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Śivasūtravimarśinī (Shiva Sutra Vimarshini) Section III (aphorisms 34 to 45) - Non-dual Shaivism of Kashmir
Śivasūtravimarśinī continues: Kṣemarāja keeps commenting the aphorisms.
This is the fourth and last set of 12 aphorisms out of 45 aphorisms of which the third Section (dealing with Āṇavopāya) consists. As you know, the entire work is composed of 77 aphorisms of the Śivasūtra-s plus their respective commentaries.
Of course, I will also insert the Śiva's aphorisms on which Kṣemarāja is commenting. Even though I will not comment on either the original sūtra-s or the Kṣemarāja's commentary, I will write some notes to make a particular point clear when necessary. If you want a detailed explanation of the hidden meanings in this scripture, go to "Scriptures (study)/Śivasūtravimarśinī" in the Trika section.
Kṣemarāja's Sanskrit will be in dark green color while the original Śiva's aphorisms will be shown in dark red color. In turn, within the transliteration, the original aphorisms will be in brown color, while the Kṣemarāja's comments will be shown in black. Also, within the translation, the original aphorisms by Śiva, i.e. the Śivasūtra-s, will be in green and black colors, while the commentary by Kṣemarāja will contain words in both black and red colors.
Read Śivasūtravimarśinī and experience Supreme Delight, dear Śiva.
Important: All that is in brackets and italicized within the translation has been added by me in order to complete the sense of a particular phrase or sentence. In turn, all that is between double hyphen (--...--) constitutes clarifying further information also added by me.
यतश्चोत्तीर्णपुर्यष्टकप्रमातृभावस्य योगिनो नान्तः सुखदुःखसंस्पर्शोऽत एवासौ—
ताभ्यां सुखदुःखाभ्यां विशेषेण मुक्तः संस्कारमात्रेणाप्यन्तरसंस्पृष्टः केवली केवलं चिन्मात्रप्रमातृतारूपं यस्य। तदुक्तं श्रीकालिकाक्रमे
भित्त्वा द्वैतमहामोहं योगी योगफलं लभेत्॥
इति। तुशब्दो वक्ष्यमाणापेक्षया विशेषद्योतक एवमुत्तरसूत्रगतोऽप्येतत्सूत्रापेक्षया॥३४॥
Yataścottīrṇapuryaṣṭakapramātṛbhāvasya yogino nāntaḥ sukhaduḥkhasaṁsparśo'ta evāsau—
Tābhyāṁ sukhaduḥkhābhyāṁ viśeṣeṇa muktaḥ saṁskāramātreṇāpyantarasaṁspṛṣṭaḥ kevalī kevalaṁ cinmātrapramātṛtārūpaṁ yasya| Taduktaṁ śrīkālikākrame
Bhittvā dvaitamahāmohaṁ yogī yogaphalaṁ labhet||
iti| Tuśabdo vakṣyamāṇāpekṣayā viśeṣadyotaka evamuttarasūtragato'pyetatsūtrāpekṣayā||34||
And (ca), since (yatas) for the Yogī (yoginaḥ) who has transcended the state (uttīrṇa... bhāvasya) where the subtle body --intellect, ego, mind and subtle elements-- (puryaṣṭaka) (is considered as) the (real) Experient (pramātṛ) the perception (saṁsparśaḥ) of pleasure and pain (sukha-duḥkha) is not (na) internal (antar) --it does not touch his real "I", as pointed out by the commentary on the previous aphorism--1 , therefore (atas eva) he (asau)—
(As the noble Yogī) is completely free (vimuktaḥ) from that --pleasure and pain-- (tad), (he is) alone (kevalī) then (tu), (in short, he has attained to his own Self who is both an "only" Knower and an "only" Mass of pure Consciousness)||34||
Being completely and specially (viśeṣeṇa) free (muktaḥ) from them both (tābhyām) —from pleasure and pain (sukha-duḥkhābhyām)— (and) not being touched (asaṁspṛṣṭaḥ) internally (antar) even (api) by mere (mātreṇa) residual impressions (saṁskāra)2 , (he is) alone (kevalī), (namely, he is) one whose (yasya) nature (rūpam) consists only (kevalam) in being a experient or knower (pramātṛtā) who is pure Consciousness (cit-mātra) --in other words, he is only pure Consciousness, the only and real Knower of all--|
That (tad) was said (uktam) in venerable Kālikākrama (śrī-kālikākrame) (as well):
"The Yogī (yogī) should obtain (labhet) the fruit (phalam) of Yoga (yoga) by cleaving asunder (bhittvā) the great (mahā) delusion (moham) (called) duality (dvaita), which --the delusion-- is fabricated (kalpitam) by numerous (analpa) thoughts (vikalpa) (based on) cognitions (vijñāna) (such as) pleasure (sukha), pain (duḥkha), etc. (ādi... iti)"||
The term (śabdaḥ) "tu" --i.e. then-- (tu) (occurring in the present aphorism) clearly shows (dyotakaḥ) the difference (viśeṣa) with respect to (apekṣayā) what is about to be mentioned (vakṣyamāṇa) (in the next aphorism); so also (evam... api) (the word "tu") occurring (gataḥ) in the following (uttara) aphorism (sūtra) (clearly shows the difference) with regard to (apekṣayā) (what is mentioned) in this (etad) aphorism (sūtra)3 ||34||
1 There is another possible translation for "saṁsparśa": contact. So, the phrase "the perception (saṁsparśaḥ) of pleasure and pain (sukha-duḥkha) is not (na) internal (antar)" turns into "the contact (saṁsparśaḥ) with pleasure and pain (sukha-duḥkha) is not (na) internal (antar)". Anyway, the final teaching is the same one: pleasure and pain do not touch his essential nature at all.
2 He is not identified with his subtle body (intellect, ego, mind and subtle elements), let alone with his physical body. Besides, not being inwardly touched even by any residual impressions of actions, he is also unaffected by his causal body. He dwells in his spiritual body called supracausal and even beyond. Hence he is one whose nature is pure Consciousness. As a matter of fact, "everybody" is pure Consciousness, but because of the identification with the causal, subtle and physical bodies, most of people do not realize their essential nature and consequently live in bondage.
3 On one hand, the term "tu" is used in the sense of "then" in the current aphorism to complete the description of the enlightened state of a great Yogī. On the other hand, the same word is used in the sense of "however" in the following aphorism, before describing the state of a limited being. Anyway, the limited being is able to become an emancipated soul too. This will be shown by future aphorisms. In fact, if the limited being "were not already" the Supreme Being, he could not realize Him. One cannot attain what it is not here already. This is very difficult to understand for most people, I know, but it is completely true. I know this by direct experience, and not merely by inference or testimony.
When you can perceive your own Self at least once, you realize that you perceived Him always. Another difficult-to-understand truth for most readers, hehe, but it is completely true. If you do not understand it now, do not worry because you will understand it sooner or later if you persevere in your reading, practice, etc. Keep cutting the branch from the "right" position and eventually you will fall down all of a sudden. When you cut from that position, nothing seems to be happening till you hear the creaking. I am speaking seriously in spite of my laughing. This entire scripture was teaching the same truth too. If you keep reading it over and over again, the branch will be cut and you will realize you are the Supreme Self. It is always the same story, only the bodies/personalities change "apparently". In short, it is always the story of "You" becoming "you" and then "You" again, because there is never anybody else here. This is why the aphorism states that the great Yogī is kevalī or alone.
मोहेनाज्ञानेन प्रतिसंहतस्तदेकघनस्तत एव सुखदुःखाश्रयो यः स पुनः कर्मात्मा नित्यं शुभाशुभकलङ्कितः। तदुक्तं तत्रैव
शिवादीन्नैव झटिति समुद्भावयतेऽखिलान्॥
ततः शुभाशुभा भावा लक्ष्यन्ते तद्वशत्वतः।
अशुभेभ्यश्च भावेभ्यः परं दुःखं प्रजायते॥
Mohenājñānena pratisaṁhatastadekaghanastata eva sukhaduḥkhāśrayo yaḥ sa punaḥ karmātmā nityaṁ śubhāśubhakalaṅkitaḥ| Taduktaṁ tatraiva
Śivādīnnaiva jhaṭiti samudbhāvayate'khilān||
Tataḥ śubhāśubhā bhāvā lakṣyante tadvaśatvataḥ|
Aśubhebhyaśca bhāvebhyaḥ paraṁ duḥkhaṁ prajāyate||
(Śiva, the author of the Śivasūtra-s,) said (āha) that --i.e. the following-- (yad)—
However (tu), one who is a compact mass (pratisaṁhataḥ) of delusion (moha) (is merely) involved (ātmā) in actions (karma)||35||
With delusion (or) ignorance (mohena ajñānena). (The term) pratisaṁhata (pratisaṁhataḥ) (means) that he --i.e. a limited being-- is a compact mass (eka-ghanaḥ) (filled with) that --viz. delusion or ignorance-- (tad). For that very reason (tatas eva), he is a recipient (āśrayaḥ yaḥ) of pleasure and pain (sukha-duḥkha). On the other hand (punar), by his being involved (ātmā) in actions (karma), he (saḥ) is always stained (nityam kalaṅkitaḥ) with good and bad deeds (śubha-aśubha)|
This (tad) has been declared (uktam) in that very (scripture) --in Kālikākrama-- (tatra eva):
"(In the case of an ignorant person,) being covered or veiled (āvṛtatayā) by ignorance (avidyā) about That --the Self-- (yad) (and) by means of (yogatas) the use or application (vidhi) of thoughts (vikalpa), he does not instantly become aware of (na eva jhaṭiti samudbhāvayate) all (the tattva-s or categories) (akhilān) beginning with (ādīn) Śiva (śiva) (as his own essential nature which is a compact mass of Consciousness)1 . Then (tatas), good and bad (śubha-aśubhāḥ) states (bhāvāḥ) appear (lakṣyante); and (ca) as (such a person) is under the control (vaśatvataḥ) of that (ignorance about his own Self) (tad), great (param) pain (duḥkham) comes over (him) (prajāyate) due to the (aforesaid) bad states (aśubhebhyaḥ... bhāvebhyaḥ... iti)2 "||
1 Evidently, meter requirements forced the author to drop some words. Something like this should have been written then: "शिवादितत्त्वांश्चिद्घनस्वभावतया नैव झटिति समुद्भावयतेऽखिलान्॥" - "Śivāditattvāṁścidghanasvabhāvatayā naiva jhaṭiti samudbhāvayate'khilān||" - "he does not instantly become aware of (na eva jhaṭiti samudbhāvayate) all (akhilān) the tattva-s or categories (tattvān) beginning with (ādi) Śiva (śiva) as (his own) essential nature (sva-bhāvatayā) which is a compact mass (ghana) of Consciousness (cit)".
The conjugation "samudbhāvayate" (lit. he considers, thinks, etc.) is to be interpreted here as "parāmṛśati" (he mentally seizes, becomes aware of, etc.). The word "jhaṭiti" means "instantly". The resulting purport of the entire statement is that an ignorant person falls victim to Māyīyamala (Mayic impurity) and therefore experiences duality. In other words, he perceives all those tattva-s as different from himself. Read Trika 4 for more information about that mala or impurity.
2 Those bad states have Kārmamala (Karmic impurity) for their root. This impurity is simply confusion about the real Doer of the actions. As that person ignores that the Lord alone is the real Doer of everything, he thinks he is the doer. In this way, he involves in good and bad actions, and a horrible pain accrues to him due to the inevitable fruits of his bad actions. In Trika 4 too you will find more information about Kārmamala.
