Immortality, also called the state of the Great Śiva, can.Return

6  Kṣemarāja quotes five stanzas of the seventh section of Svacchandatantra (more specifically: 226, 244, 259, 260 and 261) in order to show the method to get the real Nectar of Immortality. The stanza 226 being quoted by him is only the second part of it. I will include now the full stanza for you to see the whole thing. It begins with:

एवं तस्यामृतध्यानात्कालमृत्युजयो भवेत्।
अथवा परतत्त्वस्थः सर्वकालैर्न बाध्यते॥२२६॥

Evaṁ tasyāmṛtadhyānātkālamṛtyujayo bhavet|
Athavā paratattvasthaḥ sarvakālairna bādhyate||226||

"In this way (evam), through his meditation (tasya... dhyānāt) on the Nectar (amṛta) there is (bhavet) conquest (jayaḥ) of death (mṛtyu) (produced by) time (kāla). Or (athavā) someone who is established (sthaḥ) in the Highest (para) Principle (tattva) is not (na) taken prisoner (bādhyate) by all (the kinds of) time (sarva-kālaiḥ)"||226||

Next, in the middle, Kṣemarāja quoted only the very last portion of the stanza 244. Unfortunately/fortunately (unfortunately for me, as I have to translate extra content, and fortunately for you because you will receive a more integral teaching), I cannot translate the full stanza without mentioning the two previous ones (242 and 243). Why? Because they form a whole thing, and besides, Kṣemarāja wrote a long commentary in his Svacchandoddyota (the scholarly commentary on Svacchandatantra) on the three aphorism (242 to 244) simultaneously. Ah, I almost forgot it, regarding the stanza 244, there is a difference between the Kṣemarāja's reading and the official reading (as it were). Kṣemarāja wrote the last part of the stanza like this:

"... (the Yogī always) remembers that all is Śiva and Śakti"

while the 'official version' I am showing now says:

"... (the Yogī always) remembers that all is Śiva"

In the official version Śakti is omitted. Anyway, the meaning is practically the same as Śiva and Śakti are one, you know. OK, now the 'full' three sacred aphorisms (242 to 244) in the seventh section of Svacchandatantra, plus the scholarly Kṣemarāja's commentary on these three aphorisms. I will use a different color for the word for word translation of the aphorisms while I will keep the usual maroon color for their commentary. Now, enjoy:

तत्त्वाध्वधर्मनिर्मुक्तः कारणैश्च विवर्जितः।
तत्त्ववृत्तौ स्थितो योगी सर्वारम्भविवर्जितः॥२४२॥

रागद्वेषविनिर्मुक्तो विषादानन्दवर्जितः।
नाकाङ्क्षेन्न च निन्देत्तु विषयांश्च कदाचन॥२४३॥

समः शत्रौ च मित्रे च ब्राह्मणे श्वपचे समः।
तुल्यदर्शी भवेन्नित्यं सर्वं शिवमयं स्मरेत्॥२४४॥

Tattvādhvadharmanirmuktaḥ kāraṇaiśca vivarjitaḥ|
Tattvavṛttau sthito yogī sarvārambhavivarjitaḥ||242||

Rāgadveṣavinirmukto viṣādānandavarjitaḥ|
Nākāṅkṣenna ca nindettu viṣayāṁśca kadācana||243||

Samaḥ śatrau ca mitre ca brāhmaṇe śvapace samaḥ|
Tulyadarśī bhavennityaṁ sarvaṁ śivamayaṁ smaret||244||

"(Being) free from (nirmuktaḥ) the peculiar characteristics (dharma) (existing) in the course (adhva) of the tattva-s --elements-- (tattva) and (ca) (being) devoid of (vivarjitaḥ) causes (kāraṇaiḥ), the Yogī (yogī), in the stage or condition of (those) tattva-s --i.e. when those tattva-s are active-- (vṛttau), remains (sthitaḥ) destitute of (vivarjitaḥ) all (sarva) undertaking --i.e. moving toward something, figuratively speaking-- (ārambha)"||242||

"(Being) totally exempt from (vinirmuktaḥ) attachment and aversion (rāga-dveṣa) (and) lacking (varjitaḥ) disappointment and happiness (viṣāda-ānanda), (he) never indeed (na... ca... kadācana) either desires or censures --rejects-- (ākāṅkṣet na ca nindet tu) things (viṣayān)"||243||

