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 Spandanirṇaya (Spanda Nirnaya): Section I (aphorisms 17 to 21) - Non-dual Shaivism of Kashmir

Normal translation


 Introduction

This is the fifth set of 5 aphorisms out of 25 aphorisms constituting the first Section (dealing with Svarūpaspanda or Spanda as one's own nature). As you know, the entire work is composed of 53 aphorisms of Spandakārikā-s plus their respective commentaries.

Of course, I will also insert the original aphorisms on which Kṣemarāja is commenting. Even though I will not comment on either the original sūtra-s or the Kṣemarāja's commentary, I will write some notes to make a particular point clear when necessary. If you want a detailed explanation, go to "Scriptures (study)|Spandanirṇaya" in Trika section.

Kṣemarāja's Sanskrit will be in dark green color while the original Vasugupta's aphorisms will be shown in dark red color. In turn, within the transliteration, the original aphorisms will be in brown color, while the Kṣemarāja's comments will be shown in black. Also, within the translation, the original aphorisms by Vasugupta, i.e. the Spandakārikā-s, will be in green and black colors, while the commentary by Kṣemarāja will contain words in both black and red colors.

Read Spandanirṇaya and experience Supreme Ānanda or Divine Bliss, dear Śiva.

Important: All that is in brackets and italicized within the translation has been added by me in order to complete the sense of a particular phrase or sentence. In turn, all that is between double hyphen (--...--) constitutes clarifying further information also added by me.

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 Aphorism 17

एवमप्रबुद्धो बहिर्मुखव्यापारनिरोधे ग्राहकस्याप्यात्मनोऽनुपपन्नमप्यभावं निश्चिनुत इति प्रतिपाद्य सुप्रबुद्धाप्रबुद्धयोर्यादृगात्मोपलम्भस्तं निरूपयति


तस्योपलब्धिः सततं त्रिपदाव्यभिचारिणी।
नित्यं स्यात्सुप्रबुद्धस्य तदाद्यन्ते परस्य तु॥१७॥


तस्य प्राकरणिकस्वभावस्य योपलब्धिरनवच्छिन्नः प्रकाशः सा कथितयुक्त्यवष्टम्भात्सुष्ठु प्रबुद्धस्याप्रबुद्धतासंस्कारेणापि शून्यस्य सततं त्रिष्वपि जागरस्वप्नसौषुप्तपदेषु नित्यमिति आदौ मध्येऽन्ते चाव्यभिचारिण्यनपायिनी स्याद्भवत्येव सदासौ शङ्करात्मकस्वस्वभावतया स्फुरतीत्यर्थः। परस्याप्रबुद्धस्य पुनस्तासां दशानां स्वोचितसंविद्रूपाणां प्रत्येकमादावुद्बुभूषायामन्ते च विश्रान्त्यात्मकान्तर्मुखत्वे न तु स्वोचितार्थावभासावस्थितिरूपे मध्यपदे। यदुक्तं श्रीशिवदृष्टौ

यावत्समग्रज्ञानाग्रज्ञातृस्पर्शदशास्वपि।
स्थितैव लक्ष्यते सा तु तद्विश्रान्त्याथवा फले॥

इति। भट्टलोल्लटेनापि तदाद्यन्त इत्येवमेव व्याख्यायि स्ववृत्तौ। भट्टश्रीकल्लटवृत्त्यक्षराण्यपेक्ष्य वयमपि तद्वृत्त्यक्षरानुरोधेन सौत्रमर्थमतिविमलमपि क्लिष्टकल्पनया व्याकर्तुमशिक्षिता यत एवासुप्रबुद्धस्य तदाद्यन्तेऽस्ति तदुपलब्धिरत एवायमिहाधिकारी स्पन्दोपदेशैः सुप्रबुद्धीक्रियते। यद्वक्ष्यति

अतः सततमुद्युक्तः स्पन्दतत्त्वविविक्तये।
जाग्रत्...॥

इत्यादि

सौषुप्तदवन्मूढः प्रबुद्धः स्यादनावृतः।

इति

तथा स्वप्नेऽपि

इत्यादि

प्रबुद्धः सर्वदा तिष्ठेत्।

इत्यादि च। अत्र हि जागरादित्रिषु पदेष्वाद्यन्तकोटिवन्मध्यमप्यर्थावसायात्मकं पदं तुर्याभोगमयं कर्तुं प्रबुद्धस्य सुप्रबुद्धतापादनायोपदेशः प्रवृत्त एतच्च निर्णेष्यामः। तथा च शिवसूत्रम्

जाग्रत्स्वप्नसुषुप्तभेदे तुर्याभोगसम्भवः।

इति। तथा

त्रिषु चतुर्थं तैलवदासेच्यम्।

इति

त्रितयभोक्ता वीरेशः।

इति॥१७॥

Evamaprabuddho bahirmukhavyāpāranirodhe grāhakasyāpyātmano'nupapannamapyabhāvaṁ niścinuta iti pratipādya suprabuddhāprabuddhayoryādṛgātmopalambhastaṁ nirūpayati


Tasyopalabdhiḥ satataṁ tripadāvyabhicāriṇī|
Nityaṁ syātsuprabuddhasya tadādyante parasya tu||17||


Tasya prākaraṇikasvabhāvasya yopalabdhiranavacchinnaḥ prakāśaḥ sā kathitayuktyavaṣṭambhātsuṣṭhu prabuddhasyāprabuddhatāsaṁskāreṇāpi śūnyasya satataṁ triṣvapi jāgarasvapnasauṣuptapadeṣu nityamiti ādau madhye'nte cāvyabhicāriṇyanapāyinī syādbhavatyeva sadāsau śaṅkarātmakasvasvabhāvatayā sphuratītyarthaḥ| Parasyāprabuddhasya punastāsāṁ daśānāṁ svocitasaṁvidrūpāṇāṁ pratyekamādāvudbubhūṣāyāmante ca viśrāntyātmakāntarmukhatve na tu svocitārthāvabhāsāvasthitirūpe madhyapade| Yaduktaṁ śrīśivadṛṣṭau

Yāvatsamagrajñānāgrajñātṛsparśadaśāsvapi|
Sthitaiva lakṣyate sā tu tadviśrāntyāthavā phale||

iti| Bhaṭṭalollaṭenāpi tadādyanta ityevameva vyākhyāyi svavṛttau| Bhaṭṭaśrīkallaṭavṛttyakṣarāṇyapekṣya vayamapi tadvṛttyakṣarānurodhena sautramarthamativimalamapi kliṣṭakalpanayā vyākartumaśikṣitā yata evāsuprabuddhasya tadādyante'sti tadupalabdhirata evāyamihādhikārī spandopadeśaiḥ suprabuddhīkriyate| Yadvakṣyati

Ataḥ satatamudyuktaḥ spandatattvaviviktaye|
Jāgrat...||

ityādi

Sauṣuptadavanmūḍhaḥ prabuddhaḥ syādanāvṛtaḥ|

iti

Tathā svapne'pi

ityādi

Prabuddhaḥ sarvadā tiṣṭhet|

ityādi ca| Atra hi jāgarāditriṣu padeṣvādyantakoṭivanmadhyamapyarthāvasāyātmakaṁ padaṁ turyābhogamayaṁ kartuṁ prabuddhasya suprabuddhatāpādanāyopadeśaḥ pravṛtta etacca nirṇeṣyāmaḥ| Tathā ca śivasūtram

Jāgratsvapnasuṣuptabhede turyābhogasambhavaḥ|

iti| Tathā

Triṣu caturthaṁ tailavadāsecyam|

iti

Tritayabhoktā vīreśaḥ|

iti||17||


In this way (evam), after having explained (pratipādya) (how) "a not fully awakened person (aprabuddhaḥ) determines (niścinute), on the cessation (nirodhe) of external (bahirmukha) activities (vyāpāra), even (api) the inapplicable --impossible to prove-- (anupapannam) nonexistence --absence-- (abhāvam) of the Experient (grāhakasya api) (or) Self (ātmanaḥ... iti)", (Vasugupta now) defines (nirūpayati) that (tam), viz. the perception --in the sense of "recognition", because the Self or Experient cannot be perceived like an object-- (upalambhaḥ) of such a Self --lit. of the Self like which, i.e. the Self which was previously mentioned as the Experient-- (yādṛk-ātma) in the case of the perfectly awakened and the unawakened ones (suprabuddha-aprabuddhayoḥ) --Vasugupta will describe how both the perfectly awakened one and the one who is not fully awakened realize their own Self or Experient--1 :


To the perfectly awakened one (suprabuddhasya), there is (syāt), always (nityam) (and) constantly (satatam), the perception (upalabdhiḥ) of That --i.e. the Self-- (tasya), (and this perception of the Self) stays (avyabhicāriṇī) (throughout) the three (tri) states (of consciousness) (pada). However (tu), to the other one --i.e. to the one who is not fully awakened-- (parasya), (there is) that --i.e. the perception of the Self-- (tad) (only) at the beginning (ādi) (and) end (ante) (of each state)||17||


(The word) tasya (tad) (means) "of the essential nature --i.e. of the Self-- (sva-bhāvasya) that is the subject of the treatise (prākaraṇika)". Upalabdhi or perception (of that essential nature) (yā upalabdhiḥ) (is) uninterrupted (anavacchinnaḥ) Light (prakāśaḥ) --because Śiva is the uninterrupted Perceiver--. Syāt (syāt) (or) "there is (bhavati eva)" that (perception of the Self) (sā) to the (suprabuddha or) perfectly awakened one (suṣṭhu prabuddhasya) who is free from (śūnyasya) even (api) the residual impressions (saṁskāreṇa) of the state of unawakened --unenlightenment-- (aprabuddhatā). (How?) Through a firm grip (avaṣṭambhāt) of the abovementioned (kathita) argument (yukti). (When does it occur? This perception of the Self or essential nature) stays (avyabhicāriṇī) —it is invariable (anapāyinī)— constantly (satatam), i.e. in the three (triṣu api) states --pada-- (padeṣu) of wakefulness (jāgara), dream (svapna) (and) deep sleep (sauṣupta). (How long does it last?) "Always" (nityam iti), viz. at the beginning (ādau), in the middle (madhye) and (ca) in the end (ante) (of those states. All in all,) he --the perfectly awakened one-- (asau) always (sadā) shines forth (sphurati) as one whose essential nature (sva-bhāvatayā) is identical (ātmaka) with Śaṅkara --Śiva-- (śaṅkara). This is the meaning (iti arthaḥ)|

