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Spandanirṇaya (Spanda Nirnaya) Section I (aphorisms 1 to 2) - Non-dual Shaivism of Kashmir
Spandanirṇaya begins. Firstly, Kṣemarāja displays a propitiatory prayer to Śakti (Śiva's Power). Secondly, he explains the relationship between Śivasūtra-s and Spandakārikā-s (the scripture on which he is about to comment). Thirdly, he summarizes the contents of the entire scripture as well as the first section. Finally, he starts commenting the aphorisms themselves.
This is the first set of 2 aphorisms out of 25 aphorisms constituting the first Section (dealing with Svarūpaspanda or Spanda as one's own nature). As you know, the entire work is composed of 53 aphorisms of Spandakārikā-s plus their respective commentaries.
Of course, I will also insert the original aphorisms on which Kṣemarāja is commenting. Even though I will not comment on either the original sūtra-s or the Kṣemarāja's commentary, I will write some notes to make a particular point clear when necessary. If you want a detailed explanation, go to "Scriptures (study)|Spandanirṇaya" in Trika section.
Kṣemarāja's Sanskrit will be in dark green color while the original Vasugupta's aphorisms will be shown in dark red color. In turn, within the transliteration, the original aphorisms will be in brown color, while the Kṣemarāja's comments will be shown in black. Also, within the translation, the original aphorisms by Vasugupta, i.e. the Spandakārikā-s, will be in green and black colors, while the commentary by Kṣemarāja will contain words in both black and red colors.
If you are wondering why I am "only" including the translation of the first two aphorisms and their respective commentaries in this document... well, you will find the answer soon, trust me.
Read Spandanirṇaya and experience Supreme Ānanda or Divine Bliss, dear Śiva.
Important: All that is in brackets and italicized within the translation has been added by me in order to complete the sense of a particular phrase or sentence. In turn, all that is between double hyphen (--...--) constitutes clarifying further information also added by me.
Propitiatory prayer to Śakti
सर्वं स्वात्मस्वरूपं मुकुरनगरवत्स्वस्वरूपात्स्वतन्त्र-
स्वच्छस्वात्मस्वभित्तौ कलयति धरणीतः शिवान्तं सदा या।
दृग्देवी मन्त्रवीर्यं सततसमुदिता शब्दराश्यात्मपूर्णा-
हन्तानन्तस्फुरत्ता जयति जगति सा शाङ्करी स्पन्दशक्तिः॥१॥
स्पन्दामृते चर्वितेऽपि स्पन्दसन्दोहतो मनाक्।
पूर्णस्तच्चर्वणाभोगोद्योग एष मयाश्रितः॥२॥
सम्यक्सूत्रसमन्वयं परिगतिं तत्त्वे परस्मिन्परां
तीक्ष्णां युक्तिकथामुपायघटनां स्पष्टार्थसद्व्याकृतिम्।
ज्ञातुं वाञ्छथ चेच्छिवोपनिषदं श्रीस्पन्दशास्त्रस्य त-
द्वृत्तावत्र धियं निधत्त सुधियः स्पन्दश्रियं प्राप्नुत॥३॥
Sarvaṁ svātmasvarūpaṁ mukuranagaravatsvasvarūpātsvatantra-
svacchasvātmasvabhittau kalayati dharaṇītaḥ śivāntaṁ sadā yā|
Drigdevī mantravīryam satatasamuditā śabdarāśyātmapūrṇā-
hantānantasphurattā jayati jagati sā śāṅkarī spandaśaktiḥ||1||
Spandāmṛte carvite'pi spandasandohato manāk|
Pūrṇastaccarvaṇābhogodyoga eṣa mayāśritaḥ||2||
Samyaksūtrasamanvayaṁ parigatiṁ tattve parasminparāṁ
tīkṣṇāṁ yuktikathāmupāyaghaṭanāṁ spaṣṭārthasadvyākṛtim|
Jñātuṁ vāñchatha cecchivopaniṣadaṁ śrīspandaśāstrasya ta-
dvṛttāvatra dhiyaṁ nidhatta sudhiyaḥ spandaśriyaṁ prāpnuta||3||
She (sā), the Power (śaktiḥ) of the Primordial Vibration (spanda), the Śakti of Śaṅkara (śāṅkarī), who (yā) always (sadā) perceives (kalayati) all (categories or tattva-s) (sarvam) which constitute the essential nature (sva-rūpam) of Her own (sva) Self (ātma), from the earth (dharaṇītaḥ) up to Śiva (śiva-antam), on Her own (sva) canvas (bhittau) formed from Her (sva) free (svatantra) and transparent (svaccha) Self (ātma) through (that aforesaid) essential nature (sva-rūpāt), just as (vat) a city (nagara) (is reflected) in a mirror (mukura); (who is) the Goddess (devī) that sees --i.e. "that is conscious of"-- (dṛk) the virility or power (vīryam) of Mantra (mantra), (who is) the endless (ananta) flash (sphurattā), constantly (satata) emerging (samuditā), of the perfect (pūrṇa) I-consciousness (ahantā) whose essence (ātma) (consists of) a multitude (rāśi) of sounds (śabda), is victorious (jayati) in (this) world (jagati)||1||
Although (api) the Nectar (amṛte) of the Primordial Vibration (spanda) (has been) slightly (manāk) relished (carvite) through Spandasandoha (spandasandohataḥ), I am (now) making (mayā āśritaḥ) a full (pūrṇaḥ) effort (udyogaḥ eṣaḥ) for (giving to the students) the enjoyment (bhoga) of (completely) relishing (carvaṇā) That --i.e. the Divine Self in the form of Spanda-- (tad)||2||
If (ced) all of you want (vāñchatha) to know (jñātum) the secret doctrine (upaniṣadam) of Śiva (śiva), the exact (samyak) interconnection (samanvayam) of the aphorisms (sūtra), the highest (parām) ascertainment (parigatim) of the Supreme (parasmin) Principle (tattve), a sharp and keen (tīkṣṇām) statement of argument (yukti-kathām), the right application (ghaṭanām) of means (upāya), a detailed explanation (vyākṛtim) which is correct and wise (sad) and clear (spaṣṭa) in meaning (artha), (so,) oh sages (sudhiyaḥ), fix (nidhatta) (your) thought(s) (dhiyam) upon this (atra) commentary or gloss (vṛttau) of that (tad) venerable (śrī) scripture (śāstrasya) dealing with the Primordial Vibration or Spanda (spanda), (and) obtain (prāpnuta) the wealth (śriyam) of (that very) Spanda (spanda)!||3||
Relationship between Śivasūtra-s and Spandakārikā-s
इह हि शिवानुजिघृक्षापरपरमशिवावेशोन्मीलितमहिमा स्वप्नोपलब्धोपदेशः श्रीमान् वसुगुप्ताचार्यो महादेवपर्वताद्भगवदिच्छयैव महाशिलातलोल्लिखितान्यतिरहस्यानि शिवसूत्राण्यासाद्य प्रसन्नगम्भोरैरेकपञ्चाशता श्लोकैरागमानुभवोपपत्त्येकीकारं प्रदर्शयन्सङ्गृहीतवान्।
Iha hi śivānujighṛkṣāparaparamaśivāveśonmīlitamahimā svapnopalabdhopadeśaḥ śrīmān vasuguptācāryo mahādevaparvatādbhagavadicchayaiva mahāśilātalollikhitānyatirahasyāni śivasūtrāṇyāsādya prasannagambhorairekapañcāśatā ślokairāgamānubhavopapattyekīkāraṁ pradarśayansaṅgṛhītavān|
Here --i.e. in this world-- (iha), the greatness (mahimā) of the union (āveśa) with the Supreme (parama), Śiva (śiva) who is (always) intent (para) on bestowing (His) grace (anujighṛkṣā) on all (viśva), was revealed (unmīlita) to the venerable (śrīmān) master (ācāryaḥ) Vasugupta (vasugupta). (This master) received (upalabdha) (from Śiva precise) instructions (upadeśa) in dream (svapna) (to find some aphorisms). Having obtained (āsadya) the most (ati) secret (rahasyāni) Śivasūtra-s --i.e. the aphorisms of Śiva-- (śivasūtrāṇi), which were engraved (likhitāni) on the flat surface (tala) of a big (mahā) rock (śilā), on the mountain (parvatāt) Mahādeva (mahādeva) only (eva) through the Divine's Will (bhagavat-icchayā), (Vasugupta), by demonstrating (pradarśayan) the unity or agreement (ekīkāram) of reasoning (upapatti), experience (anubhava) (and) revelation (āgama), condensed (sangṛhītavān) (the meaning of those aphorisms) in the form of 51 (ekapañcāśatā) stanzas --śloka(s)-- (ślokaiḥ) (that, though) deep (gambhīraiḥ), (were) clear and lucid (prasanna)|
A brief description of the contents of the book
along with the summary of the first Section
तत्र १ पञ्चविंशत्या स्वरूपस्पन्दः २ सप्तभिः सहजविद्योदयस्पन्दः ३ एकोनविंशत्या विभूतिस्पन्द उक्तः — इति त्रिनिःष्यन्दमिदं स्पन्दशास्त्रम्। तत्र प्रथमनिःष्यन्देऽस्मिन् स्तुतिपूर्वं प्रकरणार्थः श्लोकेनोपक्षिप्तः। ततश्चतुर्भिः श्लोकैः सोपपत्तिकं स्पन्दतत्त्वं व्यवस्थापितम्। ततः श्लोकाभ्यां साभिज्ञानं तत्प्राप्तावुपाय उक्तः। श्लोकेनोपायविप्रतिपत्तिर्निरस्ता। श्लोकेनोपाय एवोपेयप्राप्त्यानुरूप्यकथनेनोपोद्वलितः। तत एकेन तदुपायलभ्यं यादृगुपेयस्य स्वरूपं तदुपदशितम्। ततस्तदवष्टम्भात्संसाराभावः श्लोकेनोक्तः। द्वयेनाभाववादिमतं व्युदस्यता तद्वैलक्षण्यं स्पन्दतत्त्वस्योक्तम्। श्लोकेन तदुल्लासितस्य कार्यस्य क्षयित्वेऽपि तदक्षयमित्याख्यातम्। एतदेव श्लोकाभ्यामुपपाद्याभाववाद एवोन्मूलितः। तत एकेन सुप्रबुद्धस्य सदैवैतत्प्राप्तिः प्रबुद्धस्य तु पूर्वापरकोट्योरित्यावेदितम्। एकेन सुप्रबुद्धस्य प्रतीतेर्विषयविभाग उक्तः। ततोऽन्येन सुप्रबुद्धस्यावरणाभावे युक्तिरूपक्षिप्ता। श्लोकेनाप्रबुद्धस्य स्थगितस्वरूपतोक्ता। तत एकेन सुप्रबुद्धतालाभाय सततमुद्यन्तव्यमित्युक्तम्। श्लोकेन व्यवहारावस्था एव काश्चित्तदितरसकलवृत्तिक्षयरूपा उद्योगस्य विषया इत्यावेदितम्। ततोऽपि प्राप्तप्रबोधेन सुप्रबुद्धतायै योग्युचितसौषुप्ततमोवरणविदलने प्रजागरितव्यमित्युक्तं श्लोकत्रयेण — इति यस्योन्मेष इत्यादेः प्रबुद्धः स्यादनावृत इत्यन्तस्य तात्पर्यम्। अथ ग्रन्थार्थो व्याख्यायते।
Tatra 1 pañcaviṁśatyā svarūpaspandaḥ 2 saptabhiḥ sahajavidyodayaspandaḥ 3 ekonaviṁśatyā vibhūtispanda uktaḥ — iti triniḥṣyandamidaṁ spandaśāstram| Tatra prathamaniḥṣyande'smin stutipūrvaṁ prakaraṇārthaḥ ślokenopakṣiptaḥ| Tataścaturbhiḥ ślokaiḥ sopapattikaṁ spandatattvaṁ vyavasthāpitam| Tataḥ ślokābhyāṁ sābhijñānaṁ tatprāptāvupāya uktaḥ| Ślokenopāyavipratipattirnirastā| Ślokenopāya evopeyaprāptyānurūpyakathanenopodvalitaḥ| Tata ekena tadupāyalabhyaṁ yādṛgupeyasya svarūpaṁ tadupadaśitam| Tatastadavaṣṭambhātsaṁsārābhāvaḥ ślokenoktaḥ| Dvayenābhāvavādimataṁ vyudasyatā tadvailakṣaṇyaṁ spandatattvasyoktam| Ślokena tadullāsitasya kāryasya kṣayitve'pi tadakṣayamityākhyātam| Etadeva ślokābhyāmupapādyābhāvavāda evonmūlitaḥ| Tata ekena suprabuddhasya sadaivaitatprāptiḥ prabuddhasya tu pūrvāparakoṭyorityāveditam| Ekena suprabuddhasya pratīterviṣayavibhāga uktaḥ| Tato'nyena suprabuddhasyāvaraṇābhāve yuktirūpakṣiptā| Ślokenāprabuddhasya sthagitasvarūpatoktā| Tata ekena suprabuddhatālābhāya satatamudyantavyamityuktam| Ślokena vyavahārāvasthā eva kāścittaditarasakalavṛttikṣayarūpā udyogasya viṣayā ityāveditam| Tato'pi prāptaprabodhena suprabuddhatāyai yogyucitasauṣuptatamovaraṇavidalane prajāgaritavyamityuktaṁ ślokatrayeṇa — Iti yasyonmeṣa ityādeḥ prabuddhaḥ syādanāvṛta ityantasya tātparyam| Atha granthārtho vyākhyāyate|
There --i.e. in that compendium consisting of 51 aphorisms-- (tatra):
(1) The Supreme Vibration or Spanda (spandaḥ) as one's own nature (sva-rūpa) is described (uktaḥ) through 25 (stanzas) (pañcaviṁśatyā).
(2) Spanda (spandaḥ) as the emergence (udaya) of natural (sahaja) knowledge (vidyā) is described (uktaḥ) through 7 (stanzas) (saptabhiḥ).
(3) Spanda (spandaḥ) as (the source of) the supernormal powers (vibhūti) is described (uktaḥ) through 19 (stanzas) (ekonaviṁśatyā)—
Thus (iti), this (idam) scripture (śāstram) (dealing with) Spanda (spanda) consists of three (tri) sections (niḥṣyandam)1 |
There --i.e. in that scripture-- (tatra), in the very (asmin) first (prathama) section (niḥṣyande), (there is) firstly (pūrvam) a laudation (stuti) (to Śiva in the first stanza. Also,) through (that first) stanza (ślokena), the purport (arthaḥ) of the (entire) treatise (prakaraṇa) (has been) insinuated or suggested (upakṣiptaḥ)|
After that (tatas), through four (caturbhiḥ) stanzas (ślokaiḥ), the principle (tattvam) of Spanda (spanda) is established (vyavasthāpitam) with (sa) (valid) reasoning (upapattikam)|
Afterward (tatas), by two stanzas (ślokābhyām), the means (upāyaḥ) for obtaining (prāptau) that (Spanda) (tad) with (sa) proper recognition (abhijñānam) is described (uktaḥ)|
Through the (eighth) stanza (ślokena), the objection (vipratipattiḥ) (raised against) the means (upāya) is rejected (nirastā)|
By the (ninth) stanza (ślokena), the means (upāyaḥ) (is) certainly (eva) confirmed or ratified (upodvalitaḥ) by describing (kathanena) (its) suitability (anurūpya) for achieving (prāpti) the goal (upeya)|
Later on (tatas), through only one (stanza) --i.e. the tenth one-- (ekena), the essential nature (sva-rūpam tad) of such (yādṛś) a goal (upeyasya), which --i.e. the essential nature, not the goal-- is attainable (labhyam) by that (tad) means (upāya), is shown (upadarśitam)|
Subsequently (tatas), by the (eleventh) stanza (ślokena), the absence (abhāvaḥ) of Saṁsāra or Transmigration2 (saṁsāra) (attained) by means of a firm apprehension (avaṣṭambhāt) of that --i.e. of the essential nature of the goal; this goal is obviously the Self-- (tad), is described (uktaḥ)|
Through the (next) two (stanzas) --i.e. twelfth and thirteenth-- (dvayena), by rejecting (vyudasyatā) the doctrine (matam) that postulates (vādi) nonexistence --i.e. Nihilism-- (abhāva), the divergence (vailakṣaṇyam) between the Spanda (spanda) principle (tattvasyai) (and) that (doctrine) (tad) is declared (uktam)|
Through the (fourteenth) stanza (ślokena) is stated (iti ākhyātam) the absence of decay (akṣayam) for that (Spanda) (tad) even though (api) (there is) decay (kṣayitve) for the effect (kāryasya) that arises (ullāsitasya) from that (Spanda or Cause) (tad) --i.e. the universe--|
This (etad) very (idea) (eva) (is so vehemently expounded) by the (following) two stanzas --i.e. fifteenth and sixteenth-- (ślokābhyām) (that) the doctrine (vādaḥ) of nonexistence or not Self --i.e. Nihilism-- (abhāva) proves (upapādya) to be (completely) eradicated (unmūlitaḥ) indeed (eva)|
After that (tatas), through only one (stanza) --i.e. the seventeenth one-- (ekena) it is conveyed (iti āveditam) (that there is) always (sadā eva) the attainment or realization (prāptiḥ) of this (Spanda) (etad) for the perfectly awakened one (suprabuddhasya), but (tu) for the partially awakened one (prabuddhasya) (only there is attainment or realization) in the initial (pūrva) (and) final (apara) stages (koṭyoḥ)|
(Again,) by means of only one (stanza) --i.e. the eighteenth one-- (ekena) is described (uktaḥ) the sphere (vibhāgaḥ) of objects (viṣaya) perceived or experienced (pratīteḥ) by the perfectly awakened one (suprabuddhasya)|
Then (tatah), through another (stanza) --i.e. the nineteenth one-- (anyena) is insinuated or suggested (upakṣiptā) the means (yuktiḥ) for the removal (abhāve) of the veil (āvaraṇa) in the case of the perfectly awakened one (suprabuddhasya)|
By (only one) stanza --i.e. the twentieth one-- (ślokena) is described (uktā) the concealed or veiled (sthagita) essential nature (sva-rūpatā) of the unawakened one (aprabuddhasya)|
Afterward (tatas), through only one (stanza) --i.e. the twenty-first one-- (ekena), it is declared (iti uktam) that (one) must constantly strive (satatam udyantavyam) to obtain (lābhāya) the state of perfectly awakened (suprabuddhatā)|
(Once again,) by (only one) stanza --the twenty-second one-- (ślokena), it is made known (iti āveditam) that some (eva kāścid) states (avasthāḥ) of the ordinary life (vyavahāra) are characterized (rūpāḥ) by the cessation (kṣaya) of all (sakala) states (vṛtti) except (itara) That --i.e. Spanda-- (tad), (and consequently they are) suitable spheres or environments (viṣayāḥ) for getting in touch (with Spanda) (udyogasya)|
After that (tatas), it is also said (api... iti uktam) by means of the three (last) (trayeṇa) stanzas (śloka) that one who has attained (prāpta) Enlightenment --prabodha-- (prabodhena) must be on the alert (prajāgaritavyam) in tearing apart (vidalane) the veil (varaṇa) of the darkness --i.e. spiritual ignorance-- (tamas), which is like a deep sleep (sauṣupta), in a way befitting (ucita) a Yogī (yogī), for (thus) maintaining the state of perfectly awakened (suprabuddhatāyai) — In this manner (iti), the meaning and purpose (of the first section) (tātparyam), beginning with (iti ādeḥ) "Yasyonmeṣa..." (yasyonmeṣa) (and) ending with (iti antasya) "...prabuddhaḥ syādanāvṛtaḥ" (prabuddhaḥ syādanāvṛtaḥ) (has been summarized)|
And now (atha) the purport (arthaḥ) of the book (grantha) is being explained in detail (vyākhyāyate)|
1 Here Kṣemarāja is overlooking the last two stanzas of which the fourth section is composed, maybe because they act as a kind of conclusion and do not deal with a specific subject. However, the entire scripture "actually" consists of "four" sections and "53" aphorisms, no doubt about it.
2 By "transmigration" it is not only indicated the cycle of birth-death-rebirth as most people surely think, but every kind of migration one is performing. For example, one constantly migrates from a form of thought to another by identifying oneself with those thoughts. The absence of all transmigration is attained, according to the author, by means of a firm apprehension of that essential nature of the Self.