"(Being) impartial (samaḥ... samaḥ) with respect to enemy (śatrau) and (ca... ca) friend (mitre), brāhmaṇa --priest-- (brāhmaṇe) (and) pariah/outcast --lit. one who cooks dogs (for eating), a member of the lowest caste-- (śva-pace), (the Yogī) always (nityam) has an equable view (tulya-darśī bhavet) (and) always (nityam) remembers (smaret) that all (sarvam) is Śiva (śiva-mayam)"||244||

तत्त्वादिभिः शरीरावस्थितैर्नास्याहन्तावच्छिद्यत इत्यर्थः। अत एव चायं चित्समापन्नत्वात्सर्वैरारम्भैर्हेयोपादेयविषयाभिः प्रवृत्तिभिर्विशेषेणाभिनिवेशात्मना वर्जितो यतस्तत्प्रवृत्तिहेतुभ्यां रागद्वेषदोषाभ्यां रहितः। तद्रहितत्वमप्यस्य विषयसङ्गसम्पाद्यविषादानन्दविरहादत एवास्याकाङ्क्षाद्यभावो यथोपनतमात्रभोगातिवाहकत्वान्नास्य शत्रुमित्रब्राह्मणश्वपचेष्वपकार्युपकारिशुश्रूषापवित्रतादिधीस्तुल्यत्वेनासौ सर्वं पश्यति केवलं न तु लोकमध्यस्थो लोकस्य स्थितिभङ्गमुत्पादयेत्। इदं त्वस्य मुख्यं रूपम् - यत्सर्वं शिवत्वेन चिन्तयेत्। यदुक्तं श्रीविज्ञानभैरवे

यत्र यत्र मनो याति बाह्ये वाभ्यन्तरे प्रिये।
तत्र तत्र शिवावस्था व्यापकत्वात्क्व यास्यति॥ (११६)

इति। तथा

सर्वं देहं चिन्मयं हि जगद्वा परिभावयेत्। (६३)


Tattvādibhiḥ śarīrāvasthitairnāsyāhantāvacchidyata ityarthaḥ| Ata eva cāyaṁ citsamāpannatvātsarvairārambhairheyopādeyaviṣayābhiḥ pravṛttibhirviśeṣeṇābhiniveśātmanā varjito yatastatpravṛttihetubhyāṁ rāgadveṣadoṣābhyāṁ rahitaḥ| Tadrahitatvamapyasya viṣayasaṅgasampādyaviṣādānandavirahādata evāsyākāṅkṣādyabhāvo yathopanatamātrabhogātivāhakatvānnāsya śatrumitrabrāhmaṇaśvapaceṣvapakāryupakāriśuśrūṣāpavitratādidhīstulyatvenāsau sarvaṁ paśyati kevalaṁ na tu lokamadhyastho lokasya sthitibhaṅgamutpādayet| Idaṁ tvasya mukhyaṁ rūpam — Yatsarvaṁ śivatvena cintayet| Yaduktaṁ śrīvijñānabhairave

Yatra yatra mano yāti bāhye vābhyantare priye|
Tatra tatra śivāvasthā vyāpakatvātkva yāsyati|| (116)

iti| Tathā

Sarvaṁ dehaṁ cinmayaṁ hi jagadvā paribhāvayet| (63)


The purport is that (iti arthaḥ) his --of the Yogī-- (asya) I-consciousness (ahantā) is not interrupted (avacchidyate) by the elements, etc. (tattva-ādibhiḥ) present in the body (śarīra-avasthitaiḥ). Hence (atas eva ca), since he is endowed with Consciousness (citsamāpannatvāt), he (ayam) is particularly devoid of (viśeṣeṇa... varjitaḥ) all undertaking (sarvaiḥ ārambhaiḥ), i.e. of (all) 'moving toward something' (pravṛttibhiḥ) whose --of this moving toward something-- sphere of action (viṣayābhiḥ) is 'rejected or accepted' --only these two options-- (heya-upādeya). (In short, he is devoid of) that whose essence is a clinging to life (and the respective fear of death) (abhiniveśa-ātmanā). (Why?) Because (yatas) he lacks (rahitaḥ) the two causes (hetubhyām) of that 'moving toward something' (tad-pravṛtti), viz. the faults (called) attachment and aversion (rāga-dveṣa-doṣābhyām)|