However (punar), to the other one (parasya) —to the unawakened one (aprabuddhasya)—, (there is perception of the Self) at the beginning (ādau) —when the state desires to become manifested (udbubhūṣāyām)— and (ca) at the end (ante) —on the internalization (antarmukhatve) consisting of (ātmaka) a repose (viśrānti) --when the mind finally rests on the Self--— of each (pratyekam) of those states (tāsām daśānām) characterized (rūpāṇām) by knowledge (saṁvid) suitable to themselves (sva-ucita), and not (na tu) in the middle state --i.e. during the states-- (madhya-pade) characterized (rūpe) by the abiding --subsistence-- (avasthiti) of the manifestation (avabhāsa) of things (artha) suitable to themselves --to those states of consciousness-- (sva-ucita)2 |

That (yad) has been said (uktam) in venerable Śivadṛṣṭi (śrī-śivadṛṣṭau):

"But even (yāvat) that (state of Śiva) (sā) is indeed observed (lakṣyate... tu) as abiding (sthitā eva) also (api) in the states (daśāsu) where there is contact (sparśa) with the Knower (jñātṛ) at the beginning (agra) of all (samagra) knowledge (jñāna), or (athavā) at the end (phale) due to a repose (viśrāntyā) on That --on the Self or Śiva-- (tad... iti)3 "||

(This subject has been studied) by Bhaṭṭalollaṭa (bhaṭṭalollaṭena) too (api). He explained (it) (vyākhyāyi) in this way (evam eva) in his commentary (sva-vṛttau) (on Spandakārikā-s): "at the beginning and the end (ādi-ante) of that --of the three ordinary states of consciousness-- (tad... iti)"|

Having considered (apekṣya) the words (akṣara) of the Vṛtti --commentary-- (vṛtti) (composed) by most venerable (bhaṭṭaśrī) Kallaṭa (kallaṭa), we (vayam api), out of respect (anurodhena) for the words (akṣara) of that (tad) commentary (vṛtti), were not taught (aśikṣitāḥ) to explain (vyākartum) the extremely clear (ativimalam api) meaning (artham) of the aphorisms (sautram) by an obscure mental invention (kliṣṭa-kalpanayā)4 . Since (yatas eva), to the one who is not perfectly awakened (asuprabuddhasya), there is (asti) perception (upalabdhiḥ) of That --of the Self-- (tad) at the beginning and at the end (ādi-ante) of those (three ordinary states of consciousness) (tad), for this very reason (atas eva) he (ayam) is here fit for (iha adhikārī) being turned into a perfectly awakened one (suprabuddhī-kriyate) by the teachings (upadeśaiḥ) dealing with Spanda (spanda)|

(Vasugupta) will say (vakṣyati) that (very truth) (yad) (in the stanza I, 21 that begins with:)

"For this reason (atas), he who (is) constantly (satatam) prepared (udyuktaḥ) for discerning (viviktaye) the principle (tattva) of Spanda (spanda), [attains his own (essential) state or nature quickly,] (even in) wakefulness (jāgrat... ityādi)5 "||

(and in the second line of I, 25:)

"... (To the partially awakened one, that condition is) like (vat) the state (pada) of deep sleep (sauṣupta), (and thus) he remains (syāt) stupefied (mūḍhaḥ). (However, a Yogī who) is not covered (by the darkness of ignorance) (anāvṛtaḥ) remains (syāt) awakened and enlightened (prabuddhaḥ... iti) (in that very condition)"||

(And at the beginning of the stanza III, 2:)

"... so (tathā) also (api) in dream (svapne... ityādi)..."||

And (ca) (also in the stanza III, 12 beginning with:)

"... one should always remain (sarvadā tiṣṭhet) awake (prabuddhaḥ... ityādi)..."||

Here --in this context-- (atra hi), with the aim of bringing the partially awakened one to the state of perfectly awakened (prabuddhasya suprabuddhatā-āpādanāya) --lit. in the case of a partially awakened one, for causing (him) to arrive at the state of perfectly awakened--, the teaching (upadeśaḥ) is going to (pravṛttaḥ) fill (mayam kartum) even (api) the middle (madhyam) state (padam), characterized by (ātmakam) the determination (avasāya) of objects (arthaḥ), with the delight and enjoyment (ābhoga) of the Fourth State (turya), just as (vat) (he --the partially awakened one-- does with reference to) the initial (ādi) (and) final (anta) points (koṭi) in the three states (triṣu padeṣu) of wakefulness (jāgarā), etc. (ādi)6 . We will investigate (nirṇeṣyāmaḥ) this (etad ca) (later on)|

Similarly (tathā ca), the aphorism (sūtram) of Śiva (śiva) --I, 7-- (declares:)

"(Even) during such different (states of consciousness) (bhede) as waking (jāgrat), dreaming (svapna) and profound sleep (suṣupta), there is (sambhavaḥ) the delight and enjoyment (ābhoga) of the Fourth State (turya... iti)"|

In like manner (tathā), (in the aphorism III, 20 of Śivasūtra-s:)

"The fourth state of consciousness, (which is a Witness) (caturtham), should be poured (āsecyam) like (vat) (a continuous flow of) oil (taila) into (the other) three (triṣu... iti), (that is, in waking, dreaming and deep sleep)"|

(and in I, 11 of the same scripture:)

"He is a master (īśaḥ) of (his) senses (vīra) who is an enjoyer (of the aforesaid "ābhoga" or divine delight) (bhoktā) in the triad (of waking, dreaming and deep sleep) (tritaya... iti)"|

||17||

1  The expression "perception of the Self" is just a way to speak because He can never be perceived as if He was an object. The Highest Reality or Self has two aspects according to Trika: Śiva and Śakti. The former is the Self while the latter is His Power. This Power of the Self makes Him conscious of Himself. After performing this primordial act, the Power becomes the entire universe --the object--. But He, the Self (Śiva), remains the same, i.e. completely unaffected by the universe. Śiva has nothing to do with the universe (the object) because He is the Supreme Subject. Yes, His Power, who is one with Him, displayed the whole universal manifestation, but this act is just a trifle to Him. As a result, such a manifestation cannot ever touch Him at all! He is always "arodhya" or "unobstructed". Nothing can obstruct Him ever!

But what does it mean "in practice"? Listen to me: I always notice that not only the ordinary people but even the vast majority of spiritual aspirants are not properly conscious of their Self. I know this because I can detect their level of Self-recognition. Most of the spiritual aspirants are still too worried about "objects", whether the objects are subtle (e.g. mind, intellect, etc.) or gross (e.g. body, external things, people, actions, events, etc.). This is not purposely, of course, but because of the well-known innate impurity or Āṇavamala. Most of them speak about these spiritual topics too, but I can immediately notice that they do not understand them. Of course, I can detect this according to the measure of my own Self-recognition. Anyway, either my Self-recognition is immense or there are too many aspirants who are still not adequately conscious of their Self. They still mix Śiva with themselves in the sense of associating Him (the Immaculate One) with the little things of their lives, with their desires, etc. This is pretty common.

One person who is advanced in the spiritual path is not like those spiritual aspirants. NO. An advanced spiritual aspirant dwells more in the subjective side than in the objective one, i.e. he is more interested in the Subject or Self than in the object (mind, body, personal life, events, family, etc.). The Highest Reality as the Subject is NOT associated with anything that is objective. NO. Yes, it was the Power of the Self who manifested the objective universe, but the Subject Himself has nothing to do with it! And I am absolutely certain! In other words, I have direct experience of That as the Subject. Therefore, I do not need to infer/deduce or present scriptures as testimony, etc. NO, I do not need to do that. Well, if after so many years in spirituality I could not realize my own Self at least for one second, one would wonder what kind of aspirant I am. So, my achievement is not extraordinary but pretty normal and predictable.

Now, from my own experience with the Self, I know for sure that He is absolutely invulnerable. Gabriel (the object) is the whole day going through different experiences. As he is composed of body, mind, ego, intellect, etc., Gabriel cannot help moving and changing constantly. But all this dance has nothing to do with Me, the Self, i.e. Gabriel cannot affect Me ever! Just as Gabriel is an object to Me, your John, Jane, Giuseppe, Paulo, Cristina, etc. is an object to You. Me and You are, of course, the same Self always according to Trika. If you cannot understand this, you cannot succeed in Trika because it is essential for you to realize that "your body, mind, personal life, world, etc." has nothing to do with "You". The Self is never affected by the object. Whether you consider that your Self is the Lord or only a spark coming from His Fire (as other philosophical systems declare), the same truth remains, because even this spark is also His Fire in the end. Consequently, the Self is always superior to the object. I am speaking the truth.

That is why a perfectly awakened person, who can retain the recognition of his Self throughout all the states of consciousness, is never bewildered by the object or manifestation. By "bewildered" I mean that the object never makes him become disoriented as in the case of the vast majority of people. If you observe carefully the people, you will notice that they easily become disoriented. As they become disoriented in that way, they despair when they face tragedies. Pain, death, etc. bewilder them all the time. They cannot help it. Even the act of watching far huge galaxies bewilders them, because they cannot explain "so many" things "out there". They live the whole time in the shadows, with more mysteries than certainties. The more questions they answer, the more questions do arise, etc. etc. This is the life of a typical limited being, continuously bewildered by the universe and its mysteries, always full of uncertainties and fears. But this is not the case with a perfectly awakened person, because he has recognized his own Self (the Subject). As the Subject is the Core of all, once one perceives Him, he is no more bewildered by the universe, which is His manifestation. For example: death cannot bewilder him, because he knows that the Self is immortal. He just beholds as the bodies come and go while his Self remains as the immortal Pillar who holds everything together and united.