यस्योन्मेषनिमेषाभ्यां जगतः प्रलयोदयौ।
तं शक्तिचक्रविभवप्रभवं शङ्करं स्तुमः॥१॥
शम् उपशान्ताशेषोपतापपरमानन्दाद्वयमयस्वचैतन्यस्फारप्रत्यभिज्ञापनस्वरूपमनुग्रहं करोति यस्तमिमं स्वस्वभावं शङ्करं स्तुमस्तं विश्वोत्कर्षित्वेन परामृशन्तस्तत्कॢप्तकल्पितप्रमातृपदनिमज्जनेन समाविशामस्तत्समावेश एव हि जीवन्मुक्तिफल इह प्रकरण उपदेश्यः। बहुवचनमनुग्रहदृष्टिकटाक्षिताशेषानुग्राह्याभेदप्रथनाय। तमित्यनेन यदस्य निःसामान्यत्वमपि ध्वनितं तत्प्रथयति यस्येत्यर्धेन। इह परमेश्वरः प्रकाशात्मा महादेवः शब्दराशिपरमार्थपूर्णाहन्तापरामर्शसारत्वात् सदैवानन्दघनस्फुरत्तात्मकोभयविसर्गारणिपराशक्त्यात्मकपूर्णस्वातन्त्र्यस्वरूपस्तत एव चित्स्वाभाव्यादचलस्यापि श्रीभगवतः स्वातन्त्र्यशक्तिरविभक्ताप्यशेषसर्गसंहारादिपरम्परं दर्पणनगरवत्स्वभित्तावेव भावियुक्त्यानधिकामप्यधिकामिव दर्शयन्ती किञ्चच्चलत्तात्मकधात्वर्थानुगमात्स्पन्द इत्यभिहिता तेन भगवान्सदा स्पन्दतत्त्वसतत्त्वो न स्वस्पन्दः। यदाहुः केचिदस्पन्दं परं तत्त्वमिति। एवं हि शान्तस्वरूपत्वादनीश्वरमेवैतद्भवेत्। स्फुरत्तासारस्पन्दशक्तिमयशङ्करात्मकस्वस्वभावप्रतिपादनायैव चेदं शास्त्रं समुचितस्पन्दाभिधानं महागुरुभिर्निबद्धम्। एतच्च व्यक्तीभविष्यति। सा चैषा स्पन्दशक्तिर्गर्भीकृतानन्तसर्गसंहारैकधनाहन्ता चमत्कारानन्दरूपा निःशेषशुद्धाशुद्धरूपा मातृमेयसङ्कोचविकासाभासनसतत्त्वा सर्वोपनिषदुपास्या युगपदेवोन्मेषनिमेषमयी। तथा हि — शिवादेः क्षित्यन्तस्याशेषस्य तत्त्वग्रामस्य प्राक्सृष्टस्य संहर्तृरूपा या निमेषभूरसावेवोद्भविष्यद्दशापेक्षया स्रष्टृरूपोन्मेषभूमिस्तथा विश्वनिमेषभूश्चिद्धनतोन्मेषसारा चिद्धनतानिमज्जनभूमिरपि विश्वोन्मेषरूपा। यदागमः
लेलिहाना सदा देवी सदा पूर्णा च भासते।
ऊर्मिरेषा विबोधाब्धेः शक्तिरिच्छात्मिका प्रभोः॥
इति। श्रीमान्महेश्वरो हि स्वातन्त्र्यशक्त्या शिवमन्त्रमहेश्वरमन्त्रेश्वरमन्त्रविज्ञानाकलप्रलयाकलसकलान्तां प्रमातृभूमिकां तद्वेद्यभूमिकां च गृह्णानः पूर्वपूर्वरूपतां भित्तिभूततया स्थितामप्यन्तः स्वरूपावच्छादनक्रीडया निमेषयन्नेवोन्मेषयति उत्तरोत्तररूपतामवरोहक्रमेणारोहक्रमेण तूत्तरोत्तररूपतां निमेषयन्नेव ज्ञानयोगिनामुन्मेषयति पूर्वपूर्वरूपतामत एवोत्तरमुत्तरं पूर्वत्र पूर्वत्र सङ्कोचात्मतां जहद्बिकसितत्त्वेनासावाभासयति पूर्वं पूर्वं तु रूपं यथोत्तरं विकसिततां निमज्जयन् सङ्कुचितत्वेन दर्शयति। एवं च सर्वं सर्वमयमेव प्रथयति केवलं तदवभासितसङ्कोचमात्रत इयं भेदप्रतिपत्तिरिव यदुद्दलनायेहत्योपदेश इत्यास्तां तावदेतत्। नीलसुखाद्याभासोन्मेषमय्यपि च संवित्प्रमात्रेकात्मकतत्स्वरूपनिमेषरूपावभातचरपीताद्याभासोपसंहाररूपा चेति स्वसंवेदनसिद्धामिमां युगपदेवोन्मेषनिमेषोभयरूपां प्रतिभां भगवतीं विचिन्वन्तु महाधियः संसारविच्छेदाय। अत वोन्मेषनिमेषाभ्यामित्येतत्पदं निजवृत्तौ भट्टश्रीकल्लटेन सङ्कल्पमात्रेण इत्यविभक्तमेवेच्छाशक्तिरूपतया व्याख्यायि। सङ्ग्रहकृतापि
एकचिन्ताप्रसक्तस्य यतः स्यादपरोदयः।
उन्मेषः स तु विज्ञेयः स्वयं तमुपलक्षयेत्॥
इत्यत्र प्रारब्धचिन्तासंहरणमेव परस्वरूपोदयहेतुरुन्मेष इत्यभिधास्यते। प्रवृत्तचिन्तासंहारं विना परस्वरूपोदयाभावात्। एतच्च तत्रैव वितनिष्यामः।
परामृतरसापायस्तस्य यः प्रत्ययोद्भवः।
तेनास्वतन्त्रतामेति स च तन्मात्रगोचरः॥
इत्यत्राप्युदयः प्रलयपरमार्थ इति स्पष्टमेव वक्ष्यते।
यदा क्षोभः प्रलीयेत तदा स्यात्परमं पदम्।
इत्यत्रापि क्षोभप्रलयात्मा निमेषः परपदोन्मेषरूप इत्यपि निरूपयिष्यते। तदेवमेकैवोभयरूपापि शक्तिः कदाचिदुन्मेषप्रधानतया व्यवह्रियते कदाचिन्निमेषप्रधानतया। ततश्च यस्य सम्बन्धिन्याः स्वरूपनिमेषात्मनः कार्योन्मेषप्रधानायाः शक्तेर्हेतोर्जगतो विश्वस्य शिवादेर्धरण्यन्तस्योदयोऽभेदसारतानिमज्जनसतत्त्वो नानावैचित्र्यशाली भेदरूपः सर्गः स्वरूपोन्मेषात्मनश्च बाह्यतानिमेषप्रधानायाः शक्तेर्जगतः प्रलयोऽभेदमयतोदयात्मा विचित्रभेदरूपतासंहार इति प्रलयोऽप्युदयरूप उदयोऽपि च प्रलयरूप इति व्याख्येयम्। वस्तुतस्तु न किञ्चिदुदेति व्ययते वा केवलं स्पन्दशक्तिरेव भगवत्यक्रमापि तथातथाभासरूपतया स्फुरन्त्युदेतीव व्ययत इव चेति दर्शयिष्यामः। स्थितिविलयानुग्रहाणां विशिष्टप्रलयोदयरूपत्वान्नाधिक्यमिति प्रलयोदयाभ्यामेव पञ्चविधं पारमेश्वर्यं कृत्यं सङ्गृहीतम्। निर्णीतं चैवम्प्रायं मयैव प्रथमसूत्रमात्रविवरणे स्पन्दसन्दोहे। ननु श्रीमन्महार्थदृष्ट्या सृष्ट्यादिदेवताभिरेव विचित्रा जगतः प्रलयोदयाः सम्पाद्यन्ते तत्कथमेतदुक्तं यस्येत्यादीत्याशङ्क्याह — तं शक्तिचक्रविभवप्रभवमिति। शक्तीनां सृष्टिरक्तादिमरीचिदेवीनां चक्रं द्वादशात्मा समूहस्तस्य यो विभव उद्योगावभासनचर्वणविलापनात्मा क्रीडाडम्बरस्तस्य प्रभवं हेतुम्। एता हि देव्यः श्रीमन्मन्थानभैरवं चक्रेश्वरमालिङ्ग्य सर्वदैव जगत्सर्गादिक्रीडां सम्पादयन्तीत्याम्नायः। अथ च कस्मात्परमेश्वरस्य जगत्सर्गसंहारादिहेतुत्वमित्याशङ्कायामेतदेवोत्तरं शक्तिचक्रेति। यावद्धि किञ्चिद्विश्वं सम्भवति तत्प्रकाशमान्त्वेन प्रकाशमयत्वात्।
स्वामिनश्चात्मसंस्थस्य भावजातस्य भासनम्।
अस्त्येव न विना तस्मादिच्छामर्शः प्रवर्तते॥
इति विपश्चिन्निश्चितनीत्या परमेश्वरस्यान्तःप्रकाशैकात्म्येन प्रकाशमानं स्थितं सच्छक्तिचक्रमित्युच्यते यतः परमेश्वरस्यागमेष्वनन्तशक्तित्वमुद्धोष्यते तस्य शक्तिचक्रस्याभासपरमार्थस्य विश्वस्य यो विभवः परस्परसंयोजनावियोजनावैचित्र्यमनन्तप्रकारं तस्य प्रभवं कारणम्। स एव हि भगवान्विज्ञानदेहात्मकान्स्वात्मैकात्म्येन स्थितान्विश्वानाभासानन्योन्यं नानावैचित्र्येण संयोजयन्वियोजयंश्च विश्वोदयप्रलयहेतुः। तदुक्तं श्रीभट्टकल्लट्टेन।
उत्येतद्वृत्त्यक्षराणामत्र व्याख्याद्वयेऽप्यानुरूप्यम्। अपि च
तस्माच्छब्दार्थचिन्तासु न सावस्था न या शिवः।
इतीहत्यस्थित्या च जगदात्मनः
तत्खेचर्यूर्ध्वमार्गस्थं व्योम वामेशीगोचरम्।
इति रहस्यनीत्या च वामेश्वरीखेचरीगोचरीदिक्चरीभूचरीरूपस्य मयैव स्पन्दसन्दोह सम्यङ्निर्णीतस्य
इत्यत्रहि निर्णेष्यमाणस्यैतद्व्याख्याद्वयव्याख्यातशक्तिचक्रप्रपञ्चभूतस्य च
यतः करणवर्गोऽयं विमूढोऽमूढवत्स्वयम्।
सहान्तरेण चक्रेण प्रवृत्तिस्थितिसंहृतीः॥
तदाक्रम्य बलं मन्त्राः सर्वज्ञबलशालिनः।
प्रवर्तन्तेऽधिकाराय करणानीव देहिनाम्॥
शब्दराशिसमुत्थस्य शक्तिवर्गस्य भोग्यताम्।
कलाविलुप्तविभवो गतः सन्स पशुः स्मृतः॥
इति नीत्या ब्राह्म्यादिदेवतास्वभावस्यैवमादेरनन्तप्रकारस्यापि मयैव स्पन्दसन्दोहे वितत्य निर्णीतस्य शक्तिचक्रस्य यो विभवो माहात्म्यं तत्र प्रभवतीति प्रभवं स्वतन्त्रं न तु पशुवत्परतन्त्रम्। शक्तिचक्रस्य रश्मिपुञ्जस्य यो विभवोऽन्तर्मुखो विकासस्ततः प्रभव उदयोऽभिव्यक्तिर्यस्येति बहुव्रीहिणाऽन्तर्मुखतत्स्वरूपनिभालनादयत्नेन परमेश्वरस्वरूपप्रत्यभिज्ञानं भवतीत्यर्थः। किञ्च यस्य चिदानन्दघनस्यात्मन उन्मेषनिमेषाभ्यां स्वरूपोन्मीलननिमीलनाभ्यां यदन्तस्तद्वहिरिति युक्त्या जगतः शरीररूपस्य तदनुषङ्गेण बाह्यस्यापि विश्वस्य प्रलयोदयौ यथासङ्ख्यं मज्जनोन्मज्जने भवतस्तं शक्तिचक्रविभवस्य परसंविद्देवतास्फारस्य प्रभवं भक्तिभाजामेतत्स्वरूपप्रकाशकं शङ्करं स्तुमः। तथा यस्य स्वात्मनः सम्बन्धिनो बहिर्मुखताप्रसररूपादुन्मेषाज्जगत उदयोऽन्तर्मुखतारूपाच्च निमेषात्प्रलयस्तं विश्वसर्गादिकार्युन्मेषादिस्वरूपसंविद्देवीमाहात्म्यस्य हेतुं शङ्करं स्तुम इति यथासम्भवमपि योज्यम्। देहाद्याविष्टोऽपि परमेश्वरः करणोन्मीलननिमीलनाभ्यां रूपादिपञ्चकमयस्य जगतः सर्गसंहारौ करोति। यदुक्तं रहस्यतत्त्वविदा
तदेव व्यवहारेऽपि प्रभुर्देहादिमाविशन्।
भान्तमेवान्तरथौ घमिच्छया भासयेद्वहिः॥
इति। एवंविधार्थपरिग्रहायापि यस्य स्वातन्त्र्यशक्त्येति त्यक्त्वा यस्योन्मेषनिमेषाभ्यामिति न्यरूपि गुरूणा। अत्र च शङ्करस्तुतिः समावेशरूपा प्राप्यत्वेनाभिधेया शक्तिचक्रविभवात्प्रभवो यस्येति बहुव्रीहिणा शक्तिचक्रविकासस्तत्प्राप्तावुपाय उक्तः शक्तिचक्रविभवस्य परसंविद्देवतास्फारस्य भक्तिभाजां प्रभवं प्रकाशकमिति तत्पुरुषेण फलमुक्तम्। यद्वक्ष्यति
इत्यभिधेयोपाययोरुपायोपेयभावः सम्बन्ध इत्यभिधेयोपायसम्बन्धप्रयोजनान्यनेनैव सूत्रेण सूत्रितानि॥१॥
Yasyonmeṣanimeṣābhyāṁ jagataḥ pralayodayau|
Taṁ śakticakravibhavaprabhavaṁ śaṅkaraṁ stumaḥ||1||
Śam upaśāntāśeṣopatāpaparamānandādvayamayasvacaitanyasphārapratyabhijñāpanasvarūpamanugrahaṁ karoti yastamimaṁ svasvabhāvaṁ śaṅkaraṁ stumastaṁ viśvotkarṣitvena parāmṛśantastatkḷptakalpitapramātṛpadanimajjanena samāviśāmastatsamāveśa eva hi jīvanmuktiphala iha prakaraṇa upadeśyaḥ| Bahuvacanamanugrahadṛṣṭikaṭākṣitāśeṣānugrāhyābhedaprathanāya| Tamityanena yadasya niḥsāmānyatvamapi dhvanitaṁ tatprathayati yasyetyardhena| Iha parameśvaraḥ prakāśātmā mahādevaḥ śabdarāśiparamārthapūrṇāhantāparāmarśasāratvāt sadaivānandaghanasphurattātmakobhayavisargāraṇiparāśaktyātmakapūrṇasvātantryasvarūpastata eva citsvābhāvyādacalasyāpi śrībhagavataḥ svātantryaśaktiravibhaktāpyaśeṣasargasaṁhārādiparamparāṁ darpaṇanagaravatsvabhittāveva bhāviyuktyānadhikāmapyadhikāmiva darśayantī kiñciccalattātmakadhātvarthānugamātspanda ityabhihitā tena bhagavānsadā spandatattvasatattvo na tvaspandaḥ| Yadāhuḥ kecidaspandaṁ paraṁ tattvamiti| Evaṁ hi śāntasvarūpatvādanīśvaramevaitadbhavet| Sphurattāsāraspandaśaktimayaśaṅkarātmakasvasvabhāvapratipādanāyaiva cedaṁ śāstraṁ samucitaspandābhidhānaṁ mahāgurubhirnibaddham| Etacca vyaktībhaviṣyati| Sā caiṣā spandaśaktirgarbhīkṛtānantasargasaṁhāraikaghanāhantā camatkārānandarūpā niḥśeṣaśuddhāśuddharūpā mātṛmeyasaṅkocavikāsābhāsanasatattvā sarvopaniṣadupāsyā yugapadevonmeṣanimeṣamayī| Tathā hi — śivādeḥ kṣityantasyāśeṣasya tattvagrāmasya prāksṛṣṭasya saṁhartṛrūpā yā nimeṣabhūrasāvevodbhaviṣyaddaśāpekṣayā sraṣṭṛrūponmeṣabhūmistathā viśvanimeṣabhūściddhanatonmeṣasārā ciddhanatānimajjanabhūmirapi viśvonmeṣarūpā| Yadāgamaḥ
Lelihānā sadā devī sadā pūrṇā ca bhāsate|
Ūrmireṣā vibodhābdheḥ śaktiricchātmikā prabhoḥ||
iti| Śrīmānmaheśvaro hi svātantryaśaktyā śivamantramaheśvaramantreśvaramantravijñānākalapralayākalasakalāntāṁ pramātṛbhūmikāṁ tadvedyabhūmikāṁ ca gṛhṇānaḥ pūrvapūrvarūpatāṁ bhittibhūtatayā sthitāmapyantaḥ svarūpāvacchādanakrīḍayā nimeṣayannevonmeṣayati uttarottararūpatāmavarohakrameṇārohakrameṇa tūttarottararūpatāṁ nimeṣayanneva jñānayogināmunmeṣayati pūrvapūrvarūpatāmata evottaramuttaraṁ pūrvatra pūrvatra saṅkocātmatāṁ jahadbikasitattvenāsāvābhāsayati pūrvaṁ pūrvaṁ tu rūpaṁ yathottaraṁ vikasitatāṁ nimajjayan saṅkucitatvena darśayati| Evaṁ ca sarvaṁ sarvamayameva prathayati kevalaṁ tadavabhāsitasaṅkocamātrata iyaṁ bhedapratipattiriva yaduddalanāyehatyopadeśa ityāstāṁ tāvadetat| Nīlasukhādyābhāsonmeṣamayyapi ca saṁvitpramātrekātmakatatsvarūpanimeṣarūpāvabhātacarapītādyābhāsopasaṁhārarūpā ceti svasaṁvedanasiddhāmimāṁ yugapadevonmeṣanimeṣobhayarūpāṁ pratibhāṁ bhagavatīṁ vicinvantu mahādhiyaḥ saṁsāravicchedāya| Ata evonmeṣanimeṣābhyāmityetatpadaṁ nijavṛttau bhaṭṭaśrīkallaṭena saṅkalpamātreṇa ityavibhaktamevecchāśaktirūpatayā vyākhyāyi| Saṅgrahakṛtāpi
Ekacintāprasaktasya yataḥ syādaparodayaḥ|
Unmeṣaḥ sa tu vijñeyaḥ svayaṁ tamupalakṣayet||
ityatra prārabdhacintāsaṁharaṇameva parasvarūpodayaheturunmeṣa ityabhidhāsyate| Pravṛttacintāsaṁhāraṁ vinā parasvarūpodayābhāvāt| Etacca tatraiva vitaniṣyāmaḥ|
Parāmṛtarasāpāyastasya yaḥ pratyayodbhavaḥ|
Tenāsvatantratāmeti sa ca tanmātragocaraḥ||
ityatrāpyudayaḥ pralayaparamārtha iti spaṣṭameva vakṣyate|
Yadā kṣobhaḥ pralīyeta tadā syātparamaṁ padam|
ityatrāpi kṣobhapralayātmā nimeṣaḥ parapadonmeṣarūpa ityapi nirūpayiṣyate| Tadevamekaivobhayarūpāpi śaktiḥ kadācidunmeṣapradhānatayā vyavahriyate kadācinnimeṣapradhānatayā| Tataśca yasya sambandhinyāḥ svarūpanimeṣātmanaḥ kāryonmeṣapradhānāyāḥ śakterhetorjagato viśvasya śivāderdharaṇyantasyodayo'bhedasāratānimajjanasatattvo nānāvaicitryaśālī bhedarūpaḥ sargaḥ svarūponmeṣātmanaśca bāhyatānimeṣapradhānāyāḥ śakterjagataḥ pralayo'bhedamayatodayātmā vicitrabhedarūpatāsaṁhāra iti pralayo'pyudayarūpa udayo'pi ca pralayarūpa iti vyākhyeyam| Vastutastu na kiñcidudeti vyayate vā kevalaṁ spandaśaktireva bhagavatyakramāpi tathātathābhāsarūpatayā sphurantyudetīva vyayata iva ceti darśayiṣyāmaḥ| Sthitivilayānugrahāṇāṁ viśiṣṭapralayodayarūpatvānnādhikyamiti pralayodayābhyāmeva pañcavidhaṁ pārameśvaryaṁ kṛtyaṁ saṅgṛhītam| Nirṇītaṁ caivamprāyaṁ mayaiva prathamasūtramātravivaraṇe spandasandohe| Nanu śrīmanmahārthadṛṣṭyā sṛṣṭyādidevatābhireva vicitrā jagataḥ pralayodayāḥ sampādyante tatkathametaduktaṁ yasyetyādītyāśaṅkyāha — Taṁ śakticakravibhavaprabhavamiti| Śaktīnāṁ sṛṣṭiraktādimarīcidevīnāṁ cakraṁ dvādaśātmā samūhastasya yo vibhava udyogāvabhāsanacarvaṇavilāpanātmā krīḍāḍambarastasya prabhavaṁ hetum| Etā hi devyaḥ śrīmanmanthānabhairavaṁ cakreśvaramāliṅgya sarvadaiva jagatsargādikrīḍāṁ sampādayantītyāmnāyaḥ| Atha ca kasmātparameśvarasya jagatsargasaṁhārādihetutvamityāśaṅkāyāmetadevottaraṁ śakticakreti| Yāvaddhi kiñcidviśvaṁ sambhavati tatprakāśamānatvena prakāśamayatvāt|
Svāminaścātmasaṁsthasya bhāvajātasya bhāsanam|
Astyeva na vinā tasmādicchāmarśaḥ pravartate||
iti vipaścinniścitanītyā parameśvarasyāntaḥprakāśaikātmyena prakāśamānaṁ sthitaṁ sacchakticakramityucyate yataḥ parameśvarasyāgameṣvanantaśaktitvamuddhoṣyate tasya śakticakrasyābhāsaparamārthasya viśvasya yo vibhavaḥ parasparasaṁyojanāviyojanāvaicitryamanantaprakāraṁ tasya prabhavaṁ kāraṇam| Sa eva hi bhagavānvijñānadehātmakānsvātmaikātmyena sthitānviśvānābhāsānanyonyaṁ nānāvaicitryeṇa saṁyojayanviyojayaṁśca viśvodayapralayahetuḥ| Taduktaṁ śrībhaṭṭakallaṭena|
ityetadvṛttyakṣarāṇāmatra vyākhyādvaye'pyānurūpyam| Api ca
Tasmācchabdārthacintāsu na sāvasthā na yā śivaḥ|
itīhatyasthityā ca jagadātmanaḥ
Tatkhecaryūrdhvamārgasthaṁ vyoma vāmeśīgocaram|
iti rahasyanītyā ca vāmeśvarīkhecarīgocarīdikcarībhūcarīrūpasya mayaiva spandasandoha samyaṅnirṇītasya
ityatrahi nirṇeṣyamāṇasyaitadvyākhyādvayavyākhyātaśakticakraprapañcabhūtasya ca
Yataḥ karaṇavargo'yaṁ vimūḍho'mūḍhavatsvayam|
Sahāntareṇa cakreṇa pravṛttisthitisaṁhṛtīḥ||
Tadākramya balaṁ mantrāḥ sarvajñabalaśālinaḥ|
Pravartante'dhikārāya karaṇānīva dehinām||
Śabdarāśisamutthasya śaktivargasya bhogyatām|
Kalāviluptavibhavo gataḥ sansa paśuḥ smṛtaḥ||
iti nītyā brāhmyādidevatāsvabhāvasyaivamāderanantaprakārasyāpi mayaiva spandasandoha vitatya nirṇītasya śakticakrasya yo vibhavo māhātmyaṁ tatra prabhavatīti prabhavaṁ svatantraṁ na tu paśuvatparatantram| Śakticakrasya raśmipuñjasya yo vibhavo'ntarmukho vikāsastataḥ prabhava udayo'bhivyaktiryasyeti bahuvrīhiṇā'ntarmukhatatsvarūpanibhālanādayatnena parameśvarasvarūpapratyabhijñānaṁ bhavatītyarthaḥ| Kiñca yasya cidānandaghanasyātmana unmeṣanimeṣābhyāṁ svarūponmīlananimīlanābhyāṁ yadantastadbahiriti yuktyā jagataḥ śarīrarūpasya tadanuṣaṅgeṇa bāhyasyāpi viśvasya pralayodayau yathāsaṅkhyaṁ majjanonmajjane bhavatastaṁ śakticakravibhavasya parasaṁviddevatāsphārasya prabhavaṁ bhaktibhājāmetatsvarūpaprakāśakaṁ śaṅkaraṁ stumaḥ| Tathā yasya svātmanaḥ sambandhino bahirmukhatāprasararūpādunmeṣājjagata udayo'ntarmukhatārūpācca nimeṣātpralayastaṁ viśvasargādikāryunmeṣādisvarūpasaṁviddevīmāhātmyasya hetuṁ śaṅkaraṁ stuma iti yathāsambhavamapi yojyam| Dehādyāviṣṭo'pi parameśvaraḥ karaṇonmīlananimīlanābhyāṁ rūpādipañcakamayasya jagataḥ sargasaṁhārau karoti| Yaduktaṁ rahasyatattvavidā
Tadeva vyavahāre'pi prabhurdehādimāviśan|
iti| Evaṁvidhārthaparigrahāyāpi yasya svātantryaśaktyeti tyaktvā yasyonmeṣanimeṣābhyāmiti nyarūpi gurūṇā| Atra ca śaṅkarastutiḥ samāveśarūpā prāpyatvenābhidheyā śakticakravibhavātprabhavo yasyeti bahuvrīhiṇā śakticakravikāsastatprāptāvupāya uktaḥ śakticakravibhavasya parasaṁviddevatāsphārasya bhaktibhājāṁ prabhavaṁ prakāśakamiti tatpuruṣeṇa phalamuktam| Yadvakṣyati
ityabhidheyopāyayorupāyopeyabhāvaḥ sambandha ityabhidheyopāyasambandhaprayojanānyanenaiva sūtreṇa sūtritāni||1||
We laud (stumaḥ) that (tam) Śaṅkara --an epithet of Śiva-- (śaṅkaram) who is the source or cause (prabhavam) of the glorious (vibhava) group (cakra) of powers (śakti), (and) by whose (yasya) opening (and) shutting of (His) eyes (unmeṣa-nimeṣābhyām) (there is) dissolution and emergence (pralaya-udayau) of the world (jagataḥ)||1||
(Śaṅkara means) one who (yaḥ) does (karoti) "Śam" (śam), (in other words, one who brings about) the Grace (anugraham) whose nature (sva-rūpam) comprehends (āpana) the Recognition (pratyabhijñā) of the expanse (sphāra) of one's own (sva) omniscient, omnipotent and absolutely free Consciousness (caitanya), which is full (maya) of Non-dualism (advaya) (and) Supreme (parama) Bliss (ānanda) calming (upaśānta) the whole (aśeṣa) heat of the afflictions (upatāpa). We laud (stumaḥ) that very (tam imam) Śaṅkara (śaṅkaram) (who is) one's (sva) essential nature (sva-bhāvam), (and) we enter (samāviśāmaḥ) into Him (tam) through the immersion (nimajjanena) of the state (pada) of assumed (kalpita)1 experient (pramātṛ) produced (kḷpta) by Himself (tad) by considering (parāmṛśantaḥ) Him (tam) as excelling (utkarṣitvena) the universe (viśva). Here (iha), the treatise (prakaraṇaḥ)2 will teach (upadeśyaḥ) that entrance (samāveśaḥ) into Him (tad) (is) doubtless (eva hi) the fruit or result (phalaḥ) of Liberation (mukti) while living (jīvat)|