His (tasya) lack (of all that which was mentioned) (rahitatvam) (happens) because he lacks (asya... virahāt) disappointment and joy (viṣāda-ānanda) produced (sampādya) by attachment (saṅga) to things (viṣaya). For this reason (atas eva), the absence (abhāvaḥ) of desires, etc. (ākāṅkṣā-ādi) is of his (asya) since he spends time (ativāhakatvāt) with worldly enjoyments (bhoga) only (mātra) as they present themselves (yathā-upanata) --he does not look for them--, (but) it is not of his --it does not belong to him-- (na asya) the idea --intention or purpose-- (dhīḥ) of being someone who injures (apakāri) (or) who helps (upakāri), (or the idea) about desiring to hear/serve (śuśrūṣā) (or) about purity (pavitratā), etc. (ādi) with regard to enemy, friend, brāhmaṇa --priest-- and pariah/outcaste --lit. one who cooks dogs (for eating), a member of the lowest caste-- (śatru-mitra-brāhmaṇa-śvapaceṣu), (respectively). He (asau) only (kevalam) sees (paśyati) all (sarvam) with equality (tulyatvena). While remaining (sthaḥ) in the middle of (madhya) the world (loka), he does not at all generate (na tu... utpādayet) rejection (bhaṅga) as regards the state/condition (sthiti) of the world (lokasya) --he does not urge others to leave the world in order to accomplish the spiritual goal--|

However (tu), this (idam) (is) his (asya) main (mukhyam) mark (rūpam): 'That (yad) he considers (cintayet) all (sarvam) to have the state of Śiva (śivatvena)|

That (very truth) (yad) has been declared (uktam) in venerable Vijñānabhairava (śrī-vijñānabhairave):

'Wherever (yatra yatra) the mind (manas) goes (yāti), whether (vā) toward the exterior (bāhye) (or) toward the interior (abhyantare), oh beloved One (priye), the State (avasthā) of Śiva (śiva) (is) right there (tatra tatra) since It is all-pervading (vyāpakatvāt). (Oh mind,) where (kva) will you go (yāsyati... iti) (then)?'||(116)

Similarly (tathā) (in the same scripture):

'One should consider (paribhāvayet), (with a mind free from thoughts, his) entire (sarvam) body (deham) or (vā) the world (jagat) (simultaneously --i.e. with no succession--) as composed of (mayam hi) Consciousness (cit); (if he does so, there will be emergence of the Supreme Reality to him) --I added in parentheses the translation of the second line of the stanza: Yugapannirvikalpena manasā paramodbhavaḥ--'|(63)


Finally, Kṣemarāja quoted the stanzas 259 to 261, but only the first portion of the stanza 261. The Kṣemarāja's commentary on these stanzas in his Svacchandoddyota is very long to be added here in this note of explanation (already massive because of the previous addition of the commentary on stanzas 242 to 244). Besides, there is an additional problem to put the commentary of Kṣemarāja on the stanzas 259 to 261 here: The second portion of the stanza 261 is commented together with the stanza 262, as it is a common practice with Kṣemarāja (and Abhinavagupta) to divide the stanzas and next to comment on those portions. Anyway, I will show you the second half of the stanza 261 which was not mentioned here by Kṣemarāja, because he decided that this last part was more related to the stanza 262 than to the stanza 261 (yes, it is such a mess!). OK, now the full stanza 261 for you:

स्वच्छन्दश्चैव स्वच्छन्दः स्वच्छन्दो विचरेत्सदा।
एवं वै मृत्युलिङ्गानि रिष्टान्यन्यानि यानि च॥२६१॥

Svacchandaścaiva svacchandaḥ svacchando vicaretsadā|
Evaṁ vai mṛtyuliṅgāni riṣṭānyanyāni yāni ca||261||

"(The lord of the Yogī-s) rambles about (vicaret) always (sadā) free (svacchandaḥ ca eva svacchandaḥ svacchandaḥ), (whether in the beginning, in the middle or at the end). Thus (evam) indeed (vai), any other (anyāni yāni ca) signs/marks (liṅgāni) of death (mṛtyu) are torn off --are removed-- (riṣṭāni)"||242||