एवमीदृशस्यापि कर्मात्मनो यदानर्गलमाहेशशक्तिपातवशोन्मिषितसहजस्वातन्त्र्ययोगो भवति तदास्य—
शरीरप्राणाद्यहन्ताभिमानात्मनः सकलप्रलयाकलादिप्रमात्रुचितस्य भेदस्य तिरस्कारे स्थितस्यापि चिद्घनस्वभावोन्मज्जनादपहस्तने सति क्रमेण मन्त्रमन्त्रेश्वरमन्त्रमहेश्वरात्मकस्वमाहात्म्यावाप्तौ सर्गान्तरकर्मत्वं यथाभिलषितनिर्मेयनिर्मातृत्वं भवति। तथा च श्रीस्वच्छन्दे
त्रिगुणेन तु जप्येन स्वच्छन्दसदृशो भवेत्।
इति स्वच्छन्दसादृश्येन भेदतिरस्कारमस्योक्त्वा
भयदाता च हर्ता च शापानुग्रहकृद्भवेत्।
दर्पं हरति कालस्य पातयेद्भूधरानपि॥
Evamīdṛśasyāpi karmātmano yadānargalamāheśaśaktipātavaśonmiṣitasahajasvātantryayogo bhavati tadāsya—
Śarīraprāṇādyahantābhimānātmanaḥ sakalapralayākalādipramātrucitasya bhedasya tiraskāre sthitasyāpi cidghanasvabhāvonmajjanādapahastane sati krameṇa mantramantreśvaramantramaheśvarātmakasvamāhātmyāvāptau sargāntarakarmatvaṁ yathābhilaṣitanirmeyanirmātṛtvaṁ bhavati| Tathā ca śrīsvacchande
Triguṇena tu japyena svacchandasadṛśo bhavet|
iti svacchandasādṛśyena bhedatiraskāramasyoktvā
Bhayadātā ca hartā ca śāpānugrahakṛdbhavet|
Darpaṁ harati kālasya pātayedbhūdharānapi||
Thus (evam), even (api) for such (an ignorant person) (īdṛśasya) who is involved (ātmanaḥ) in actions (karma), when (yadā) there is (bhavati) union (yogaḥ) with the natural (sahaja) Absolute Freedom (of the Supreme Self) (svātantrya) which emerges (unmiṣita) on account of (vaśa) a unimpeded (anargala) Grace bestowal --lit. descent of Power-- (śakti-pāta) coming from Maheśa --lit. "Great Lord", an epithet of Śiva-- (māheśa), then (tadā) in his case (asya)—
When the difference (bheda) disappears (tiraskāre), the capacity to perform (karmatvam) another (antara) Creation (sarga) (appears in the enlightened Yogī)||36||
(On one hand, in the compound "Bhedatiraskāre", the word "bheda" means) "of difference or duality" (bhedasya) (consisting of different fields of experience) suitable for (ucitasya) the experients (pramātṛ) (such as) Sakala (sakala), Pralayākala (pralaya-akala), etc. (ādi) whose natures (ātmanaḥ) (have to do with) the (erroneous) conception or notion (abhimāna) that (their) "I" or "real Self" (ahantā) is the body (śarīra), the vital energy (prāṇa), etc. (ādi)1 . (On the other hand, in the same compound "Bhedatiraskāre", the term "tiraskāre" means) "on the disappearance" (tiraskāre), i.e. when there is discarding or elimination (apahastane sati) of the existing (difference or duality) (sthitasya api) owing to the emergence (unmajjanāt) of one's essential nature (sva-bhāva) that is a compact mass (ghana) of Consciousness (cit). (All in all, the entire compound "Bhedatiraskāre" means "On the disappearance of difference or duality",) i.e. in the gradual attainment (krameṇa avāptau) of his (sva) exalted state (māhātmya) appearing in the form of (ātmaka) (the superior experients called) Mantra (mantra), Mantreśvara (mantra-īśvara) (and) Mantramaheśvara (mantra-mahā-īśvara). (When all that happens,) the capacity to perform (karmatvam) another (antara) Creation (sarga), (namely,) creatorship (nirmātṛtvam) (in order to create) things (nirmeya) according to his desire (yathā-abhilaṣita), appears (bhavati) (in the enlightened Yogī)|
So (tathā ca), in venerable Svacchandatantra (śrī-svacchande), by (tacitly) mentioning (uktvā) (in the following line) the disappearance (tiraskāram) of difference or duality (bheda) in his case (asya) due to similarity (sādṛśyena) with Svacchanda --the Independent Lord who is absolutely Free-- (svacchanda):
"With the threefold (triguṇena tu) japya (japyena)2 he becomes (bhavet) similar (sadṛśaḥ) to Svacchanda --the Free Lord-- (svacchanda... iti)"||
(See first line of VI, 54 in Svacchandatantra)
(immediately after that,) it has been said (uktam):
"Among the gods --divine beings-- (devānām) Brahmā (brahma), Viṣṇu (viṣṇu) (and) Indra (indra), (and also) among (the semidivine beings known as) siddha-s --not the perfected beings, but a kind of entity superior to mere ghosts-- (siddha), daitya-s --demons-- (daitya) (and) urageśī-s --kings of serpents-- (uraga-īśinām), he becomes (bhavet) a giver (dātā) and (ca... ca) a dispeller (hartā) of fear (bhaya) by cursing (śāpa...kṛt) (and) bestowing Grace (anugraha-kṛt), (respectively). He destroys (harati) the pride (darpam) of Kāla --both death and Yama, the regent of the dead-- (kālasya) (and) causes the fall (pātayet) of even (api) mountains (bhūdharān... iti)"||
(See final portion of VI, 54 along with the entire VI, 55 in Svacchandatantra)
1 This topic was already succinctly explained by me in the note 4 of III, 19. But I have to repeat my explanation here because I will say some other things about this subject. There are seven experients, or rather seven stages for one Experient:
(1) Śiva (his scope is the Śiva and Śakti tattva-s, the first two categories) - He is the Supreme Experient and one's own essential nature. No universe is present here.
(2) Mantramaheśvara (his scope is the Sadāśiva-tattva, the third category) - Though the universe has come into being, it is still an indistinct experience. So, this experient is yet fully absorbed in his own Self or Aham ("I").
(3) Mantreśvara (his scope is the Īśvara-tattva, the fourth category) - The universe appears as a distinct reality, and as a result this experient gets thoroughly absorbed in that marvel, but he still retains his Self-consciousness intact.
(4) Mantra (his scope is the Sadvidyā or Śuddhavidyā tattva, the fifth category) - There is a balance between Aham ("I") and Idam ("This", i.e. the universe). This experient is equally aware of both aspects at the same time.
The previous four experients are divine or superior. They are completely devoid of mala or impurity. In fact, the first experient is not even a type of experient really but the Lord Himself! He has no universe to experience because remains wholly established in Himself as Aham or "I", viz. He has no "Idam" ("This") or universe as His field of experience.
Now, the next remaining experients are sunk in misery, i.e. in bheda or duality:
(5) Vijñānākala (his scope lies between the Sadvidyā and Māyā tattva-s, i.e. between the fifth and sixth categories). He realizes that Śiva is his real "I", but lacks power (hence, he is "akala") because of Āṇavamala;
(6) Pralayākala (his scope is Māyā and her five Kañcuka-s, from the sixth through eleventh categories). This experient is also devoid of power (akala) and fully identified with the vital energy. Consequently, the universe appears in a dissolved manner to him. In other words, he experiences it as a void. He retains the three impurities, viz. Āṇavamala, Māyīyamala and Kārmamala, but the last two are not operative because the universe underwent a "pralaya" or "dissolution".
(7) Sakala (his scope comprehends from Puruṣa --the twelfth category-- down to the last one). On one hand, this experient is not devoid of power (hence he is "sakala" or "with power"), but it is limited in all respects, specially with reference to his conception of "I". He is convinced that the physical body (composed of the five gross elements) and the subtle body (composed of intellect, ego, mind and subtle elements) are his real "I". This erroneous notion forces him to use his already limited powers of will, knowledge and action in many useless ways. Instead of using them to attain Self-realization, he runs like a madman after pleasures and runs away at all costs from pain, the whole time in search of the Supreme Joy but ignoring both his state as a seeker of the Supreme Joy and the real place where such a Joy resides (i.e. in one's real Self).
OK, "bheda" or "difference/duality" is "suitable for" every experient, in the following sense: "प्रमातॄणां यथास्वस्वभावं भिन्नप्रमेयात्मकभेदाभासः" - "Pramātṝṇāṁ yathāsvasvabhāvaṁ bhinnaprameyātmakabhedābhāsaḥ" - "The manifestation of bheda or duality, composed of different prameya-s, (occurs) in keeping with the essential nature of the experients". Prameya is all that a experient perceives. Each of the experients has a prameya or field of experience suitable or adequate for his own nature. For example, a Sakala has a universe formed from different realities, from the very god Brahmā to the last worm, while a Pralayākala has mere void for his field of experience or prameya. Very good, if you want to know more about these topics: Read all the pages, from Trika 1 through Trika 6. Additionally, you can also read Ṣaṭtriṁśattattvasandoha.
2 The term "japya" literally means "muttered mantra or prayer", while the well-known word "japa" literally means "muttering of a mantra or prayer". So, the former indicates what is muttered while the latter the act of muttering. Anyway, in this context, by threefold japya none of those literal meanings is being pointed out. There are three types of japya: (1) Śāmbhava, where you fix your attention on the junction-point of Śiva and Śakti (the Lord and His Power); (2) Śākta, where you fix your attention on the junction-point of pramāṇa and prameya (means of knowledge plus knowledge itself, and knowable --i.e. object--) (3) Āṇava, where you fix your attention on the junction-point of prāṇa and apāna (vital energies going out and going in with exhalation and inhalation, respectively).
Of course, most of the aspirants will start with the simplest japya, viz. the well-known concentration on the junction-point of exhalation and inhalation (or vice versa). Next, they will advance to the next level by becoming aware of the junction-point of mind/senses/cognition and object (the knowable). Every time you perceive something with your mind/senses, there is a cognition or knowledge as a result (e.g. you see a tree and you think, "Oh, that is a tree"). Ordinary people (i.e. mere Sakala-s) are aware of either the object itself or their minds/senses/cognitions, but the yogī-s are different in their being aware of the junction-point of those two entities (pramāṇa and prameya). Finally, a very advanced aspirant will arrive at the highest form of japya, i.e. Śāmbhavajapya, by becoming aware of the junction-point of the Lord and His Power. In short, he will fix his attention on the union between the "I" or "Self" and His "I-consciousness". Well, if you manage to get to this level of spirituality, my congratulations to you, sublime Yogī or Yoginī, because to do that is so difficult that I cannot help laughing every time I think about it! Only the Grace of the Lord, bestowed abundantly on a person, is able to make him fit for Śāmbhavajapya.
न चैतदस्यासम्भाव्यं यतः—
स्वतः स्वस्मादेवानुभवात्सङ्कल्पस्वप्नादौ करणशक्तिः तत्तदसाधारणार्थनिर्मातृत्वमात्मनः सिद्धमेव। अनेनैवाशयेन श्रीप्रत्यभिज्ञायाम्
अत एव यथाभीष्टसमुल्लेखावभासनात्।
ज्ञानक्रिये स्फुट एव सिद्धे सर्वस्य जीवतः॥
इत्युक्तम्। तथासम्भवाद्यदि चैतद्गाढाभिनिवेशेन विमृशति तदा सर्वसाधारणाभीष्टार्थनिर्मातृतापि भवति। तदुक्तं तत्त्वगर्भे
यदा तु तेऽपि सुव्यक्तस्वसामर्थ्यगुणोज्ज्वलाः।
तदा च तेषां सङ्कल्पः कल्पपादपतां व्रजेत्॥
Na caitadasyāsambhāvyaṁ yataḥ—
Svataḥ svasmādevānubhavātsaṅkalpasvapnādau karaṇaśaktiḥ tattadasādhāraṇārthanirmātṛtvamātmanaḥ siddhameva| Anenaivāśayena śrīpratyabhijñāyām
Ata eva yathābhīṣṭasamullekhāvabhāsanāt|
Jñānakriye sphuṭa eva siddhe sarvasya jīvataḥ||
ityuktam| Tathāsambhavādyadi caitadgāḍhābhiniveśena vimṛśati tadā sarvasādhāraṇābhīṣṭārthanirmātṛtāpi bhavati| Taduktaṁ tattvagarbhe
Yadā tu te'pi suvyaktasvasāmarthyaguṇojjvalāḥ|
Tadā ca teṣāṁ saṅkalpaḥ kalpapādapatāṁ vrajet||
This (creative capacity) (etad) is not (na ca) impossible (asambhāvyam) for him (asya), because (yatas)—
(Anyone can realize his) creative (karaṇa) power (śaktiḥ) from his own (svataḥ) experience (anubhavāt)||37||
One's (ātmanaḥ) creative (karaṇa) power (śaktiḥ) (or) capacity for creating (nirmātṛtvam) various (tad-tad) extraordinary (asādhāraṇa) things (artha) is proved or established (siddham) "svato'nubhavāt" (svataḥ... anubhavāt), i.e. from one's own (svasmāt eva) experience --anubhava-- (anubhavāt) during imagination, dreams, etc. (saṅkalpa-svapna-ādau)|
With this intention (anena eva āśayena), it has been declared (uktam) in venerable Īśvarapratyabhijñā (śrī-pratyabhijñāyām):
"For this very reason (atas eva), from the powers of conception and execution (samullekha-avabhāsanāt) according to one's desire (yathā-abhīṣṭa), (the powers of) knowing and doing (jñāna-kriye) of all the living beings (sarvasya jīvataḥ) (are) clearly (sphuṭe eva) proved or established (siddhe... iti)1 "||
(See I, VI, 11 in Īśvarapratyabhijñā)
Such being the possibility (tathā-sambhavāt), if (yadi ca) this (Yogī) (etad), with firm and strong determination (gāḍha-abhiniveśena) wishes to manifest by (his) Vimarśa (or I-consciousness) (vimṛśati), then (tadā) also (api) appears (bhavati) creatorship (nirmātṛtā) of things (artha) according to his desire (abhīṣṭa), which --i.e. creatorship-- is common (sādhāraṇā) to all (sarva)2 |
That (tad) has been stated (uktam) in Tattvagarbha (tattvagarbhe):
"When (yadā tu) they --the great Yogī-s-- (te api) shine --lit. luminous-- (ujjvalāḥ) with their (sva) attribute (guṇa) of efficacy (sāmarthya) clearly manifest (su-vyakta), (all) want (dīnatā) of stability and strength (dārḍhya) is (bhavet) soon (adūra) (and) very firmly (dṛḍhatara) broken into pieces --figuratively speaking-- (dāritā), and (ca) then (tadā) their (teṣām) volition --will power-- (saṅkalpaḥ) becomes (vrajet) a Kalpapādapa or Kalpataru --a wish-fulfilling tree-- (kalpapādapatām... iti)3 "||
1 According to Abhinavagupta, such as he writes in his commentary on Īśvarapratyabhijñā known as Īśvarapratyabhijñāvimarśinī, "Avabhāsana" (power of conception) indicates "Jñānaśakti" (Power of Knowledge) and "Samullekha" (power of execution) points out "Kriyāśakti" (Power of Action). The former conceives while the latter executes, viz. carries out what was conceived by the former. So, the Power of Action actualizes all that was previously conceived by the Power of Knowledge. Simple!