Even the ones who have realized their Self at least during "one second", understood during that single second that their Self has nothing to do with the drama known as the world, composed of body, mind, people, things, etc. From that understanding, these people know that the object is just an invention and not the Highest Reality as IT REALLY IS. Hence, even this low-category Self-realized people, hehe, are not bewildered by the universe during that single second. Now, imagine someone who actually recognizes his Self uninterruptedly and you will realize the magnitude of his accomplishment. The Self does not change at all, never dies or is born/reborn, etc. He is always the Highest Reality and nothing else. Through His Power, He is aware of all the things taking place in the objective side (the universe), but He is never affected by it. His State is inconceivable. You cannot think about it and understand it. NO. You have to realize Him in experience. Once you realize Him at least for one second, you also realize that what you called "you" is not "You" but "the object", i.e. the invention of His Power (in my own case: Gabriel and his life, family, problems, etc.). This is "elementary" spirituality. Still, most of spiritual aspirants I have seen so far cannot get it yet. Funny! OK, I wrote this lengthy note of explanation in order to reduce the number, obviously.Return

2  Each of the three ordinary states of consciousness (wakefulness, dreaming and deep sleep) has knowledge and manifestation of things suitable to themselves. For instance: In deep sleep there is a void, but you do not see this void in wakefulness. Likewise, you see so many things when you dream, but you do not see those very things in deep sleep. The Perceiver or Self remains the same, but the unawakened one cannot detect Him "during" those three states of consciousness. He just detects Him at the beginning, when the state is about to become manifested, or at the end, when his mind withdraws from the state and comes to rest on the Self. It is to be noted that by "the unawakened one", the author is not speaking about common people (the vast majority), but about a spiritual aspirant who is not still mature enough to perceive his Self during the three states of consciousness. Although this kind of aspirant is partially awakened, he is mentioned in this paragraph as "unawakened" in comparison with the suprabuddha or perfectly awakened one. This must be understood! The rest of the teaching is clear enough, I suppose.Return

3  I translated in that way because I had to read what Somānanda (the author of Śivadṛṣṭi) affirmed previously. For example, I translated "यावत्" - "yāvat" as "but even" because the sage expressed before "न परं..." - "Na paraṁ..." - "Not only..." as regards Śivatā or the state of Śiva (one's own Self). Also, "फले" - "phale" (lit. in the fruit) is to be interpreted as "परिसमाप्तौ" - "parisamāptau" - "at the end" according to the commentary by Utpaladeva (disciple of Somānanda). Finally, the expression "तद्विश्रान्त्या" - "tadviśrāntyā" is to be understood as "तत्रैव विश्रान्त्या" - "tatraiva viśrāntyā" - "due to a repose on That Itself" according to Utpaladeva too. Well, as the commentary on this stanza is too long, I am not quoting it entirely. Besides, this stanza is linked to other previous stanzas, which makes the things even more complicated. With this clarification you have more than enough for now.Return

4  Kallaṭa was the main disciple of Vasugupta (the author of Spandakārikā-s). He wrote a commentary called Vṛtti on the work of his own guru. It is a very short commentary really, not so elaborate as the present one composed by Kṣemarāja. This sage said that he would not explain, out of respect to the words of the Kallaṭa's Vṛtti, the already very clear meanings of the aphorisms by means of an obscure mental invention, i.e. by a complicated explanation which is just the creation of his own mind.Return

5  I added the rest of the stanza in brackets in order to complete the sense. The term "ityādi", apart from meaning "etc.", it gives the sense that what is being quoted is the beginning of something bigger. Of course, I cannot be so specific the whole time in my word for word translation.Return

6  The prabuddha (partially awakened) is not the abuddha (unawakened). The latter is the ordinary person who has no interest in spiritual matters and consequently has practically no experience of his own Self as the Subject (the Witness) except for a very few times in his entire lifetime (no jokes). Normally, this happens when a tragedy hits him, because his ego decreases immensely at that time. But the prabuddha or partially awakened is certainly like a "unawakened one" compared to the suprabuddha (perfectly awakened), but in comparison with the abuddha, he is like a kind of god.

A prabuddha is an spiritual aspirant that is able to become aware of his own Self at the beginning or at the end of the three ordinary states of consciousness (waking, dreaming and deep sleep). For example, he experiences the delight and enjoyment of the Fourth State (the State of the Self as the Subject) when he is about to sleep by night, and when he wakes up in the morning. This type of person is fit for being transformed into a suprabuddha by filling the middle state of waking, dreaming and deep sleep with the delight and enjoyment of the Fourth State. The middle state is characterized by the determination of objects (e.g. this is a dog, that is a tree, this is a good thought, etc.). In other words, he is fit for having a constant experience of his own Self as He is really.Return

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 Aphorism 18

सुप्रबुद्धस्य त्रिषु पदेषु यादृश्युपलब्धिस्तां विभागेन दर्शयति


ज्ञानज्ञेयस्वरूपिण्या शक्त्या परमया युतः।
पदद्वये विभुर्भाति तदन्यत्र तु चिन्मयः॥१८॥


सुप्रबुद्धस्य भूम्ना ज्ञानज्ञेयस्वरूपया मध्यमे पदे ज्ञानाग्रपर्यन्तयोस्तु स्वस्वरूपयैव स्पन्दतत्त्वात्मना पराशक्त्या युक्तो विभुः शङ्करात्मा स्वभावो जागरास्वप्नरूपे पदद्वये भाति। तत्र हि विश्वमसौ सदाशिवेश्वरवत्स्वाङ्गवत्पश्यति तदन्यत्र तु सुषुप्ते न तु यथान्ये सुषुप्ततुर्ययोरिति त्रिपदाव्यभिचारिणीति प्रक्रान्ते तुर्यस्याप्रस्तुतत्वात् तदुपलब्धेरेव च तुर्यरूपत्वादसौ विभुश्चिन्मय एवास्य भात्यशेषवेद्योपशमात्। इत्येतत्सुप्रबुद्धाभिप्रायमेव न तु वस्तुवृत्तानुसारेण तदन्यत्र तु चिन्मय इत्यस्यानुपपन्नत्वापत्तेर्लोके सौषुप्तस्य मोहमयत्वात्शिवापेक्षया तु जाग्रत्स्वप्नयोरपि चिन्मयत्वात्। एवमपि च प्रकृतानुपयुक्तत्वात्। इतः प्रभृति प्रथमनिःष्यन्दान्तो ग्रन्थः प्रबुद्धस्य सुप्रबुद्धतायै स्थितो यथा टीकाकारैर्न चेतितस्तथा परीक्ष्यतां स्वयमेव कियत्प्रतिपदं लिखामः॥१८॥

Suprabuddhasya triṣu padeṣu yādṛśyupalabdhistāṁ vibhāgena darśayati


Jñānajñeyasvarūpiṇyā śaktyā paramayā yutaḥ|
Padadvaye vibhurbhāti tadanyatra tu cinmayaḥ||18||


Suprabuddhasya bhūmnā jñānajñeyasvarūpayā madhyame pade jñānāgraparyantayostu svasvarūpayaiva spandatattvātmanā parāśaktyā yukto vibhuḥ śaṅkarātmā svabhāvo jāgarāsvapnarūpe padadvaye bhāti| Tatra hi viśvamasau sadāśiveśvaravatsvāṅgavatpaśyati tadanyatra tu suṣupte na tu yathānye suṣuptaturyayoriti tripadāvyabhicāriṇīti prakrānte turyasyāprastutatvāt tadupalabdhereva ca turyarūpatvādasau vibhuścinmaya evāsya bhātyaśeṣavedyopaśamāt| Ityetatsuprabuddhābhiprāyameva na tu vastuvṛttānusāreṇa tadanyatra tu cinmaya ityasyānupapannatvāpatterloke sauṣuptasya mohamayatvātśivāpekṣayā tu jāgratsvapnayorapi cinmayatvāt| Evamapi ca prakṛtānupayuktatvāt| Itaḥ prabhṛti prathamaniḥṣyandānto granthaḥ prabuddhasya suprabuddhatāyai sthito yathā ṭīkākārairna cetitastathā parīkṣyatāṁ svayameva kiyatpratipadaṁ likhāmaḥ||18||


(Regarding) what kind (yādṛśī) of perception (of the Self) (upalabdhiḥ) a perfectly awakened one has (suprabuddhasya) in the three states (of consciousness) (triṣu padeṣu), (Vasugupta) shows (darśayati) separately (vibhāgena) that --i.e. the way a perfectly awakened one perceives his own Self-- (tām) (in the following aphorism):


The all-pervading (Self) (vibhuḥ) shines forth (bhāti) in the two (dvaye) states (of wakefulness and dreaming) (pada) accompanied (yutaḥ) by (His) Supreme --parama-- (paramayā) Power --śakti-- (śaktyā) whose nature (sva-rūpiṇyā) is knowledge (jñāna) (and) knowable (jñeya). Nevertheless (tu), in the other (anyatra) than those (two) (tad), (He appears only) as Consciousness (cit-mayaḥ)||18||


In the case of the perfectly awakened one (suprabuddhasya), (his own) all-pervading (vibhuḥ) essential nature (sva-bhāvaḥ) whose core (ātmā) is Śaṅkara --Śiva-- (śaṅkara), accompanied (yuktaḥ) by the Highest Power (parā-śaktyā), shines forth (bhāti) usually (bhūmnā) in the two (dvaye) states (pada) of wakefulness and dreaming (jāgarā-svapna-rūpe) (in the following way: His Highest Power appears) as (sva-rūpayā) knowledge (jñāna) (and) knowable --the object-- (jñeya) in the middle (madhyame) phase (pade), but (tu) in Her essential form --in the essential form of His Highest Power-- (sva-sva-rūpayā eva) as the principle of Spanda (spanda-tattva-ātmanā) --i.e. such as His Highest Power is-- at the beginning and at the end (agra-paryantayoḥ) of the knowledge (jñāna) --in short, at the beginning and at the end of these states of wakefulness and dreaming where knowledge is displayed along with knowable--1 |

There --in the middle phase of waking and dreaming-- (tatra hi), he (asau) sees (paśyati) the universe (viśvam) like (vat) Sadāśiva and Īśvara (sadāśiva-īśvara)2 , i.e. as (vat) his own (sva) body (aṅga). However (tu), (the expression) "tadanyatra" (in the aphorism) --in the other than those (two)-- (tad-anyatra) (means) "in deep sleep" (suṣupte), and not (na tu) "in deep sleep and Turya --the Fourth State which is a Witness to the other three--" (suṣupta-turyayoḥ iti) —as (yathā) others (anye) (interpret it)—, because irrelevance (aprastutatvāt) of Turya (turyasya) (here is shown) in the previous (aphorism) (prakrānte) (by the phrase) "(and this perception of the Self) stays (avyabhicāriṇī) (throughout) the three (tri) states (of consciousness) (pada... iti)" and (ca) since the perception (upalabdheḥ eva) of that (Self or Spanda) (tad) is itself (rūpatvāt) Turya (turya) --lit. since there is the state of having the form of Turya in the case of the perception of that (Self or Spanda)--3 . (So, in deep sleep,) that (asau) all-pervading (Self) (vibhuḥ) shines forth (bhāti) to him --to the suprabuddha or perfectly awakened-- (asya) only (eva) as Consciousness (cit-mayaḥ) due to the cessation (upaśamāt) of all (aśeṣa) the knowables --objects-- (vedya)|

Thus (iti), this --what was mentioned before-- (etad) is only aimed at (abhiprāyam eva) the suprabuddha --the perfectly awakened one-- (suprabuddha). It was not (mentioned) (na tu) with reference to (anusāreṇa) the actual state (of ordinary people) --lit. the "actual fact", i.e. the state experienced by the vast majority of people-- (vastu-vṛtta), because there would be (āpatteḥ) inapplicability (anupapannatva) of this (statement) (asya): "Nevertheless (tu), in the other (anyatra) than those (two) (tad), (He appears only) as Consciousness (cit-mayaḥ iti)" (in the present aphorism. Why?) Because deep sleep is identical with delusion (or Māyā) (sauṣuptasya moha-mayatvāt) in the ordinary life (loke) --lit. because in the ordinary life there is identity with delusion (or Māyā) in the case of deep sleep--, but (tu) with respect to (apekṣayā) Śiva --the Supreme Self-- (śiva), even (api) wakefulness and dreaming (jāgrat-svapnayoḥ) (appear only) as Consciousness (cit-mayatvāt) --lit. because there is identity with Consciousness even in the case of wakefulness and dreaming--4 |