Therefore, as a conclusion to all the previous teachings, the core of the method to get the real Nectar of Immortality is 'Śivadṛṣṭi', i.e. the constant perception/remembrance that all is Śiva, the Great Lord. By this method, all signs or marks of death are completely removed forever. Inferior nectars together with the methods to get them —e.g. that one where you use your tongue to stimulate the descent of nectar from Nāda-Bindu—, which are well-known by yogī-s, should be totally shunned, as by their help death anyway will overpower you at the end. This is the meaning.Return

7 Kṣemarāja affirms this because the Self or Ātmā in Vedānta is devoid of any activity, i.e. lacks Svātantrya (Absolute Freedom) full of omniscience and omnipotence, while the Ātmā in Trika Shaivism is full of It, full of Absolute Freedom. I will add now the full aphorism in Śvetāśvataropaniṣad III, 15 for you to see the whole thing:

पुरुष एवेदं सर्वं यद्भूतं यच्च भव्यम्।
उतामृतत्वस्येशानो यदन्नेनातिरोहति॥१५॥

Puruṣa evedaṁ sarvaṁ yadbhūtaṁ yacca bhavyam|
Utāmṛtatvasyeśāno yadannenātirohati||15||

"Only (eva) Puruṣa --the Supreme Person-- (puruṣaḥ) (is) all (sarvam) this (idam) —what (yad) has been (bhūta) and (ca) what (yad) is to be (bhavyam)—. And (uta) (He is) the Lord (īśānaḥ) of immortality (amṛtatvasya) since (yad) He overgrows (atirohati) (the size of the entire universe) by food (annena)"||15||

Now it is clear!Return

8  As usual, in my fervent attempts to make all this clear for readers, I will add the full stanza IV, 392 in Svacchandatantra plus the full commentary. Now, a thing about the commentary: Kṣemarāja comments the full stanza separately, i.e. the first half has a exclusive long commentary while the second half has a exclusive short commentary. To make it all worse, he comments on the first part of the aphorism IV, 392 together with the second part of the previous aphorism (IV, 391)! This makes the whole thing a little bit clearer to scholars but more confusing to laymen. So, in the word for word translation, I will use a different color for the aphorisms while I will keep the same maroon color for their commentary. And the original aphorisms (both in devanāgarī and IAST transliteration) will be in a kind of pink color (and with slightly devanāgarī bigger letters) in order to make them look quite different from the devanāgarī and IAST transliteration from the commentary. In previous notes, the aphorisms were not divided by Kṣemarāja in his commentary, so I did not need any highlighting then. Keep this into account in order to fully understand the teachings here.

Besides, I am forced to translate the aphorism 391 (and a little bit of the last part of the aphorism 390 too) in this way: The first half will be in brackets —because Kṣemarāja is not commenting on this here, but with the full commentary about the second part of 390... what a mess!— and the second half will be translated word for word as usual. To increase the difficulty even more, there are two differences between the first portion of the aphorism quoted by Kṣemarāja here, in his Spandanirṇaya, and the aphorism in the original Svacchandatantra (at least in the version I have available now):

Ta ātmopāsakāḥ sarve na gacchanti paraṁ padam|

Ta ātmopāsakāḥ śaive na gacchanti paraṁ śivam|

Oh well, 'sarve' means 'all' (in the sense of 'all of them') while 'śaive' means 'in (Trika) Shaivism'; and 'padam' means here 'State' (in accusative case) while 'śivam' means 'Śiva' (in accusative case). Not a great difference really in the final meaning of this first portion of IV, 392 but anyway all these different readings are always annoying. Hopefully you have understood me:

OK, aphorisms IV, 391-392 in Svacchandatantra plus the full commentary by Kṣemarāja in his Svacchandoddyota:

अविदित्वा परं तत्त्वं शिवत्वं कल्पितं तु यैः॥३९१॥

त आत्मोपासकाः शैवे न गच्छन्ति परं शिवम्।

यैरिति शैवपाशुपतलाकुलादिभिर्नानात्मवादिभिः शिवत्वं कल्पितमात्मनां व्यापकत्वनित्यत्वामूर्तत्वचित्त्वस्रष्टृत्वाद्यनन्तधर्मसाम्ये शिवैकरूपाणामपि केनचित्कल्पनामात्रेण निर्युक्तिकेन भिन्नशिवरूपत्वमुच्यते ते सर्वे व्याख्यातव्याप्तिकात्मोपासकाः शैवेऽस्मिन्नद्वयनये परं शिवं व्याख्यातस्वरूपं न गच्छन्ति न तन्मयीभवन्ति साङ्ख्ययोगवेदान्तवाद्यादयस्त्वपरपदस्था एवेति केन तेषामियत्पदप्राप्तिसम्भावनापि। अथ च सर्व एवात्मोपासकाः शैवेन पारमेश्वराद्वयदर्शनोक्तेन ज्ञानेन परं शिवं गच्छन्तीइति तन्त्रेण सप्तमीतृतीये योज्ये। उक्तं च श्रीमृत्युजिति

ये वदन्ति न चैवान्यं विन्दन्ति परमं शिवम्।
त आत्मोपासकाः शैवे न गच्छन्ति परं पदम्॥ (नेत्रतन्त्र ८।३०)

इत्यत्र हि परमशिवमन्यं वदन्ति केवलं न चैव विन्दन्ति न पुनः केनापि प्रमाणेन लभन्ते साधयितुं शक्नुवन्तीत्यर्थः॥

ते तु सर्वे

आत्मतत्त्वगतिं यान्त्यात्मतत्त्वानुरञ्जिताः॥३९२॥

आत्मतत्त्वरूपतायां तत्त्वं परमशिवाभेदाख्यात्यात्मा सङ्कोचस्तेन येऽनुरञ्जितास्तदाश्वस्ताः पाशुपताद्यास्त आत्मनो यत्तत्त्वं शुद्धविज्ञानकेवलतारूपं तद्गतिं लभन्ते न तु तात्त्विकीं मुक्तिं भेदस्यापरित्यागादिति॥३९२॥

Aviditvā paraṁ tattvaṁ śivatvaṁ kalpitaṁ tu yaiḥ||391||

Ta ātmopāsakāḥ śaive na gacchanti paraṁ śivam|

Yairiti śaivapāśupatalākulādibhirnānātmavādibhiḥ śivatvaṁ kalpitamātmanāṁ vyāpakatvanityatvāmūrtatvacittvasraṣṭṛtvādyanantadharmasāmye śivaikarūpāṇāmapi kenacitkalpanāmātreṇa niryuktikena bhinnaśivarūpatvamucyate te sarve vyākhyātavyāptikātmopāsakāḥ śaive'sminnadvayanaye paraṁ śivaṁ vyākhyātasvarūpaṁ na gacchanti na tanmayībhavanti sāṅkhyayogavedāntavādyādayastvaparapadasthā eveti kena teṣāmiyatpadaprāptisambhāvanāpi| Atha ca sarva evātmopāsakāḥ śaivena pārameśvarādvayadarśanoktena jñānena paraṁ śivaṁ gacchantīiti tantreṇa saptamītṛtīye yojye| Uktaṁ ca śrīmṛtyujiti

Ye vadanti na caivānyaṁ vindanti paramaṁ śivam|
Ta ātmopāsakāḥ śaive na gacchanti paraṁ padam|| (Netratantra 8|30)

ityatra hi paramaśivamanyaṁ vadanti kevalaṁ na caiva vindanti na punaḥ kenāpi pramāṇena labhante sādhayituṁ śaknuvantītyarthaḥ||

Te tu sarve

Ātmatattvagatiṁ yāntyātmatattvānurañjitāḥ||392||

Ātmatattvarūpatāyāṁ tattvaṁ paramaśivābhedākhyātyātmā saṅkocastena ye'nurañjitāstadāśvastāḥ pāśupatādyāsta ātmano yattattvaṁ śuddhavijñānakevalatārūpaṁ tadgatiṁ labhante na tu tāttvikīṁ muktiṁ bhedasyāparityāgāditi||392||

"[... Ātmavyāpti --inherence in the Self-- is this; (but) Śivavyāpti --inherence in Śiva-- is higher or beyond. (Śivavyāpti is furnished with) a state with no remainder of bondage, and devoid of all the limiting factors in the form of 'courses' --i.e. of 'ṣaḍadhva', the six courses of manifestation--.] As they do not know --lit. not knowing... by whom-- (aviditvā... yaiḥ) the Supreme (param) Principle (tattvam), the State of Śiva (śivatvaṁ), they invent/imagine It --lit. invented/imagined by whom-- (kalpitam yaiḥ)||391||"

"Those (te) worshipers/servants (upāsakāḥ) of the Self (ātma) do not reach (na gacchanti), in Trika Shaivism (śaive), the Supreme Śiva (param śivam)."