I will translate for you the entire commentary on this stanza, not only to prove my point, but also for you to be able to understand the stanza in depth. I will do my best because Abhinavagupta is such a scholarly and massive teacher that it is often very difficult for me to understand his writings rightly. And since the way of writing of this master is exquisite and complex, I will also explain every portion of the text between double hyphen (--...--). Here we go:
"यदिदं यथाभीष्टस्य बहिरसत्त्वादननुभूतस्यापि सम्यगुल्लेखनमवभासनं च विकल्पस्य प्रसङ्गाद्दर्शितमस्मादेव हेतोरिदमपि सिद्ध्यति— यः कश्चित्कीटो वा ब्रह्मा वा जीवनक्रियाविष्टस्तस्यावभासनरूपा ज्ञानशक्तिरुल्लेखनरूपा च क्रियाशक्तिर्नैसर्गिकी ततस्तस्यां भूमौ व्यतिरिक्तेश्वरोपकल्पितपूर्वसिद्धसृष्ट्युपजीवनसम्भावनापि नास्तीति स्वमेवैश्वर्यं स्फुटं प्रत्यभिज्ञेयं जानाति करोति च— इति ज्ञानक्रियास्वातन्त्र्यलक्षणमेकवचनेन सर्वस्य जीवजातस्य वस्तुत एकेश्वररूपतां सूचयति। इति शिवम्॥११॥" -
"Yadidaṁ yathābhīṣṭasya bahirasattvādananubhūtasyāpi samyagullekhanamavabhāsanaṁ ca vikalpasya prasaṅgāddarśitamasmādeva hetoridamapi siddhyati— Yaḥ kaścitkīṭo vā brahmā vā jīvanakriyāviṣṭastasyāvabhāsanarūpā jñānaśaktirullekhanarūpā ca kriyāśaktirnaisargikī tatastasyāṁ bhūmau vyatirikteśvaropakalpitapūrvasiddhasṛṣṭyupajīvanasambhāvanāpi nāstīti svamevaiśvaryaṁ sphuṭaṁ pratyabhijñeyaṁ jānāti karoti ca— Iti jñānakriyāsvātantryalakṣaṇamekavacanena sarvasya jīvajātasya vastuta ekeśvararūpatāṁ sūcayati| Iti śivam||11||" -
"(The term 'samullekha' in the stanza means) this which (is) full 'ullekha' (or) execution or shaping. (It connotes to shape) at will something which still has not been experienced as it did not exist externally. And (the term 'avabhāsana' or) the power of conception is shown in the contingency of vikalpa or thought --i.e. it is obvious from just beholding how one's thoughts conceive new things--. The latter --the power of conception-- is proved due to (the presence of) the former --the power of execution; i.e. since if something has been executed or actually created, this is a valid proof that it was firstly conceived-- — Whatever is endowed with activity and life, whether it be a worm or Brahmā (himself) --the creator of the material universe--, the power of knowledge and the natural power of action of those (living beings) have for their nature the powers of conception and execution, (respectively). Therefore, on that basis --i.e. on the basis of the imagination taking place in the realm of fancy of such living beings, etc.--, there is not even supposition that the subsistence of the creation, which was previously admitted to be true, has been produced by a different lord --in short, from the experience of any living being, all that is conceived and created in his/her/its mind does not require the presence of another lord apart from himself/herself/itself for it to subsist there--. Thus, (such a living being) clearly knows and performs his/her/its own lordship, which is to be recognized --i.e. he/she/it knows and performs things like a lord, but still has to recognize/realize his/her/its own lordship-- — In this way, (that lordship) characterized by knowledge, action and freedom, in singular number --viz. there is one lordship, not two or more--, in the case of all the ones who are possessed of life --i.e. the living beings--, actually points out their state of being formed from one Lord --in a nutshell, the lordship exhibited by the living creatures, being only one in each of them, actually indicates that they have 'one' Lord for their essential nature--.
Let there be welfare for all beings!".
Hopefully, I have understood everything rightly. Abhinavagupta is such a great master and thinker that it is necessary the presence of a disciple of the caliber of Kṣemarāja himself (his main disciple) in order to decipher his teachings in Sanskrit. Be merciful, Lord, and remember that I am alone with my little boat in the middle of this ocean of original writings, commentaries and explanations of scholars with the wisdom of Vedic seers, most of which are in pure Sanskrit (not even a transliteration). Unfortunately, I have nobody, physically speaking, whispering the translations in my ears, as it were. It would be great to have one, you know. Oh well, I must keep rowing in the meantime.
2 Apparently, a creatorship that is common to all indicates that it is universal. This is right from the viewpoint that "all beings" have the same creatorship like the enlightened Yogī because the only Lord resides in all equally. Anyway, according to the sages, in this particular context, the interpretation of the phrase is like this: "विमर्शातिशयवशात्सर्वजनैस्तन्निर्मितिर्द्रष्टुं शक्यते" - "Vimarśātiśayavaśātsarvajanaistannirmitirdraṣṭuṁ śakyate" - "Due to the pre-eminence of Vimarśa or I-consciousness --i.e. Śakti--, his creation can be seen by all the people". Now it is wholly clear!
3 It refers a one of the five trees of god Indra's paradise. This Kalpapādapa or Kalpataru is said to fulfill all desires. In the same way, when efficacy (viz. creative power) of the Yogī-s is at its height, their will power can fulfill all desires. Succinctly: They can manifest anything at will. This is so because they are like the Lord Himself at that time. This being the case, what else could I say about them?
यतश्च करणशक्तिशब्दोक्त्या तुर्यात्मा स्वातन्त्र्यशक्तिरेव बोधरूपस्य प्रमातुः सारमतो मायाशक्त्यपहस्तिततत्स्वरूपोत्तेजनाय—
त्रयाणां भावौन्मुख्यतदभिष्वङ्गतदन्तर्मुखीभावनामयानां सृष्टिस्थितिलयशब्दोक्तानां पदानामवस्थानां यदादि प्रधानं त्रिचमत्कृतित्वेनानन्दघनं तुर्याख्यं पदं मायाशक्त्याच्छादितमपि तत्तद्विषयोपभोगाद्यवसरेषु विद्युद्वदाभासमानं तेन तत्तदवसरेषु क्षणमात्रोदितेनाप्यनुप्राणनमन्तर्मुखतद्विमर्शावस्थितितारतम्येनानुगततया प्राणनमात्मनस्तेनैव जीवितेनापि जीवितस्योत्तेजनं कुर्यात्। तदुक्तं श्रीविज्ञानभैरवे
अन्तः स्वानुभवानन्दा विकल्पोन्मुक्तगोचरा।
यावस्था भरिताकारा भैरवी भैरवात्मनः॥
तद्वपुस्तत्त्वतो ज्ञेयं विमलं विश्वपूरणम्।
यत्सुखं ब्रह्मतत्त्वस्य तत्सुखं स्वाक्यमुच्यते॥
लेहनामन्थनाकोटैः स्त्रीसुखस्य भरात्स्मृतेः।
शक्त्यभावेऽपि देवेशि भवेदानन्दसम्प्लवः॥
आनन्दे महति प्राप्ते दृष्टे वा बान्धवे चिरात्।
आनन्दमुद्गतं ध्यात्वा तन्मयस्तल्लयीभवेत्॥
भावयेद्भरितावस्थां महानन्दस्ततो भवेत्॥
इत्यादिनोपायप्रदर्शनेन प्रपञ्चितम्। एतच्च
अतिक्रुद्धः प्रहृष्टो वा किं करोमीति वा मृशन्।
धावन्वा यत्पदं गच्छेत्तत्र स्पन्दः प्रतिष्ठितः॥
... प्रबुद्धः स्यादनावृतः॥
इत्यन्तेन प्रदर्शितम्। एतत्स्पन्दनिर्णये निराकाङ्क्षं मयैव निर्णीतम्। त्रिषु चतुर्थम्... (३-२०) इति सूत्रेण जागरादौ तुर्यानुप्राणनमुक्तम्। अनेन सर्वदशानुगतादिमध्यान्तेषु सृष्तिस्थितिसंहारनिरूपितया भङ्ग्या निरूपितेष्विति विशेषः॥३८॥
Yataśca karaṇaśaktiśabdoktyā turyātmā svātantryaśaktireva bodharūpasya pramātuḥ sāramato māyāśaktyapahastitatatsvarūpottejanāya—
Trayāṇāṁ bhāvaunmukhyatadabhiṣvaṅgatadantarmukhībhāvanāmayānāṁ sṛṣṭisthitilayaśabdoktānāṁ padānāmavasthānāṁ yadādi pradhānaṁ tricamatkṛtitvenānandaghanaṁ turyākhyaṁ padaṁ māyāśaktyācchāditamapi tattadviṣayopabhogādyavasareṣu vidyudvadābhāsamānaṁ tena tattadavasareṣu kṣaṇamātroditenāpyanuprāṇanamantarmukhatadvimarśāvasthititāratamyenānugatatayā prāṇanamātmanastenaiva jīvitenāpi jīvitasyottejanaṁ kuryāt| Taduktaṁ śrīvijñānabhairave
Antaḥ svānubhavānandā vikalponmuktagocarā|
Yāvasthā bharitākārā bhairavī bhairavātmanaḥ||
Tadvapustattvato jñeyaṁ vimalaṁ viśvapūraṇam|
Yatsukhaṁ brahmatattvasya tatsukhaṁ svākyamucyate||
Lehanāmanthanākoṭaiḥ strīsukhasya bharātsmṛteḥ|
Śaktyabhāve'pi deveśi bhavedānandasamplavaḥ||
Ānande mahati prāpte dṛṣṭe vā bāndhave cirāt|
Ānandamudgataṁ dhyātvā tanmayastallayībhavet||
Bhāvayedbharitāvasthāṁ mahānandastato bhavet||
ityādinopāyapradarśanena prapañcitam| Etacca
Atikruddhaḥ prahṛṣṭo vā kiṁ karomīti vā mṛśan|
Dhāvanvā yatpadaṁ gacchettatra spandaḥ pratiṣṭhitaḥ||
... prabuddhaḥ syādanāvṛtaḥ||
ityantena pradarśitam| Etatspandanirṇaye nirākāṅkṣaṁ mayaiva nirṇītam| Triṣu caturtham... (3-20) iti sūtreṇa jāgarādau turyānuprāṇanamuktam| Anena sarvadaśānugatādimadhyānteṣu sṛṣtisthitisaṁhāranirūpitayā bhaṅgyā nirūpiteṣviti viśeṣaḥ||38||
And (ca) since (yatas) by expressing (uktyā) the word (śabda) "karaṇaśakti" --creative power-- (karaṇa-śakti), (His) Power (śaktiḥ) of Absolute Freedom (svātantrya... eva) whose nature (ātmā) is Turya --the Fourth State-- (turya) (as being) the essence (sāram) of the experient (pramātuḥ) who is nothing but Bodha or Consciousness (bodha-rūpasya) (is undeniably shown,) therefore (atas), for stimulating (uttejanāya) the essential nature (sva-rūpa) of that (Turya) (tad) which has been repelled (apahastita) by māyāśakti (māyā-śakti)1 —
(There should be) enlivening (anuprāṇanam) of the three states --manifestation, maintenance and reabsorption-- (tri-pada) by the main one (ādi) (in sum, "by the fourth state of consciousness which is a Witness to the other three ones and is full of transcendental Bliss")||38||
Of the three (trayāṇām) pada-s or states (padānām avasthānām) mentioned (uktānām) by the words (śabda) manifestation (sṛṣṭi), maintenance (sthiti) (and) reabsorption (laya) —characterized by (mayānām) orientation (aunmukhya) toward objects (bhāva), intense attachment (abhiṣvaṅga) to them (tad) (and) inner (antarmukhī) assimilation (bhāvanā) of those (very objects) (tad), (respectively)—, that which (yad) (is) ādi (ādi) (or) the main one (pradhānam) (is) a state (padam) called (ākhyam) Turya --the Fourth One-- (turya), a compact mass (ghana) of Bliss (ānanda) because of its pervading or filling the (other) three ones --manifestation, maintenance and reabsorption-- with Supreme Delight (tri-camatkṛtitvena). (Turya,) though (api) covered or veiled (ācchāditam) by māyāśakti (māyā-śakti), appears (abhāsamānam) (for a moment) like (vat) a lightning (vidyut) on the occasion (avasareṣu) of the enjoyment (upabhoga) of various (tad-tad) objects (viṣaya), etc. (ādi). On that account (tena), on the various occasions (tad-tad-avasareṣu) (in which Turya appears), although (api) it had arisen (uditena) only for an instant (kṣaṇa-mātra), one should perform (kuryāt) anuprāṇana --enlivening-- (anuprāṇanam), (namely, "anugatatayā prāṇana" or) vivification (prāṇanam) by following (anugatatayā), in different degrees (tāratamyena) of abiding or permanence (avasthiti), the awareness (vimarśa) of that (compact mass of Bliss) (tad) which resides within (antarmukha). (Summing it up, one should perform) stimulation (uttejanam) of (such a) vitality (jīvitasya) by vivifying (jīvitena api) oneself (ātmanaḥ) with that vitality (tena eva jīvitena api)|
That (tad) has been said (uktam) in venerable Vijñānabhairava (śrī-vijñānabhairave), beginning with (upakramya) --now the scripture will describe Parā (a term, feminine in gender, that literally means "the Highest", viz. the Highest State or the Highest Goddess), also known as Turyātīta (the State beyond the Fourth One)--:
"(Parā, the Highest State or Goddess, is) Bliss (ānandā) which one can experience --lit. from one's own personal experience-- (sva-anubhava) within --in I-consciousness-- (antar), (Her) field of action (gocarā) is free from (unmukta) thoughts (vikalpa) --i.e. one has to become free of all thoughts in order to experience such a State or Goddess--, (is) that state (yā avasthā) of one's own Self (ātmanaḥ) that is Bhairava --Śiva or the Lord-- (bhairava), (is) Bhairavī --Śakti or divine Power of Bhairava-- (bhairavī) whose form (ākārā) is full (bharita) --i.e. She is full of Supreme Delight derived from the experience of unity with the universe--.