Besides (evam api ca), (it does not refer to deep sleep in ordinary people) because it would be unsuitable (anupayuktatvāt) as regards the subject under discussion (prakṛta)|

From here (itas prabhṛti) up to the end (antaḥ) of the first (prathama) Section (niḥṣyanda), the book (granthaḥ) is conducive (sthitaḥ) to the state of perfect awakening --to the state of suprabuddha-- (suprabuddhatāyai) of the partially awakened one (prabuddhasya). As (yathā) (this point) is not (na) understood (cetitaḥ) by (other) commentators (ṭīkā-kāraiḥ), therefore (tathā), let it be inspected (parīkṣyatām) by oneself --by the reader-- (svayam eva)! How much else (kiyat) will we write (likhāmaḥ)5  at every step (pratipadam) (about this kind of misunderstandings)?||18||

1  The essential nature of everybody never does nothing by itself. This essential nature is Śiva, the Lord, and His state is always that of a Witness to the rest of states. He dwells in Turya or the Fourth State, completely untouched and unaffected by anything else. It is His own Power (Śakti) who performs manifestation, maintenance and dissolution of the universe as well as of the respective three states of consciousness (waking, dreaming and deep sleep). To ordinary people (unawakened), i.e. to people who have no interest in spiritual matters and spend their entire life running after objects (body, money, things, family, name, etc.), the Power of the Lord appears as knowledge and knowable during waking and dreaming, and just a few times in their lives She (the Power) appears as Spanda (specially during tragedies, when they realize how extremely limited they are). Nonetheless, in the case of a suprabuddha or perfectly awakened, His Power appears as knowledge and knowable during waking and dreaming, but everything is full of unity, replete with Saccidānanda (Existence-Consciousness-Bliss). A suprabuddha does not lose sight of his own essential nature in spite of the manifestation of those two states of consciousness. In turn, at the beginning and at the end of waking and dreaming, he perceives His own Power such as She is, i.e. as pure Spanda. This is the glory of his achievement!Return

2  Sadāśiva and Īśvara are the tattva-s or categories 3 and 4 in the process of universal manifestation. In the former, one feels "I am This" (I am this universe), while in the latter, one feels "This is Me". In short, the perfectly awakened feels, as I mentioned in the previous note, full unity with the universe. To him, the entire manifestation whether in waking or dreaming is nothing but Saccidānanda (Existence-Consciousness-Bliss). Read Trika 3 to pick up more information about this subject.Return

3  The phrase "tadanyatra" - "in the other than those (two)" means "in deep sleep". It cannot include Turya or Fourth State because the very "perception of the Self" being studied is itself Turya. The Self dwells in Turya constantly, and as Turya is a mass of Existence-Consciousness-Bliss, It pervades the three ordinary states of consciousness (waking, dreaming and deep sleep). This very truth is stated in the aphorism I, 17 (the previous one), where it is said that this perception of the Self stays throughout the three states of consciousness (viz. through waking, dreaming and deep sleep). Therefore, Turya is not pointed out by the expression "tadanyatra" or there would be inconsistency as regards what was said before, in I, 17, where Turya and the perception of the Self are clearly shown as being one and the same thing!Return

4  All that which was mentioned before is related to the suprabuddha and not to an ordinary person. To an ordinary person, deep sleep becomes moha or delusion. So, he immediately becomes unconscious and can remember that state of void "after" he wakes up. A suprabuddha, instead, is able to remain conscious of the state of void while in deep sleep. To him, even that state of void appears only as Consciousness, since he is Śiva Himself. It is to be noted that any superior state of consciousness makes an ordinary person become stupefied (unconscious). For example, if one common person could enter Samādhi or perfect absorption in his own Self, he would automatically become unconscious. But someone who is perfectly awakened is not like that. NO. He retains his state as the Perceiver at all times and is never overcome by stupefaction or unconsciousness. This subject is clear now!

This is for Sanskrit students: As the author is addicted to use Ablative of abstract nouns (those ending in "tvāt"), the phrases are hard-to-translate in a literal manner by following the word for word scheme. The author could have used "yatas" (because) in order to make the things easier, but you know, he wrote everything like that and now I have to battle with his involved style.

What did I mean by all I said? Imagine that I want to write this: "Because you are identical with Śiva", then, by using "yatas" (because), the phrase would look like this: "यतस्त्वं शिवसमोऽसि" - "Yatastvaṁ śivasamo'si" - "Because (yatas) you (tvam) are (asi) identical (samaḥ) with Śiva (śiva)". The expression flows naturally and there is no problem with translating it word for word. But see now the way Kṣemarāja would write that: "तव शिवसमत्वात्" - "Tava śivasamatvāt" - "Because, in your case, there is identity with Śiva". This makes the process of translating word for word harder, since that "in your case" separates "because" from "there is identity with Śiva". If I were to write it in a extremely literal way, it would read: "In your case (tava), because there is identity (samatvāt) with Śiva (śiva)". And yes, the word for word translation would not run into any problem then, but legibility would. So, I have to workaround the problem very often writing all together and then specifying the literal meaning between double hyphen, e.g. "Because, in your case, there is identity with Śiva (tava śiva-samatvāt)" --lit. In your case, because there is identity with Śiva--. Yes, it took more effort on my part and in the end it is not so clear as "Because you are identical with Śiva", plainly!

There is another way to translate the expression, without using "in your case" but "to you": "Because there is identity (samatvāt) with Śiva (śiva) to you (tava)". Yes, now the word for word translation made more sense since there is no "in your case" messing around in the middle. In this way, a Sanskrit student can see how the phrase is structured (this is the main goal in taking the trouble to translate word for word). Anyway, there would have been much easier to write: "यतस्त्वं शिवसमोऽसि" - "Yatastvaṁ śivasamo'si" - "Because (yatas) you (tvam) are (asi) identical (samaḥ) with Śiva (śiva)", and that is it! Time and intellectual energy saved!

This is one of the aspects of an involved style of writing. If you take into account that the sage is using those strange ways of expression frequently, to translate his texts is a real challenge, specially if the sentences are too long. Not that he cannot ever use them, but they are not necessary "always", because he could have chosen a clearer manner to say the same things. Well, one is unable to change this now, because the commentary is written as it is written... and no way. However, the subject is already complex even if Sanskrit was crystal clear. But no, on top of that, the sage writes in such a difficult manner.

This is not something only related to Kṣemarāja but also to other sages. Maybe they wanted to keep their teachings hidden to undeserving people. If this is the case, they succeeded, because only a translator with the patience of a demigod can keep translating texts composed in such a complicated style. This way of writing reminds me of some academic grammarians who write in such a difficult way that one must perform two studies: one related to Sanskrit grammar itself, and another related to the style of writing of those grammarians! I wonder, why is all this always so difficult? No marvel that God is short of saints nowadays if His treatises are written in such a difficult way! Most intellects just cannot survive in their presence! Evidently, my task is to simplify all this to the maximum extent of my own capacities.

There is a science called "pedagogy". Something that all teachers should study before becoming teachers. What is the point of knowing a lot if one is unable to convey in a simple way what he knows? Obviously that many spiritual subjects are so complex that even words cannot describe the things properly. Even Sanskrit, a sacred language designed specifically to deal with those subjects, falls short in expressing exactly certain realities. I can understand that, but I cannot understand why should one say in a difficult manner what can be said in more simple terms. I showed above that even a rookie in Sanskrit like myself can write in a simple way. As I said before, the only reason to go into extra complications would be in order to keep the teachings hidden. But this being a commentary (and in prose!), it should be elucidative in the full sense of word! OK, OK, just my opinion, but after so many hours fighting against the involved style of Kṣemarāja, I am a little tired of doing unnecessary intellectual acrobatics to understand him and accordingly arrange the word for word translation in a coherent manner. The only two things keeping my attention on the text are the profound knowledge of the sage and my service to the Supreme Lord.

And as my work is "real", i.e. it is meant for the Lord and for the good of the readers, and not for the cameras or for profit, I can give my opinion on the style of such a great author and sage as Kṣemarāja. Well, my entire life has been a war against obstacles. Now the obstacle is the involved style of this sage. OK, I will overcome all that in the end with my tenacity. Most spiritual aspirants feel intimidated by the obstacles on their path. They should develop tenacity and never give up. Spiritual ignorance is finally removed by the Supreme Self, according to Trika, but that does not imply that one will sit and wait for His help. NO. If a spiritual aspirant desires to be successful in his efforts, he must not give up even if the very lord of death is in his way. I am not joking.

There is constantly this idea that a spiritual aspirant is someone who is always with a smile on his face, full of peace, love, etc. This may be true in the case of a perfectly awakened one who is Free forever, but not in the case of someone still fighting for his freedom. Someone fighting for his freedom is a warrior, always battling with his own limitations, making tremendous efforts against his own misery, accomplishing almost impossible missions, etc. He is not a weak fellow frightened of a little mouse, so to speak! Spiritual ignorance is the hardest thing to deal with. Not that you will defeat that universal force with timid attempts. It is no show or business. NO. It is "real" like the Lord Himself. When that powerful spiritual aspirant shows he is deserving enough, the Lord removes his innate impurity and then he becomes perfectly awakened. Not before! On top of that, as the Lord is completely Free to give him Liberation at any time, that spiritual aspirant will have to keep fighting till the Lord decides to set him free.