Plural number (in "We laud...") (bahuvacanam) (is meant) to show or spread (prathanāya) (one's own) identity (abheda) with all (aśeṣa) those deserving divine Favor (anugrāhya) who are leered at (by Him) --i.e. who are looked at out of the corner of His eye-- (kaṭākṣita)3 with a glance (dṛṣṭi) (full of) Grace (anugraha)|
Through (the term) "Tam" (in the aphorism) (tam iti anena) His (asya) condition or character of "extraordinary" (yad... niḥsāmānyatvam) is also (api) alluded (dhvanitam). (The author) proclaims (prathayati) that (aforesaid condition) (tad) by means of the first half (of the stanza) (ardhena) "by whose..." (yasya iti)4 |
Here (iha), the Supreme (parama) Lord (īśvaraḥ), whose nature (ātmā) is the Light and Effulgence of Consciousness (prakāśa), (is) the Great (mahā) God (devaḥ) whose essential nature (sva-rūpaḥ) is the complete and absolute (pūrṇa) Freedom (svātantrya) consisting (ātmaka) of the Supreme (parā) Power (śakti) (that appears as) both (ubhaya) I (araṇi) and the emanated universe (visarga), which is (ātmaka) always (sadā eva) a vibrant flash (sphurattā) of a compact mass (ghana) of Bliss (ānanda) inasmuch as (Her)5 essence (sāratvāt) (is) the remembrance (parāmarśa) of the full and perfect (pūrṇa) I-consciousness (ahantā) which is the highest (parama) meaning (artha) of the multitude (rāśi) of sounds and words (śabda). For that reason (tataḥ eva), as She6 is essentially (svābhāvyāt) Cit or Consciousness (cit), the Power (śaktiḥ) of Absolute Freedom (svātantrya) of the venerable (śrī) Lord (bhagavataḥ), (who is) also (api) (known as) Acala or Motionless (acalasya), though (api) non-distinct (from Him7 ) (avibhaktā), displays (darśayantī) the entire (aśeṣa) uninterrupted succession (paramparām) of manifestation (sarga), dissolution (saṁhāra), etc. (ādi) on Her own (sva) canvas (bhīttau eva) like (vat) a city (nagara) (reflected on a) mirror (darpaṇa). (Again,) by future (bhāvi) adequate arguments (yuktyā), (it will be shown that), even though (api) She cannot be enlarged or expanded (anadhikām)8 , She keeps presenting (Herself) (darśayantī) as if (iva) supernumerary (adhikām). (Besides,) She is called (abhihitā) "Spanda" (spandaḥ iti) (because), according (anugamāt) to the meaning (artha) of the root ("spand"9 ) (dhātu), She consists (ātmaka) of a slight (kiñcid) movement (calattā). Therefore (tena), the Highest Lord (bhagavān) (has) always (sadā) the principle (tattva) of the Supreme Vibration (spanda) as His nature (satattvaḥ). He is never (na) without Spanda (aspandaḥ) indeed (tu)|
Some (kecid) (even) hold (āhuḥ) that (yad) "The Highest (param) Principle (tattvam) is without Spanda or Vibration (aspandam... iti) (at all)"|
Thus (evam), (should the previous statement prove true), this (universe) (etad) would be (bhavet) doubtless (hi) devoid of a Lord (anīśvaram eva) inasmuch as the nature (of that Highest Principle) (sva-rūpatvāt) is without any activity or vibration --i.e. Spanda-- (śānta)|
This (idam) scripture (śāstram) has been composed (nibaddham) by the great (mahā) Guru-s (gurubhiḥ) only (eva) to explain (pratipādanāya) that one's own (sva) essential nature (sva-bhāva) consists (ātmaka) of Śaṅkara (śaṅkara)10 , who is full (maya) of the Power (śakti) of the Supreme Vibration (spanda) whose essence (sāra) is quivering Flash (sphurattā), and (ca) (has thus been) appropriately (samucita) named (abhidhānam) Spanda --i.e. "Spandakārikā-s"-- (spanda)|
This (etad ca) will be made clear (vyaktībhaviṣyati) (later on)|
And (ca) this (eṣā) very (sā) Power (śaktiḥ) of the Supreme Vibration (spanda) is I-consciousness (ahantā) which is only one (eka) compact mass (ghana) holding in its bosom (garbhīkṛtā) endless (ananta) manifestations (sarga) (and) dissolutions (saṁhāra). (She is I-consciousness) of the nature (rūpā... rūpā... sattattvā) of the Bliss (ānanda) arising from amazement (camatkāra)11 , of all that (niḥśeṣa) is pure (śuddha) (and) impure (aśuddha) (and) of the flashing exhibition (ābhāsana) of contraction (saṅkoca) (and) expansion (vikāsa) of subjects (mātṛ) (and) objects (meya). (She is also) simultaneously (yugapad eva) full (mayī) of Unmeṣa-s (unmeṣa) (and) Nimeṣa-s (nimeṣa)12 , (and) is to be revered (upāsyā) by all (sarva) esoteric doctrines (upaniṣad), (no doubt about it)|
As has been said (tathā hi) - That (asau) very (eva) (Principle of Spanda constitutes) the stage (bhūḥ) of Nimeṣa or Absorption (nimeṣa) that (yā) brings about the withdrawal or dissolution (saṁhartṛrūpā) of the whole (aśeṣasya) previously (prāñc) manifested (sṛṣṭasya) group --grāma-- (grāmasya) of tattva-s or categories (tattva) from Śiva (śiva-ādeḥ) down to earth (kṣiti-antasya), as well as (tathā) the stage (bhūmi) of Unmeṣa --i.e. display or expansion-- (unmeṣa) which is (rūpā) the manifesting entity or creator (sraṣṭṛ) with regard (apekṣayā) to the (new) state (daśā) which is about to arise (udbhaviṣyat). The stage (bhūḥ) of Nimeṣa or absorption (nimeṣa) of the universe (viśva) constitutes (sārā) the Unmeṣa or display (unmeṣa) of the compactness (ghanatā) of Consciousness (cit). In turn (api), the stage (bhūmiḥ) of submergence --i.e. Nimeṣa-- (nimajjana) of the compactness (ghanatā) of Consciousness (cit) is (rūpā) the Unmeṣa or display (unmeṣa) of the universe (viśva)|
As the revealed scripture puts it (yad āgamaḥ):
"The goddess (devī) (is) always (sadā) (engaged in) licking and enjoying the taste of universal manifestation (lelihānā) and (ca) (yet) She appears (bhāsate) always (sadā) as replete or full (pūrṇā). This (eṣā) wave (ūrmiḥ) of the Ocean (abdheḥ) of Consciousness (vibodha) is (ātmikā) the volitional (icchā) power (śaktiḥ) of the Lord (prabhoḥ... iti)."||
Undoubtedly (hi), the glorious (śrīmān) great (mahā) Lord (īśvaraḥ), by (His) Power (śaktyā) of Absolute Freedom (svātantrya), assuming (gṛhṇānaḥ) the role (bhūmikām) of the experients (known as) (pramātṛ) Śiva (śiva), Mantramaheśvara (mantra-mahā-īśvara), Mantreśvara (mantra-īśvara), Mantra (mantra), Vijñānākala (vijñānākala), Pralayākala (pralayākala) (and) Sakala (sakala-antām)13 as well as (ca) the role (bhūmikām) of their --i.e. of the said experients-- (tad) (respective) knowables (vedya)14 , displays (unmeṣayati), in the descending (avaroha) course (krameṇa), through the play (krīḍayā) of concealing (avacchādana) His essential nature (sva-rūpa), each of the succeeding (stages) (uttara-uttara-rūpatām) by suppressing (nimeṣayan eva) each of the preceding (stages) (pūrva-pūrva-rūpatām), which stand (sthitām) inside (the succeeding ones) (antaḥ) as (bhūtatāyā) (their) substratum (bhitti) though (api). Nevertheless (tu), in the ascending (āroha) course (krameṇa), He displays (unmeṣayati), for the Yogī-s (yoginām) treading the path of knowledge (jñāna), each of the preceding (stages) (pūrva-pūrva-rūpatām) by suppressing (nimeṣayan eva) each of the succeeding ones (uttara-uttara-rūpatām). Therefore (atas eva), that (Lord) (asau) exhibits (ābhāsayati), (in the ascending course), each of the succeeding (stages) (uttara-uttaram) in a expanded or developed form (vikasitatvena) in each of the preceding (ones) (pūrvatra pūrvatra) by making (them) give up (jahat) (their) contracted condition (saṅkoca-ātmatām). But (tu), He shows (darśayati), (in the descending course), each of the preceding (stages) (pūrvam pūrvam... rūpam), one after another (yathā uttaram), in a contracted or limited form (saṅkucitatvena) by submerging or eliminating (nimajjayan) (their) expanded state (vikasitatām)|
Thus (evam ca), this (Lord) (ayam) reveals and displays (eva prathayati) everything (sarvam) as of the nature (mayam) of everything else (sarva). This (iyam) perception (pratipattiḥ) of differences (bheda) (is), as it were (iva), due (mātrataḥ) only (kevalam) to the contraction (saṅkoca) caused to appear (avabhāsita) by Himself (tad). In order to shatter (uddalanāya) that (erroneous perception) (yad), the teaching (of this scripture) (upadeśaḥ) is here presented (ihatyaḥ). May this (expatiation) (etad) finish here (iti āstām tāvat)|
And (ca) even though (api) She is full (mayī) of the unmeṣa or display (unmeṣa) of the flashing manifestations (ābhāsa) of blue (nīla), pleasure (sukha), etc. (ādi), Consciousness (saṁvid)15 is (both) of the nature (rūpā) of suppression (nimeṣa) of Her (tad) essential nature (sva-rūpa) as identical (ekātmaka) with the experient or subject (pramātṛ) and (ca) of the nature (rūpā) of dissolution (upasaṁhāra) of the flashing manifestations (ābhāsa) of yellow (pīta), etc. (ādi) which were previously (cara) displayed (avabhāta). So (iti), in order to put an end (vicchedāya) to transmigration (saṁsāra), (let) people of great (mahā) intelligence (dhiyaḥ) examine and discern (vicinvantu) this (imām) Mistress (bhagavatīm) (called) Light of Consciousness (pratibhām), whose essence (rūpām) (consists) simultaneously (yugapad eva) (of) both (ubhaya) display (unmeṣa) (and) suppression (nimeṣa), (and) who is well-known (siddhām) to one's own (sva) perception (saṁvedana)|
That is why (atas eva) this (etad) compound --lit. word-- (padam) "unmeṣanimeṣābhyām"16 (unmeṣanimeṣābhyām iti) (occurring in the first line of the present aphorism17 , is explained as) "by mere (mātreṇa iti) will (saṅkalpa)" by venerable (bhaṭṭaśrī) Kallaṭa18 (kallaṭena) in his own (nija) commentary (of Spandakārikā-s) (vṛttau). (Thus,) he explained (Unmeṣa --opening or display-- and Nimeṣa --shutting or suppression--) (vyākhyāyi) jointly --i.e. not separately-- (avibhaktam eva) as of the nature (rūpatayā) of the Power (śakti) of Will (icchā)|
(The following teaching has) also (api) been summarized (saṅgrahakṛtam) (by the author of Spandakārikā-s19 in the ninth aphorism of the third section):
"That (saḥ) is certainly to be known (tu vijñeyaḥ) as Unmeṣa (unmeṣa) wherefrom (yatas) there is (syāt) emergence (udayaḥ) of another (awareness --according to Kṣemarāja-- or thought --according to others--) (apara) in one (person) who is (already) occupied (prasaktasya) with one (eka) thought (cintā). One should perceive (upalakṣayet) that (Unmeṣa) (tam) by himself (svayam... iti)."||
In this (aphorism) (atra) (the author) will say (abhidhāsyate): "Unmeṣa (unmeṣaḥ) is the cessation (saṁharaṇam) of the thought (cintā) (that had previously) begun (prārabdha), (which is) doubtless (eva) the cause (hetuḥ) for the emergence (udaya) of the next (thought) (para-sva-rūpa... iti)"|
(This is so,) because there can be no (abhāvāt) rise or emergence (udaya) of the next (thought) (para-sva-rūpa) without (vinā) the cessation (saṁhāram) of the thought (cintā) (which had previously) arisen (pravṛtta)|
We develop (vitaniṣyāmaḥ) this (topic) (etad) as well (ca), later on (tatra eva)|
Also (api), in this (fourteenth aphorism of the third section) (atra), (the author) will clearly describe that (spaṣṭam eva vakṣyate) "The emergence (of ideas) (udayaḥ) (implies) really (paramārthaḥ) the disappearance (of the sap of the Supreme Nectar of Immortality) (pralaya... iti)":
"The rise (udbhavaḥ) of ideas (pratyaya) which (takes place) (yaḥ) in that (paśu or limited being) (tasya) (implies) the loss (apāyaḥ) of the sap (rasa) of the Supreme (para) Nectar of Immortality (amṛta). From that (tena), (such a conditioned being) becomes dependent (asvatantratām eti). That (rise of ideas) (saḥ ca) has its sphere of influence (gocaraḥ) in Tanmātra-s --the subtle features of all things-- (tanmātra... iti)."||
(And) even (api) in this (excerpt of the ninth aphorism of the first section,) (atra) (the author) will also (api) point out that (nirūpayiṣyate) "Nimeṣa or cessation (nimeṣaḥ), whose nature (ātmā) is the disappearance (pralaya) of the agitation (kṣobha) (as well) implies (rūpaḥ) Unmeṣa or display (unmeṣa) of the Highest (para) State (pada... iti)":
"When (yadā) the agitation (kṣobhaḥ) thoroughly dissolves (pralīyeta), then (tadā) the Supreme (paramam) State (padam) occurs (syāt)."||
Thus (evam), that (tad) only (ekā eva) Power or Śakti (śaktiḥ), even (api) having the nature (rūpā) of both --i.e. of Unmeṣa and Nimeṣa-- (ubhaya), (is) sometimes (kadācid) employed20 (vyavahriyate) predominantly (pradhānatayā) as Unmeṣa or display (unmeṣa) (and) sometimes (kadācid) predominantly (pradhānatayā) as Nimeṣa or cessation (nimeṣa)|
For that reason (tataḥ ca), this (iyam) (would be) the explanation (vyakhyā) (of the first part of the aphorism21 ):
"From (His) Power or Śakti (śakteḥ) (acting as) the Cause (hetoḥ) (and being) closely connected (sambandhinyāḥ) with Him --i.e. with Śiva-- (yasya), (there is) emergence (udayaḥ) of the world (jagataḥ) (or) universe (viśvasya), which begins (ādeḥ) with Śiva (śiva) (and) ends (antasya) in the earth element (dharaṇī), when She --i.e. Śakti-- shows predominance (pradhānāyāḥ) in the display (unmeṣa) of Creation (kārya) (and at the same time) conceals (nimeṣa-ātmanaḥ) His own --i.e. of Śiva-- essential nature (sva-rūpa). (This) Emanation or Manifestation (sargaḥ) based on diversity and difference (bheda-rūpaḥ) (is) really (satattvaḥ) the submergence (nimajjana) of the essential (sāratā) unity (with Śiva) (abheda), (and is) full (śālī) of multiple (nānā) varieties (vaicitrya). In turn (ca), from (that very) Power or Śakti (śakteḥ), (there is) dissolution (pralayaḥ) of the world (jagataḥ) when She --i.e. Śakti-- shows predominance (pradhānāyāḥ) in the submergence (nimeṣa) of externality (bāhyatā) (and at the same time) reveals (unmeṣa-ātmanaḥ) His own --i.e. of Śiva-- essential nature (sva-rūpa). (This pralaya or dissolution) is the emergence (udaya-ātmā) of unity (abhedamayatā) (and) the withdrawal (saṁhāraḥ) of what consists (rūpatā) of various (vicitra) differences (bheda). In this manner (iti), pralaya or dissolution (pralayaḥ) (is) also (api) udaya or emergence (udaya-rūpaḥ), and (ca) udaya or emergence (udayaḥ) (is) also (api) pralaya or dissolution (pralaya-rūpaḥ)"|
As a matter of fact (vastutas), however (tu), nothing (na kiñcid) emerges (udeti) or (vā) disappears (vyayate). We shall show (darśayiṣyāmi) (that it is) only (kevalam) the very (eva) Power (śaktiḥ) of the Supreme Vibration (spanda), the Mistress (bhagavatī), (who,) although (api) is without any succession (akramā) (and) composed (rūpatayā) of brilliant manifestations (ābhāsa) of similar nature --i.e. without succession either-- (tathā-tathā) flashes (sphurantī) as if (iva) arising (udeti) and (ca... iti) as if (iva) disappearing (vyayate)|
Regarding (the acts of) maintenance of the universe (sthiti), concealment of ones' own essential nature (vilaya) (and bestowal of) divine Grace --anugraha-- (anugrahāṇām), since they are essentially (rūpatvāt) particular (viśiṣṭa) emergences (udaya) and reabsorptions (pralaya)... (and) not (na) another thing (ādhikyam iti)... the Five-fold (pañcavidham) Act (kṛtyam) of the Supreme Lord (parama-īśvaryam)22 has been abridged (sangṛhītam) in the form of reabsorption (pralaya) (and) emergence --udaya-- (udayābhyām eva).