That (Highest State or Goddess) (tad) is to be really known as (tattvatas jñeyam) the pure (vimalam) form --essential nature-- (vapus) which fills (pūraṇam) the universe (viśva)— etc. (iti ādi)"||
(And subsequently, this subject) is treated at length (in Vijñānabhairava) (prapañcitam) by (a series of stanzas) showing (pradarśanena) a means (of approach to that Highest State or Goddess) (upāya):
"That delight which (yad sukham) (takes place) at the end (āvasānikam) of the absorption (āveśa) in the Power of Bliss (śakti), which --viz. the absorption-- is produced (saṅkṣubdha) by the intercourse (saṅgama) with a woman (śakti) --in a nutshell, 'that delight which takes place during the orgasm'--, is said to be (ucyate) the delight (tad sukham) of the Supreme Brahma --the Absolute-- (brahmatattvasya), i.e. (it is a delight) related to one's own Self (svākyam)2 .
Oh goddess (deva-īśi)!, even (api) in the absence (abhāve) of a woman (śakti) there is (bhavet) a flood or deluge (samplavaḥ) of bliss (ānanda) from remembering (smṛteḥ), in full measure (bharāt), the enjoyment (sukhasya) experienced with a woman (strī) in the form of kissing heartily, embracing and pressing (lehana-āmanthana-ākoṭaiḥ)3 .
When a great joy is obtained (ānande mahati prāpte) or (vā) when a kinsman, friend, etc. is seen (dṛṣṭe... bāndhave) after a long time (cirāt), after meditating (dhyātvā) on the joy (ānandam) that has arisen (udgatam), one becomes identified (mayaḥ) with it --with that joy-- (tad) (and) gets dissolved (layībhavet) in it (tad)4 .
From the expansion (vijṛmbhaṇāt) of the joy (ānanda) related to taste or flavor (rasa) arising from (ullāsa) the acts (kṛta) of eating (jagdhi) (and) drinking (pāna), one should contemplate --in the sense of fixing one's attention-- (bhāvayet) on the state (avasthā) of fullness (of such a joy) (bharita); (and) then (tatas) a great (mahā) bliss (ānandaḥ) appears (bhavet)5 .
In the case of a Yogī (yoginaḥ) who is (ātmanaḥ) in unity (ekatā) with the incomparable (asama) delight (saukhya) (generated) from enjoying (āsvāda) objects (viṣaya) (such as) a song (gītā), etc. (ādi), due to the exaltation (rūḍheḥ) of (his) mind (manas) (there does take place) an identification (mayatvena) with it --with the incomparable delight-- (tad), (and because of that,) identification with That --with the Supreme Brahma, the Absolute-- (tad-ātmatā) (emerges)6 — etc. (iti ādinā)"||
This (very truth) (etad ca) has been shown (in Spandakārikā-s) (pradarśitam) beginning with (ādinā):
"Spanda (spandaḥ) is firmly established (pratiṣṭhitaḥ) in that (tatra) state or condition (padam) into which (yad) (a person) enters (gacchet) (when he is) excessively angry (atikruddhaḥ), exceedingly pleased or delighted (prahṛṣṭaḥ), reflecting (mṛśan) "what (kim) do I do (karomi iti)?", or (vā.. vā... vā) running (for his life) (dhāvan... iti)"||
(See Spandakārikā-s I, 22)
and ending with (antena):
"... (However, a Yogī who) is not covered (by the darkness of ignorance) (anāvṛtaḥ) remains (syāt) awakened and enlightened (prabuddhaḥ... iti) (in that very condition)"||
(See Spandakārikā-s I, 25 - final portion)
This (subject) (etad) has been investigated (nirṇītam) by me (mayā eva) in Spandanirṇaya (spandanirṇaye) without the need of supplying one (more) word to complete (such an investigation) (nis-ākāṅkṣam) --in the sense that the subject has been "thoroughly" examined there, in Spandanirṇaya, his scholarly commentary on the Spandakārikā-s--|
By the aphorism (sūtreṇa) "The fourth state of consciousness, (which is a Witness) (caturtham), [should be poured like (a continuous flow of) oil] into (the other) three (triṣu), (that is, in waking, dreaming and deep sleep). (III, 20) (of the current scripture) (3-20 iti)" --the rest of the aphorism being quoted has been added in brackets--, enlivening (anuprāṇanam) by Turya --the Fourth One-- (turya) with respect to wakefulness, etc. (jāgarā-ādau) --i.e. wakefulness, dreaming and deep sleep-- was mentioned (uktam)|
In this aphorism --the one being studied now-- (anena), (enlivening by Turya is) with reference to the initial, intervening and final points (ādi-madhya-anteṣu) present (anugata) in all (sarva) the states (daśā) --in waking, dreaming and deep sleep--, (but) defined and ascertained (nirūpiteṣu) in an indirect manner as (nirūpitayā bhaṅgyā) manifestation (sṛṣti), maintenance (sthiti) (and) reabsorption (saṁhāra). This is the difference (iti viśeṣaḥ)||38||
1 The word "māyāśakti" is not synonymous with "māyātattva" (the well-known 6th category in the process of universal manifestation), because while the former is a "power" the latter is a "manifestation". So, māyāśakti is a power by which the Lord is able to produce difference or duality. He uses His own māyāśakti in order to conceal His essential nature from Himself. Quite a paradox! Of course, it is all about You, reader! It is happening right now (and not in a distant galaxy!)... watch how Your own māyāśakti conceals your real "I" and replaces it with what is known as ego or false "I". You are not the subtle body composed of intellect, ego, mind and subtle elements, not even the causal one made out of vital energy. You are Him! When you realize this, "you are in the right State" according to Trika, wherever your physical body may be located, wherever your mind may have gone to and whatever your status in life might be.
Close your eyes for a moment. Now open them. That is His manifestation of objects. Now, keep your eyes open and behold the objects in front of you. That is His maintenance of objects. Finally, close your eyes again. That is His reabsorption of objects. Next, repeat the process but by fixing your attention on "You" (the Witness or Knower), and not on the objects. Well, that is Turya. In due course, if you do this in the right way, you will experience Supreme Delight, because such is the nature of Turya. It is all the Delight that exists put in one place, viz. in You, the Witness or Knower. You feel joy in the other three states because a tiny portion of that Supreme Delight filters through the network brought about by māyāśakti. When this network is removed, you experience all the existing Joy at the same time. Massive Joy flooding you at every instant. Of course, the process of getting that colossal Bliss will be gradual and according to your own capacity. Do you prefer this or the miserable state of a Sakala, all the time begging for some happiness?
But, even after getting all the existing or possible Joy (i.e. Turya), you can go even farther, toward Turyātīta (the state beyond Turya or the Fourth One). In this state you experience nothing but pure Consciousness and are completely invulnerable. Nonetheless, you are not invulnerable in the sense of a kind of super human being who stops bullets with his bare hands... no... it is not about the same miserable Sakala's state but "reloaded", but about a new kind of existence. You are invulnerable because you do not depend on anything else "to be". You are always so, but in Turyātīta you have an actual realization that that is absolutely true. While you retain that realization, you experience "without a doubt" that you are the Highest Being, whether your physical body is alive or dead, whether your mind is working or stopped, whether you live in the Milky Way or in the farthest galaxy of the universe, and so on. It is not mere indifference or pretension (because these are still in the realm of mind), but real absolute detachment from everything (individuality, mind, body, life, death, time, fear... everything!). You remain as pure Consciousness in Absolute Freedom!
At first, this experience lasts just for a moment and only happens by His Grace, but as you get fully stabilized in Turya, the odds to come into touch with Turyātīta increase accordingly. This experience is absolutely overwhelming and beyond description. It is interesting the point when you attain Turyātīta for the first time. It lasts for an instant, but you cannot say "how long it was" because time and space are not present in Turyātīta despite you could keep perceiving your body, external objects, etc. In fact, you can carry on with your usual activities while in Turyātīta. Nevertheless, although you perceive space, time, movement, etc., nothing of that is there as before (i.e. when you did not have that realization). I cannot explain it properly by the use of words, obviously. I could write an entire book and still my explanation would be inaccurate, as the words come into being after Turyātīta and not before It. So, at first, It comes all of a sudden and leaves shortly, that is all you detect. After such an achievement, you wonder what the heck you were doing before that. In comparison with that sublime State, all you experienced before is like "dust". Oh well, it was just the play of Consciousness, you know. Anyway, during Turyātīta everything appears permeated by absolute equanimity, to wit, no opinions in favor or against anything. Despite the actions keep being performed, and thoughts keep emerging, full of opinions and the like, you remain totally detached from that. It is just "Being" beyond all "wishing", "knowing" and "doing". Unbelievable! And of course, you want more of that. It is your Treasure, and once you have discovered you cannot just go and forget all about it. NO, you want, at all costs, to recover Turyātīta because doing so is the most important thing in your life ("nothing more is relevant than getting it again", this is the way you feel, and yes!, what could be more important than your Freedom?)... but... you realize that you cannot get it "at will". It is always about His Grace despite, paradoxically, You are Him.
At this point, you have to be patient and keep enjoying Turya and its compact mass of Bliss more and more till It fills all your life. Gradually, Turyātīta will pay you more and more visits until you get fully liberated, i.e. fully Free like the Lord. My own Guru handed me this truth: "God dwells within you as you", and this is what you will discover sooner or later if persevering. Rest assured that a full encounter with God is the most astonishing experience a human being can have! Whoever the reader may be, the Lord shines in all His Glory always everywhere. The author will say something like this but in a veiled way, i.e. not with my detailed explanations. OK, enough of revealing these secrets about Turyātīta for now.
Returning to the process of manifesting, maintaining and reabsorbing objects, there is nothing complicated about all that, as it is related to your own experience. And even in the case you had all your senses shut down (e.g. while you sleep), the mental objects would continue becoming manifest, lasting for a while and lastly getting reabsorbed. Even the void of deep sleep is manifested, maintained and reabsorbed. However, Turya is always present pervading all the other three states. There is not Its manifestation, maintenance and reabsorption as It is not an object (anything that can be perceived, e.g. your body, a table, a thought, etc.) but the Highest Subject or Lord (You!).
In fact, whether or not you realize you are the Witness or Knower (i.e. the Lord), you are Him anyway. There is nobody else than the Lord here. Whatever seems to exist as different and separate from Him is just due to the play of His māyāśakti.
2 This stanza of Vijñānabhairava is very tricky and if you are a Sanskrit student trying to translate it, you are likely to make some mistakes without extra help. In order to prevent those mistakes and also show other people reading this note why I translated the stanza in the way I did, I will have to quote some explanations from the commentary written by Śivopādhyāya... yes, I will have to keep translating, hehe. Let us start: "शक्तिसङ्गमः स्त्रीसङ्गस्तेन सङ्क्षुब्धः सम्प्रवृत्तः शक्त्यावेश आनन्दशक्तिसमावेशस्तदावसानिकं तत्पार्यन्तिकम्।" - "Śaktisaṅgamaḥ strīsaṅgastena saṅkṣubdhaḥ sampravṛttaḥ śaktyāveśa ānandaśaktisamāveśastadāvasānikaṁ tatpāryantikam|" - "'Śaktisaṅgama' (means) 'intercourse with a woman'; 'saṅkṣubdha' (is) 'being produced by that (intercourse)'; 'śaktyāveśa' (refers to) 'absorption in the Power of Bliss --i.e. Śakti--'; (and) 'tadāvasānika' (indicates) 'at the end of that (absorption)'". After that, the sage explains the following: "... ब्रह्मतत्त्वस्य सुखं परब्रह्मानन्दस्..." - "... brahmatattvasya sukhaṁ parabrahmānandas..." - "... delight of Brahmatattva, i.e. Joy of the Supreme Brahma --the Absolute--", and finally "... तत्सुखं स्वकमेव स्वाक्यम्... आत्मन एव सम्बन्धि..." - "... tatsukhaṁ svakameva svākyam... ātmana eva sambandhi..." - "... the delight (is) 'svākya' or 'one's own', (in short,) related solely to one's own Self...", viz. one is the only source of this delight "always".
Nevertheless, the sage quotes a stanza, just in case somebody could have misunderstood the teachings:
"जायया सम्परिष्वक्तो न बाह्यं वेद नान्तरम्।
निदर्शनं श्रुतिः प्राह मूर्खस्तं मन्यते विधिम्॥" -
"Jāyayā sampariṣvakto na bāhyaṁ veda nāntaram|
Nidarśanaṁ śrutiḥ prāha mūrkhastaṁ manyate vidhim||" -
"When closely embraced with a woman, one knows/perceives neither outside nor inside --there is total unity--. The Vedic scripture said (that as) an example or illustration. (Only) a fool regards that as an injunction (for mere carnal pleasure)".