Good! So, all about my work is "real". Real Sanskrit, real knowledge, real ignorance, real obstacles, real efforts, real tenacity, real love and yes, real anger too, hehe.Return

5  Yes, "likhāmaḥ" means "we write", but Present Time also implies "immediate futurity". Thence my translation: "will we write" or the question will make no sense in English. The word "kiyat", in turn, means "how much else?" in the sense of "how far?", i.e. "how far will we write at every step (about these misunderstandings)?". The indeclinable "pratipadam" also means "at every word, word for word". In this case, the translation could be: "how much else will we write (about these misunderstandings) as regards every word?", etc. The amount of possible translations is too much! Once again, the author might have written the phrase in a clearer way so the translators would save so much time deciphering. This shows again the classic "theory vs. practice". You may have studied the entire Sanskrit grammar in theory, but when in practice, you frequently come up against this kind of things, which are disconcerting and obviously annoying.Return

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 Aphorism 19

यथेयं जागरादिमध्यदशापि प्रबुद्धं न प्रतिबध्नाति तथोपपादयति


गुणादिस्पन्दनिष्यन्दाः सामान्यस्पन्दसंश्रयात्।
लब्धात्मलाभाः सततं स्युर्ज्ञस्यापरिपन्थिनः॥१९॥


गुणाः सत्त्वरजस्तमांसि येषां प्रकृतितत्त्वं विभवभूस्ते मायातत्त्वावस्थिता इहाभिप्रेताः। यथोक्तं श्रीस्वच्छन्दे मायामसूरकविन्यासे

अधश्छादनमूर्ध्वं च रक्तं शुक्लं विचिन्तयेत्।
मध्ये तमो विज्ञानीयाद्गुणास्त्वेते व्यवस्थिताः॥

इति। त आदयो येशां कलादीनां क्षित्यन्तानां स्पन्दानां विशेषप्रसराणां तेषां ये निःष्यन्दास्तनुकरणभुवनप्रसरा नीलसुखादिसंविदश्च तथा योग्यपेक्षया बिन्दुनादादयस्ते सततं ज्ञस्य सुप्रबुद्धस्य कस्यचिदेवापश्चिमजन्मनोऽपरिपन्थिनः स्वस्वभावाच्छादका न भवन्तीति निश्चयो यतस्ते सामान्यस्पन्दमुक्तरूपमाश्रित्य यत्र स्थितमित्यत्र निर्णीतदृशा लब्धात्मलाभास्तत एवोत्पन्नास्तन्मयाश्चेत्यर्थः। तथाहि

स्वाङ्गरूपेषु भावेषु पत्युर्ज्ञानं क्रिया च या।
मायातृतीये त एव पशोः सत्त्वं रजस्तमः॥

इति श्रीप्रत्यभिज्ञोक्तदृशा चितिशक्तिरेव पारमेश्वरी ज्ञानक्रियामायाशक्तित्रितयतया श्रीसदाशिवादिपदे स्फुरित्वा सङ्कोचप्रकरात्सत्त्वरजस्तमोरूपं क्रीडाशरीरं श्रयति यतो निजचिच्छक्तिस्फारमयत्वात्तदधिष्ठितमेव सर्वदा सर्वं जानन्सुप्रबुद्धो गुणादिविशेषस्पन्दाननुच्छिन्दन्नपि स्पन्दतत्त्वावेशमय एव॥१९॥

Yatheyaṁ jāgarādimadhyadaśāpi prabuddhaṁ na pratibadhnāti tathopapādayati


Guṇādispandaniṣyandāḥ sāmānyaspandasaṁśrayāt|
Labdhātmalābhāḥ satataṁ syurjñasyāparipanthinaḥ||19||


Guṇāḥ sattvarajastamāṁsi yeṣāṁ prakṛtitattvaṁ vibhavabhūste māyātattvāvasthitā ihābhipretāḥ| Yathoktaṁ śrīsvacchande māyāmasūrakavinyāse

Adhaśchādanamūrdhvaṁ ca raktaṁ śuklaṁ vicintayet|
Madhye tamo vijñānīyādguṇāstvete vyavasthitāḥ||

iti| Ta ādayo yeśāṁ kalādīnāṁ kṣityantānāṁ spandānāṁ viśeṣaprasarāṇāṁ teṣāṁ ye niḥṣyandāstanukaraṇabhuvanaprasarā nīlasukhādisaṁvidaśca tathā yogyapekṣayā bindunādādayaste satataṁ jñasya suprabuddhasya kasyacidevāpaścimajanmano'paripanthinaḥ svasvabhāvācchādakā na bhavantīti niścayo yataste sāmānyaspandamuktarūpamāśritya yatra sthitamityatra nirṇītadṛśā labdhātmalābhāstata evotpannāstanmayāścetyarthaḥ| Tathāhi

Svāṅgarūpeṣu bhāveṣu patyurjñānaṁ kriyā ca yā|
Māyātṛtīye ta eva paśoḥ sattvaṁ rajastamaḥ||

iti śrīpratyabhijñoktadṛśā citiśaktireva pārameśvarī jñānakriyāmāyāśaktitritayatayā śrīsadāśivādipade sphuritvā saṅkocaprakarātsattvarajastamorūpaṁ krīḍāśarīraṁ śrayati yato nijacicchaktisphāramayatvāttadadhiṣṭhitameva sarvadā sarvaṁ jānansuprabuddho guṇādiviśeṣaspandānanucchindannapi spandatattvāveśamaya eva||19||

Since (yathā) even (api) this (iyam) middle (madhya) state (daśā) of wakefulness (jāgarā), etc. (ādi) does not (na) tie or stop (pratibadhnāti) the perfectly awakened one (prabuddham)1, therefore (tathā) (Vasugupta) proves (upapādayati) (that very truth now):


The emanations (niṣyandāḥ) of Spanda (spanda) that begin (ādi) with the qualities of "Prakṛti" (guṇa), (and) which obtain (labdha) their own (ātma) existence (lābhāḥ) by resorting (saṁśrayāt) to generic (sāmānya) Spanda (spanda) constantly (satatam), does not stand in the way (syuḥ... aparipanthinaḥ) of one who possesses knowledge (of the Self) (jñāsya)||19||


Qualities of Prakṛti (guṇāḥ) (are) sattvá --quality of goodness--, rájas --quality of passion-- and támas --quality of ignorance-- (sattva-rajas-tamāṁsi). They (te), whose (yeṣām) place (bhūs) of development or evolution (vibhava) (is) the principle (tattvam) of Prakṛti (prakṛti), are to be understood (abhipretāḥ) here (iha) as residing (avasthitāḥ) in the principle (tattva) of Māyā (māyā)2|

As (yathā) has been mentioned (uktam) in venerable Svacchandatantra (śrī-svacchande) with reference to the arrangement (vinyāse) of Māyā's pillow (māyā-masūraka):

"One should consider (vicintayet) the lower (adhas) and (ca) upper (ūrdhvam) cover(s) (chādanam) (of the Māyā's pillow) as red (raktam) (and) white (śuklam) (respectively. And) one should regard (vijñānīyāt) the middle (cover) (madhye) (as) dark (tamas). These (ete) guṇa-s (guṇāḥ) are arranged (vyavasthitāḥ) (in that way) indeed (tu... iti)3"||
(See II, 65 in Svacchandatantra)

Starting (ādayaḥ) with them --with the qualities of Prakṛti-- (te), the emanations (ye niḥṣyandāḥ) of Spanda --lit. of spanda-s or vibrations-- (spandānām) —i.e. of all those (vibrations) which (yeśām... teṣām) are particular streams --ramifications-- (viśeṣa-prasarāṇām) beginning (ādīnām) with Kalā --tattva 7-- (kalā) (and) ending (antānām) with earth --tattva 36-- (kṣiti)(consist of) streams (prasarāḥ) (in the form of) bodies (tanu), senses (karaṇa) (and) worlds (bhuvana) along with (ca) the cognitions (saṁvidaḥ) of blue (nīla), pleasure (sukha), etc. (ādi), as well as (tathā) —with respect to (apekṣayā) the yogī-s (yogi)(the cognitions of) Bindu --supernatural light-- (bindu), Nāda --supernatural sound-- (nāda), etc. (ādayaḥ)... (all) those (things) (te) do not ever stay in the way (satatam... aparipanthinaḥ) of someone (kasyacid eva) who has no future birth (apaścima-janmanaḥ), i.e. of the perfectly awakened one (suprabuddhasya) who possesses knowledge (of the Self) (jñasya). (In short,) they do not conceal or veil (ācchādakāḥ na bhavanti) his own (sva) essential nature (sva-bhāva). This is certain --i.e. there is no doubt about it-- (iti niścayaḥ)! Since (yatas) those things (te) obtain (labdha) their own (ātma) existence (lābhāḥ) by having recourse to (āśritya) the aforesaid (ukta-rūpam) generic (sāmānya) Spanda (spandam) according to the viewpoint or doctrine (dṛśā) already investigated (nirṇīta) here (atra)(in I, 2) "in whom (yatra) (all this universe) rests (sthitam iti)"—, therefore (tatas eva), (those things) arise from (utpannāḥ) and (ca) are identical (mayāḥ) with that --with Spanda-- (tad). This is the meaning (iti arthaḥ)4|

Thus (tathāhi),

"Those very (Powers which are) (te eva) Jñāna --Knowledge-- (jñānam) and (ca) Kriyā --Action-- (kriyā yā), (along with) Māyā (māyā) as the third (tṛtīye) in the case of the Lord (patyuḥ) with reference to the objects (bhāveṣu) that are (rūpeṣu) His own (sva) limbs (aṅga), (appear), in the case of a limited being (paśoḥ) as Sattva (sattvam), Rajas (rajas) (and) Tamas (tamas... iti)"||
(See IV, I, 4 in Īśvarapratyabhijñā)

according to the viewpoint (dṛśā) described (ukta) in venerable Īśvarapratyabhijñā (śrī-pratyabhijñā), (it is) the very Power (śaktiḥ eva) of Consciousness (citi), viz. the Supreme Mistress (pārama-īśvarī), (who,) shining forth (sphuritvā) in the state (pade) of venerable Sadāśiva (śrī-sadāśiva), etc. (ādi) in the form of the triad (tritayatayā) of Powers (śakti) (called) Jñāna, Kriyā and Māyā (jñāna-kriyā-māyā) spreads (śrayati) as the body (śarīram) of the (Lord's) Play (krīḍā) in the form (rūpam) of Sattva, Rajas and Tamas (sattva-rajas-tamas) due to an excess (prakarāt) of contraction (saṅkoca)5. As (yatas) the perfectly awakened one (suprabuddhaḥ) knows (jānan) that everything (sarvam), due to its being identical (mayatvāt) with the expanse (sphāra) of his own (nija) Power (śakti) of Consciousness (cit), (is) always (sarvadā) presided over (adhiṣṭhitam eva) by That --by the Power of Consciousness-- (tad), does not interfere (anucchindan api) with the particular (forms) of Spanda (viśeṣa-spandān), such as guṇa-s (guṇa), etc. (ādi), (but he rather) remains fully absorbed (āveśa-mayaḥ) in the principle (tattva) of Spanda (spanda) only (eva)6||19||

1 The sage Kṣemarāja wrote "prabuddha" in order to point out the "suprabuddha" (the perfectly awakened one) in this context, and not the partially awakened one. He said that Vasugupta, the author of Spandakārikā, is going to prove, by the following aphorism, how the suprabuddha is never in bondage even in the middle state of waking, dreaming and deep sleep. The partially awakened one has the revelation of his own Self at the beginning and the end of those states, but he is in bondage in their middle phase. On the contrary, the suprabuddha is able to keep realizing the Self even during the course of waking, etc. According to the Trika system, this sublime state can only be attained by divine Grace and not by efforts.Return