Also (ca), (this subject has been) thus (evam) abundantly and conclusively (prāyam) discussed (nirṇītam) by me (mayā eva) in Spandasandoha (spandasandohe), in (my) gloss (vivaraṇe) on the first (prathama) aphorism (sūtra) only (mātra)23 |
An objection (here) (nanu) — From the viewpoint (dṛṣṭyā) of venerable (śrīmat) Mahārtha (mahārtha)24 , the various (vicitrāḥ) reabsorptions (pralaya) (and) emergences --udaya-- (udayāḥ) of the world (jagataḥ) are brought about (sampādyante) by the deities (devatābhiḥ) Sṛṣṭi (sṛṣṭi), etc. (ādi). Therefore (tad), how is it (katham) (that in the present first aphorism) has been said (uktam) this (etad): "by whose (yasya), etc. (iti ādi)"25 . Having thus objected (iti āśaṅkya), (Kṣemarāja, in order to remove the doubt,) says (what has been expressed in this aphorism too) (āha... iti): "...that (tam) Śaṅkara --an epithet of Śiva-- (śaṅkaram) who is the source (prabhavam) of the glorious (vibhava) group (cakra) of powers (śakti)"26 |
--Now, a first interpretation of the compound "śakticakravibhavaprabhavam" in the aphorism--
The group (cakram) of powers (śaktīnām)27 (appearing in the form of) the luminous (marīci) goddesses --devyaḥ-- (devīnām) (such as) Sṛṣṭi (sṛṣṭi), Raktā (raktā), etc. (ādi), (is) an aggregate (samūhaḥ) consisting (ātmā) of twelve (deities) (dvādaśa). Its --i.e. of that aggregate or group-- (tasya) "vibhava"28 (yaḥ vibhavaḥ) (is, according to this first interpretation,) the immensity (āḍambaraḥ) of the play (krīḍā) whose nature (ātmā) (is) creative activity (udyoga), maintenance (avabhāsana), reabsorption (carvaṇa) (and) concealment (vilāpana). (And) "prabhava" (prabhavam) (is) its (tasya) cause (hetum)|
--Thus, this first interpretation states that the compound "śakticakravibhavaprabhavam" means:
"The cause of the immensity of the play whose nature is creative activity, maintenance, reabsorption and concealment of the aggregate consisting of twelve deities, such as Sṛṣṭi, Raktā, etc.". In other words, the aphorism might also be translated in the following manner:
"We laud (stumaḥ) that (tam) Śaṅkara --an epithet of Śiva-- (śaṅkaram) who is the cause (prabhavam) of the immensity of the play whose nature is creative activity, maintenance, reabsorption and concealment (vibhava) of the aggregate (cakra) of (twelve) deities (such as Sṛṣṭi, Raktā, etc.) (śakti), (and) by whose (yasya) opening (and) shutting of (His) eyes (unmeṣa-nimeṣābhyām) (there is) dissolution and emergence (pralaya-udayau) of the world (jagataḥ)."--
According to the Sacred Tradition (iti āmāyaḥ), these (etāḥ) goddesses (devyaḥ), (by) always (sarvadā eva) embracing (āliṅgya) venerable (śrīmat) Manthānabhairava (manthāna-bhairavam)29 , the Lord (īśvaram) of the group (of powers) (cakra), undoubtedly (hi) bring about (sampādayanti) the play (krīḍām) of the manifestation (sarga), etc. (ādi)30 of the world (jagat)|
And likewise (atha ca), "Wherefore (kasmāt) (is) the Supreme (parama) Lord (īśvarasya) the cause (hetutvam) of the manifestation (sarga), dissolution (saṁhāra), etc. (ādi), of the world (jagat... iti)?". To dissipate (that) uncertainty (āśaṅkāyām), (there is) this (etad eva) following (interpretation of) (uttaram) (the compound) "Śakticakra..." (śakticakra iti)31 |
--Now, a second interpretation of the compound "śakticakravibhavaprabhavam" in the aphorism--
Undoubtedly (hi), the universe (viśvam) exists (sambhavati) only as (yāvat) (being) "something" (kiñcid)32 . It --i.e. the universe-- (tad) (appears to be) endowed with a state of luminous manifestation (prakāśamānatvena) because it is made (mayatvāt) of Supreme Light (prakāśa)|
According to the precept (nītyā) stated (niścita) by the sage --i.e. Utpaladeva-- (vipaścit)33 :
"There is (asti) certainly (eva) a flashing manifestation (bhāsanam) for the multitude (jātasya) of living beings (bhāva) (because) they stand together (saṁsthasya) in the Lord's (svāminaḥ) Self (ātma). Without (vinā) that (tasmāt) --i.e. without their "previous" standing together in the Lord's Self--, there would be no (na... pravartate) contact (āmarśaḥ) with Icchāśakti --the Supreme Power of Will-- (icchā... iti) --i.e. there would be no possibility of manifestation, as Lord's Icchāśakti is the source of the entire universe--."34 ||
It is said (iti ucyate) (that) the real (sat) group (cakram) of powers (śakti) keeps (sthitam) appearing or becoming manifest (prakāśamānam) as identical (ekātmyena) with the internal (antar) Light (prakāśa) of the Supreme (parama) Lord --Īśvara-- (īśvarasya). Hence (yatas), it is proclaimed (uddhoṣyate) in the revealed scriptures (āgameṣu) the infinite (ananta) Power (śaktitvam) of the Supreme (parama) Lord (īśvarasya). The "vibhava" (yaḥ vibhavaḥ) of the universe (viśvasya), which is as a matter of fact (paramārthasya) a flashing manifestation (ābhāsa) of that (tasya) group (cakrasya) of powers (śakti), consists of various (vaicitryam) reciprocal (paraspara) acts of junction (samyojanā) (and) disjunction (viyojanā) whose nature (prakāram) (is) infinite (ananta). Its --i.e. of those infinite reciprocal acts of junction and disjunction carried out by the group of powers-- (tasya) "prabhava" (prabhavam) (is) the cause (kāraṇam)|
Undoubtedly (hi), that very (saḥ eva) Bhagavān or Lord --lit. Fortunate, Prosperous, etc.-- (bhagavān), (by) mutually (anyonyam)35 joining (samyojayan) and (ca) disjoining (viyojayan) in multiple (nānā) ways (vaicitryeṇa) all (viśvān) the flashing manifestations (ābhāsān), which are identical (ekātmyena sthitān) with His own Self --i.e. with Himself-- (sva-ātma) (and) whose form (deha-ātmakān) is Vijñāna or Consciousness (vijñāna)36 , is the cause (hetuḥ) of the manifestation (udayan) (and) reabsorption (or dissolution) (pralaya) of the universe (viśva)|
--Thus, this second interpretation states that the compound "śakticakravibhavaprabhavam" means:
"The cause of an infinite variety of reciprocal acts of junction and disjunction carried out by Śakticakra or the group of powers." In other words, the aphorism might also be translated in the following manner:
"We laud (stumaḥ) that (tam) Śaṅkara --an epithet of Śiva-- (śaṅkaram) who is the cause (prabhavam) of an infinite variety of reciprocal acts of junction and disjunction (vibhava) (carried out by) the group (cakra) of powers (śakti), (and) by whose (yasya) opening (and) shutting of (His) eyes (unmeṣa-nimeṣābhyām) (there is) dissolution and emergence (pralaya-udayau) of the world (jagataḥ)."--
That (tad) has been (also) said (uktam) by exalted (śrībhaṭṭa) Kallaṭa (kallaṭena)37 :
"(He who is) the cause (hetutvam) of the emergence (utpatti) of the Supreme Power (aiśvaryasya) of Śakticakra --i.e. the group of powers or śakti-s-- (śakti-cakra), whose --i.e. of this Supreme Power of Śakticakra-- form or nature (dehātmakasya) is Consciousness (vijñāna... iti)..."|
In this (context) (atra), the two (dvaye) interpretations (vyākhyā) (given by me are) also (api) in conformity (ānurupyam) with the words (akṣarānām) of his --i.e. Kallaṭa's-- (etad) gloss or commentary (vṛtti)|
--Now, a third interpretation of the compound "śakticakravibhavaprabhavam" in the aphorism--
Moreover (api ca), according to the viewpoint (dṛṣṭyā) of the revealed scriptures (āgama):
"His (asya) powers (śaktayaḥ) (constitute) the entire (kṛtsnam) world (jagat... iti)..."|
And also (ca), in accordance with what is established (sthityā) here --i.e. in Spandakārikā-s-- (ihatya) regarding that --i.e. Śakticakra or the group of powers-- whose nature (ātmanaḥ) is the world (jagat):
"... therefore (tasmāt), there is no (na) state (avasthā) that (yā) is not (na) Śiva (śivaḥ), (whether) in word (śabda), object (artha) (or) thought --cintā-- (cintāsu... iti)..."38 |
--Thus, this third interpretation states that the compound "śakticakravibhavaprabhavam" means:
"The source or cause of the glorious group of powers appearing in the form of this world." In other words, the aphorism might also be translated in the following manner:
"We laud (stumaḥ) that (tam) Śaṅkara --an epithet of Śiva-- (śaṅkaram) who is the source or cause (prabhavam) of the glorious (vibhava) group (cakra) of powers (śakti) (appearing in the form of this world, and) by whose (yasya) opening (and) shutting of (His) eyes (unmeṣa-nimeṣābhyām) (there is) dissolution and emergence (pralaya-udayau) of the world (jagataḥ)."--
--Now, a fourth interpretation of the compound "śakticakravibhavaprabhavam" in the aphorism--
According to the secret (rahasya) precept (nītyā):
"That (tad) space of Consciousness (vyoma) which stands (stham) in the upper (ūrdhva) course (mārga) of Khecarī --a kind of śakti or power-- (khecarī) (and) consists of the sphere (gocaram) of Vāmeśī (vameśī... iti)."39 |
And also (ca) (according to what has been) completely (samyak) investigated and discussed (nirṇītasya) by me (mayā eva) in Spandasandoha --See note 23-- (spandasandohe) (about it --i.e. Śakticraka--, Śakticakra or the group of powers) is composed --rūpam-- (rūpasya) of Vāmeśvarī (or Vāmeśī) (vāmeśvarī), Khecarī (khecarī), Gocarī (gocarī), Dikcarī (dikcarī) (and) Bhūcarī (bhūcarī)40 . Certainly (hi), this (etad) (has also been declared) here --i.e. in Spandakārikā-s-- (atra) (by means of the statement occurring in the twentieth aphorism of its first section):
"Nonetheless (tu), these (very emanations of Spanda) (ete), laboring diligently and incessantly (udyatāḥ) to cover or veil (sthagana) their --i.e. of the people who have unawakened intellects-- (sva) (real) state or nature (sthiti), (cause) people of unawakened intellect (aprabuddha-dhiyaḥ...iti)41 ..."|
(Śakticakra), which is going to be investigated and discussed --i.e. there will be more investigation and discussion about it in the future-- (nirṇeṣyamānasya) is constituted --bhūtam- (bhūtasya) by the manifold (prapañca) group (cakra) of powers (in the form of Vāmeśī, Khecarī, etc.) (śakti) as has been explained (vyākhyāta) in the two (previous) (dvaya) interpretations (vyākhyā ca).
--Thus, this fourth interpretation states that the compound "śakticakravibhavaprabhavam" means:
"The source or cause of the glorious group of goddesses known as Vāmeśī (or Vāmeśvarī), Khecarī, Gocarī, Dikcarī and Bhūcarī." In other words, the aphorism might also be translated in the following manner:
"We laud (stumaḥ) that (tam) Śaṅkara --an epithet of Śiva-- (śaṅkaram) who is the source or cause (prabhavam) of the glorious (vibhava) group (cakra) of goddesses known as Vāmeśī (or Vāmeśvarī), Khecarī, Gocarī, Dikcarī and Bhūcarī (śakti), (and) by whose (yasya) opening (and) shutting of (His) eyes (unmeṣa-nimeṣābhyām) (there is) dissolution and emergence (pralaya-udayau) of the world (jagataḥ)."--
--Now, a fifth interpretation of the compound "śakticakravibhavaprabhavam" in the aphorism--
According to what has been stated (sthityā) (in the sixt aphorism of the first section in Spandakārikā-s):
"... by which (yatas) this (ayam) group (vargaḥ) of organs or instruments --intellect, ego, mind, powers of perception and powers of action-- (karaṇa), (though) insentient (vimuḍhaḥ) (proceeds) as (if it were) (vat) sentient (amūḍhaḥ) by itself (svayam), (and) together (saha) with the inner (āntareṇa) group (of Karaṇeśvarī-s or goddesses of the senses) (cakreṇa) (enters) into the states of "Pravṛtti" --i.e. to go toward external things-- (pravṛtti), "Sthiti" --i.e. to maintain those very external things for a while-- (sthiti) (and) "Saṁhṛti" --i.e. to dissolve those external things in its own self-- (samhṛtīḥ... iti)..."42 ||
(Śakticakra or the group of powers would) consist (ātmanaḥ) of the multitude (grāma) of organs or instruments --intellect, ego, mind, powers of perception and powers of action-- (indriya)43 .
--Thus, this fifth interpretation states that the compound "śakticakravibhavaprabhavam" means:
"The source or cause of the glorious multitude of organs or instruments --intellect, ego, mind, powers of perception and powers of action--." In other words, the aphorism might also be translated in the following manner:
"We laud (stumaḥ) that (tam) Śaṅkara --an epithet of Śiva-- (śaṅkaram) who is the source or cause (prabhavam) of the glorious (vibhava) multitude (cakra) of organs or instruments --intellect, ego, mind, powers of perception and powers of action-- (śakti), (and) by whose (yasya) opening (and) shutting of (His) eyes (unmeṣa-nimeṣābhyām) (there is) dissolution and emergence (pralaya-udayau) of the world (jagataḥ)."--
--Now, a sixth interpretation of the compound "śakticakravibhavaprabhavam" in the aphorism--
(Likewise, according to what has been expressed in the first aphorism of the second section of Spandakārikā-s:)
"Grabbing hold (ākramya) of that (tad) Force (balam), the Mantra-s (mantrāḥ), full (śālinaḥ) of the omniscient (sarvajña) power (bala), proceed (pravartante) to occupy themselves with their (respective) functions (adhikārāya) (toward the embodied beings), just as (iva) the powers of perception and action (karaṇāni) of (those very) embodied beings (dehinām... iti) (proceed to occupy themselves with their own functions by also getting hold of that Force)."||
(Śakticakra or the group of powers) would be (ātmanaḥ) the eternal (nitya) mantra-s (mantra)44 .
--Thus, this sixth interpretation states that the compound "śakticakravibhavaprabhavam" means:
"The source or cause of the glorious group of eternal mantra-s." In other words, the aphorism might also be translated in the following manner:
"We laud (stumaḥ) that (tam) Śaṅkara --an epithet of Śiva-- (śaṅkaram) who is the source or cause (prabhavam) of the glorious (vibhava) group (cakra) of eternal mantra-s (śakti), (and) by whose (yasya) opening (and) shutting of (His) eyes (unmeṣa-nimeṣābhyām) (there is) dissolution and emergence (pralaya-udayau) of the world (jagataḥ)."--
--Now, a seventh interpretation of the compound "śakticakravibhavaprabhavam" in the aphorism--
(Finally,) according to what has been stated (nītyā) (in the thirteenth aphorism of the third section of Spandakārikā-s):
"He who has (his) glory (vibhavaḥ) deprived (vilupta) by Kalā (kalā), is (gataḥ san) used or enjoyed --i.e. falls prey to-- (bhogyatām) by the group (vargasya) of powers (śakti) derived (samutthasya) from the multitude (rāśi) of words (śabda). (Hence,) he (saḥ) is known (smṛtaḥ) as paśu or limited being (paśuḥ... iti)."||
(Śakticakra or the group of powers would be) that whose essential nature (sva-bhāvasya) is (the group) of deities (devatā) (such as) Brāhmī (brāhmī), etc. (ādi)45 .