Don't be a fool then and take this analogy as an example of how the Bliss of the Lord filters through the network produced by His own māyāśakti during an intercourse with a woman. Mere intercourse with a woman does not vivify you but makes your body/mind tired and dull. In order to experience vivification through intercourse with a woman you need to be a powerful Yogī endowed with plenty of accurate knowledge about what a woman is really with reference to a man. But as most of men do not possess this type of knowledge and power at all, they are not advised to search for the Bliss of Turya through mere intercourses with women. Obviously, the same thing is valid for the women. Any person who is a mere Sakala or somebody fully identified with his physical body and mind/ego/intellect cannot get the "full" Joy of Brahma by having sex, but "only" a drop of It that filters through.
3 Guess what? Another tricky stanza in Vijñānabhairava. I do not recommend at all this scripture for rookies in Sanskrit. It is only for advanced translators who are able to read the respective commentary written partly by Kṣemarāja and partly by Śivopādhyāya. There is another commentary called Vijñānakaumudī by Ānandabhaṭṭa. If you get both, careful with the numbers of the stanzas because they do not coincide with each other all the time (for example, now the stanza 70 is about to be explained by me, according to the first commentary, but in Vijñānakaumudī it is the stanza 69!). Well, I will use the commentary written partly by Kṣemarāja and partly by Śivopādhyāya in order to dispel all doubt or misunderstanding with regard to the meaning of certain terms:
"लेहनं वक्त्रासवास्वादनं परिचुम्बनमिति यावत्। आमन्थनं प्रधानाङ्गविलोडनमालिङ्गनं वा। आकोटः पुनःपुनर्मर्दनं नखक्षतादिर्वा।" - "Lehanaṁ vaktrāsavāsvādanaṁ paricumbanamiti yāvat| Āmanthanaṁ pradhānāṅgaviloḍanamāliṅganaṁ vā| Ākoṭaḥ punaḥpunarmardanaṁ nakhakṣatādirvā|" - "(The term) 'lehana' (literally means) 'tasting the nectar or juice of the lips of a woman with (one's own) mouth', i.e. 'kissing heartily' --the prefix 'pari' intensifies the root 'cumb', 'to kiss', hence that 'heartily' being added to the expression--; this is the meaning. (On the other hand,) 'āmanthana' (is) 'churning with the chief members of the body' or 'embracing'. (And) 'ākoṭa' (indicates) 'pressing again and again' or 'a scratch with the nails, etc.'".
Oh, that was awesome!, hehe. Now you fully understand what those terms mean. A good Sanskrit dictionary is not enough to decipher the stanza, as you can see. This is pretty common in the case of the vast majority of Sanskrit scriptures dealing with philosophy in depth, but some of them are specially difficult to be properly translated without a great deal of extra help, e.g. Vijñānabhairava, Svacchandatantra and Mālinīvijayatantra. Without the help of the respective commentaries composed by superb scholars and masters, one cannot even start translating them rightly. And very often it takes more time to understand the commentary than the scripture itself (no jokes). All in all, your Sanskrit knowledge as well as your philosophical knowledge should be quite strong or you will be wrecked if you undertakes the translation of monumental scriptures like the ones I quoted as an example.
4 OK, I need to make two statements: (1) According to Ānandabhaṭṭa in his Vijñānakaumudī: "... बान्धवे वा सुहृदादौ चिरकालानन्तरं... दृष्टे..." - "... bāndhave vā suhṛdādau cirakālānantaraṁ... dṛṣṭe..." - "... or when a 'bāndhava', viz. a 'suhṛd', etc. is seen after a long time...". The word "suhṛd" (lit. good-hearted) implies a person one loves. It is very often translated as "friend" but also means "ally". And according to the commentary by Kṣemarāja and Śivopādhyāya: "... बान्धवे पुत्रमित्रादौ..." - "... bāndhave putramitrādau..." - "... a 'bāndhava', viz. son, friend, etc...". Now you understand why I translated the term "bāndhava" as "kinsman, friend, etc.".
(2) In the commentary written by those two great sages (Kṣemarāja and Śivopādhyāya) and also in Vijñānakaumudī, there is a different reading for the final line of the stanza: "आनन्दमुद्गतं ध्यात्वा तल्लयस्तन्मना भवेत्" - "Ānandamudgataṁ dhyātvā tallayastanmanā bhavet" - "After meditating on the joy that has arisen, one gets dissolved in it --in that joy-- (and) his mind becomes absorbed in it --lit. 'one becomes somebody whose mind is absorbed in that'--".
5 The portion "Bhāvayedbharitāvasthāṁ..." in the stanza is difficult to be understood, but fortunately the sage Ānandabhaṭṭa throws much light on it in his Vijñānakaumudī: "... तदनुभवेनानन्दपूर्णत्वावस्थायां भावयत एकाग्रचित्तस्य परमानन्दप्राप्तिर्..." - "... tadanubhavenānandapūrṇatvāvasthāyāṁ bhāvayata ekāgracittasya paramānandaprāptir..." - "By means of the experience of that joy (related to taste), there is achievement of a supreme bliss in the case of somebody who contemplates —viz. who has his mind concentrated— on the state of fullness of (such a) joy".
6 As the last part of the stanza is very tricky, I had to resort to the commentary composed by Kṣemarāja and Śivopādhyāya to fully understand the sense: "... तस्य मनोरूढेर्हेतोर्यत्तन्मयत्वं शाक्तस्पर्शावेशस्तेन हेतुना तदात्मता— परब्रह्ममयत्वापत्तिः।..." - "... tasya manorūḍherhetoryattanmayatvaṁ śāktasparśāveśastena hetunā tadātmatā— parabrahmamayatvāpattiḥ|..." - "Due to the exaltation of the mind of that Yogī, (there arises) identification with it --with such an incomparable delight--, which is absorption in the touch or contact of Śakti --the divine Power in the form of I-consciousness--. Because of that (identification or absorption, there is) identification with That, i.e. identification with the Supreme Brahma --the Absolute-- occurs".
एतच्च त्रिपदाद्यनुप्राणनमन्तर्मुखत्वावष्टम्भत्वदशायामेवासाद्य न सन्तुष्येदपि तु—
त्रिपदाद्यनुप्राणनमित्येव। यथान्तर्मुखरूपायां चित्तस्थितौ तुर्येणानुप्राणनं कुर्यात्तथा शरीरकरणबाह्याभासात्मिकायां बहिर्मुखतायामप्यान्तरविमर्शावष्टम्भबलात्क्रमात्क्रमं तारतम्यभाजा तेनानुप्राणनं कुर्यात्। यदुक्तं श्रीविज्ञानभैरवे
सर्वं जगत्स्वदेहं वा स्वानन्दभरितं स्मरेत्।
युगपत्स्वामृतेनैव परानन्दमयो भवेत्॥
इति। एवं ह्यानन्दात्मा स्वातन्त्र्यशक्तिः सर्वदशासु स्फुटीभूता सती यथेष्टनिर्माणकारिणी भवति॥३९॥
Etacca tripadādyanuprāṇanamantarmukhatvāvaṣṭambhatvadaśāyāmevāsādya na santuṣyedapi tu—
Tripadādyanuprāṇanamityeva| Yathāntarmukharūpāyāṁ cittasthitau turyeṇānuprāṇanaṁ kuryāttathā śarīrakaraṇabāhyābhāsātmikāyāṁ bahirmukhatāyāmapyāntaravimarśāvaṣṭambhabalātkramātkramaṁ tāratamyabhājā tenānuprāṇanaṁ kuryāt| Yaduktaṁ śrīvijñānabhairave
Sarvaṁ jagatsvadehaṁ vā svānandabharitaṁ smaret|
Yugapatsvāmṛtenaiva parānandamayo bhavet||
iti| Evaṁ hyānandātmā svātantryaśaktiḥ sarvadaśāsu sphuṭībhūtā satī yatheṣṭanirmāṇakāriṇī bhavati||39||
And (ca) this (Yogī) (etad), having obtained (āsādya) enlivening (anuprāṇanam) of the three states --manifestation, maintenance and reabsorption-- (tri-pada) by the main one --by Turya-- (ādi) only (eva) in the condition (daśāyām) of an internal (antarmukhatva) firm grip (avaṣṭambhatva), should not be happy (na santuṣyet) (just with that), but also (api tu)—
As (in the case) (vat) of the mental (citta) states (sthiti), (so also regarding) the body (śarīra), organs of sense (karaṇa) and external objects --bāhya-- (bāhyeṣu), (there should be an "enlivening or vivification" by infusing them with the Bliss of the fourth state of consciousness)||39||
(The previous aphorism is to be added in order to complete de sense of the current one:) "(There should be) enlivening (anuprāṇanam) of the three states --manifestation, maintenance and reabsorption-- (tri-pada) by the main one (ādi... iti eva) (in sum, 'by the fourth state of consciousness which is a Witness to the other three ones and is full of transcendental Bliss')"|
Just as (yathā) he should perform (kuryāt) enlivening (anuprāṇanam) by Turya --the Fourth One, which is a compact mass of Bliss-- (turyeṇa) with regard to the inward mental state (antarmukha-rūpāyām citta-sthitau), so also (tathā) even (api) with respect to the extroverted condition (bahis-mukhatāyām) whose nature (ātmikāyām) is the manifestation of (ābhāsa) body (śarīra), organs of sense (karaṇa) (and) external objects (bāhya), he should perform (kuryāt) enlivening (anuprāṇanam) by that --by Turya-- (tena), very gradually (kramāt-kramam), i.e. by degrees (tāratamya-bhājā), by means of the force (obtained from) (balāt) the firm grip (avaṣṭambha) of inward (āntara) awareness (vimarśa)|
That (yad) has been described (uktam) in venerable Vijñānabhairava (śrī-vijñānabhairave):
"One should remember (smaret) the entire (sarvam) world (jagat) or (vā) his own (sva) body (deham) as replete (bharitam) with his own (sva) bliss (ānanda). Simultaneously (yugapad) --i.e. when one is able to remember in that way--, he is filled with (mayaḥ bhavet) the Highest (para) Joy (ānanda) due to his own Nectar (sva-amṛtena eva... iti)"||
In this way (evam hi), the Power (śaktiḥ) of Absolute Freedom (svātantrya), whose nature (ātmā) is Bliss (ānanda), becomes manifest (sphuṭī-bhūtā satī) in all the states (sarva-daśāsu), (and as a final result,) turns into (bhavati) a Creator (nirmāṇakāriṇī) (who is able to manifest anything) as desired (yathā-iṣṭa)1 ||39||
1 The Absolute Freedom of the Lord is always manifest in all the states of all the beings, but in the case of a great Yogī, the difference lies in his being fully aware of that Absolute Freedom. In other words, he has a constant realization of It, while the rest of the beings in bondage do not have such a realization. This is the distinction! And, of course, it is in this sense that the sage Kṣemarāja stated that the Power of Absolute Freedom becomes Creator of anything as desired in that superb Yogī. Good!
यदा त्वयमेवान्तरीं तुर्यदशामात्मत्वेन न विमृशति तदा देहादिप्रमातृताभावादपूर्णम्मन्यतात्मकाणवमलरूपात्—
शक्तिचक्राधिष्ठितैः कञ्चुकान्तःकरणबहिष्करणतन्मात्रभूतैः सह संवाह्यते योनेर्योन्यन्तरं नीयत इति संवाह्यः कर्मात्मरूपः पशुः तस्य
... अभिलाषो मलोऽत्र तु।
इति श्रीस्वच्छन्दोक्तनीत्यापूर्णम्मन्यतात्मकाविद्याख्याणवमलरूपादभिलाषाद्धेतोर्बहिर्गतिर्विषयोन्मुखत्वमेव भवति न त्वन्तर्मुखरूपावहितत्वं जातुचित्। यदुक्तं कालिकाक्रमे
शिवादीन्नैव झटिति समुद्भावयतेखिलान्॥
ततः शुभाशुभा भावा लक्ष्यन्ते तद्वशत्वतः।
अशुभेभ्यश्च भावेभ्यः परं दुःखं प्रजायते॥
अतथ्यां कल्पनां कृत्वा पच्यन्ते नरकादिषु।
स्वोत्थैर्दोषैश्च दह्यन्ते वेणवो वह्निना यथा॥
मायामयैः सदा भावैरविद्यां परिभुञ्जते।
मायामयीं तनुं यान्ति ते जनाः क्लेशभाजनम्॥
Yadā tvayamevāntarīṁ turyadaśāmātmatvena na vimṛśati tadā dehādipramātṛtābhāvādapūrṇammanyatātmakāṇavamalarūpāt—
Śakticakrādhiṣṭhitaiḥ kañcukāntaḥkaraṇabahiṣkaraṇatanmātrabhūtaiḥ saha saṁvāhyate yoneryonyantaraṁ nīyata iti saṁvāhyaḥ karmātmarūpaḥ paśuḥ tasya
... abhilāṣo malo'tra tu|
iti śrīsvacchandoktanītyāpūrṇammanyatātmakāvidyākhyāṇavamalarūpādabhilāṣāddhetorbahirgatirviṣayonmukhatvameva bhavati na tvantarmukharūpāvahitatvaṁ jātucit| Yaduktaṁ kālikākrame
Śivādīnnaiva jhaṭiti samudbhāvayatekhilān||
Tataḥ śubhāśubhā bhāvā lakṣyante tadvaśatvataḥ|
Aśubhebhyaśca bhāvebhyaḥ paraṁ duḥkhaṁ prajāyate||
Atathyāṁ kalpanāṁ kṛtvā pacyante narakādiṣu|
Svotthairdoṣaiśca dahyante veṇavo vahninā yathā||
Māyāmayaiḥ sadā bhāvairavidyāṁ paribhuñjate|
Māyāmayīṁ tanuṁ yānti te janāḥ kleśabhājanam||
But (tu) when (tadā) this very (Yogī) (ayam eva) is not aware of (na vimṛśati) the internal (āntarīm) state (daśām) of Turya (turya) as the state of Self (ātmatvena), then (tadā) on account of the condition (bhāvāt) in which body (deha), etc. --body, ego, etc.-- (ādi) (are considered as) the experient or knower (pramātṛtā) consisting of --it refers to the "condition" and not to the "experient or knower"-- (rūpāt) Āṇavamala --primordial impurity-- (āṇava-mala) characterized (ātmaka) by the notion (manyatā) of imperfection and incompleteness (apūrṇam)1 —
Because of the desire based on a feeling of want (abhilāṣāt), there is extroversion (bahirgatiḥ) of the limited being (saṁvāhyasya) (who is thus subject to the wheel of Saṁsāra or Transmigration from a form of existence to another)||40||
A "saṁvāhya" (saṁvāhyaḥ) (is) a limited being (paśuḥ) involved (ātma-rūpaḥ) in actions (karma) (who) "together with (saha) Kañcuka-s --sheaths of Ignorance--, inner (psychical) organ --composed of intellect, ego and mind--, outer organs --connected with the Powers of perception and action--, subtle elements and gross elements (kañcuka-antaḥkaraṇa-bahiṣkaraṇa-tanmātra-bhūtaiḥ), which are presided over (adhiṣṭhitaiḥ) by the group (cakra) of powers (śakti)2 , is conducted (saṁvāhyate) (or) led (nīyate) from one form of existence (yoneḥ) to another (antaram) form of existence (yoni... iti)". In the case of that (limited being) (tasya), according to what has been mentioned (ukta-nītyā) in venerable Svacchandatantra (śrī-svacchanda) (in the following manner:)
"... in that case (atra tu), desire (abhilāṣaḥ) (is) mala or impurity (malaḥ... iti)"|
there is extroversion (bahirgatiḥ) on account of (hetoḥ) abhilāṣa --desire based on a feeling of want-- (abhilāṣāt) in the form of (rūpāt) Āṇavamala (āṇava-mala) (also) known as (ākhya) Avidyā or Ignorance (avidyā) consisting in (ātmaka) the notion (manyatā) of imperfection or incompleteness (apūrṇam). (Extroversion) is (bhavati) orientation toward --viz. interest in-- (unmukhatvam) objects (viṣaya) only (eva), (and) never (na tu... jātucid) attentiveness (avahitatvam) to the internal (antarmukha) nature (rūpa)|
That (yad) was declared (uktam) in Kālikākrama (kālikākrame):
"(In the case of an ignorant person,) being covered or veiled (āvṛtatayā) by ignorance (avidyā) about That --the Self-- (yad) (and) by means of (yogatas) the use or application (vidhi) of thoughts (vikalpa), he does not instantly become aware of (na eva jhaṭiti samudbhāvayate) all (the tattva-s or categories) (akhilān) beginning with (ādīn) Śiva (śiva) (as his own essential nature which is a compact mass of Consciousness).