The State of Śiva (śivatvam) (is) invented (kalpitam) by them --lit. by whom-- (yaiḥ iti), viz. by the propounders of the doctrine (vādibhiḥ) of the multiple selves (nānā-ātma) —i.e. by the shaivites who follow the systems called Pāśupata, Lākula, etc. (śaiva-pāśupata-lākula-ādibhiḥ). As there is identity or oneness of the selves (ātmanām... sāmye) —who are also one (ekarūpāṇām api) with Śiva (śiva)— with the infinite (ananta) attributes (dharma) of omnipresence (vyāpakatva), eternity (nityatva), formlessness (amūrtatva), consciousness (cittva), creatorship (sraṣṭṛtva), etc. (ādi), (the idea that) the nature (rūpatvam) of Śiva (śiva) is divided (bhinna) (into multiple selves) is proclaimed (ucyate) by means of an improper reasoning (niryuktikena) which is only (mātreṇa) the imagination (kalpanā) of someone (kenacid). All (sarve) those (te) worshipers/servants (upāsakāḥ) of the Self (ātma) —which --i.e. the Self-- pervades or is inherent (vyāptika) as explained (vyākhyāta)— do not reach (na gacchanti) —i.e. do not become one with Him (na tad-mayī-bhavanti)— in Trika Shaivism (śaive) —in this non-dualistic system (asmin advaya-naye)— the Supreme Śiva (param śivam) —i.e. the essential nature (sva-rūpam) (already) explained (vyākhyāta)—. (And) the propounders of the doctrines (vādi) (called) Sāṅkhya-Yoga and Vedānta (sāṅkhya-yoga-vedānta), etc. (ādayaḥ), 'being (sthāḥ eva) in an inferior state --inferior to Trika Shaivism-- (apara-pada... iti)', who among them has the capacity/fitness (kena teṣām... sambhāvanā api) for the achievement (prāpti) of such State (of Śiva) (iyat-pada)?|

Also (atha), by simultaneously using the third case in declension --Instrumental case-- instead of the seventh one --Locative case-- (tantreṇa saptamī-tṛtīye yojye) --viz. by replacing 'śaive' (in Trika Shaivism) to be found in the first line of the aphorism 392 —which is the word 'śaiva' (Trika Shaivism) declined in Locative case— with the same word but declined in Instrumental case, i.e. 'śaivena' (by means of Trika Shaivism)--, (then the final result would be, provided there is also removal of 'na' --do not--, 'Ta ātmopāsakāḥ śaivena gacchanti paraṁ śivam', whose meaning is as follows: 'Those worshipers/servants of the Self reach, by means of Trika Shaivism, the Supreme Śiva'. In other words:) All (sarve eva) the worshipers/servants (upāsakāḥ) of the Self (ātma) reach (gacchanti), by means of Trika Shaivism (śaivena) —viz. by means of the knowledge (jñānena) declared (uktena) in the non-dualistic (advaya) philosophy (darśana) of the Supreme Lord --Paramaśiva-- (pārama-īśvara)—, the Supreme Śiva (param śivam)|

(The same thing) is also (ca) mentioned (uktam) in venerable Mṛtyujit --Netratantra-- (śrī-mṛtyujiti):

"Those (te) worshipers/servants (upasakāḥ) of the Self (ātma) who (ye) speak (vadanti) about another (Self separated from Paramaśiva) (anyam) do not (na ca eva) get to (vindanti) the Supreme Śiva (paramam śivam). They do not reach (na gacchanti), in Trika Shaivism (śaive), the Supreme State (param padam... iti)"||
(Netratantra VIII, 30)