--Thus, this seventh interpretation states that the compound "śakticakravibhavaprabhavam" means:
"The source or cause of the glorious group of deities (such as) Brāhmī, Yogīśvarī (or Mahālakṣmī), Māheśvarī, Kaumārī, Vaiṣṇavī, Vārāhī, Aindrī (or Indrāṇī) and Cāmuṇḍā." In other words, the aphorism might also be translated in the following manner:
"We laud (stumaḥ) that (tam) Śaṅkara --an epithet of Śiva-- (śaṅkaram) who is the source or cause (prabhavam) of the glorious (vibhava) group (cakra) of deities (such as) Brāhmī, Yogīśvarī (or Mahālakṣmī), Māheśvarī, Kaumārī, Vaiṣṇavī, Vārāhī, Aindrī (or Indrāṇī) and Cāmuṇḍā (śakti), (and) by whose (yasya) opening (and) shutting of (His) eyes (unmeṣa-nimeṣābhyām) (there is) dissolution and emergence (pralaya-udayau) of the world (jagataḥ)."--
Thus (evam), in Spandasandoha --see note 23-- (spandasandohe) I have certainly explained in detail (api mayā eva... vitatya) the "vibhava" (yaḥ vibhavaḥ) (or) exalted position (māhātymyam) of the primordial (ādeḥ) group (cakrasya) of powers (śakti), which has been (therefore) completely investigated and discussed (nirṇītasya), (and) whose nature (prakārasya) is infinite (ananta). In that context (tatra), the term "prabhava" (prabhavam) means one who presides or dominates (prabhavati iti), i.e. one who is free (svatantram), and not (na tu) one who is dependant (paratantram) like (vat) an animal (paśu)46 |
--Now, an additional interpretation of the compound "śakticakravibhavaprabhavam" in the aphorism--
(Śakticakravibhavaprabhavam may also be considered) to be a Bahuvrīhi compound (bahuvrīhiṇā)47 . (According to this standpoint), the term "vibhava" (yaḥ vibhavaḥ) (would mean) the inner (antarmukhaḥ) display or unfoldment (vikāsaḥ) of the mass (puñjasya) of rays (raśmi)48 . Consequently (tatas), the term "prabhava" (prabhavaḥ), (as it is the last member of such a Bahuvrīhi compound, it should be understood as) "one whose (yasya) emergence (udayaḥ) (and) manifestation (abhivyaktiḥ)" --note that in this interpretation "prabhava" would mean emergence and manifestation, and not merely "source or cause" as usually translated--.
--Thus, this additional interpretation states that the compound "śakticakravibhavaprabhavam", if taken as a Bahuvrīhi compound, would mean:
"One whose emergence and manifestation (consists of) the inner display or unfoldment of the mass of rays --i.e. the deities of the senses-- (also known as) the group of powers." In other words, the aphorism might also be translated in the following manner:
"We laud (stumaḥ) that (tam) Śaṅkara --an epithet of Śiva-- (śaṅkaram) whose emergence and manifestation (prabhavam) (consists of) the inner display or unfoldment of the mass of rays --i.e. the deities of the senses-- (vibhava) (also known as) the group (cakra) of powers (śakti), (and) by whose (yasya) opening (and) shutting of (His) eyes (unmeṣa-nimeṣābhyām) (there is) dissolution and emergence (pralaya-udayau) of the world (jagataḥ)."--
The purport is (iti arthaḥ) that a recognition (pratyabhijñānam) of the Supreme (parama) Lord's (īśvara) Self (sva-rūpa) takes place (bhavati) effortlessly (ayatnena) by means of the perception (nibhālanāt) of that (tad) inner (antarmukhaḥ) essential nature (sva-rūpa)|
Moreover (kiñca), we laud (stumaḥ) Śaṅkara --i.e. Śiva-- (śaṅkaram) who is the revealer (prakāśakam) of His (etad) primordial nature (sva-rūpa)49 to those who are dedicated (bhājām) to devotion (bhakti). (We laud) Him (tam) (who is) the source or cause (prabhavam) of the Śakticakravibhava (śakti-cakra-vibhavasya), i.e. of the vast expanse (sphārasya) of the divinity (devatā) (appearing in the form) of the Highest (para) Consciousness (saṁvid). The dissolution (or reabsorption) (pralaya) (and) appearance or manifestation --udaya-- (udayau) of the world (jagat), i.e. of that whose nature (rūpasya) is the body (śarīra), (and in fact) of the external (bāhyasya) universe (viśvasya) too (api) through its association (tad-anusaṅgeṇa) --i.e. by using the body as a kind of bridge or nexus-- (is really) an emergence --unmajjana-- (unmajjane) (and) submergence (majjana), in a succesive way (yathā-saṅkhyam), of That who Is --the Self-- (bhavataḥ)50 , in conformity (yuktyā) (with the well-known teaching): "What (yad) (is) within (antar) (is also) without (tad bahis iti)". (The aforesaid processes of dissolution and manifestation are carried out) by means of an opening and shutting of the eyes (unmeṣa-nimeṣābhyām) of that (yasya) Self (ātmanaḥ) who is a compact mass (ghanasya) of Consciousness (cit) (and) Bliss (ānanda), (that is,) by revealing and concealing (unmīlana-nimīlanābhyām) (His) essential nature (sva-rūpa)|
Likewise (tathā), (it might be stated that there is) emergence or manifestation (udayaḥ) of the world (jagataḥ), which is in close connection or unity (sambandhinaḥ) with His (yasya sva) Self (ātmanaḥ), on account of "unmeṣa" --opening of His eyes-- (unmeṣāt), whose nature (rūpāt) consists of an expansion (prasara) appearing as externality (bahis-mukhatā). In turn (ca), (there is) submergence (pralayaḥ) (of that very world) because of "nimeṣa" --shutting of His eyes-- (nimeṣāt), which is essentially (rūpāt) internality (antar-mukhatā). (Therefore,) as far as possible (yathā-sambhavam) (the aphorism might) even (api) be formulated (yojyam) (as follows): "We laud (stumaḥ) that (tam) Śaṅkara (śaṅkara) who is the source or cause (hetum) of the exalted position (māhātmyasya) of the Goddess (devī) Consciousness (saṁvid) whose essence (sva-rūpa) is 'unmeṣa' (unmeṣa), etc. --i.e. 'nimeṣa'-- (ādi), which produce (kāri) emanation or manifestation (sarga) of the universe (viśva), etc. --i.e. 'pralaya' or dissolution-- (ādi... iti)"|
Even (api) having entered (āviṣṭaḥ) the body (deha), etc. (ādi), the Supreme (parama) Lord (īśvaraḥ), by opening (unmīlana) (and) shutting --nimīlana-- (nimīlanābhyām) the senses (karaṇa) of one who is composed (mayasya) of the group of five (pañcaka), i.e. of Rūpa-tanmātra (rūpa), etc. (ādi)51 , brings about (karoti) the manifestation (sarga) (and) dissolution --saṁhāra-- (saṁharau) of the world (jagataḥ)|
This (yad) has (also) been said (uktam) by the knower (vidā) of the secret (rahasya) principle (tattva) --or else, "the truth (tattva) of the esoteric teaching (rahasya)"--52 :
"Thus (evam), that (tad) Lord (prabhuḥ), even (api) in ordinary life (vyavahāre), by entering (āviśan) the body (deha), etc. (ādim), (causes) the multitude (ogham) of inner (antar) objects (artha), which has the form of a thunderbolt (bhāntam eva)53 , to appear (bhāsayet) outside (bahis) by (His) Will (icchayā... iti)."|
So that (people reading this aphorism) may receive (parigrahāya) the meaning (artha) in such a manner --i.e. in the way expressed above by Utpaladeva-- (evaṁvidha) too (api), the guru or spiritual preceptor --the author of Spandakārikā-s, i.e. Vasugupta according to Kṣemarāja-- (guruṇā), by abandoning (tyaktvā) (the phrase) "yasya svātantryaśaktyā", i.e. "(By) whose (yasya) Power (śaktyā) of Absolute Freedom (svātantrya... iti)", chose (to use) (nyarūpi) (the phrase) "yasyonmeṣanimeṣābhyām", i.e. "(By) whose (yasya) opening (and) shutting of (His) eyes (unmeṣanimeṣābhyām iti)"|
In this respect (atra ca), the praise or laudation (stutiḥ) of Śaṅkara (śaṅkara) (in the aphorism, means) that whose nature (rūpā) is "samāveśa" or penetration (samāveśa) --i.e. penetration into the Lord--, which --i.e. "samāveśa"-- is mentioned (abhideyā) as what is to be attained --i.e. the goal-- (prāpyatvena). (On the one hand, by taking "Śakticakravibhavaprabhavam") as a Bahuvrīhi compound --see note 47 for more information about this kind of compounds-- (bahuvrīhiṇā), (in the following form): "Śakticakravibhavātprabhavo yasya", (that is,) "One whose (yasya) manifestation (prabhavaḥ) is due to the inner display or unfoldment (vibhavāt) of the group (cakra) of powers (śakti)", (then,) the (inner) display or unfoldment (vikāsaḥ) of the group (cakra) of powers (śakti) is declared (uktaḥ) (to be) the means (upāyaḥ) for the attainment (prāptau) of that ("samāveśa" or penetration in the Supreme Being) (tad). (On the other hand, by taking "Śakticakravibhavaprabhavam") as a Tatpuruṣa compound (tatpuruṣeṇa)54 , (which appears in the following form when dissolved): "Śakticakravibhasya... prabhavam"55 , (that is,) "The (prabhava or) revealer (prakāśakam) (of Śakticakravibhava), i.e. of the vast expanse (sphārasya) of the deity (devatā) of the Highest (para) Consciousness (saṁvid) to those who are dedicated (bhājām) to devotion (bhakti... iti)", (then,) the fruit or result (phalam) is mentioned (uktam)|
This (yad) (is what Vasugupta, the author of Spandakārikā-s according to Kṣemarāja,) will say (vakṣyati) (in the nineteenth aphorism of the third section):
"... consequently (tatas), he (also) becomes (bhavet) the Lord (īśvaraḥ) of the group (of śakti-s or powers) (cakra... iti)."|
The connection (sambandhaḥ) of the meaning or signification (of Spandakārikā-s) (abhidheya)56 (and) the means --upāya-- (upāyayoḥ) is that of (bhāvaḥ) the aim or goal (upeya) (and) the means (upāya). So (iti), the signification or meaning (of Spandakārikā-s) (abhidheya), the means (upāya), (their) connection (sambandha) (and) the benefit or profit to be obtained --i.e. "prayojana", the fruit or result-- (prayojanāni) have been declared and stated (sūtritāni) through this (anena) very (eva) aphorism (sūtrena) --i.e. the first aphorism of Spandakārikā-s, which has been completely commented by Kṣemarāja--||1||
1 The word "kalpita" may also mean "imagined, mentally conceived, invented, fabricated, artificial, etc.", in short, Kṣemarāja is referring to "ego" or false I-consciousness (e.g. I am Gabriel).
2 In other words, the original Spandakārikā-s on which Kṣemarāja is commenting in his Spandanirṇaya.
3 According to the ancient tradition, Śiva bestows His Grace on someone by looking at him/her with a side glance (kaṭākṣa). Mysterious, isn't it?
4 Note that Kṣemarāja is referring to the first half of the original stanza in Sanskrit (yasyonmeṣa... , i.e. yasya unmeṣa...), and not to its translation into English, obviously. As you can see, the word "yasya" (whose) appears in the middle of the English translation despite it is at the beginning of the original stanza.
5 By "Her" the text is referring to "of the Supreme Power or Parāśakti". As you know, Parāśakti is female in gender.
6 Kṣemarāja is again referring to that Parāśakti (Supreme Power) or Svātantryaśakti (Power of Absolute Freedom). In short, he is referring to Śakti or I-consciousness. As you know, "Parāśakti", "Svātantryaśakti" and "Śakti" are female in gender.
7 In other words, "from the Lord Himself".
8 Another possible translation might be "She is not anything extra".
9 The common meaning for the root "spand" is "to throb, vibrate".
11 Although I chose to translate "camatkāra" as "amazement" in this context, know that it also means "the Bliss of I-consciousness" and "the delight arising from the artistic experience".
12 "Unmeṣa" and "Nimeṣa" literally mean "the act of opening the eyes" and "the act of closing the eyes", respectively. In this context, they may interpreted to be "emanation" and "absorption". When there is "Unmeṣa" of the universe, that is, cosmic emanation, there is "Nimeṣa" or absorption of I-consciousness. In other words, one's own I-consciousness is voluntarily reduced so that the universe may flourish. In turn, when there is Unmeṣa or growing up of I-consciousness, "Nimeṣa" or absorption of the universe is brought about consequently. This is explained by Kṣemarāja himself in his present commentary of the first aphorism... keep reading, please.
13 These are the seven experients according to Trika system: Śiva (tattva-s 1 and 2), Mantramaheśvara (tattva 3), Mantreśvara (tattva 4), Mantra (tattva 5), Vijñānākala (between tattva-s 5 and 6), Pralayākala (tattva-s 6 to 11) and Sakala (tattva-s 12 to 36). See documents of Trika section for more information.
14 In short, the glorious great Lord is both the 7 experients and all that is experienced by them.
15 Consciousness or Saṁvid is feminine in gender. She is considered as a goddess or devī.
16 Literally: "By opening (and) shutting of (His) eyes". See aphorism 1 above. Note that in the aphorism, "yasya" (whose) appears together with "unmeṣanimeṣābhyām" and thus the whole translation is "By whose opening (and) shutting of (His) eyes". Got my point? Well done.
17 In other words, the first aphorism of Spandakārikā-s, which we are studying right now.
18 Kallaṭa was one of the most important disciples of Vasugupta, the sage who found Śivasūtra-s on the mountain Mahādeva. According to Kṣemarāja, he is also the author of Spandakārikā-s, while other authors think that it was Kallaṭa himself. This is a matter of debate yet.
19 According to Kṣemarāja, Vasugupta is the real author of Spandakārikā-s, while other authors think that it was Kallaṭa, his main disciple.
20 The translation "named or designated" is also possible here.
21 In other words: "Yasyonmeṣanimeṣābhyāṁ jagataḥ pralayodayau" - "... by whose (yasya) opening (and) shutting of (His) eyes (unmeṣa-nimeṣābhyām) (there is) dissolution and emergence (pralaya-udayau) of the world (jagataḥ)".
22 The Five-fold Act of the Supreme Lord consists of udaya (emergence of the universe), sthiti (maintenance of the universe), pralaya (reabsorption of the universe), vilaya --also known as tirodhāna or pīḍana-- (concealment of one's own essential nature) and anugraha (divine Favor or Grace). According to venerable Kṣemarāja, these five acts are in reality different forms of udaya-s (emergences) and pralaya-s (reabsorptions).
23 Spandasandoha is a preliminary work by Kṣemarāja, in which he only comments on the first aphorism of Spandakārikā-s. Afterward, he composed the present Spandanirṇaya, in which he extended his commentaries to the entire book, i.e. to all aphorisms of Spandakārikā-s.
24 Mahārtha is the well-known Krama school (also called Mahānaya), which arose in Kashmir about the 7th century A.D. This system states that the processes of universal emergence and reabsorption are carried about by a number of specific goddesses.
25 The objector is asking about why it is used the singular number in "... by whose (yasya) opening (and) shutting of (His) eyes (unmeṣa-nimeṣābhyām) (there is) dissolution and emergence (pralaya-udayau) of the world (jagataḥ)", if the Krama system states that the processes of emergence and dissolution (i.e. reabsorption) are carried about by several deities. Remember that the Krama system is closely related to Trika. Hence that objection is valid in this context.
26 Thus, Kṣemarāja, by quoting a previous portion of this very first aphorism, declares that Śaṅkara (Śiva) is the source of those deities or powers (śakti-s) who carry about the processes of emergence and dissolution (reabsorption) of the world. Therefore, it is actually Śiva who brings about universal emergence and dissolution through His deities (also known as powers or goddesses). So, there is no real contradiction between the Krama and Trika systems on that point.
27 "Śaktīnāṁ... cakram" --group (cakram) of powers (śaktīnām)-- may also be written as a compound: "śakticakram", i.e. "śakticakra", in its crude form (without any declension). Note that "śakticakram" is declined in the Nominative case. See Declension documents for more information. I am making this point clear to indicate that this interpretation is firstly analyzing the compound "śakticakra" in the aphorism.
28 Even though I translated "vibhava" as "glorious" in the original aphorism, there are many other interpretations, this being one of them. The same thing is true to "śakticakra" and "prabhava". I could not include all interpretations in my translation... that is why the commentaries exist, hehe.
29 The term "manthāna-bhairava" literally means: "The terrible and frightful Being (bhairava) who shakes (the universe) (manthāna)". Paradoxically, the term "bhairava" derives from "bhīru" (fearful). Some way, over the centuries it produced a term that came to mean the opposite. In short, Manthānabhairava is the Supreme Lord, the source of all. What else might I say then?
30 By "etc", it is meant "maintenance and dissolution (reabsorption)", of course.
31 In other words, the following second interpretation of "Śakticakravibhavaprabhavam" will remove that doubt.
32 By "something", the author means "something that is manifest". This is obvious, isn't it? Look around, hehe.
33 The sage Utpaladeva was the disciple of Somānanda, one of the renowned disciples of Vasugupta himself (the one who discovered Śivasūtra-s). In turn, Somānanda and Utpaladeva are the authors of the main books in the Pratyabhijñā section (the third section of the Trika's literature --See Trika section of this site for more information--). Śivadṛṣṭi and Īśvarapratyabhijñā are the most celebrated scriptures composed by Somānanda and Utpaladeva respectively.
34 In simple terms, "The Lord wishes to manifest all living beings because they are already contained in Him".
35 Contracted form of "anyo'nyam" (anyas anyam). Thus, it may also be written as "anyo'nyam" instead of "anyonyam".
36 Yes, yes, the term "vijñāna" has many other meanings, but it should be translated as "Consciousness" in this context.
37 Kallaṭa was one of the most prominent disciples of venerable Vasugupta.
38 See fourth aphorism of the second section in Spandakārikā-s, the scripture Kṣemarāja is commenting on right now.
39 The goddess Vāmeśī is also known as Vāmeśvarī. She is the main deity of the group of goddesses.
40 Vāmeśvarī (also known as Vāmeśī) is the chief of the group of five śakti-s or powers: Khecarī (this power moves in the sphere of the limited experient), Gocarī (it moves in the sphere of the mind), Dikcarī (it moves in the sphere of the senses) and Bhūcarī (it moves in the sphere of the objects).
41 See that aphorism (I,20) in Spandakārikā-s for the rest of its translation. Spanda means "Vibration" literally. It is an epithet of Śakti, the Supreme Power.
42 Read aphorisms 6 and 7 of the first section in Spandakārikā-s to better understand the purport, as they are closely related to each other.
43 The powers of perception and action are Jñānendriya-s and Karmendriya-s. See Tattvic Chart (tattva-s or categories 17 through 26) for more information.
44 The eternal mantra-s are ultimately the embodiment of the primordial mantra of the Supreme Self. There are many sacred sounds, but none of them may "perfectly" represent the most subtle sound produced by the Absolute Consciousness. They are like rivers flowing into the ocean of the eternal sound of God. No gross tongues can utter that sound.
45 The deities referred to are those of the varga-s (groups of letters): a-varga (vowel group) is presided by Yogīśvarī (also known as Mahālakṣmī); ka-varga (guttural group) is presided by Brāhmī; ca-varga (palatal group) is presided by Māheśvarī; ṭa-varga (cerebral group) is presided by Kaumārī; ta-varga (dental group) is presided by Vaiṣṇavī; pa-varga (labial group) is presided by Vārāhī; ya-varga (semivowel group) is presided by Aindrī (also known as Indrāṇī) and śa-varga (sibilant and sonant aspirate group) is presided by Cāmuṇḍā. See Sanskrit alphabet (traditional arrangement) for more information.
46 The term "paśu" may also be pronounced "paśu". It literally means "animal", and in this sense its meaning is also applied to the "limited beings", which are like animals if compared to the Supreme Lord.
47 Bahuvrīhi or Attributive compounds are completely studied in Compounds (See Sanskrit/Compounds in the main menu). The same term "bahuvrīhi" may be used as a Bahuvrīhi compound. It literally means: "a lot of (bahu) rice (vrīhiḥ)" (note that I added Visarga --ḥ-- to "vrīhi" in order to decline the noun in the Nominative case --see Declension for more information about declension--). In this sense, if literally translated would mean "a lot of rice", but as it is a Bahuvrīhi compound, the proper translation is "one who has a lot of rice". Likewise, this additional interpretation of the compound "Śakticakravibhavaprabhavam" specifies that it may be considered as a Bahuvrīhi compound: "One whose prabhavam....". Got it? OK, it is difficult for the rookies, but what the heck, you are in the Sanskrit universe here where all is always difficult. Anyway, if you still do not understand me, do not be in a hurry. You will understand in due course.