2 The threes qualities of Prakṛti (tattva 13) are so called because they have Prakṛti for their place of development or evolution. In short, they arise from Prakṛti. And as this Prakṛti has emerged from Māyā (tattva 6), the three guṇa-s are to be thought of as residing lastly in Māyā. Therefore, the sage Kṣemarāja indirectly establishes that nothing coming from spiritual ignorance (Māyā) stands in the way of a suprabuddha (a perfectly awakened one). For more information about this topic, consult Tattvic chart, Trika 4 and Trika 5.Return

3 In his Svacchandoddyota (the great commentary on Svacchandatantra), Kṣemarāja himself explains the meaning of this stanza completely. The first portion of his explanation reads: "ऊर्ध्वं शुद्धविद्यानिकटवर्तित्वात्सितं सत्त्वरूपम्। अधस्तु संसरणानुगुणत्वाद्रक्तं रजोमयम्। मध्ये तु ख्यात्याच्छादनप्रकर्षात्तमोमयं कृष्णम्।" - "Ūrdhvaṁ śuddhavidyānikaṭavartitvātsitaṁ sattvarūpam| Adhastu saṁsaraṇānuguṇatvādraktaṁ rajomayam| Madhye tu khyātyācchādanaprakarṣāttamomayaṁ kṛṣṇam|" - "The upper (cover), i.e. Sattva, (is) white because it stays near Pure Knowledge. The lower (cover), i.e. Rajas, (is) red since it has to do with passing through a succession of states --Saṁsāra--. The middle (cover) , i.e. Tamas, (is) black because it is eminently related to concealing of Knowledge".

The three guṇa-s or qualities of Prakṛti are like that then. It is to be noticed that Pure Knowledge (śuddhavidyā) is not the fifth tattva or category in the universal manifestation in this context. Here it is to be understood as I explained it in Meditation 3. In turn, Saṁsāra is bondage as it means "passing through successive states of birth, death and rebirth" as well as "passing through successive mental/bodily states". The sage specifies that the color of Tamas is black, because in the stanza of Svacchandatantra this is not very clearly established in saying that its color is "dark". I could keep quoting more and more teachings extracted from Svacchandoddyota, but this commentary is lengthier than Spandanirṇaya itself (the text I am translating). Hence I have to be cautious or my notes of explanation will be more extensive than the scripture itself!Return

4 As always, consult the Tattvic chart and all the pages from Trika 1 through Trika 6 in order to understand how the universal manifestation is displayed according to Trika. The tattva-s or categories between Kalā (tattva 7) and earth (tattva 36) are the progeny of Māyā (ignorance). These mayic manifestations are full of streams or ramifications in the form of bodies, senses y worlds along with the cognitions of blue, pleasure, etc. That is all what the ordinary people perceive. The phrase "blue, pleasure, etc." is commonly used in this type of texts to mention cognitions or experiences perceived by one's mind and senses. The yogī-s perceive more things than the ordinary people, e.g. supernatural light, supernatural sound, etc. All these manifestations, in spite of their being superior to the common human experience, become obstacles in the spiritual path in the case of advanced spiritual aspirants. One could say: "How is it possible for a supernatural manifestation to become an obstacle?". For someone who is about to get in touch with the Self (the Highest Reality), even all those supernatural manifestations are distractions. As the Highest Reality cannot even be delineated in thought, all those supernatural things are not the Highest Reality as It really is. The advanced aspirants look to come into contact with the Highest Reality alone, with the Self. They are not interested in anything else, even if this is supernatural in its nature. Nonetheless, in the case of a suprabuddha (a perfectly awakened one), none of those things, whether they be natural or supernatural, can stay in his way. He is unobstructed as his essential nature (the Self) is never concealed or veiled by anything at all. A suprabuddha is simply an advanced spiritual aspirant who realized the Highest Reality as It essentially is. This is sure thing!

In the second aphorism of the first Section of Spandakārikā-s (which has already been investigated by Kṣemarāja in the present Spandanirṇaya), it is clearly established that the Self is never obstructed by anything in this universe, which is a manifestation of His Spanda or Supreme Power, because it has emerged from the Self and rests on Him. As all those things that have arisen from Māyā are lastly a manifestation of Spanda alone, they will never veil the essential nature of a suprabuddha who has no future birth and is constantly aware of the Self. Such is the meaning!Return

5 Kṣemarāja is saying here that the very powers of Jñāna (Knowledge), Kriyā (Action) and Māyā (Ignorance) which shine forth in the state of Sadāśiva (tattva 3), Īśvara (tattva 4) and Sadvidyā (tattva 5) --consult the Tattvic chart together with Trika 3--, appear, in the case of a limited being (a being in bondage), in the form of Sattva, Rajas and Tamas as the Lord's Play. The interesting point here is that he assigns Jñāna, Kriyā and Māyā to the Sadāśiva, Īśvara and Sadvidyā tattva-s, when the latter are traditionally linked to Icchā (Will), Jñāna (Knowledge) and Kriyā (Action). Besides, Kṣemarāja himself mentions this traditional arrangement while he comments on the aphorisms of his own Pratyabhijñāhṛdayam. That is why the sage expressed: "according to the viewpoint described in venerable Īśvarapratyabhijñā" in order to mark that this teaching is not in accordance with the traditional view. His teacher, Abhinavagupta, comments abundantly on that stanza of Īśvarapratyabhijñā in both Īśvarapratyabhijñāvimarśinī and Īśvarapratyabhijñāvivṛtivimarśinī (his scholarly commentaries on Utpaladeva's Īśvarapratyabhijñā).Return

6 The Power of Consciousness is the Power of the Self, and the Power of the Self is Spanda. There is no difference here. As the suprabuddha or perfectly awakened one realizes that everything is one with the expanse of his own Power of Consciousness (with his own Self), he knows that everything is always controlled by the Power of the Self. Due to his perception of unity, he feels no obstruction on the part of the particular manifestations of Spanda, such as guṇa-s and such. Consequently he does not feel the necessity of interfering with all those things but he rather prefers to remain completely absorbed in the Spanda itself. This absolute indifference is really total detachment and a mark of spiritual enlightenment. People who are not suprabuddha-s, not realizing the inherent unity of everything, are always delighted or upset by the particular forms assumed by Spanda and as a result they look to interfere with all those things instead of remaining in their own Self. This is a mark of spiritual ignorance.Return

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 Aphorism 20

यथा त्वप्रबुद्धान्बध्नन्त्येते तत्प्रतिपादयति


अप्रबुद्धधियस्त्वेते स्वस्थितिस्थगनोद्यताः।
पातयन्ति दुरुत्तारे घोरे संसारवर्त्मनि॥२०॥


अप्रबुद्धधियः प्रायः सर्वानप्रत्यभिज्ञातपारमेश्वरीशक्त्यात्मकनिजस्पन्दतत्त्वान्देहात्ममानिनो लौकिकान्प्राणाद्यात्माभिमानिनश्च मितयोगिनस्त्वेते पूर्वोक्ता गुणादिस्पन्दनिःष्यन्दाः स्वस्याः स्पन्दतत्त्वात्मनः स्थितेः स्थगनायोद्यता नित्यं तदुद्यमैकसारा दुःखेनोत्तार्यन्तेऽस्माद्दैशिकैर्जन्तुचक्रमिति दुरुत्तारे लङ्घयितुमशक्ये घोरे दुःखमये संसरणमार्गे पातयन्ति। यथोक्तं श्रीमालिनीविजये

विषयेष्वेव संलीनानधोऽधः पातयन्त्यणून्।
रुद्राणून्याः समालिङ्ग्य घोरतर्योऽपराः स्मृताः॥

इति। तथा हि पूर्वं प्रतिपादिता येयं स्पन्दतत्त्वात्मा पराशक्तिः सैव विश्वस्यान्तर्बहिश्च वमनात्संसारवामाचारत्वाच्च वामेश्वरीशक्तिः। तदुत्थापितानि तु खेचरीगोचरीदिक्चरीभूचरीरूपाणि चत्वारि देवताचक्राणि सुप्रबुद्धस्य परभूमिसञ्चारीण्यप्रबुद्धानां त्वधराधरसरणिप्रेरकाणि। तथा हि या एव सुप्रबुद्धस्य खे बोधगगने चरन्त्यः खेचर्योऽकालकलितत्वाभेदसर्वकर्तृत्वसर्वज्ञत्वपूर्णत्वव्यापकत्वप्रथाहेतवस्ता एवाप्रबुद्धस्य शून्यप्रमातृपदचारिण्यः कञ्चुकरूपतया स्थिताः कालकलितत्वकिञ्चित्कर्तृताकिञ्चिज्ज्ञताभिष्वङ्गनियमहेतवः। गौर्वाक् तदुपलक्षितासु सञ्जल्पमयीषु बुद्ध्यहङ्कारमनोभूमिषु चरन्त्यो गोचर्यः सुप्रबुद्धस्य स्वात्माभेदमयाध्यवसायाभिमानसङ्कल्पाञ्जनयन्ति मूढानां तु भेदैकसारान्। दिक्षु दशसु बाह्येन्द्रियभूमिषु चरन्त्यो दिक्चर्यः सुप्रबुद्धस्याद्वयप्रथासारा अन्येषां द्वयप्रथाहेतवः। भू रूपादिपञ्चकात्मकं मेयपदं तत्र चरन्त्यो भूचर्यस्तदाभोगमय्या आश्यानीभावतया तन्मयत्वमापन्ना भूचर्यः सुप्रबुद्धस्य चित्प्रकाशशरीरतयात्मानं दर्शयन्त्य इतरेषां सर्वतोऽप्यवच्छिन्नतां प्रथयन्त्यः स्थिताः- इत्येवं प्रमात्रन्तःकरणबहिष्करणप्रमेयरूपतयैव तानि चत्वारि चक्राणि गुणादिस्पन्दमयान्यप्रबुद्धबुद्धीम्ल्लौकिकांस्तथा बिन्दुनादादिप्रथामात्रसन्तुष्टान् योगिनस्तत्तत्त्वप्रसररूपे संसारे पातयन्ति॥२०॥

Yathā tvaprabuddhānbadhnantyete tatpratipādayati


Aprabuddhadhiyastvete svasthitisthaganodyatāḥ|
Pātayanti duruttāre ghore saṁsāravartmani||20||


Aprabuddhadhiyaḥ prāyaḥ sarvānapratyabhijñātapārameśvarīśaktyātmakanijaspandatattvāndehātmamānino laukikānprāṇādyātmābhimāninaśca mitayoginastvete pūrvoktā guṇādispandaniḥṣyandāḥ svasyāḥ spandatattvātmanaḥ sthiteḥ sthaganāyodyatā nityaṁ tadudyamaikasārā duḥkhenottāryante'smāddaiśikairjantucakramiti duruttāre laṅghayitumaśakye ghore duḥkhamaye saṁsaraṇamārge pātayanti| Yathoktaṁ śrīmālinīvijaye