The purport is that (iti-arthaḥ), here --in this world-- (atra hi), the ones who only speak (vadanti kevalam) about another (Self separated from Paramaśiva) (anyam) do not (na ca eva) get to (vindanti) the Supreme Śiva (parama-śivam). Besides (punar), they do not (either) reach (na... labhante) (the Supreme Śiva) by any pramāṇa or proof (na kena api pramāṇena), i.e. they cannot (na... śaknuvanti) prove (Him) (sādhayitum)||

All of them indeed (te tu sarve)!:

"The ones who are pleased (anurañjitāḥ) with the principle of the Self --with the attainment of Ātmavyāpti-- (ātma-tattva) go (yānti) to the state (gatim) of the principle of the Self (ātma-tattva)||392||"

Reality (tattvam) contained in the principle (tattva-rūpatāyām) of the Self (ātma) (is truly) a contraction or limitation (saṅkocaḥ) whose essence (ātmā) is primordial ignorance/non-realization (akhyāti) about the non-duality (abheda) in Paramaśiva (parama-śiva). Those (te) who (ye) are pleased (anurañjitāḥ) with that --with the principle of the Self, i.e. with the attainment of Ātmavyāpti-- (tena) —those who are finding comfort or consolation (āśvastāḥ) in that --in the principle of the Self, i.e. in the attainment of Ātmavyāpti-- (tad)—, (such as) the followers of Pāśupata, etc. (pāśupata-ādyāḥ), attain (labhante) that state (yad tattvam) of the Self (ātmanaḥ), viz. (they reach) that state (tad-gatim) whose nature (rūpam) is the pure state of Vijñānakevala --i.e. of Vijñānākala-- (śuddha-vijñānakevalatā), but (they) do not (attain) (na tu) true (tāttvikīm) Liberation (muktim) as they do not abandon duality --lit. due to (their) not abandoning duality-- (bhedasya aparityāgāt iti)||392||

So, the goal in Trika Shaivism is always 'Śivavyāpti' (lit. inherence in Śiva) or full realization of the non-duality of the Supreme Śiva. In other words, it is to realize that the entire universe is Him and Him alone. According to Trika Shaivism, only Śivavyāpti is a bestower of real Liberation. Anyway, before reaching Śivavyāpti, a yogī in Trika Shaivism must attain Ātmavyāpti. This is just a temporary phase a yogī achieves by vigorous nimīlanasamādhi (trance with closed eyes). After some time like this, the practitioner enters unmīlanasamādhi (trance with open eyes), and next again he returns to nimīlanasamādhi, and then back to unmīlanasamādhi again, and so on and on. This automatic process is called Kramamudrā or the mudrā relating to a sequence, i.e. the yogī perceives the Supreme Śiva inside himself (in Aham or I) and outside (in Idam or This, viz. in the universe) repeatedly in sequence. With the establishment of the Kramamudrā, the state of Śivavyāpti is finally gotten. This is true Liberation according to Trika Shaivism.

Nevertheless, many systems such as Pāśupata, Lākula, etc. postulate that the state of Ātmavyāpti is real Liberation. Why? Because their founders failed to renounce duality regarding their essential nature (Paramaśiva). In other words, they could not realize, due to the powerful Āṇavamala (primordial impurity forcing the Lord to feel 'not Full', 'imperfect'), that they were also one with the universe. Instead, they kept the duality between Aham and Idam, between 'I' and 'universe' and this act of theirs threw them down into a limited state known as 'the state of Vijñānakevala/Vijñānākala', in which they feel they are Śiva but they lack Absolute Freedom. They only experience themselves as Consciousness but they have no Power. It is a rather static state and a kind of prison too (a golden cage) as they remain there satisfied with only that. And because the goal of all those followers of inferior paths is the state of Śiva with no Absolute Freedom, they never mention the Absolute Freedom of the Supreme Lord in their studies.