48 The "mass of rays" are the deities of the senses. Therefore, the term "vibhava" might be understood as "the inner display or unfoldment of the deities of the senses".
49 An alternative translation of "... bhaktibhājāmetatsvarūpaprakāśakam" might be "... who is the revealer (prakāśakam) of the primordial nature (sva-rūpa) of this --i.e. of 'Śakticakravibhava', which is explained immediately after that-- (etad) to those who are dedicated (bhājām) to devotion (bhakti)". Well, I chose to translate "etad" as "His", which is also valid, but both translations are possible, I think, according to my present knowledge.
50 "Bhavataḥ" may also be translated as "Your", but since the Lord is always considered in the third person throughout the entire paragraph, to introduce here the second person would be inadequate. The word "bhavat", apart from being the crude form of "bhavān" (courteous "You"), also means "one who is or exists", and "bhavataḥ" is the Genitive case, in this case, i.e. "of one who is or exists". Remember that "tvam" is the common "you", while "bhavān" is "You" like if you were expressing "Your honor", "Your highness", do you understand? Thus, "bhavān" (derived from "bhavat") is much more courteous than a mere "tvam". In short, "bhavataḥ" may also mean "of Yours" or simply "Your", but it is better to translate it here as "of one who is or exists". I replaced "one" with "That" in the translation for the sake of convenience, of course.
51 The compound "rūpādipañcakamayasya" or "of one who is composed of the group of five, i.e. of Rūpa-tanmātra, etc." means in short "of a living being". All livings beings are composed of five Tanmātra-s (Rūpa, Śabda, Sparśa, Rasa and Gandha). See the Tattvic Chart for more information. The sense of this phrase is that the Highest Lord, even having entered in the physical body of a living being, brings about the manifestation and reabsorption of the world by merely opening and closing the senses of such a being. That living being is "you", right now. The world is manifested when your senses are opened by the Lord, and then it is reabsorbed when those very senses are closed by Him. What you call "the world" is simply a divine play of the Supreme Self, who lives in you as "You", according to Trika.
52 It refers to exalted Utpaladeva, the eminent disciple of Somānanda.
53 The word "bhānta" means two things: "one who has the form of a thunderbolt" or "moon". In this case, I chose the first translation. The hidden purport is that the multitude of inner objects rests within the Lord in a "shining" form, like that of a thunderbolt. Besides, the very term "bhāsayet" (causes to appear) occurring afterward, is derived from the root "bhās", which means "to appear", but also "to shine, be bright". In turn, the term "eva" (only, certainly, indeed, etc.) acts here as a mere expletive, i.e. a word that, though untranslated, contributes to the entire sense of a sentence. In this case, "eva" has been inserted there for the sake of emphasis.
54 The principal characteristic of the Determinative or Tatpuruṣa compounds is that they contain two members and the former "determines" the import of the latter. See documents of the Compounds subsection within the Sanskrit section (see main menu) for a detailed information about this particular type of compound. In fact, it is the most usual one among all kinds of compounds.
55 Kṣemarāja here considers the "Śakticakravibhavaprabhavam" as an inflectional Tatpuruṣa of the Genitive kind. When an inflectional Tatpuruṣa compound is dissolved, its first member (called "attributive) appears to be declined in the respective case (Genitive here, of course). The great sage states that the first member might be "Śakticakravibhava" and the second one "prabhavam". Thus, when the compound is dissolved, the first member should be declined in Genitive... and this is what occurs in the commentary: "Śakticakravibhavasya... prabhavam", got it? Well, if you do not understand it yet, go read the documents of the Compounds subsection (See Sanskrit/Compounds in the main menu).
56 Some other authors translate "abhideya" as "subject matter".
नन्वेवम्भूतशङ्करस्वरूपसत्तायां किं प्रमाणं कुतश्चोपादानादिहेतुं विना जगदसौ जनयति तस्यैवोपादानत्वे मृत्पिण्डस्येव घतेन जगता तिरोधानं क्रियेत तिरोहितातिरोहिततायां च भगवतः स्वभावभेदः स्यात्पुनरुन्मज्जने च हेतुश्चिन्त्यो जगदुदये च द्वैतप्रसङ्ग इत्येताः शङ्का एकप्रहारेणापहर्तुमाह—
यत्र स्थितमिदं सर्वं कार्यं यस्माच्च निर्गतम्।
तस्यानावृतरूपत्वान्न निरोधोऽस्ति कुत्रचित्॥२॥
तस्यास्य शङ्करात्मनः प्रकाशानन्दघनस्य स्वस्वभावस्य न कुत्रचिद्देशे काल आकारे वा निरोधः प्रसरख्याघातोऽस्त्यनावृतरूपत्वादस्थगितस्वभावत्वात्। अयं भावः। इह यत्किञ्चित्प्राणपुर्यष्टकसुखनीलादिकं चित्प्रकाशस्यावरकं सम्भाव्यते तद्यदि न प्रकाशते न किञ्चित्प्रकाशमानं तु प्रकाशात्मकशङ्करस्वरूपमेवेति किं कस्य निरोधकं को वा निरोधार्थः। एतदेव तस्येत्येतद्विशेषणेन यत्रेत्यादिनोपपादयति। यत्र यस्मिंश्चिद्रूपे स्वात्मनीदं मातृमानमेयात्मकं सर्वं जगत्कार्यं स्थितं यत्प्रकाशेन प्रकाशमानं सत्स्थितिं लभते तस्य कथं तेन निरोधः शक्यस्तन्निरोधे हि निरोधकाभिमतमेव न चकास्यादित्याशयशेषः। यथोक्तम्
तदात्मनैव तस्य स्यात्कथं प्राणेन यन्त्रणा।
इत्यजडप्रमातृसिद्धौ। ननूत्पन्नस्य स्थित्यात्मा प्रकाशो भवत्युत्पत्तिरेव त्वस्य कुत इत्याह यस्माच्च निर्गतमिति। स्मृतिस्वप्नसङ्कल्पयोगिनिर्माणदृष्ट्या चितः स्वानुभवसिद्धं जगत्कारणत्वमुज्झत्वाप्रमाणकमनुपपन्नं च प्रधानपरमाण्वादीनां न तत्कल्पयितुं युज्यते। कार्यपदेन चेदमेव ध्वनितं कर्तुः क्रियया निष्पाद्यं हि कार्यमुच्यते न तु जडकारणानन्तरभावि जडस्य कारणत्वानुपपत्तेरीश्वरप्रत्यभिज्ञोक्तनीत्या। भविष्यति चैतत्
अवस्थायुगलं चात्र कार्यकर्तृत्वशब्दितम्।
इत्यत्र। सर्वशब्देनोपादानादिनैरपेक्ष्यं कर्तुर्ध्वनितम्। न च कार्यं घटादि कर्तुः कुम्भकारादेः कदाचित्स्वरूपं तिरोदधद्दृष्टम्। ननु निर्गतिरवस्थितस्य भवति तत्किमेतत्क्वचिदादावेव स्थितं नान्यत्र स्थितमपि तु तत्रैव चिदात्मनीत्याह यत्र स्थितमिति। आवृत्त्या चैतद्योज्यम्। अयमर्थो यदि चिदात्मनि जगदहम्प्रकाशाभेदेन न भवेत्तत्कथमुपादानादिनिरपेक्षं तत उदियात्। यतस्तु
यथा न्यग्रोधबीजस्थः शक्तिरूपो महाद्रुमः।
तथा हृदयबीजस्थं जगदेतच्चराचरम्॥
इति पूर्वोक्तयुक्त्या च तत्रैतदभेदेन स्फुरत्स्थितं ततोऽयं चिदात्मा भगवान्निजरसाश्यानतारूपं जगदुन्मज्जयतीति युज्यते। एवं च यत्र स्थितमेव सद्यस्मान्निर्गतमित्यत्र योजना जाता। च एवार्थे भिन्नक्रमः। ननु यदि तस्मात्प्रकाशवपुष इदं जगन्निर्यातं तन्न प्रथेत न हि प्रभाबाह्यं च प्रथते चेति युक्तमित्याशङ्क्य यस्मान्निर्गतमपि सद्यत्र स्थितमित्यावृत्त्या सङ्गमनीयम्। चोऽप्यर्थे भिन्नक्रमः। एतदुक्तं भवति न प्रसेवकादिवाक्षोटादि तत्तस्मान्निर्गतमपि तु स एव भगवान्स्वस्वातन्त्र्यादनतिरिक्तामप्यतिरिक्तामिव जगद्रूपतां स्वभित्तौ दर्पणनगरवत्प्रकाशयन्स्थितः। ननु च भवत्वेवं सर्गस्थित्यवस्थयोर्जगतास्यानिरुद्धत्वं संहारावस्थया त्वभावात्मना सुषुप्तदेशीयया जगतः सम्बन्धिन्या कथं नैतत्तिरोधीयते नहि ग्राह्यं जगद्विना ग्राहकश्चिदात्मा कश्चिदित्यावृत्त्यैतदेवोत्तरं यस्मान्निर्गतमपि सद्यत्रैव स्थितमुत्पन्नमपि जगत्संहारावस्थायां तदैकात्म्येनैवास्ते न त्वस्यान्यः कश्चिदुच्छेदः शून्यरूपस्तस्य वक्ष्यमाणयुक्त्या प्रकाशं भित्तिभूतं विनानुपपत्तेरित्यर्थः। यथोक्तं श्रीस्वच्छन्दशास्त्रे
अशून्यं शून्यमित्युक्तं शून्यं चाभाव उच्यते।
देव्यभावः स विज्ञेयो यत्र भावाः क्षयं गताः॥
इति। एवं सर्वं यस्य कार्यं यत्प्रकाशेनैव प्रकाशते संहृतमपि च सद्यत्प्रकाशैकात्म्येन तिष्ठति न तस्य देशकालाकारादि किञ्चिन्निरोधकं युज्यते — इति व्यापकं नित्यं विश्वशक्तिखचितं स्वप्रकाशमादिसिद्धं चैतत्तत्त्वमिति। नास्य सद्धावज्ञातार्थप्रकाशरूपं प्रमाणवराकमुपपद्यत उपयुज्यते सम्भवति वा प्रत्युतैतत्तत्त्वसिद्ध्यधीना प्रमाणादिविश्ववस्तुसिद्धिः। तदुक्तमस्मद्गुरुभिस्तन्त्रालोके
प्रमाणान्यपि वस्तूनां जीवितं यानि तन्वते।
तेषामपि परो जीवः स एव परमेश्वरः॥
इति। यस्मान्निर्गतमपीदं जगद्यत्र स्थितं यत्प्रकाशेन प्रकाशमानं तथाभूतमपि यत्र स्थितं यत्प्रकाशैकरूपं। यत्प्रकाश एव यस्य सिद्ध्यै न्यक्षेणेक्ष्यमाणं भवति न त्वन्यज्जगन्नाम किञ्चित्। अत्र यत्र स्थितमित्यावर्त्य द्विर्योज्यम्। एवं च स्वानुभवसिद्धमेवास्य तत्त्वस्य सृष्टिस्थितिसंहारमेलनावभासिनोऽतिदुर्घटकारिणः सर्वदा सर्वत्रानिरुद्धत्वम्। यथोक्तं श्रीमदुत्पलदेवाचार्यैः
परमेश्वरता जयत्यपूर्वा तव सर्वेश यदीशितव्यशून्या।
अपरापि तथैव ते यथेदं जगदाभाति यथा तथा न भाति॥
इति। अत्र हि भासमानमेव जगद्भासनैकशेषीभूतत्वाद्भासनातिरिक्तं न किञ्चिद्भातीत्यर्थः। किञ्च यत्र स्थितमित्युक्त्योपशमपदे यस्माच्च निर्गतमिति प्रसरपदे यतोऽस्य न निरोधस्ततो निमीलनोन्मीलनसमाधिद्वयेऽपि योगिना स्वस्वभावसमावेशपरेणैव भवितव्यम्। यद्वक्ष्यते
यदा क्षोभः प्रलीयेत तदा स्यात्परमं पदम्।
तस्माच्छब्दार्थचिन्तासु न सावस्था न या शिवः।
इत्यपि च। कुत्रचिदनात्मवादिनि सौगतादौ प्रमातरि कुत्रचिच्च बाधकाभिमते प्रमाणे सति न तस्य निरोधः प्रतिषेधोऽस्ति यतो यस्तस्य प्रतिषेधको यच्च तस्य प्रतिषेधकं परमाणं तद्यदि न सिद्धमभित्तिकमेतच्चित्रं सिद्धिश्चास्य प्रकाशत इति तत्सिद्ध्यैव भगवानादिसिद्धस्वप्रकाशमूर्तिरस्तीत्येतत्प्रतिषेधायोदितेनाप्यनक्षरमुक्तम्। भविष्यति चैतत्
न तु योऽन्तर्मुखो भावः।
इत्यत्रान्तरे। एवं चानेन विश्वोत्तीर्णं विश्वमयं विश्वसर्गसंहारादिकारि शाङ्करं स्वस्वभावात्मकं तत्त्वमित्यभिदधता सर्वेषु पारमेश्वरेषु यदुपास्यं तदितः स्पन्दतत्त्वान्नाधिकं केवलमेतत्स्वातन्त्र्यवशेनैव तदुपासावैचित्र्यमाभास्यते। वस्तुतस्तु एतद्वीर्यसारमेवाशेषम्। यद्वक्ष्यति
तदाक्रम्य बलं मन्त्राः सर्वज्ञबलशालिनः।
इत्येतदपि भङ्ग्या प्रतिपादितम्। एवं च न कश्चिदुक्तचोद्यावकाशः। एवमेतादृशेषु चिन्तारत्नप्रायेषु श्रीस्पन्दसूत्रेषु यदन्यैः सर्वैर्विवृतिकृद्भिर्व्याख्यायि यच्चास्माभिः किञ्चिद्व्याक्रियते तत्रान्तरममत्सरा अनवलिप्ताश्च स्वयमेव विचिन्वन्तु सचेतसो न तु तदस्माभिरुद्घाट्य प्रतिपदं प्रदर्श्यते ग्रन्थगौरवापत्तेः॥२॥
Nanvevambhūtaśaṅkarasvarūpasattāyāṁ kiṁ pramāṇaṁ kutaścopādānādihetuṁ vinā jagadasau janayati tasyaivopādānatve mṛtpiṇḍasyeva ghaṭena jagatā tirodhānaṁ kriyeta tirohitātirohitatāyāṁ ca bhagavataḥ svabhāvabhedaḥ syātpunarunmajjane ca hetuścintyo jagadudaye ca dvaitaprasaṅga ityetāḥ śaṅkā ekaprahāreṇāpahartumāha—
Yatra sthitamidaṁ sarvaṁ kāryaṁ yasmācca nirgatam|
Tasyānāvṛtarūpatvānna nirodho'sti kutracit||2||
Tasyāsya śaṅkarātmanaḥ prakāśānandaghanasya svasvabhāvasya na kutraciddeśe kāla ākāre vā nirodhaḥ prasarakhyāghāto'styanāvṛtarūpatvādasthagitasvabhāvatvāt| Ayaṁ bhāvaḥ| Iha yatkiñcitprāṇapuryaṣṭakasukhanīlādikaṁ citprakāśasyāvarakaṁ sambhāvyate tadyadi na prakāśate na kiñcitprakāśamānaṁ tu prakāśātmakaśaṅkarasvarūpameveti kiṁ kasya nirodhakaṁ ko vā nirodhārthaḥ| Etadeva tasyetyetadviśeṣaṇena yatretyādinopapādayati| Yatra yasmiṁścidrūpe svātmanīdaṁ mātṛmānameyātmakaṁ sarvaṁ jagatkāryaṁ sthitaṁ yatprakāśena prakāśamānaṁ satsthitiṁ labhate tasya kathaṁ tena nirodhaḥ śakyastannirodhe hi nirodhakābhimatameva na cakāsyādityāśayaśeṣaḥ| Yathoktam
Tadātmanaiva tasya syātkathaṁ prāṇena yantraṇā|
ityajaḍapramātṛsiddhau| Nanūtpannasya sthityātmā prakāśo bhavatyutpattireva tvasya kuta ityāha yasmācca nirgatamiti| Smṛtisvapnasaṅkalpayoginirmāṇadṛṣṭyā citaḥ svānubhavasiddhaṁ jagatkāraṇatvamujjhitvāpramāṇakamanupapannaṁ ca pradhānaparamāṇvādīnāṁ na tatkalpayituṁ yujyate| Kāryapadena cedameva dhvanitaṁ kartuḥ kriyayā niṣpādyaṁ hi kāryamucyate na tu jaḍakāraṇānantarabhāvi jaḍasya kāraṇatvānupapatterīśvarapratyabhijñoktanītyā| Bhaviṣyati caitat
Avasthāyugalaṁ cātra kāryakartṛtvaśabditam|
ityatra| Sarvaśabdenopādānādinairapekṣyaṁ karturdhvanitam| Na ca kāryaṁ ghaṭādi kartuḥ kumbhakārādeḥ kadācitsvarūpaṁ tirodadhaddṛṣṭam| Nanu nirgatiravasthitasya bhavati tatkimetatkvacidādāveva sthitaṁ nānyatra sthitamapi tu tatraiva cidātmanītyāha yatra sthitamiti| Āvṛttyā caitadyojyam| Ayamartho yadi cidātmani jagadahamprakāśābhedena na bhavettatkathamupādānādinirapekṣaṁ tata udiyāt| Yatastu
Yathā nyagrodhabījasthaḥ śaktirūpo mahādrumaḥ|
Tathā hṛdayabījasthaṁ jagadetaccarācaram||
iti pūrvoktayuktyā ca tatraitadabhedena sphuratsthitaṁ tato'yaṁ cidātmā bhagavānnijarasāśyānatārūpaṁ jagadunmajjayatīti yujyate| Evaṁ ca yatra sthitameva sadyasmānnirgatamityatra yojanā jātā| Ca evārthe bhinnakramaḥ| Nanu yadi tasmātprakāśavapuṣa idaṁ jaganniryātaṁ tanna pratheta na hi prabhābāhyaṁ ca prathate ceti yuktamityāśaṅkya yasmānnirgatamapi sadyatra sthitamityāvṛttyā saṅgamanīyam| Co'pyarthe bhinnakramaḥ| Etaduktaṁ bhavati na prasevakādivākṣoṭādi tattasmānnirgatamapi tu sa eva bhagavānsvasvātantryādanatiriktāmapyatiriktāmiva jagadrūpatāṁ svabhittau darpaṇanagaravatprakāśayansthitaḥ| Nanu ca bhavatvevaṁ sargasthityavasthayorjagatāsyāniruddhatvaṁ saṁhārāvasthayā tvabhāvātmanā suṣuptadeśīyayā jagataḥ sambandhinyā kathaṁ naitattirodhīyate nahi grāhyaṁ jagadvinā grāhakaścidātmā kaścidityāvṛttyaitadevottaraṁ yasmānnirgatamapi sadyatraiva sthitamutpannamapi jagatsaṁhārāvasthāyāṁ tadaikātmyenaivāste na tvasyānyaḥ kaściducchedaḥ śūnyarūpastasya vakṣyamāṇayuktyā prakāsaṁ bhittibhūtaṁ vinānupapatterityarthaḥ| Yathoktaṁ śrīsvacchandaśāstre
Aśūnyaṁ śūnyamityuktaṁ śūnyaṁ cābhāva ucyate|
Devyabhāvaḥ sa vijñeyo yatra bhāvāḥ kṣayam gatāḥ||
iti| Evaṁ sarvaṁ yasya kāryaṁ yatprakāśenaiva prakāśate saṁhṛtamapi ca sadyatprakāśaikātmyena tiṣṭhati na tasya deśakālākārādi kiñcinnirodhakaṁ yujyate — iti vyāpakaṁ nityaṁ viśvaśaktikhacitaṁ svaprakāśamādisiddhaṁ caitattattvamiti| Nāsya saddhāvajñātārthaprakāśarūpaṁ pramāṇavarākamupapadyata upayujyate sambhavati vā pratyutaitattattvasiddhyadhīnā pramāṇādiviśvavastusiddhiḥ| Taduktamasmadgurubhistantrāloke
Pramāṇānyapi vastūnāṁ jīvitaṁ yāni tanvate|
Teṣāmapi paro jīvaḥ sa eva parameśvaraḥ||
iti| Yasmānnirgatamapīdaṁ jagadyatra sthitaṁ yatprakāśena prakāśamānaṁ tathābhūtamapi yatra sthitaṁ yatprakāśaikarūpam| Yatprakāśa eva yasya siddhyai nyakṣeṇekṣyamāṇaṁ bhavati na tvanyajjagannāma kiñcit| Atra yatra sthitamityāvartya dviryojyam| Evaṁ ca svānubhavasiddhamevāsya tattvasya sṛṣṭisthitisaṁhāramelanāvabhāsino'tidurghaṭakāriṇaḥ sarvadā sarvatrāniruddhatvam| Yathoktaṁ śrīmadutpaladevācāryaiḥ
Parameśvaratā jayatyapūrvā tava sarveśa yadīśitavyaśūnyā|
Aparāpi tathaiva te yathedaṁ jagadābhāti yathā tathā na bhāti||
iti| Atra hi bhāsamānameva jagadbhāsanaikaśeṣībhūtatvādbhāsanātiriktaṁ na kiñcidbhātītyarthaḥ| kiñca yatra sthitamityuktyopaśamapade yasmācca nirgatamiti prasarapade yato'sya na nirodhastato nimīlanonmīlanasamādhidvaye'pi yoginā svasvabhāvasamāveśapareṇaiva bhavitavyam| Yadvakṣyate
Yadā kṣobhaḥ pralīyeta tadā syātparamaṁ padam|
Tasmācchabdārthacintāsu na sāvasthā na yā śivaḥ|
ityapi ca| Kutracidanātmavādini saugatādau pramātari kutracicca bādhakābhimate pramāṇe sati na tasya nirodhaḥ pratiṣedho'sti yato yastasya pratiṣedhako yacca tasya pratiṣedhakaṁ paramāṇaṁ tadyadi na siddhamabhittikametaccitraṁ siddhiścāsya prakāśata iti tatsiddhyaiva bhagavānādisiddhasvaprakāśamūrtirastītyetatpratiṣedhāyoditenāpyanakṣaramuktam| Bhaviṣyati caitat
Na tu yo'ntarmukho bhāvaḥ|
ityatrāntare| Evaṁ cānena viśvottīrṇaṁ viśvamayaṁ viśvasargasaṁhārādikāri śāṅkaraṁ svasvabhāvātmakaṁ tattvamityabhidadhatā sarveṣu pārameśvareṣu yadupāsyaṁ taditaḥ spandatattvānnādhikaṁ kevalametatsvātantryavaśenaiva tadupāsāvaicitryamābhāsyate| Vastutastu etadvīryasāramevāśeṣam| Yadvakṣyati
Tadākramya balaṁ mantrāḥ sarvajñabalaśālinaḥ|
ityetadapi bhaṅgyā pratipāditam| Evaṁ ca na kaściduktacodyāvakāśaḥ| Evametādṛśeṣu cintāratnaprāyeṣu śrīspandasūtreṣu yadanyaiḥ sarvairvivṛtikṛdbhirvyākhyāyi yaccāsmābhiḥ kiñcidvyākriyate tatrāntaramamatsarā anavaliptāśca svayameva vicinvantu sacetaso na tu tadasmābhirudghāṭya pratipadaṁ pradarśyate granthagauravāpatteḥ||2||
(Here,) an objection (nanu) regarding the existence (sattāyām) of such (evambhūta) a essential nature (sva-rūpa) of Śaṅkara (śaṅkara):
"What (kim) is the proof (pramāṇam), and (ca) how (kutas) (does) That --i.e. Śaṅkara-- (asau) create (janayati) the world (jagat) without (vinā) (any) means (hetum) e.g. material (upādāna), etc. (ādi)? (Moreover,) in the case of (He Himself) being the material (upādānatve) of (which) that (world consists) (tasya eva), (His) disappearance (tirodhānam) would be brought about (kriyeta) by the world (jagatā), just as (iva) (disappearance) of the lump (piṇḍasya) of clay (mṛd) (is brought about) by the jar (ghaṭena)1 . Also (ca), in the case of existing a state of appearance --atirohita-- and disappearance --tirohita-- (tirohita-atirohitatāyām) of the Lord (bhagavataḥ), there would be (syāt) a difference --i.e. there would be lack of unity-- (bhedaḥ) in His essence (sva-bhāva). Besides (ca), in the event of (His) re-emerging (punar unmajjane), a cause (hetuḥ) should be thought about or imagined (cintyaḥ) (to explain that fact). And (ca) on the emergence (udaye) of the world (jagat), (there would be) an inclination or tendency (prasaṅga)2 to dualism (dvaita... iti)".