Then (tatas), good and bad (śubha-aśubhāḥ) states (bhāvāḥ) appear (lakṣyante); and (ca) as (such a person) is under the control (vaśatvataḥ) of that (ignorance about his own Self) (tad), great (param) pain (duḥkham) comes over (him) (prajāyate) due to the (aforesaid) bad states (aśubhebhyaḥ... bhāvebhyaḥ)3 .
Having harbored (kṛtvā) false (atathyām) ideas and imaginations (kalpanām), (such ignorant people) are tormented (pacyante) in hell (naraka), etc. (ādiṣu), and (ca) are burnt (dahyante) by their own faults and vices (sva-utthaiḥ doṣaiḥ) just as (yathā) bamboos (veṇavaḥ) (are burnt by their own) fire (vahninā).
Those (te) people (janāḥ) always (sadā) suffer from (paribhuñjate) ignorance (avidyām) due to (their own) delusive states --Mayic states-- (māyā-mayaiḥ... bhāvaiḥ); (and when) they get a body (tanum yānti) made by Māyā --Delusion itself-- (māyā-mayīm), (they become) a receptacle (bhājanam) for affliction (kleśa... iti)4 "
1 Āṇavamala is the primordial impurity (the first and more powerful one) which makes the Lord (You!) feel that He is imperfect and incomplete. By efforts, you can remove all impurities but Āṇavamala. Its removal is only related to His Grace and not to any kind of effort. By the word "impurity", nothing "immoral" is being pointed out. In Trika impurity indicates "absence of unity" while purity is "presence of unity". So, a mala or impurity is something that limits and brings about duality in the end, i.e. cessation of unity. Read Trika 4 to pick up more relevant information about this impurity.
2 The sage is mentioning the entire series of tattva-s (categories of universal manifestation), from Kañcuka-s (which include Māyā, their source) down to the last gross element. Read this Tattvic Chart to get more information. And regarding the deities presiding over the respective tattva-s, you should first read Tattva-s & Sanskrit in order to find out which letters are associated with the tattva-s 6 to 36; finally trace the respective deities by reading the note 1 of III, 19 in the present scripture.
3 These two stanzas in Kālikākrama were already quoted by Kṣemarāja as well as translated by me in III, 35 of the present scripture. However, the next two stanzas are brand-new!
4 According to the sage Patañjali, there are five types of affliction. Read Pātañjalayogasūtra-s II, 3.
यदा तु पारमेशशक्तिपातवशोन्मिषितं स्वं स्वभावमेव विमृशति तदाभिलाषाभावान्नास्य बहिर्गतिरपि त्वात्मारामतैव नित्यमित्याह—
तदिति पूर्वनिर्दिष्टसंवेत्त्रात्मनि तुर्यपद आरूढा तद्विमर्शनपरा प्रमितिः संविद्यस्य योगिनस्तस्य। तदित्यभिलाषक्षयाज्जीवस्य संवाह्यात्मनः पुर्यष्टकप्रमातृभावस्य क्षयः प्रशमश्चित्प्रमातृतयैव स्फुरतीत्यर्थः। यदुक्तं तत्रैव
यथा स्वप्नानुभूतार्थान्प्रबुद्धो नैव पश्यति।
तथा भावनया योगी संसारं नैव पश्यति॥
निरस्य सदसद्वृत्तीः संश्रित्य पदमान्तरम्।
विहाय कल्पनाजालमद्वैतेन परापरम्॥
यः स्वात्मनिरतो नित्यं कालग्रासैकतत्परः।
कैवल्यपदभाग्योगी स निर्वाणपदं लभेत्॥
Yadā tu pārameśaśaktipātavaśonmiṣitaṁ svaṁ svabhāvameva vimṛśati tadābhilāṣābhāvānnāsya bahirgatirapi tvātmārāmataiva nityamityāha—
Taditi pūrvanirdiṣṭasaṁvettrātmani turyapada ārūḍhā tadvimarśanaparā pramitiḥ saṁvidyasya yoginastasya| Tadityabhilāṣakṣayājjīvasya saṁvāhyātmanaḥ puryaṣṭakapramātṛbhāvasya kṣayaḥ praśamaścitpramātṛtayaiva sphuratītyarthaḥ| Yaduktaṁ tatraiva
Yathā svapnānubhūtārthānprabuddho naiva paśyati|
Tathā bhāvanayā yogī saṁsāraṁ naiva paśyati||
Nirasya sadasadvṛttīḥ saṁśritya padamāntaram|
Vihāya kalpanājālamadvaitena parāparam||
Yaḥ svātmanirato nityaṁ kālagrāsaikatatparaḥ|
Kaivalyapadabhāgyogī sa nirvāṇapadaṁ labhet||
However (tu), when (yadā) (the Yogī) becomes aware (vimṛśati) of his own (svam) essential nature (sva-bhāvam eva) displayed (unmiṣita) due to a Grace bestowal --lit. descent of Power-- (śakti-pāta) by the Supreme Lord (pārameśa), then (tadā), because of an absence (abhāvāt) of abhilāṣa or desire based on a feeling of want (abhilāṣa), there is no extroversion (na... bahirgatiḥ) in his case (asya), but rather (api tu) the state of rejoicing (ārāmatā) in his own Self (ātma) always (nityam). (Śiva) said (āha) so (iti) (in the following aphorism)—
(Nevertheless,) in the case of (the great Yogī) whose awareness (pramiteḥ) (is) established (ārūḍha) in That --in the fourth state or Turya-- (tad), with the removal (kṣayāt) of that (desire) --see aphorism 40-- (tad) (there is also) complete removal (saṅkṣayaḥ) of (the condition of) limited being (jīva)||41||
(The first) "tad" (tad iti) (means) in the state (pade) of Turya (turya) whose nature (ātmani) is the (Supreme) Knower (saṁvettṛ) indicated (nirdiṣṭa) before (pūrva) --in III, 32--. (The word) ārūḍha --established-- (ārūḍhā) (means) devoted to (parā) perceiving and realizing (vimarśana) that (Turya) (tad). (And pramiteḥ means) in the case of that Yogī (yoginaḥ tasya) whose (yasya) pramiti (pramitiḥ) (or) awareness (saṁvid) --then, the first expression "Tadārūḍhapramiteḥ" in the aphorism means "In the case of that Yogī whose awareness is established in the state of Turya, i.e. whose awareness is devoted to perceiving and realizing that Fourth State which is the Supreme Knower"--|
(The second) "tad" (tad) (stands for abhilāṣa or desire based on a feeling of want. Consequently, the expression "tatkṣayāt" means) with the removal (kṣayāt) of the desire based on a feeling of want (abhilāṣa). (Finally, the expression "jīvasaṅkṣayaḥ" means complete) removal (kṣayaḥ) (or) cessation (praśamaḥ) of the jīva (jīvasya) (or) limited being (saṁvāhya-ātmanaḥ), viz. of the state (bhāvasya) where the subtle body --formed from intellect, ego, mind and subtle elements-- (puryaṣṭaka) (is considered as) the (real) experient (pramātṛ). (In a nutshell, such a great Yogī) shines forth (sphurati) as (endowed with) the state of Experient who is (pure) Consciousness (cit-pramātṛtayā eva) --plainly, he shines forth as the Supreme Lord--. This is the meaning (iti arthaḥ)|
This (yad) has been declared (uktam) in that (book) itself (tatra eva) --in Kālikākrama--:
"Just as (yathā) one who is awake (prabuddhaḥ) does not (na eva) see (paśyati) the objects (arthān) experienced (anubhūta) in dream (svapna), so (tathā) by contemplating (over his own Self) (bhāvanayā), the Yogī (yogī) does not (na eva) see (paśyati) the world (as world but as Consciousness) (saṁsāram... iti)1 "||
"Having rejected (nirasya) the modes (vṛttīḥ) of existents and nonexistents (such as blue, pleasure, etc.) (sat-asat) by resorting to (saṁśritya) the internal state --i.e. to the Self who is in the middle of what exists and not exists-- (padam āntaram) (and) having abandoned (vihāya) the multitude (jālam) of imaginations (kalpanā) (such as) different and nondifferent (para-aparam) by means of non-dualism (advaitena), the Yogī (yogī) who (yaḥ) is always devoted to (nirataḥ) his own (sva) Self (ātma), solely (eka) intent on (tatparaḥ) swallowing (grāsa) death (kāla) (and) dedicated to (bhāk) the state (pada) of Kaivalya or Isolation (kaivalya), obtains (saḥ... labhet) the state (padam) of Nirvāṇa (nirvāṇa... iti)2 "||
(The expression) "Kaivalyapadabhāk" (kaivalya-pada-bhāk iti) (means) one who is not carried (asaṁvāhyaḥ) by (his) Indriya-s and Tanmātra-s (indriya-tanmātrābhiḥ)3 ||41||
1 Just as one does not see in wakefulness the objects that were manifest in dream, so also a great Yogī, due to the perfection of his contemplation, perceives the universe only as Consciousness and not as something full of duality. One sees duality in the world only when he is a saṁsārī, that is, somebody bound to transmigratory existence (Saṁsāra) because of Āṇavamala. The word saṁsārī is synonymous with saṁvāhya or jīva (a limited being). When the Grace of the Lord falls upon him, Āṇavamala is removed and his contemplation on the Self becomes perfect. Then, the world is not seen as world any longer but as pure Consciousness. This is the purport.
2 The term Nirvāṇa is not to be interpreted in a Buddhist way here. In Trika, it means "Śivaśaktisāmarasya". The word "sāmarasya" means "the state related to samarasa". As "samarasa" is "having equal taste or flavor", Śivaśaktisāmarasya means, literally, this "state where Śiva and Śakti has the same taste or flavor". Now, in order to be less literal and more "philosophical", hehe, Śivaśaktisāmarasya is this undifferentiated state where the duality in the form of Śiva-Śakti (Subject-object) ceases completely.
3 Kaivalya or Isolation in Trika is not interpreted like in the system called Sāṅkhya-yoga, viz. as an isolation from Prakṛti, but like a state where one is no longer carried by his Powers of perception/action (Jñānendriya-s and Karmendriya-s) and subtle elements (Tanmātra-s). It is in this sense that such a Yogī is a Kaivalyapadabhāk ("bhāk" is the Nominative singular of "bhāj"). He is not a mere saṁvāhya (lit. to be carried) or limited being who is all the time being carried by his own Indriya-s and Tanmātra-s.