In Trika Shaivism it has already been proved at length that the doctrine of the multiple selves is false as all the selves or beings are one with the infinite attributes of omnipresence, eternity, formlessness, consciousness, creatorship, etc. belonging to the Supreme Śiva. So, the notion of the state of Śiva being divided into multiple beings is just the result of an improper reasoning. The followers of these wrong systems speak about 'another Self separated from Paramaśiva', and consequently they cannot grasp the state of Paramaśiva as pervading all everywhere. But if through the Grace of this very Lord, they have access to Trika Shaivism's teachings, and again by the Grace of the very Lord, they decide to follow these holy teachings, then they can finally realize the real state of Paramaśiva. This is Śivavyāpti, this is true Liberation!Return

9  So, when the disciple attains Ātmavyāpti (inherence in the Self), he does so by means of the favor of his own inner Self (Ātmā). His spiritual preceptor then should lead the disciple for him to reach Śivavyāpti (inherence in Śiva). In a nutshell, his Guru has to take the disciple to the State where he finally realizes that not only his inner Self is Śiva but also the entire universe. This perception of unity between the individual Self and the universal Self is called Śivavyāpti. This is also Liberation!

Finally, with reference to dīkṣā or initiation, there are four types:

  • Sāmayikadīkṣā or conventional initiation: The disciple is initiated into the rules of proper spiritual behavior.
  • Putrakadīkṣā or initiation as a spiritual son: The disciple is initiated to become the successor of his own Guru.
  • Sādhakadīkṣā or initiation as a spiritual aspirant: The disciple is initiated into the secrets of spirituality.
  • Ācāryadīkṣā or initiation as a spiritual preceptor: The disciple is initiated to become a Guru.

Now it is clear.Return

10  In this initiation of the disciple who achieved Ātmavyāpti in order for him to attain Śivavyāpti, real Liberation takes place. This is the culmination of all spiritual efforts made, many times, for a very long time. It is marked by the acquisition of Jagadānanda (the Bliss to realize that 'jagat', the universe, is none other than Paramaśiva) after the process of Kramamudrā (as I explained above, in the note 8). In Ātmavyāpti the disciple only experienced Cidānanda (the Bliss to realize the inner Self who is internal Consciousness). All in all, after receiving this supreme initiation, the putraka, etc. (the spiritual son who will turn into the successor of his own Guru, etc.) gets true Liberation.

In the quote of Parātrīśikā 26 (the last portion of Rudrayāmalatantra), Śiva (the author) speaks about the mantra Sauḥ, which is sacred to the followers of Trika Shaivism. This topic of the mantra of the Heart (i.e. Sauḥ) is fully explained in Kṣemarāja's Parāprāveśikā. In short, knowledge about this mantra, about the Heart or Core of all, simply means knowledge about the all-inclusive nature of the Supreme Reality (Paramaśiva). When the disciple is explained by the Guru that, just as the huge banyan tree --Bengali fig-tree-- resides in a little seed, so also the entire universe resides in Paramaśiva. This is the highest type of initiation as it enables the disciple to realize the Totality. Before, in ignorance, the universe was perceived as a separate reality different from the individual, but now, after being initiated in this way, the disciple realizes that, as a matter of fact, all is Paramaśiva (inside and outside), and that he himself is Paramaśiva too. There is no way to put this experience into precise words due to the limitation inherent in the words themselves. This is, of course, the attainment of real Liberation according to Trika Shaivism.

Finally, Vasugupta (the author of Spandakārikā-s) did not add the word 'eva' (only) at the beginning of the second half of the stanza 7. Here: 'Iyaṁ nirvāṇadīkṣā' (this initiation conducive to Nirvāṇa or Final Emancipation). In short, he did not wrote: 'Iyameva nirvāṇadīkṣā' (only this is initiation conducive to Nirvāṇa or Final Emancipation). Why? One would think that the answer is: Because Vasugupta was restricted by the meter requirements. Anyway, according to Kṣemarāja, Vasugupta did not add 'eva' like with the previous lines of stanzas 6 and 7, because the traditional initiation which has to do with priests offering oblations to the fire during a sacrifice is also initiation. So, if he had added 'eva', this could generate lack of confidence in some people. In other words, they could not find consolation in that kind of traditional initiation. With the compassionate attitude of Vasugupta being revealed by Kṣemarāja this second section is now finished. May there be welfare for all the beings who are always one with Paramaśiva!Return


 Further Information

Gabriel Pradīpaka

This document was conceived by Gabriel Pradīpaka, one of the two founders of this site, and spiritual guru conversant with Sanskrit language and Trika philosophy.

For further information about Sanskrit, Yoga and Indian Philosophy; or if you simply want to comment, ask a question or correct a mistake, feel free to contact us: This is our e-mail address.

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