To remove (apahartum) these (etāḥ) doubts or objections (śaṅkāḥ) with one (eka) stroke (prahāreṇa), (the author of Spandakārikā-s --i.e. Vasugupta, according to Kṣemarāja--) says (āha)—
Since He has a unveiled (anāvṛta) nature --rūpa-- (rūpatvāt), there is no (na.. asti) obstruction (nirodhaḥ) to Him (tasya) anywhere (kutracid), in whom (yatra) all (sarvam) this (idam) universe (kāryam) rests (sthitam) and (ca) from whom (yasmāt) it has come forth (nirgatam)||2||
There is no (na... asti) obstruction (nirodhaḥ) (or) impediment (vyāghātaḥ) for (His) advancing (prasara) anywhere (na kutracid), (whether) in space (deśe), time (kāle) or (vā) form (ākāre), to that (tasya) very (asya) Self (ātmanaḥ) of Śaṅkara (śaṅkara), who is a compact mass (ghanasya) of Light (prakāśa) (and) Bliss (ānanda), (and) who is (also) one's own (sva) essential nature (sva-bhāvasya), since (His) nature (rūpatvāt) (is) unveiled (anāvṛta), i.e. since (His) essence (sva-bhāvatvāt) is not concealed or hidden (asthagita)|
This (ayam) (is) the purport or meaning (bhāvaḥ)|
Here, in this world (iha), whatever (yatkiñcid) (such as) vital energy (prāṇa), subtle body (puryaṣṭaka), pleasure (sukha), blue (nīla), etc. (ādikam), may possibly be considered (sambhāvyate) to be a veil (āvarakam) to the Light (prakāśasya) of Consciousness (cit). (Anyway,) if (yadi) that --i.e. vital energy, subtle body, pleasure, blue, etc.-- (tad) does not (na) become perceivable or manifest (due to Prakāśa or the Light of Consciousness) (prakāśate) (is) nothing (na kiñcid)3 . But (tu), on its becoming perceivable or manifest (prakāśamānam), (then, it is) only (eva) the nature (sva-rūpam) of Śaṅkara (śaṅkara) who consists (ātmaka) of Light (prakāśa)4 . So (iti), what (kim) is obstructing (nirodhakam) whom (kasya), or (vā) what (kaḥ) (is) the meaning (arthaḥ) of obstruction (nirodha)?|
(Vasugupta, the reputed author according to Kṣemarāja,) proves (upapādayati) this (etad) very (fact) (eva) by means of this (etad) differencing phrase (viśeṣaṇena)5 : "in whom", etc. --i.e. "in whom all this universe rests...", see first line in the aphorism-- (yatra-iti-ādinā), (which particularizes or defines the meaning of the other phrase beginning with) "to Him" --i.e. "there is no obstruction to Him anywhere...", see second line in the aphorism-- (tasya-iti)|
(The term) "yatra" (in the aphorism) (yatra) (means "yasmiṁścidrūpe svātmani":) "in whom (yasmin), i.e. in one's own (sva) Self --ātmā-- (ātmani) whose nature --rūpa-- (rūpe) (is) Consciousness (cit)". (In turn, the word) "idam" (idam) (means "mātṛmānameyātmakam":) i.e. "that which consists (ātmakam) of experient or knower (mātṛ), knowledge or means of knowledge (māna) (and) knowable or object (meya)". (The expression) "sarvaṁ kāryam" (sarvam... kāryam) (means "sarvaṁ jagat":) i.e. "all (sarvam) the world (jagat)". (Finally, the term) "sthitám"--rests-- (sthitam) (means "yatprakāśena prakāśamānaṁ satsthitiṁ labhate":) i.e. "by whose (yad) Light or Prakāśa (prakāśena), (this entire world) becomes perceptible or manifest (prakāśamānam) (and thus) obtains (labhate) (its) true (sat) position (sthitim)"6 . (Therefore, the meaning of the whole phrase "yatra sthitamidaṁ sarvaṁ kāryam" is "in whom, i.e. in one's own Self whose nature is Consciousness, all this world consisting of experient or knower, knowledge or means of knowledge and knowable or object rests; that is, by whose Light or Prakāśa it becomes perceptible or manifest and thus obtains its true position". Then,) how (katham) can there be (śakyaḥ) His (tasya) obstruction (nirodhaḥ) by that (world) (tena)? Because (hi) in the event of His obstruction (tad-nirodhe), that which is considered (abhimatam) to be the obstructor --i.e. the world-- (nirodhaka) certainly (eva) would not (na) appear (cakāsyāt). This is what is to be added (iti... śeṣaḥ) to (the aphorism in order to complete its) meaning (āśaya)|
As (yatha) has been expressed (uktam) in Ajaḍapramātṛsiddhi (ajaḍapramātṛsiddhi):
"How (katham) might there be (syāt) His (tasya) restriction (yantraṇā) by the vital energy (prāṇena) (if the latter's) nature --ātmā-- (ātmanā) (is) Himself (tad... iti)?"|
An objection (here) (nanu):
"Prakāśa or the Light of Consciousness (prakāśaḥ) is (bhavati) (obviously the Light,) in its aspect (ātmā) as "sthiti" or "maintenance of manifestation" (sthiti), of that which has emerged --i.e. of the world-- (utpannasya), but (tu) whence (kutas) (does) its (asya) emergence (utpattiḥ eva... iti) (come)?7 "|
(To answer that question, the author) says (at the end of the first line of his second aphorism) (āha) ("yasmācca nirgatam":) i.e. "and (ca) from whom (yasmāt) it has come forth (nirgatam iti)"|
Having discarded (ujjhitvā) Consciousness --Cit-- (citaḥ) as the cause (kāraṇatvam) of the world (jagat), which may be proved (siddham) by (simply) resorting to one's own (sva) experience (anubhava) from the viewpoint (dṛṣṭyā) of memory (smṛti), sleep (svapna), ideation (saṅkalpa) (and) creation (nirmāṇa) by yogī-s (yogi), it is not (na) proper (yujyate) to consider (kalpayitum) Pradhāna (pradhāna), atom (paramāṇu), etc. (ādīnām)8 (to be the cause of the world, because) that (tad) is without any proof (apramāṇakam) and (ca) adequate support (anupapannam)|
Also (ca), by the word (padena) "kārya" (in the aphorism) (kārya) this (idam) very (fact) (eva) is alluded or implied (dhvanitam), i.e. it is said (ucyate) that a "kārya" --lit. effect-- (kāryam) (or) product (niṣpādyam) undoubtedly (hi) (results) from the activity (kriyayā) of a doer or agent (kartuḥ), but (tu) it is (bhavi) not (na) the subsequent outcome (anantara) of an inert or insentient (jaḍa) cause (kāraṇa). According to what has been declared (ukta-nītyā) in Īśvarapratyabhijñā (by the sage Utpaladeva) (yogi), causality (kāraṇatva) (in the case of something which is inert or insentient is not possible) because there is insufficiency of means of proof (anupapatteḥ). This (concept) (etad) will occur (bhaviṣyati) too (ca) in this (scripture) --see the first line of the aphorism 14 of this first section of Spandakārikā-s-- (atra):
"It is said (śabditam) that (there are) two (yugalam) states (avasthā) in this (principle of Spanda) (ca atra), (viz.) the state of deed (kārya... tva) (and) the state of doer (kartṛtva... iti)."|
By the word (padena) "sarva" --lit. all-- (in the aphorism) (sarvam), a state or condition of independence (nairapekṣyam) in respect of material (upādāna), etc. (ādi) on the doer's part (kartuḥ) is alluded or implied (dhvanitam)|
(It is) never (na ca... kadācid) seen (dṛṣṭam) that the product (kāryam), (e.g.) a pot (ghaṭa), etc. (ādi), conceals (tirodadhat) the essential nature (sva-rūpam) of the doer (kartuḥ), (i.e.) the potter (kumbhakāra), etc. (ādeḥ)|
An (additional) objection (nanu):
"(Only) the emergence (nirgatiḥ) of that which is contained in something else (avasthitasya) occurs (bhavati) --i.e. there can be emergence of something only if it is already contained in another thing--. Therefore (tad), is this (world) (kim etad) resting (sthitam) in a certain place (kvacid) at the very (eva) beginning (ādau)?"
(The reply:) "It is nowhere (na anyatra) resting (sthitam), but (api tu) only (eva) in That (tatra) whose nature (ātmani) is Consciousness (cit... iti)." (That is why) Vasugupta says (āha) "yatra sthitam", i.e. "in whom (yatra) (all this universe) rests (sthitam iti)"|
Certainly (ca), this (phrase, i.e. "yatra sthitam") (etad) is to be used (yojyam) by repetition --twice-- (āvṛttyā)|
This (ayam) (is) the meaning (arthaḥ): If (yadi) the world (jagat) did not (na) exist (bhavet) in That whose nature (ātmani) is Consciousness (cit), (enjoying) complete unity (abhedena) with the Light (prakāśa) of Aham --i.e. "I-ness"-- (aham), then (tad), how (katham) would it arise (udiyāt) from that (very Light of Aham) (tatas) without resorting --lit. independently-- (nirapekṣam) to material (upādāna), etc. (ādi)?|
Inasmuch as (yatas tu), according to what has been established (sthityā) by the sacred tradition (āmnāya) (in Parātriṁśikhā, stanza 24):
"Just as (yathā) a large (mahā) tree (drumaḥ) lies (sthaḥ) potentially (śakti-rūpaḥ) in the seed (bīja) of the banyan tree (nyagrodha), so (tathā) this (etad) world (jagat), (both) animate (cara) (and) inanimate (acaram), lies (stham) in the seed (bīja) of the Heart (hṛdaya... iti)9 ."||
And also (ca), according to the afore-said (pūrva-ukta) reasoning or argument (yuktyā), (in Īśvarapratyabhijñā 5-10, it is declared that):
"And (ca) of what abides (samsthasya) in the Self (ātma) of the Master --i.e. the Lord-- (svāminaḥ)."|
(One might conclude that) this (world or universe) (etad) rests (sthitam) in that (Lord) (tatra) flashing (sphurat) as identical (abhedena) (with Him). Therefore (tatas), it is proper (yujyate) (to affirm that) "This (ayam) Lord --lit. Prosperous, Fortunate-- (bhagavān) whose nature (ātmā) is Consciousness (cit) causes the world to emerge (jagat-unmajjayati) in the form (rūpam) of congealment (āśyānatā) of His own (nija) essence (rasa... iti)"10 |
Thus (evam ca), the syntactical construction (yojanā) arising (jātā) here (atra) (is "yatra sthitameva sadyasmānnirgatam":) i.e. "only (eva) because (yasmāt) (all this universe) rests (sthitam) (or) exists (sat) in Him (yatra) (it is able to) come forth (nirgatam) from Himself (yasmāt... iti)"|
(In that case, the particle) "ca" --and-- (in "yasmāccanirgatam") (ca) would mean (arthe) "eva" --only-- (eva) (and would be) displaced, i.e. its location would be a different one (bhinna-kramaḥ). (In short, according to the abovementioned precepts, the first line of the aphorism should have been written like this: "yatra sthitameva idaṁ sarvaṁ kāryaṁ yasmānnirgatam", i.e. "only because all this universe rests in Him it is able to come forth from Himself", instead of "yatra sthitamidaṁ sarvaṁ kāryaṁ yasmācca nirgatam", i.e. "in whom all this universe rests and from whom it has come forth")|
(Another) objection (nanu):
"If (yadi) this (idam) world (jagat) would have come out (niryātam) from that (tasmāt) beautiful form (vapuṣaḥ) of Light or Prakāśa (prakāśa), then (tad) it would not have arise (na pratheta), as (hi) it is not (na) proper (yuktam) (to say that) it is outside (bāhyam) Light (prabhā) and (ca... ca) (at the same time) arising --i.e. becoming manifest-- (prathate... iti... iti)."
Having (so) objected (āśaṅkya), (this is the reply):
(The words should be) put together (saṅgamanīyam) (this way,) by repetition (āvṛttyā): ("yasmānnirgatamapi sadyatra sthitam") i.e. "even (api) (having) come forth (nirgatam) from Him (yasmāt), (all this universe still) rests (sthitam) (or) exists (sat) in Himself (yatra... iti)"|
(Under those circumstances, the particle) "ca" --and-- (in the phrase "yasmācca nirgatam" in the aphorism) (ca) would mean (arthe) "api" --even-- (api) (and would be) displaced, i.e. its location would be a different one (bhinna-kramaḥ). (So, according to the above interpretation, the first line of the aphorism should have been written like this: "yasmānnirgatamapīdaṁ sarvaṁ kāryaṁ yatra sthitam", i.e. "even having come forth from Him, all this universe rests in Himself", instead of "yatra sthitamidaṁ sarvaṁ kāryaṁ yasmācca nirgatam", i.e. "in whom all this universe rests and from whom it has come forth")|
This (etad) which has been described (uktam) is (to be understood as follows) (bhavati): That (world) (tad) does not (na) has emerged (nirgatam) from Him (tasmāt) as does (iva) a walnut (akṣota), etc. (ādi) from a bag (prasevakāt); but (api tu) through His own (sva) Absolute Freedom (svātantryāt), that (saḥ) very (eva) Lord --lit. Prosperous, Fortunate-- (bhagavān) keeps on (sthitaḥ) manifesting (prakāśayan) on His own (sva) screen or background --lit. wall-- (bhittau), like (vat) a city (nagara) in a mirror (darpaṇa), the form (rūpatām) of the world (jagat) as if (iva) different (atiriktām) though (api) non-different (from Him) (anatiriktām)11 |
Even (ca) (another) objection (nanu): "Well (bhavatu), thus (evam) (there is) a condition of non-obstruction (aniruddhatvam) to Him (asya) by the world (jagatā) in the two states (avasthayoḥ) of manifestation (sarga) (and) maintenance (sthiti). However (tu), how (katham) (is) this (Lord) (etad) not (na) concealed (tirodhīyate) by the state (avasthayā) of dissolution (saṁhāra) with reference (sambandhinyā) to the world (jagataḥ), which --i.e. saṁhāra or dissolution of the world-- resembles (deśīyayā) deep sleep (suṣupta) (and) whose nature (ātmanā) is absence (of knowables) (abhāva)? (Because) without (vinā) a perceivable (grāhyam) world (jagat), the perceiver (grāhakaḥ), whose nature (ātmā) is Consciousness (cit), is nobody at all (nahi... kaścid... iti)."