नन्वेवं जीवसङ्क्षये सत्यस्य देहपातः प्राप्तो न चासौ सुप्रबुद्धस्यापि देहिनः सद्य एव दृश्यते तत्कथमयं तदारूढप्रमितिरित्याशङ्क्याह—
भूतकञ्चुकी तदा विमुक्तो भूयः पतिसमः परः॥४२॥
तदेत्यभिलाषक्षयाज्जीवसङ्क्षये पुर्यष्टकप्रमातृताभिमानविगलने सत्ययं भूतकञ्चुकी शरीरारम्भीणि भूतानि कञ्चुकमिव व्यतिरिक्तं प्रावरणमिव न त्वहन्तापदस्पर्शीनि यस्य तथाभूतः सन् विमुक्तो निर्वाणभाग्यतो भूयो बाहुल्येन पतिसमः चिद्घनपारमेश्वरस्वरूपाविष्टस्तत एव परः पूर्णः शरीरवृत्तिर्व्रतम् (३-२६) इत्युक्तसूत्रार्थनीत्या दलकल्पे देहादौ स्थितोऽपि न तत्प्रमातृतासंस्कारेणापि स्पृष्टः। तदुक्तं श्रीकुलरत्नमालायां
यदा गुरुवरः सम्यक् कथयेत्तन्न संशयः।
मुक्तस्तेनैव कालेन यन्त्रस्तिष्ठति केवलम्॥
किं पुनश्चैकतानस्तु परे ब्रह्मणि यः सुधीः।
क्षणमात्रस्थितो योगी स मुक्तो मोचयेत्प्रजाः॥
निमेषोन्मेषमात्रेण यदि चैवोपलभ्यते।
ततः प्रभृति मुक्तोऽसौ न पुनर्जन्म चाप्नुयात्॥
अहो तत्त्वस्य माहात्म्यं ज्ञातमात्रस्य सुन्दरि।
श्रोत्रान्तरं तु सम्प्राप्ते तत्क्षणादेव मुच्यते॥
Nanvevaṁ jīvasaṅkṣaye satyasya dehapātaḥ prāpto na cāsau suprabuddhasyāpi dehinaḥ sadya eva dṛśyate tatkathamayaṁ tadārūḍhapramitirityāśaṅkyāha—
Bhūtakañcukī tadā vimukto bhūyaḥ patisamaḥ paraḥ||42||
Tadetyabhilāṣakṣayājjīvasaṅkṣaye puryaṣṭakapramātṛtābhimānavigalane satyayaṁ bhūtakañcukī śarīrārambhīṇi bhūtāni kañcukamiva vyatiriktaṁ prāvaraṇamiva na tvahantāpadasparśīni yasya tathābhūtaḥ san vimukto nirvāṇabhāgyato bhūyo bāhulyena patisamaḥ cidghanapārameśvarasvarūpāviṣṭastata eva paraḥ pūrṇaḥ śarīravṛttirvratam (3-26) ityuktasūtrārthanītyā dalakalpe dehādau sthito'pi na tatpramātṛtāsaṁskāreṇāpi spṛṣṭaḥ| Taduktaṁ śrīkularatnamālāyāṁ
Yadā guruvaraḥ samyak kathayettanna saṁśayaḥ|
Muktastenaiva kālena yantrastiṣṭhati kevalam||
Kiṁ punaścaikatānastu pare brahmaṇi yaḥ sudhīḥ|
Kṣaṇamātrasthito yogī sa mukto mocayetprajāḥ||
Nimeṣonmeṣamātreṇa yadi caivopalabhyate|
Tataḥ prabhṛti mukto'sau na punarjanma cāpnuyāt||
Aho tattvasya māhātmyaṁ jñātamātrasya sundari|
Śrotrāntaraṁ tu samprāpte tatkṣaṇādeva mucyate||
An objection (nanu)!: "Thus (evam), when there is complete removal of (the condition of) limited being (jīva-saṅkṣaye sati), his (asya) body falls (too) ----lit. fall of the body is attained; i.e. body dies-- (deha-pātaḥ prāptaḥ), but (ca) that --viz. the fall or death of the body-- (asau) is not (na) noticed (dṛśyate) immediately (sadyas eva) in the case of the perfectly well-awakened (suprabuddhasya api) (Yogī) who has a body (dehinaḥ) --in other words, he achieved final Liberation but yet his body did not die--. Therefore (tad), how (katham) (is) he (ayam) one whose awareness (pramitiḥ) is established (ārūḍha) in That --in Turya-- (tad)? --how can he be completely liberated and at the same time retain his body?--". Having so objected (iti-āśaṅkya), (Śiva) said (āha)—
Then, (when the desire finally disappears) (tadā), (that Yogī uses the body which is composed of) gross elements (bhūta) as covering (kañcukī); (and being) completely liberated (vimuktaḥ), (since he is) pre-eminently (bhūyas) equal (samaḥ) to Lord (Śiva) (pati), (he is) perfect and full (paraḥ)||42||
"Tadā" --Then-- (tadā iti), i.e. from the removal (kṣayāt) of abhilāṣa or desire based on a feeling of want (abhilāṣa), when there is complete removal (saṅkṣaye) of (the condition of) limited being (jīva) —when there is disappearance (vigalane sati) of the notion (abhimāna) that the subtle body --intellect, ego, mind and subtle elements-- (puryaṣṭaka) is the (real) experient (pramātṛtā)—, he --the great Yogī-- (ayam) (becomes) bhūtakañcukī (bhūta-kañcukī) (or) one whose (yasya) gross elements --space, air, fire, water and earth-- (bhūtāni) forming (ārambhīṇi) (his) body (śarīra) (are) like (iva... iva) a Kañcuka (kañcukam) (or) separate (vyatiriktam) covering (prāvaraṇam), (and) do not (na tu) touch (sparśīni) the state (pada) of "I-ness" (ahantā). The one who is like that (tathābhūtaḥ san) (is) completely liberated (vimuktaḥ) (and) enjoys Nirvāṇa (nirvāṇa-bhāk)1 . (And,) since (yatas) (he is) pre-eminently (bhūyas) (or) mostly (bāhulyena) equal (samaḥ) to Lord (Śiva) (pati), (that is, since he has) entered into (āviṣṭaḥ) the essential nature (sva-rūpa) of the Supreme Lord (pārameśvara) who is a compact mass (ghana) of Consciousness (cit), therefore (tatas eva) (he is) para (paraḥ) (or) perfect and full (pūrṇaḥ). "Remaining (vṛttiḥ) in the body (śarīra) (is his) vow (vratam), (that is to say, he retains a physical form on account of his enormous compassion to humankind; it is really a pious act on his part). (III, 26) (of the current scripture) (3-26 iti)"; according to the meaning (artha-nītyā) of the aforesaid (uktam) aphorism (sūtra), even though (api) he exists (sthitaḥ) in body, etc. (deha-ādau) like (if these were) (kalpe) the sheath of a sword (dala) --despite it covers the sword tightly, it is always separate from the sword itself--, he is not touched (na... spṛṣṭaḥ) even (api) by a residual impression (saṁskāreṇa) (of the notion that) that --body, etc.-- (tad) are the (real) experient or knower --the Self-- (pramātṛtā)2 |
That (truth) (tad) has (also) been mentioned (uktam) in venerable Kularatnamālā (śrī-kularatnamālāyām):
"When (yadā) the most eminent among (varaḥ) the spiritual teachers (guru) speaks about (kathayet) That --God-- (tad) in its entirety (samyak), no doubt (na saṁśayaḥ) (that his disciple) becomes liberated (muktaḥ) at that very instant (tena eva kālena), (and afterward, such a disciple) remains (tiṣṭhati) (in his body) only (kevalam) (like) a machine (yantraḥ) --he does not consider it any longer as his real Self--.
How much more then (kim punar ca) the wise man (sudhīḥ) who (yaḥ) is totally concentrated (ekatānaḥ tu) on the Highest Brahma --the Absolute-- (pare brahmaṇi)? (If such a) Yogī (yogī) remains (sthitaḥ) only for a moment (kṣaṇa-mātra) (in the Highest Brahma), he becomes liberated (saḥ muktaḥ) (and) liberates (mocayet) (other) beings (prajāḥ... iti)"||
In venerable Mṛtyujit --also called Netratantra-- (śrī-mṛtyujiti) (it has) also (been said) (api):
"And if (yadi ca eva) (the Highest Imperishable Śiva) is realized (by someone) (upalabhyate) even for the time of a blink (nimeṣa-unmeṣa-mātreṇa), thenceforth (tatas prabhṛti) that (person) (asau) becomes liberated (muktaḥ) and (ca) is not born --lit. does not obtain a birth-- (na... janma... āpnuyāt) again (punar... iti)3 "||
(See VIII, 8 in Netratantra)
In Kulasāra (kulasāre) (it has) also (been mentioned) (api):
"Ah (aho)!, the exalted position and majesty (māhātmyam) of the (Supreme) Principle (tattvasya) (is such,) oh beautiful one (sundari), (that) when It is merely (mātrasya) known (by someone) --only with his intellect-- (jñāta), in (Its) being imparted (by him) (samprāpte) to another person --lit. to another ear-- (śrotra-antaram), (the one receiving It) is liberated (mucyate) immediately (tatkṣaṇāt eva... iti)"||
1 I already explained the meaning of "Nirvāṇa" in this system by the note 2 of III, 41.
2 He dwells in the body, etc., like a sword in its sheath. Anyway, he never considers his body to be his real Self or I. Why? Because being completely identified with the Supreme Lord who is a compact mass of Consciousness, he is always like Him: absolutely free! The rest of people, being thoroughly identified with their bodies, etc. and under the control of Āṇavamala, fail to realize their own essential nature. In other words, they are essentially the Lord but do not realize their true identity and erroneously think they are what they are not at all!
3 In his Netroddyota, Kṣemarāja explains, in a simple way, the meaning of this stanza in Netratantra. His entire commentary reads: "केनचिदिति मध्येऽध्याहार्यम्। उपलभ्यते समाविश्यते। ततःप्रभृति न तु कालान्तरे। मुक्तः स्थितैरपि देहप्राणैरगुणीकृतः। न च तद्देहत्यागे पुनर्जन्म देहान्तरसम्बन्धमाप्नोत्यपितु परमशिव एव भवति॥" - "Kenaciditi madhye'dhyāhāryam| Upalabhyate samāviśyate| Tataḥprabhṛti na tu kālāntare| Muktaḥ sthitairapi dehaprāṇairaguṇīkṛtaḥ| Na ca taddehatyāge punarjanma dehāntarasambandhamāpnotyapitu paramaśiva eva bhavati||" - "(The word) 'kenacid' --'by someone'-- is to be supplied in the middle (of the stanza, in order to complete the sense) --i.e. there must be 'someone' who performs what is declared in the stanza--. (The term) 'upalabhyate' (means) 'is penetrated' --in the sense of 'is realized'; it refers to the Highest Imperishable Śiva... I know this because I read the previous stanza in Netratantra--. (The expression) 'Tataḥprabhṛti' or 'thenceforth' (means that) it is not at another time, (but from that moment on) --you can also separate the two words in this way: Tataḥ prabhṛti--. 'Mukta' or 'liberated' from bodies and vital energies even when these continue existing, i.e. devoid of limiting attributes or qualities. And, after abandoning his body, he is not be born again, viz. he does not go into association with another body, but rather does become the Supreme Śiva".