Viṣayeṣveva saṁlīnānadho'dhaḥ pātayantyaṇūn|
Rudrāṇūnyāḥ samāliṅgya ghorataryo'parāḥ smṛtāḥ||

iti| Tathā hi pūrvaṁ pratipāditā yeyaṁ spandatattvātmā parāśaktiḥ saiva viśvasyāntarbahiśca vamanātsaṁsāravāmācāratvācca vāmeśvarīśaktiḥ| Tadutthāpitāni tu khecarīgocarīdikcarībhūcarīrūpāṇi catvāri devatācakrāṇi suprabuddhasya parabhūmisañcārīṇyaprabuddhānāṁ tvadharādharasaraṇiprerakāṇi| Tathā hi yā eva suprabuddhasya khe bodhagagane carantyaḥ khecaryo'kālakalitatvābhedasarvakartṛtvasarvajñatvapūrṇatvavyāpakatvaprathāhetavastā evāprabuddhasya śūnyapramātṛpadacāriṇyaḥ kañcukarūpatayā sthitāḥ kālakalitatvakiñcitkartṛtākiñcijjñatābhiṣvaṅganiyamahetavaḥ| Gaurvāk tadupalakṣitāsu sañjalpamayīṣu buddhyahaṅkāramanobhūmiṣu carantyo gocaryaḥ suprabuddhasya svātmābhedamayādhyavasāyābhimānasaṅkalpāñjanayanti mūḍhānāṁ tu bhedaikasārān| Dikṣu daśasu bāhyendriyabhūmiṣu carantyo dikcaryaḥ suprabuddhasyādvayaprathāsārā anyeṣāṁ dvayaprathāhetavaḥ| Bhū rūpādipañcakātmakaṁ meyapadaṁ tatra carantyo bhūcaryastadābhogamayyā āśyānībhāvatayā tanmayatvamāpannā bhūcaryaḥ suprabuddhasya citprakāśaśarīratayātmānaṁ darśayantya itareṣāṁ sarvato'pyavacchinnatāṁ prathayantyaḥ sthitāḥ— Ityevaṁ pramātrantaḥkaraṇabahiṣkaraṇaprameyarūpatayaiva tāni catvāri cakrāṇi guṇādispandamayānyaprabuddhabuddhīm̐llaukikāṁstathā bindunādādiprathāmātrasantuṣṭān yoginastattattvaprasararūpe saṁsāre pātayanti||20||


(Now Vasugupta, the author,) explains (pratipādayati) that (tad), viz. how (yathā tu) these (emanations of Spanda) (ete) bind (badhnanti) the unawakened ones (aprabuddhān):


Nonetheless (tu), these (very emanations of Spanda) (ete), laboring diligently and incessantly (udyatāḥ) to cover or veil (sthagana) their --i.e. of the people who have unawakened intellects-- (sva) (real) state or nature (sthiti), cause people of unawakened intellect to fall (aprabuddha-dhiyaḥ... pātayanti) into the terrible (ghore) course or way (vartmani) of Transmigration (saṁsāra), from which it is difficult to come out (duruttāre)||20||


Nonetheless (tu), these (ete) aforesaid (pūrva-uktāḥ) emanations (niḥṣyandāḥ) of Spanda (spanda) that begin (ādi) with the qualities of "Prakṛti" (guṇa) —whose --of those emanations-- quintessence (eka-sārāḥ) is always (nityam) an emergence (udyama) from That --from Spanda-- (tad)—, laboring diligently and incessantly (udyatāḥ) to cover or veil (sthaganāya) their (svasyāḥ) (real) state or nature (sthiteḥ) which consists of (ātmanaḥ) the principle (tattva) of Spanda (spanda) --i.e. the real state or nature of the people whose intellects are unawakened as well as the real state or nature of the limited yogī-s-- cause people of unawakened intellect as well as limited yogī-s to fall (aprabuddha-dhiyaḥ... ca mita-yoginaḥ... pātayanti)(the former are) mostly (prāyaḥ) all (sarvān) the worldly people (laukikān) who have not recognized (apratyabhijñāta) their own (nija) principle (tattvān) of Spanda (spanda) as (ātmaka) the Power (śakti) of the Supreme Mistress --Śakti-- (pārama-īśvarī) (and) who think (māninaḥ) (their) bodies (deha) to be the Self (ātma); (while the latter are) the ones who consider (abhimāninaḥ) vital energy (prāṇa), etc. (ādi) as the Self (ātma)— into the terrible (ghore) (and) full of pain (duḥkha-maye) course or way (mārge) of Transmigration (saṁsaraṇa), that is impossible (aśakye) to leap over (laṅghayitum) (and) from which it is difficult to come out (duruttāre)(in short,) "humankind --lit. group of people-- (jantu-cakram) is rescued (uttāryante) from this (course or way of Transmigration) (asmāt) with difficulty (duḥkhena) by the spiritual teachers (daiśikaiḥ... iti)"—1 |

As (yathā) has been said (uktam) in venerable Mālinīvijayatantra (śrī-mālinīvijaye):

"The ghoratarī-s --lit. very terrible-- (ghorataryaḥ) who (yāḥ), by embracing (samāliṅgya) the Rudra souls --liberated souls-- (rudra-aṇūn), throw (pātayanti) the individual souls (aṇūn) who are clung to (saṁlīnān) objects (viṣayeṣu) down and down (adhas adhas), are called (smṛtāḥ) aparā-s or non-supreme ones (aparāḥ... iti)"||
(See III, 31 in Mālinīvijayatantra)

In this way (tathā hi), this (iyam) Supreme Power (parā-śaktiḥ) who (yā) has been previously explained (pūrvam pratipāditā) as of the nature (ātmā) of the principle (tattva) of Spanda (spanda) is the Vāmeśvarīśakti (sā eva... vāmeśvarī-śaktiḥ) because She emits (vamanāt) the universe (viśvasya) inside and outside (antar bahis ca) and (ca) because She is related to the contrary course (vāmācāratvāt) of Transmigration (saṁsāra)2 |

Four (catvāri) groups (cakrāṇi) of deities (devatā) called Khecarī, Gocarī, Dikcarī and Bhūcarī (khecarī-gocarī-dikcarī-bhūcarī-rūpāṇi) are produced (utthāpitāni tu) from Her (tad). (Such groups of deities) move (sañcārīṇi) in the Supreme Stage (para-bhūmi) in the case of the perfectly awakened one (suprabuddhasya), but (tu) impel (prerakāṇi) the unawakened ones (aprabuddhānām) to more and more inferior paths (adhara-adhara-saraṇi)|

Thus (tathā hi), those very (tāḥ eva) Khecarī-s (khecaryaḥ) who (yāḥ eva), moving (carantyaḥ) in Kha (khe) —in the ether (gagane) of Knowledge/Consciousness (bodha)—, (are) the causes of (hetavaḥ) the spreding out of (prathā) of non-duality (abheda), omnipotence (sarvakartṛtva), omniscience (sarvajñatva), perfection (pūrṇatva), omnipresence (vyāpakatva) (and) of a state which is not driven by time (a-kāla-kalitatva) in the case of the perfectly awakened (suprabuddhasya); moving (cāriṇyaḥ) in the stage (pada) of knower (pramātṛ) of the void (śūnya) (and) remaining (sthitāḥ) as sheaths (kañcuka-rūpatayā), (are) the causes of (hetavaḥ) limited agency (kiñcid-kartṛtā), limited knowledge (kiñcid-jñatā), attachment (abhiṣvaṅga), restriction with reference to space and cause (niyama) (and) of a state which is driven by time (kāla-kalitatva) in the case of the unawakened one (aprabuddhasya)|

In the case of the perfectly awakened one (suprabuddhasya), the Gocarī-s (gocaryaḥ) —the ones who move (carantyaḥ) in the stages (bhūmiṣu) of Buddhi, Ahaṅkāra and Manas --tattva-s 14 to 16 forming the Antaḥkaraṇa o Inner Psychic Organ-- (buddhi-ahaṅkāra-manas-bhūmiṣu) which --i.e. those stages-- consist in conversations (sañjalpa-mayīṣu) (and) are characterized by the word 'gauḥ' --nominative case of 'go'-- (gauḥ vāk tad-upalakṣitāsu)—, generate (janayanti)determination (adhyavasāya), ego-sense (abhimāna) (and) ideas (saṅkalpān) related to (maya) non-duality (abheda) with his own Self (sva-ātma), but (tu) in the case of the ones deluded by Māyā (mūḍhānām), (they generate determination, ego-sense and ideas) only related to (eka-sārān) duality (bheda)|

In the case of the perfectly awakened one (suprabuddhasya), the Dikcarī-s (dikcaryaḥ) —the ones who move (carantyaḥ) in the ten directions (dikṣu daśasu), i.e. in the stages (bhūmiṣu) of the external (bāhya) senses (indriya)— are chiefly occupied with (sārāḥ) the spreading out (prathā) of non-duality (advaya), (but) in the case of others --a.k.a. people who are not perfectly awakened-- (anyeṣām), they are the causes (hetavaḥ) of the spreading out (prathā) of duality (dvaya).