This (etad) is indeed (eva) the reply (uttaram): By repetition (āvṛttyā) (of the phrase "yasmānnirgatamapi sadyatraiva sthitam", ) i.e. "even (api) (having) come forth (nirgatam) from Him (yasmāt), (all this universe still) only (eva) rests (sthitam) (or) exists (sat) in Himself (yatra)". (And by applying that precept to this particular case, it can be stated that,) the world (jagat) which has emerged (utpannam) abides (āste) in a condition of identity (aikātmyena) with Him (tad... eva) even (api) during (its) state (avasthāyām) of dissolution (saṁhāra). Undoubtedly (tu), there is no (na... kaścid) other (anyaḥ) destruction (ucchedaḥ) of this (world) (asya) in the form (rūpaḥ) of a void (śūnya), since there is insufficiency of means to prove the existence (anupapatteḥ) of that (void) (tasya), in accordance (yuktyā) with what will be said (below) (vakṣyamāna), without (vinā) Light or Prakāśa (prakāśam) as being (its) (bhūtam) background (bhitti)12 . This is the purport (iti arthaḥ)|
As (yathā) has been said (uktam) in the venerable (śrī) scripture (śāstre) (known as) Svacchanda (svacchanda)13 :
"(That which) is described (uktam) as 'void' (śūnyam iti) (is really) non-void (aśūnyam). It is said (ucyate) that void (śūnyam) (is) certainly (ca) 'abhāva' (abhāvaḥ). Oh goddess (devi), that (saḥ) is to be known (vijñeyaḥ) as 'abhāva' (abhāvaḥ) in which (yatra) the knowables or perceivable objects (bhāvāḥ) have been dissolved (kṣayam gatāḥ... iti)."||
Thus (evam), all (sarvam) His (yasya) universe --lit. effect-- (kāryam) becomes manifest (prakāśate) only (eva) by means of His own (yad) Light --prakāśa-- (prakāśena), and (ca) even (api) (when that universe is) dissolved (saṁhṛtam), it abides (tiṣṭhati) (or) exists (sat) as identical (aikātmyena) with His (yad) Light (prakāśa). (Whether) space (deśa), time (kāla), form (ākāra), etc. (ādi), nothing (na... kiñcid) is fit or competent to be (yujyate) His (tasya) obstructor (nirodhakam) — In this manner (iti), "pervading (vyāpakam), everlasting (nityam), inlaid (khacitam) with the universal (viśva) Power (śakti) (like a jewel)14 , self-luminous (svaprakāśam) and (ca) eternally existent (ādisiddham) (is) this (etad) (Supreme) Principle (tattvam iti)."|
In the case of having to prove the existence (siddhau) of this (Supreme Principle) (asya), a miserable (varākam) means of proof (pramāṇa) which reveals (prakāśa-rūpam) an unknown (ajñāta) thing (artha) is not (na) adequate (upapadyate), suitable (upayujyate) or (vā) possible (sambhavati). On the contrary (pratyuta), the perfection and accomplishment (siddhiḥ) of all (viśva) things (vastu) (such as) means of proof (pramāṇa), etc. (ādi) depends (adhīnā) upon the perfection and accomplishment (siddhi) of this (etad) Principle (tattva)|
That (tad) has been said (uktam) by our (asmad) spiritual preceptors (gurubhiḥ) in Tantrāloka (I, 55) (tantrāloke):
"That (saḥ) very (eva) Highest (parama) Lord (īśvaraḥ) (is) the supreme (paraḥ) life (jīvaḥ) of even (api) those (teṣām) means of proof (pramāṇāni) which (yāni) certainly (api) constitute (tanvate) the life (jīvitam) of the things (vastūnām)."||
This (idam) world (jagat), even when (api) it has arisen (nirgatam) from Him (yasmāt), rests (sthitam) in Himself (yatra). (And) having become manifest (prakāśamānam) by His (yad) Light (prakāśena), it rests (sthitam) in Him (yatra) also (api) possessed of such a nature (tathā-bhūtam). (In other words,) it is identical (aikarūpam) with His (yad) Light (prakāśa) (even after having been manifested by that very Light)|
His (yad) Light (prakāśaḥ) alone (eva), considered (īkṣyamāṇam) in (its) entirety (nyakṣeṇa), is (enough) (bhavati) to prove (siddhyai) (the existence) of it --i.e. of the world-- (yasya). That which is known (nāma) as the world (jagat) (is) nothing (na... kiñcid) else (anyat) (but His Light or Prakāśa) indeed (tu)|
(Consequently, the phrase "yatra sthitam", ) i.e. "in whom (yatra) (all this universe) rests (sthitam... iti)", should be used (yojyam) twice (dvis) by repetition (āvartya), in this context (atra)|
Thus (evam ca), (as is) certainly (eva) proved (siddham) by one's own (sva) experience (anubhava), (there is) a condition of non-obstruction (aniruddhatvam), always (sarvadā) (and) everywhere (sarvatra), to this (asya) (Spanda) principle --tattva-- (tattvasya) which reveals (avabhāsinaḥ) the joining or meeting point (melana) of manifestation (sṛṣṭi), maintenance (sthiti) (and) dissolution (saṁhāra), (and) which effects (kārinaḥ) what is very hard to be accomplished (atidurghaṭa)|
As (yathā) has been said (uktam) by venerable (śrīmat) preceptor (ācāryaiḥ)15 Utpaladeva (utpaladeva):
"Oh Lord (īśaḥ) of all (sarva), Your (tava) unprecedented (apūrvā) (and) victorious (jayatī)16 condition of Supreme (parama) Lordship (īśvaratā) (is) devoid (śūnyā) of anything (yad) to be reigned or ruled over (īśitavya). Even (api) Your (te) other (state of Lordship) (aparā)17 (is also) so (tathā eva). (Through Your condition of Lordship,) this (idam) world (jagat) in no way (yathā tathā na) appears (to Your devotees or followers) (bhāti) as (yathā) it appears (to the rest of people) (ābhāti... iti)18 ."||
The sense (iti arthaḥ) here (atra) (is) undoubtedly (hi) (that) nothing (na kiñcid) appears (bhāti) as different (atiriktam) from the Splendor of Consciousness (bhāsana) (because) the world (jagat) becoming manifested (bhāsamānam eva) is (śeṣībhūtatvāt) one (eka) with (that) Splendor (bhāsana)|
Besides (kiñca), since (yatas) there is no (na) obstruction (nirodhaḥ) to this (Spanda principle) (asya) (whether) in the state (pade) of cessation (upaśama) (as described) by the phrase (uktyā) ("yatra sthitam",) i.e. "in whom (yatra) (all this universe) rests (sthitam... iti), (or) in the condition (pade) of expansion (prasara) (as expressed) by the phrase (uktyā) ("yasmācca nirgatam",) i.e. "and (ca) from whom (yasmāt) it has come forth (nirgatam)", therefore (tatas) a yogī (yoginā) must be (bhavitavyam) certainly (eva) intent (pareṇa) on entrance (samāveśa) in his own (sva) essential nature (sva-bhāva) even (api) in both (dvaye) (types of) Samādhi-s or Perfect Concentrations (samādhi): Nimīlana (nimīlana) (and) Unmīlana (unmīlana)19 |
That (very teaching) (yad) will be (also) expressed (vakṣyate) (in the second line of the 9th stanza of this first section):
"When (yadā) the agitation (kṣobhaḥ) thoroughly dissolves (pralīyeta), then (tadā) the Supreme (paramam) State (padam) occurs (syāt... iti)."|
Moreover (api ca), (it is said) in like manner (tathā) (in the first line of the 4th stanza of the second section of Spandakārikā-s:)
"Therefore (tasmāt) there is no (na) state (sā avasthā) that (yā) is not (na) Śiva (śivaḥ), (whether) in word (śabda), object (artha) (or) thought --cintā-- (cintāsu)."|
20 (Even though) there may be --sat-- (sati) somewhere (kutracid... kutracid) an experient --pramātṛ-- (pramātari) who is a follower of the doctrine --vādin-- (vādini) of the not-Self (an-ātma), such as a Buddhist (saugata), etc. (ādau), and (ca) a proof --pramāṇa-- (pramāṇe) which is considered --abhimata-- (abhimate) to be annulling (the Self) (bhādaka), there is no (na... asti) obstruction (nirodhaḥ) (to or) negation (pratiṣedhaḥ) of Him --i.e. of the Self or Spanda Principle-- (tasya), because (yatas) if (yadi) that (tad) is not (already) admitted to be real and existent (siddham), (i.e. if) the one who (yaḥ) denies (pratiṣedhakaḥ) Him (tasya) and (ca) the proof (pramāṇam) which (yad) (also) denies (pratiṣedhakam) Him (tasya) (are not already admitted to be real and existent indeed, then) this (denial) (etad) (becomes) a picture (citram) without any canvas (abhittikam). (For that reason,) the proof (siddhiḥ) of this (Self or Spanda principle) (asya) "is manifested or revealed" (prakāśate iti) undoubtedly (ca) by demonstrating (siddhyā eva) that (tad), (i.e. the existence and reality of the denier. Thus), this (declaration) (etad) (postulating that) "the Prosperous and Fortunate Lord (bhagavān), whose form (mūrtiḥ) is an eternally established Reality (ādi-siddha) (and) one's own (sva) Prakāśa or Light (prakāśa), (does) exist (asti... iti)" (is) tacitly (anakṣaram) expressed (uktam) even (api) by one who rises (uditena) to deny (Him) (pratiṣedhāya)|
This (point) (etad) will occur (later on) (bhaviṣyati) as well (ca) (in the first half of the first line of the 16th stanza), in (antare) here (atra), (i.e. within this very section):
"(There is) no (na tu) (cessation of that) inner (antarmukhaḥ) state or nature (bhāvaḥ) which (yaḥ... iti)..."
Thus (evam), this (anena) (scripture) certainly (ca) describes (abhidadhatā) "the (Supreme) Principle (tattvam) (known as) Śaṅkara --Śiva or the Lord-- (śaṅkaram), who consists (ātmakam) of one's own (sva) essential nature (sva-bhāva), (who is both) transcendent (uttīrṇam) (to and) immanent (mayam) in the universe (viśva... viśva), (and) who brings about (kāri) the manifestation (sarga), dissolution (saṁhāra), etc. (ādi) of (that very) universe (viśva)". Consequently (itas), that (tad) which (yad) is revered or worshipped (upāsyam) in all (sarveṣu) (doctrines dealing with) the Supreme Lord or Parameśvara (parameśvareṣu) (is) nothing (na adhikam) but the Spanda (spanda) principle (tattvāt). (And) that (tad) diversity (vaicitryam) of worships (upāsā) shines forth (ābhāsyate) because of (vaśena eva) His (etad) Absolute Freedom (svātantrya) alone (kevalam)|
In fact (vastutas tu), this --i.e. the universe-- (etad) (is) entirely (aśeṣam) just (eva) the essence (sāram) of (His) Power (vīrya). This (topic) (etad) (has) also (api) (been) explained (pratipāditam) in an indirect manner (bhaṅgyā) (in the first line of the first stanza of the second section of this scripture:)
"Grabbing hold (ākramya) of that (tad) Force (balam), Mantra-s (mantrāḥ)21 , full (śālinaḥ) of the omniscient (sarvajña) power (bala)..."
Thus (evaṁ ca), there is no (na kaścid) room (avakāśaḥ) for the aforesaid (ukta) objection (codya)|
(Let) intelligent (people) (sacetasaḥ) (who are) disinterested (amatsarāḥ) and (ca) free from arrogance (anavaliptāḥ) examine and investigate (vicinvantu)22 for themselves (svayam) the difference (antaram) (between) what (yad) (is) being explained (vyākhyāyi) by all (sarvaiḥ) the other (anyaiḥ) authors (kridbhiḥ) of commentaries (vivṛti) and (ca) what (yad) has been expounded (vyākriyate), in a small measure (kiñcid), by us (asmābhiḥ) there (tatra), on such (etādṛśeṣu) venerable (scripture) (śrī) (as) Spandakārikā-s or Spandasūtra-s --the aphorisms dealing with the Spanda Principle-- (spandasūtreṣu), which are like (prāyeṣu) gems (ratna) of thought (cintā). However (tu), that (difference) (tad) is not (na) openly (udghāṭya) shown or explained (pradarśyate) by us (asmābhiḥ), (in short,) word for word (pratipadam), (lest we) fall into trouble or misfortune (āpatteḥ) (of ending up composing) a book (grantha) (endowed with) heaviness in argumentation (gaurava)||2||
1 The purport is that, just as a lump of clay disappears when the jar is made of it, so the appearance of the world should cause the Lord to disappear too. Obviously, such a disappearance is only apparent because the clay is still there as well as the Lord.
2 The world "prasaṅga" also means "occurrence of a possibility, contingency, etc.". Thus, the term "dvaitaprasaṅgaḥ" might have alternatively been translated so: "(there would be) the occurrence of a possibility of dualism" or else "(there would be) the contingency of dualism", etc.
3 In other words, "it is not manifest" and not "it does not exist", because as a matter of fact "everything always exists" as it is born from the very Supreme Existence. When something has been manifested from this Light of Consciousness, it becomes perceivable to the Lord (You), and when it is not manifest, that very thing rests as the pure Light of Consciousness in His Self, i.e. in Your Self. Simple.
4 In short, "whose essence is the Light of Consciousness".
5 A "differencer" (viśeṣaṇa) is in Sanskrit grammar a word which particularizes or defines another word, which is known as "viśeṣya". In this case, it is not mere words but entire phrases acting as viśeṣaṇa and viśeṣya, respectively.
6 In short, the world appears as such, i.e. as a knowable or manifested object. Consequently, this object called "the entire world" can never veil the Supreme Subject from whom is born. This is the purport, in my opinion.
7 In other words, "Where does the world's emergence come from?".
8 Pradhāna is also known as "Prakṛti" (see tattva 13 in the Tattvic chart for more information). Although Trika does not, some systems consider Pradhāna to be the cause of the world. The same thing is true regarding Paramāṇu-s or atoms (monads). Some systems postulate that the world is the creation of those atoms (see First Steps documents for more information about the various philosophical systems).
9 The term "hṛdayabīja" is also the name of the sacred mantra "Sauḥ".
10 The sense here is that He manifest the "matter" of which this material universe is composed, by "materializing" His essence.
11 Just as the reflection of a city in a mirror, which though non-different from the original city, seems to be different.
12 Without the support of Prakāśa or Light, the existence of void cannot be sufficiently proved.
13 "Svacchanda" is a tantric scripture which is sacred to Trika system. Hence, it is often known as "Svacchandatantra". As many other tantric works, it consists of a dialogue between Śiva (acting as the guru or spiritual preceptor) and Śakti --the goddess-- (acting as His disciple).
14 "Viśva" also means "all". Therefore, the translation "inlaid with all powers (like jewels)" is possible here as well.
15 You would expect "ācāryeṇa" (by the preceptor) and not in plural number: "ācāryabhiḥ" (by the preceptors), because the text is referring to one preceptor (Utpaladeva, in this case). However, it seems to be a common practice to decline the nouns "ācārya", "guru", etc. in plural, specially when the adjectives "śrī" or "śrīmat" --venerable, great, etc.-- are added to the compound as well.
16 There are two alternative translations if you consider the phrase "jayatyapūrvā" as "jayati apurvā" instead of "jayatī apūrvā" (such as was considered by me in the above translation; note that "jayatī" --victorious-- is the present participle, feminine, derived from the root "ji" --to be victorious, triumph, etc.--; of course, the gender of this participle is in accordance with the one of the compound "parameśvaratā", which is also feminine). These alternative interpretations are possible as the author chose to use the 4th Primary Rule of Vowel Sandhi or combination and replace the original "ī" or "i" (I ignore which one) with "y" (maybe this was done purposely by him, who knows?). Well, should the word be "jayati", the sentence would read: "Oh Lord (īśaḥ) of all (sarva), Your (tava) unprecedented (apūrvā) condition of Supreme (parama) Lordship (īśvaratā), which (always) triumphs (jayati), (is) devoid (śūnyā) of anything (yad) to be reigned or ruled over (īśitavya)". Also, the word "jayati" may be taken as a kind of Imperative, in the sense of "glory to!" or "long live!". Therefore, the text might be interpreted this way too: "Oh Lord (īśaḥ) of all (sarva), glory to (jayati) Your (tava) unprecedented (apūrvā) condition of Supreme (parama) Lordship (īśvaratā), which is devoid (śūnyā) of anything (yad) to be reigned or ruled over (īśitavya)!". As you can see, there are several possible translations of the Utpaladeva's words.
17 It refers to the two supreme tattva-s or categories (Sadāśiva and Īśvara) which arise from Śiva (the Lord). Consult the Tattvic Chart for more information.
18 Needless to say that by "Your devotees or followers", the author is not referring "exclusively" to "śaiva-s" or followers of the celebrated deity known as Śiva. The author is speaking here of "the Supreme Lord" and not a particular deity. In Trika (Non-dual Shaivism of Kashmir) the term "Śiva" is used to designate the Highest Self. By no means, Trika is speaking of the old "Purāṇic" Śiva (a personal god wearing a loincloth and sitting on a tiger skin, about whom you can read in such ancient texts as "Śivapurāṇa"). Over the intervening centuries, since the times when the Purāṇa-s were written up to the birth of Trika, the concept of "Śiva" was developed from a anthropomorphic deity up to the formless Reality which the Trika system deals with. You must understand this or the truth contained in Trika will always remain out of reach for you. Besides, if Śiva was not considered in Trika to be the Highest Lord but a mere personal deity, the followers of any other deity (Viṣṇu, Gaṇeśa, etc.) would be left out, which is completely absurd. Therefore, by "Your devotees or followers", Utpaladeva means to say "those people who are spiritually oriented indeed".
19 Nimīlanasamādhi is that Perfect Concentration in which your senses are closed to the external world and you attain complete unity with the inner Self (the Witness). On the other hand, Unmīlanasamādhi is that Perfect Concentration in which your senses are fully open and you perceive the entire world as a form of Śiva, your own innermost Self. Obviously, these states are "only" attained by divine dispensation or grace. If there is no divine grace, you will not achieve them, however resolved you may be. And he is a great yogī who deserves such a divine favor. Thus, the sage Kṣemarāja is speaking of a highly experienced yogī endowed with supreme wisdom and detachment and not of any mere seeker.
20 The following phrase is in absolute Locative (a special grammatical structure in Sanskrit), that is why I had to add "even though" at the beginning in order to give it a logical structure in English. Likewise, I am going to write the original words, i.e. without being declined in Locative case, between double hyphen (-- --) for the sake of making my translation even more transparent. Read the Declension documents for more information about Locative case. And if you are wondering what the heck is an absolute Locative? Well, in Sanskrit there is something known as "absolute construction" (whether in Locative or Genitive cases). What is that? Listen to the technical definition:
"When the participle agrees with a subject that is different from the subject of the verb, the phrase is in absolute construction".
A simple example: "Mūle hate hataṁ sarvam", which is "literally" translated this way: "In the root (mūle), in which has been killed (hate), killed (hatam) all (sarvam)". The main subject (i.e. the subject of the verb) is "sarvam" (all), and its verb is "hatám" (granted, this is past participle of the root "han"-"to kill", but this is the classic way of writing in Sanskrit, which prevents me from taking the trouble to conjugate the verb "han", got it?) In turn, the word "root" is "mūlam" and the participle agreeing with it is the first "hatám" (killed), which is now shown like this in the sentence: "hate". OK, as this first "hatám" (the participle) agrees with a subject ("mūlam") that is different from the subject ("sarvam") of the verb (the second "hatám" in this case), you have to decline both the participle and the subject which it agrees with in Locative. So, instead of "mūlam" and "hatám", you put "mūle" and "hate" (Locative case). Of course, you cannot translate the sentence literally, because it does not make any sense. Thus, you should add "even though, when, while, since, etc." to the sentence, according to the context, in order to give it structure in English, understood? Therefore, the translation of "Mūle hate hataṁ sarvam" would read:
"(When) the root --mūla-- (mūle) has been killed --hatá-- (hate), all (sarvam) has been destroyed (hatam)".
Note that I translated "hatám" as "has been destroyed" to avoid redundance. Also notice how I added between double hyphen the original crude forms of the words, i.e. without being declined in Locative. On the other hand, in some cases, I cannot use the absolute construction (oh, it is long to explain why) and I have to write the phrase with "yadā" (when) and conjugate properly, at least once. Now, suppose that I cannot use the absolute construction to express the former sentence. Good... I will have to write all this way then:
"Yadā mūlaṁ hanyate hataṁ sarvam" - "When (yadā) the root (mūlam) has been killed (hanyate), all (sarvam) has been destroyed (hatam)".
Too long if compared to "Mūle hate hataṁ sarvam". On top of that, I had to conjugate the root "han" (to kill) in Passive Voice, 3rd Person singular ("hanyate")... how complicated for a rookie in Sanskrit like me! For that reason, it is better to use absolute constructions when possible. There is an absolute Genitive too, which is generally used under the same circunstamces as the absolute Locative, but it has its own particularities anyway. Oh, this is something I cannot explain here, obviously. Well, if you did not understand anything, do not worry about it, because this topic is somewhat strange. Just trust me, please.
21 By "Mantra-s", the author of the stanza is not referring "exclusively" to the sacred words (which, technically speaking, are not mantra-s either... oh well, a too long topic to explain it in a simple note), but to the experients of the fifth tattva or category (Sadvidyā). See Tattvic Chart for more information.
22 "Vicinvantu" is the 3rd Person plural, Imperative Mood, of the verb "vici" (to examine, investigate). As a matter of fact, "vicinvantu" means "let... examine and investigate", but I had to place that "Let" at the beginning of the sentence for the sake of convenience as the Sanskrit sentence structure is very different from that of the English language.
This document was conceived by Gabriel Pradīpaka, one of the two founders of this site, and spiritual guru conversant with Sanskrit language and Trika philosophy.
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