Bhū (bhūḥ) (connotes) the state (padam) of knowables (meya) consisting of --i.e. the state of knowables-- (ātmakam) the group of five (pañcaka), viz. form (rūpa), etc. (ādi). The Bhūcarī-s (bhūcaryaḥ) move (carantyaḥ) there --in Bhū or the state of knowables-- (tatra). (In other words,) they attain (āpannāḥ) identity (mayatvam) with them --with those knowables-- (tad) by assuming a coagulated state (āśyānī-bhāvatayā) which is nothing but their expanded forms (tad-ābhoga-mayyā). In the case of the perfectly awakened one (suprabuddhasya), the Bhūcarī-s (bhūcaryaḥ) show (darśayantyaḥ) themselves --though you might have expected 'ātmanaḥ' instead-- (ātmānam) as endowed with bodies (śarīratayā) made of the Light (prakāśa) of Consciousness (cit), (but) in the case of others --a.k.a. people who are not perfectly awakened-- (itareṣām), they keep spreading out (prathayantyaḥ sthitāḥ) limitation and separation (avacchinnatām) everywhere (sarvatas api). In this way (iti evam), those (tāni) four (catvāri) groups (cakrāṇi) which appear in the form of (rūpatayā eva) experients/knowers (pramātṛ), inner psychic organ --intellect, ego and mind-- (antar-karaṇa), outer (bahis) senses (karaṇa) --powers of perception and action-- (and) knowables/objects (prameya), (and) which are replete with (mayāni) (various aspects of) Spanda --Supreme Vibration-- (spanda) (such as) qualities of Prakṛti (guṇa), etc. (ādi), throw --lit. cause to fall-- (pātayanti) the ordinary people (laukikān) —i.e. the ones whose intellects (buddhīn) are unawakened (aprabuddha)— as well as (tathā) the yogī-s (yoginaḥ) who are merely satisfied (mātra-santuṣṭān) with the expansive manifestations (prathā) of supernatural light (bindu), supernatural sound (nāda), etc. (ādi) into Saṁsāra --transmigration full of misery-- (saṁsāre), which is (rūpe) an expansion (prasara) of those (tad) principles/realities (tattva)3 ||20||

1  Kṣemarāja will explain later the full meaning of this paragraph. Anyway, in the description 'all the wordly people who have not recognized their own principle of Spanda as the Power of the Supreme Mistress --Śakti-- and who think their bodies to be the Self': This is the group of common people (non-yogī-s) who retain the entire Āṇavamala --primordial impurity generating the notion that 'I am not Full'--, i.e. its two aspects of Pauruṣājñāna (ignorance about the Self, as they think that their Self has become many --the commentator explains this as 'they have not recognized their own principle of Spanda as the Power of the Supreme Mistress', i.e. they have not recognized that their Self is the Self of the universe--) and Bauddhājñāna (intellectual ignorance, since they think that their bodies are the the Self). In this group the limited yogī-s are included as they, though their Pauruṣājñāna has been removed by the Grace of their Guru-s during initiation, still retain Bauddhājñāna in a way subtler than ordinary people. That is why the commentator specified that these yogī-s 'consider vital energy, etc. as the Self'. They have abandoned the notion that they are their bodies (gross Bauddhājñāna), but anyway they feel that if they cannot breathe, for example, they die. This is because they are identified with the vital energy permeating the respiratory process. All of them are thrown into the terrifying Saṁsāra from which it is difficult to come out.Return

2  Śakti or Spanda is called Vāmeśvarī (lit. the Beautiful Mistress) because She emits the universe inside and outside (from the root 'vam' - 'to emit'). This is Her Mātṛkā aspect. Also, Śakti or Spanda is called Vāmeśvarī because She is related to the contrary course of Transmigration (from the adjective 'vāmā' - 'reverse, contrary'). This is Her Mālinī aspect. So, while Mātṛkā manifests the expansive universe, Mālinī makes it return to its Source, Śiva.Return

3  Vāmeśvarī is the presiding power over this set of four śakti-s composed of Khecarī (related to the 'knower or subject'), Gocarī and Dikcarī (related to knowledge/means of knowledge) and Bhūcarī (related to knowables or objects).

In the case of non-liberated beings, the Khecarī-s are the powers who move in the stage of deep sleep and cause in them five limitations regarding action, knowledge, will, time and space. But in the case of the liberated being, the Khecarī-s move in Kha --in the ether of Knowledge or Awakened Consciousness-- as in the liberated one (the Great Yogī), deep sleep is transformed into Consciousness (such as stated in the last part of I.18 above: "Nevertheless, in the other than those (two, He appears only) as Consciousness". And because this is so, these very powers bestow on him fully expanded powers of action, knowledge, will, bliss and consciousness.

In the case of non-liberated beings, the Gocarī-s or powers who move in Antaḥkaraṇa o Inner Psychic Organ consisting of intellect, ego and mind, generate determination (e.g. 'this is blue in color'), ego-sense (e.g. 'this is mine') and ideas (all kind of thoughts) only having to do with duality (e.g. this is my beautiful house, this is my family, those are my enemies, etc.). However, to the liberated being, the Gocarī-s produce determination, ego-sense and ideas related to unity with the Lord (e.g. I am the universe, all is already Mine, there is full unity between Śiva and Me, etc.).

In the case of non-liberated beings, the Dikcarī-s or powers who move in the external senses (composed of Jñānendriya-s and Karmendriya-s, viz. Powers of perception and action) just create more duality (e.g. I see this big forest, I see a lot of people, I hear different sounds, etc.). Nonetheless, to the liberated being, the Dikcarī-s reveal unity in all around (e.g. on seeing an object, the liberated being realizes that he is one with that object; on hearing music, he becomes one with it, etc.).

In the case of the non-liberated beings, the Bhūcarī-s or powers who move in the state of knowables or objects (they coagulate themselves and assume the form of all the objects, and consequently these objects are nothing but the expanded or developed forms of those very śakti-s) only generate limitation and separation everywhere (e.g. I live here but not there, I need a very fast space ship to travel to another galaxy, I will die --because the body will die--, etc.; in this way, they produce only misery to those disgraced beings). But to the liberated being, the Bhūcarī-s show themselves as endowed with bodies made of the Light of Consciousness, i.e. when the liberated one perceives objects around him, all of them do not look like mere objects but like radiant goddesses.

In a nutshell, all those four groups of powers extending from Māyātattva (sixth category) down to Pṛthivītattva (thirty-sixth category) cause non-liberated beings (ordinary people and all those yogī-s only interested in lower manifestations of Spanda such as superanatural light appearing in the space between the eyebrows, supernatural sound heard in that very space too, etc.) to fall into the awful pit called Saṁsāra (Transmigration from one body to another body, from one thought to another thought and so on), which (i.e. Saṁsāra) is just an expansion of all those things populating the realm of Māyā (from tattva 6 to tattva 36). If the word 'tattva' in the commentary is to be understood as 'principle or category of manifestation', so the translation would be like this: 'which is an expansion of those principles or categories of manifestation (from the sixth to the thirty-sixth one)'.Return

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 Aphorism 21

यत एवम्


अतः सततमुद्युक्तः स्पन्दतत्त्वविविक्तये।
जाग्रदेव निजं भावमचिरेणाधिगच्छति॥२१॥


उक्तवक्ष्यमाणरूपस्य स्पन्दतत्त्वस्य विविक्तये विमर्शनाय सततमुद्युक्तः

मय्यावेश्य मनो ये मां नित्ययुक्ता उपासते।

इति गीतोक्तदृशा सततमेवान्तर्मुखस्वरूपनिभालनप्रवणो यः स जाग्रदेव जागरावस्थास्थित एव निजमात्मीयं शङ्करात्मकं स्वस्वभावमचिरेणाधिगच्छति तथास्य शङ्करात्मा आन्तरः स्वभावः स्वयमेवोन्मज्जति येन प्रबुद्धो नित्योदितसमावेशासादनात्सुप्रबुद्धो जीवन्मुक्तो भवतीत्यर्थः॥२१॥

Yata evam


Ataḥ satatamudyuktaḥ spandatattvaviviktaye|
Jāgradeva nijaṁ bhāvamacireṇādhigacchati||21||


Uktavakṣyamāṇarūpasya spandatattvasya viviktaye vimarśanāya satatamudyuktaḥ

Mayyāveśya mano ye māṁ nityayuktā upāsate|

iti gītoktadṛśā satatamevāntarmukhasvarūpanibhālanapravaṇo yaḥ sa jāgradeva jāgarāvasthāsthita eva nijamātmīyaṁ śaṅkarātmakaṁ svasvabhāvamacireṇādhigacchati tathāsya śaṅkarātmā āntaraḥ svabhāvaḥ svayamevonmajjati yena prabuddho nityoditasamāveśāsādanātsuprabuddho jīvanmukto bhavatītyarthaḥ||21||

Since (yatas) (it is) so (evam):


For this reason (atas), he who (is) constantly (satatam) prepared (udyuktaḥ) for discerning (viviktaye) the principle (tattva) of Spanda (spanda), attains (adhigacchati) his own (nijam) (essential) state or nature (bhāvam) quickly (acireṇa), (even in) wakefulness (jāgrat eva)||21||


He who is constantly prepared (satatam udyuktaḥ)1  for discerning (viviktaye) —i.e. for being aware of (vimarśanāya)— the principle (tattvasya) of Spanda (spanda), whose nature --of the principle of Spanda-- has already been mentioned and will be mentioned later on (ukta-vakṣyamāṇa-rūpasya); (in other words,) he (saḥ) who (yaḥ) is indeed constantly inclined (satatam eva... pravaṇaḥ) to perceive (nibhālana) the inner (antarmukha) essential nature (sva-rūpa), quickly (acireṇa) attains (adhigacchati) his own (nijam ātmīyam... sva) (essential) state or nature (sva-bhāvam) which is (ātmakam) Śaṅkara (śaṅkara) even during jāgrat (jāgrat eva), i.e. even while he stays (sthitaḥ eva) in the waking state (jāgarā-avasthā). (This is also) in accordance with the viewpoint (dṛśā) expressed (ukta) in Bhagavadgītā (gītā):

"(Among the ones endowed with the highest faith, I consider them to be yuktatamā-s' --the ones who are most devoted to Me--) who (ye), after fixing (āveśya) (their) mind(s) (manas) on Me (mayi), constantly --lit. constantly intent on or devoted to-- (nitya-yuktāḥ) worship/serve (upāsate) Me (mām)"||
(See XII, 2 in Bhagavadgītā)

So (tathā), his (asya) inner (āntaraḥ) essential nature (sva-bhāvaḥ), which is Śaṅkara (śaṅkara-ātmā), emerges (unmajjati) by itself (svayam eva), (and) on which account (yena), the partially awakened one (prabuddhaḥ), by attaining (āsādanāt) an ever-active absorption or samādhi --a samādhi which lasts forever-- (nitya-udita-samāveśa), becomes (bhavati) perfectly awakened (su-prabuddhaḥ), i.e. liberated while living (jīvat-muktaḥ). This is the meaning (iti-arthaḥ)2 ||21||

1  By satatam or constantly, the author meant "the whole time", and no only during formal cross-legged meditation, chanting of mantra-s or any other form of spiritual practice.Return

2  By means of this spontaneous emergence of his totally Free essential nature which is the Great Lord, the prabuddha (partially awakened) becomes suprabuddha (perfectly awakened). In the state of prabuddha, he was only able to realize his unity with Śaṅkara at the beginning or end of the three states of waking, dreaming and deep sleep. Now, with the sudden appearance of his essential nature even in the middle of his activities, his prabuddha state is removed and replaced with the suprabuddha state, because only a suprabuddha can experience his unity with the Supreme Self even in the middle of the three states of waking, dreaming and deep sleep. And a synonym of suprabuddha in this context is jīvanmukta (liberated while living), as the great Yogī retains his physical body after the massive experience of Liberation. If he were to leave his physical body during the process of Liberation, he would become a videhamukta (one who got Liberation and abandoned the body), but this is not the case of the sublime Yogī mentioned by Kṣemarāja.Return

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Gabriel Pradīpaka

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