ननु भूतकञ्चुकित्वमप्यस्य कस्मात्तदैव न निवर्तत इत्याह—
निसर्गात्स्वातन्त्र्यात्मनः स्वभावादायातो नैसर्गिकः प्राणसम्बन्धः संवित् किल भगवती विश्ववैचित्र्यमवबिभासयिषुः सङ्कोचावभासपूर्वकं सङ्कुचदशेषविश्वस्फुरत्तात्मकप्राणनारूपग्राहकभूमिकां श्रित्वा ग्राह्यरूपजगदाभासात्मना स्फुरतीति नैसर्गिकः स्वातन्त्र्यात्प्रथममुद्भासितोऽस्याः प्राणसम्बन्धः। तथा च श्रीवाजसनेयायाम्
या सा शक्तिः परा सूक्ष्मा व्यापिनी निर्मला शिवा।
शक्तिचक्रस्य जननी परानन्दामृतात्मिका॥
महाघोरेश्वरी चण्डा सृष्टिसंहारकारिका।
त्रिवहं त्रिविधं त्रिस्थं बलात्कालं प्रकर्षति॥
इति संविद एव भगवत्याः प्राणक्रमेण नाडित्रयवाहिसोमसूर्यवह्न्यात्मावस्थितातीतानागतवर्तमानरूपबाह्यकालोल्लासनविलापनकारित्वमुक्तम्। तदुक्तं स्वच्छन्देऽपि
प्राणापानमयः प्राणो विसर्गापूरणं प्रति।
नित्यमापूरयन्नेव प्राणिनामुरसि स्थितः॥
हकारस्तु स्मृतः प्राणः स्वप्रवृत्तो हलाकृतिः।
इत्युक्तनीत्या श्रीस्वच्छन्दभट्टारकरूपप्राणमयत्वाद्विसर्गापूरतया सृष्टिसंहारकारित्वमभिहितमिति युक्तमुक्तं नैसर्गिकः प्राणसम्बन्ध इति। अत एव श्रीभट्टकल्लटेन प्राणाख्यनिमित्तदार्ढ्यम्
प्राक् संवित् प्राणे परिणता।
Nanu bhūtakañcukitvamapyasya kasmāttadaiva na nivartata ityāha—
Nisargātsvātantryātmanaḥ svabhāvādāyāto naisargikaḥ prāṇasambandhaḥ saṁvit kila bhagavatī viśvavaicitryamavabibhāsayiṣuḥ saṅkocāvabhāsapūrvakaṁ saṅkucadaśeṣaviśvasphurattātmakaprāṇanārūpagrāhakabhūmikāṁ śritvā grāhyarūpajagadābhāsātmanā sphuratīti naisargikaḥ svātantryātprathamamudbhāsito'syāḥ prāṇasambandhaḥ| Tathā ca śrīvājasaneyāyām
Yā sā śaktiḥ parā sūkṣmā vyāpinī nirmalā śivā|
Śakticakrasya jananī parānandāmṛtātmikā||
Mahāghoreśvarī caṇḍā sṛṣṭisaṁhārakārikā|
Trivahaṁ trividhaṁ tristhaṁ balātkālaṁ prakarṣati||
iti saṁvida eva bhagavatyāḥ prāṇakrameṇa nāḍitrayavāhisomasūryavahnyātmāvasthitātītānāgatavartamānarūpabāhyakālollāsanavilāpanakāritvamuktam| Taduktaṁ svacchande'pi
Prāṇāpānamayaḥ prāṇo visargāpūraṇaṁ prati|
Nityamāpūrayanneva prāṇināmurasi sthitaḥ||
Hakārastu smṛtaḥ prāṇaḥ svapravṛtto halākṛtiḥ|
ityuktanītyā śrīsvacchandabhaṭṭārakarūpaprāṇamayatvādvisargāpūratayā sṛṣṭisaṁhārakāritvamabhihitamiti yuktamuktaṁ naisargikaḥ prāṇasambandha iti| Ata eva śrībhaṭṭakallaṭena prāṇākhyanimittadārḍhyam
Prāk saṁvit prāṇe pariṇatā|
An objection (nanu)!: "Why (kasmāt) does not (na) even (api) his (asya) state of using the gross elements (forming his body) as covering (bhūtakañcukitvam) disappear (nivartate) then (tadā eva... iti) --when the Yogī attains final Liberation--?" (In reply to the objection, Śiva) said (āha)—
The link or association (sambandhaḥ) of the vital energy (prāṇa) (with the body is) natural (naisargikaḥ)||43||
The link or association (sambandhaḥ) of the vital energy (prāṇa) (with the body is) natural (naisargikaḥ), viz. come (āyātaḥ) from nisarga or nature (nisargāt) whose essence (sva-bhāvāt) is the Absolute Freedom (of the Supreme Lord) (svātantrya-ātmanaḥ). The glorious (bhagavatī) Consciousness (saṁvid) verily (kila), desirous of manifesting (avabibhāsayiṣuḥ) diversity (vaicitryam) in the universe (viśva), having firstly resorted to (pūrvakam... śritvā) the manifestation (avabhāsa) of contraction --limitation-- (saṅkoca), shines forth as (ābhāsa-ātmanā sphurati) the world (jagat) which is grāhya or knowable --i.e. that which can be known or experienced-- (grāhya-rūpa) by assuming (śritvā) the condition (bhūmikām) of grāhaka or knower --i.e. the one who knows and experiences-- (grāhaka) who is a form adopted by (rūpa) Prāṇanā --the universal vital energy-- (prāṇanā) whose essence is (ātmaka) Sphurattā or the throbbing Light of God which manifests (sphurattā) the entire (aśeṣa) universe (viśva) but in a contracted or limited form (saṅkucat) --since this throbbing Light of God, the glorious Consciousness, firstly had recourse to saṅkoca or contraction--. Thus (iti), the link or association (sambandhaḥ) of the vital energy (prāṇa) (with the body is) natural (naisargikaḥ), (because) it has initially arisen (prathamam udbhāsitaḥ) from Her --from the glorious Consciousness-- (asyāḥ) due to Svātantrya --Her Absolute Freedom-- (svātantryāt) --all in all, the link between body and vital energy is natural because it was so manifested by the Lord from the very beginning of the universe--|
So also (tathā ca) (it has been declared) in venerable Vājasaneyā (śrī-vājasaneyāyām):
"The Śakti --the Power of the Lord-- (sā śaktiḥ) who (yā) (is) supreme (parā), subtle (sūkṣmā), all-pervading --omnipresent-- (vyāpinī), pure (nirmalā), auspicious (śivā), mother (jananī) of the group (cakrasya) of powers (śakti), the highest bliss (para-ānandā) whose nature (ātmikā) is the nectar conferring immortality (amṛta), mistress (īśvarī) of mahāghorā-s --the greatly terrible powers that bind and subjugate the limited beings-- (mahā-ghorā), terrible --since She conceals one's own essential nature-- (caṇḍā) (and) the One who brings about (kārikā) manifestation (sṛṣṭi) (and) reabsorption (saṁhāra) (of the universe). She forcibly manifests and withdraws (balāt... prakarṣati) Time (kālam) appearing as three flows or streams --i.e. Time flows through the subtle channels known as Iḍā, Piṅgalā and Suṣumnā-- (tri-vaham), in three ways --i.e. Time arises in the form of moon, sun and fire, which stand for knowable or object, knower or subject and knowledge, respectively-- (trividham) (and) in three aspects --i.e. Time becomes manifest as past, present and future-- (tristham... iti)"||
The abovementioned (uktam) state of being the producer (kāritvam) of (both) external manifestation (ullāsa) (and) internal withdrawal (vilāpana) with reference to the external Time (bāhya-kāla) in the form of a series (krameṇa) of vital energies (prāṇa) belongs to the glorious Consciousness (saṁvidaḥ... bhagavatyāḥ) alone (eva). (External Time appearing as a series of vital energies was shown in the stanza itself by the terms "tristham", "trividham" and "trivaham", viz. external Time is that) whose form is (rūpa) past (atīta), future (anāgata) (and) present (vartamāna), (it is that which) remains as (ātma-avasthita) moon --knowable or object-- (soma), sun --knower or subject-- (sūrya) (and) fire --knowledge-- (vahni), (and) flows (vāhi) through the three (traya) subtle channels --Iḍā, Piṅgalā and Suṣumnā-- (nāḍi)1 |
That (tad) was also mentioned (uktam... api) in Svacchandatantra (svacchande):
"The vital energy (prāṇaḥ) consists of (mayaḥ) prāṇa (prāṇa) (and) apāna (apāna) at every (prati) exhalation (visarga) (and) inhalation (āpūraṇam), (and) exists (sthitaḥ) in the chest (urasi) of the living beings (prāṇinām) as that which fulls with air --i.e. with life-- (āpūrayan eva) constantly (nityam... iti)2 "||
(See VII, 25 in Svacchandatantra)
In accordance with what has been mentioned (ukta-nītyā) (in Svacchandatantra itself):
"The letter (kāraḥ) 'ha' (ha) is certainly said to be (tu smṛtaḥ) vital energy (prāṇaḥ) which occurs by itself --automatically-- (svapravṛttaḥ) (and) to have the form (ākṛtiḥ) of a plow (hala... iti)3 "||
(See IV, 257 in Svacchandatantra)
the state of being the producer (kāritvam) of manifestation (sṛṣṭi) (and) reabsorption (saṁhāra) in the form of emitting and filling up (visarga-āpūratayā) is said (abhihitam) to belong to the vital energy or prāṇa (prāṇasya) because it is replete (mayatvāt) with the vigor and power (prāṇa) whose nature (rūpa) is the most adorable (śrī... bhaṭṭāraka) Svacchanda --the Absolutely Free Lord-- (svacchanda). So (iti), it has been rightly said (in the stanza) (yuktam uktam): "The link or association (sambandhaḥ) of the vital energy (prāṇa) (with the body is) natural (naisargikaḥ... iti)"|
For this very reason (atas eva), a corroboration (dārḍhyam) of that what is known as (ākhya) prāṇa or vital energy (prāṇa) is the cause (of manifestation and reabsorption) (nimitta) was mentioned (uktam) by venerable Kallaṭa (śrī-bhaṭṭa-kallaṭena) in (his) Tattvārthacintāmaṇi (tattvārthacintāmaṇau):
"At first (prāk), Consciousness (saṁvid) is turned (pariṇatā) into vital energy (prāṇe... iti)"|
1 As Time is a manifestation of Prāṇanā, the universal vital energy whose essence is the throbbing Light of God, so it appears in the form of a series of prāṇa-s or vital energies. Yes, it is difficult, maybe, to understand the concept of Time as vital energy, but it is true. Regarding the rest of my translation of the paragraph, of course, I had to arrange it conveniently or that sesquipedalian (long and abstruse) compound beginning with "nāḍitraya" and ending in "kāritvam" would have killed our intellects easily! This kind of extra long compounds is commonly seen in the works of some Trika masters (e.g. Abhinavagupta and his disciple Kṣemarāja).
Fortunately, that style of piling up words does not appear in older scriptures generally. The problem with the sesquipedalian compounds is that the more words it contains the more problematic it becomes when you attempt to translate it. If you are a Sanskrit student, you already know that every word in Sanskrit may have a lot of meanings (a huge quantity sometimes). So, for example, if you have a compound with three words, each of them with five possible meanings, well, you will have fifteen meanings in the combination. For a translator with enough experience and knowledge, such short compounds are relatively easy to handle. Anyway, if the compound has more than five or six words, the translator will sweat accordingly as the number of possible combinations increases. The compound written by Kṣemarāja in the last paragraph had more than fifteen words! Yes, most of them are rather understandable for an experienced translator with a solid knowledge of philosophy, but there are two terms that are not easy to translate at all: "ullāsa" and "vilāpana". To translate them correctly you need to read commentaries of scholars proficient in this philosophical system. If you use only a Sanskrit dictionary, you may come to deduce that "ullāsa" is something like "manifestation" perhaps, but "vilāpana" is more tricky, and if you translate it as merely "destruction, death, etc.", your translation will not be very good. The right meanings of those terms in this context are, according to the great scholars, "external manifestation" and "internal withdrawal". So, my advise for Sanskrit students is always: "get the commentaries before undertaking a translation".
Of course, sometimes there is no commentary at hand, and you are absolutely "on your own" (e.g. myself when translating Netroddyota, Svacchandoddyota, etc. for the sake of throwing more light on a certain subject). In this case, you will have to commend yourself to God very often, hehe, because that position is not desirable at all. The texts by sages like Abhinavagupta, Kṣemarāja, etc. can easily wipe the floor with any Sanskrit student who is a beginner or even intermediate. And the advanced ones will need plenty of Trika knowledge plus some commentaries as a support if they want to have a happy day, be sure. In fact, some Abhinavagupta's writings (if not all of them!) need a group of scholars for delivering a good translation. That is why I am always scared of Abhinavagupta and his studies. They can easily sink my little boat, no doubt about it.
2 The vital energy as a whole is called: "prāṇa". But, this is divided into ten categories, five of which are principal and the other five are subsidiary. The problem lies in one of this categories (one of the five that are principal) having the same name, i.e. "prāṇa". Very often, people mistake this category for prāṇa or vital energy "as a whole". One way to bypass this confusion is calling the vital energy Prāṇa (initial "p" in uppercase) and the category prāṇa (initial "p" in lowercase), or else calling the vital energy as a whole "mahāprāṇa" (great prāṇa) and leave the word "prāṇa" for the mere category. Those are the methods generally used to bypass the little obstacle. Anyway, the word "prāṇa" of the phrase "Prāṇāpānamayaḥ" in the stanza clearly refers to the category and not to "prāṇa" as a whole. Nonetheless, the second instance (i.e. "prāṇo" in the stanza) does refer to vital energy "as a whole". Read Uccāra in Meditation 4 to get more information.
In turn, the categories "prāṇa" and "apāna" are two vital energies, one going out through exhalation and the other going in through inhalation, respectively. Hence the stanza specifies "at every" (prati).
Though Kṣemarāja did not mention it here, I can read a statement following the quoted stanza in Svacchandatantra, which completes the sense: "प्राणनं कुरुते यस्मात्तस्मात्प्राणः प्रकीर्तितः।" - "Prāṇanaṁ kurute yasmāttasmātprāṇaḥ prakīrtitaḥ|" - "Since it gives life, therefore it is called prāṇa --lit. breath of life--".
3 I could explain this by myself as the meaning is relatively simple, but I will quote Svacchandoddyota (the Kṣemarāja's scholarly commentary on Svacchandatantra) for you to receive the explanation from an authoritative source directly. Anyway, despite I will just quote a very little portion occurring at the beginning of the entire commentary written by the sage, I will have to explain it to you too, lol!... no way out!:
"योऽयं हलाकृतिरनच्को हकारोऽनाहतध्वन्यात्मा" - "Yo'yaṁ halākṛtiranacko hakāro'nāhatadhvanyātmā" - "This which has the form of a plow, (is) the letter 'ha' devoid of a vowel (and) its nature is the unstruck sound".
Good! Well, the great grammarian Pāṇini created a technical term to designate all the vowels or any vowel: "ac". So, "anacka" means "any consonant without a vowel, i.e. isolated". As it is obvious from merely seeing 'h' (viz. 'ha' with the vowel 'a' dropped) in Sanskrit —look!: "ह्" - "h"—, this letter does have the shape of a plow. But, this is not so easy, because there is another way of reading "halākṛti" (has the form of a plow). Instead of considering it as being formed of "hala + ākṛti" - "plow + form", it might be taken as consisting of "hal + ākṛti". In this case, "hal" is a technical term created by Pāṇini in order to designate all the consonants or any consonant. So, the translation of this little portion in Svacchandoddyota changes to:
"(The expression) 'hakāra' (in the stanza, indicates) this which has the form of the consonant ('ha') but without a vowel, and whose nature is the unstruck sound".
And its nature is the "unstruck" sound because this sound is produced by inhalation naturally, without the necessity of objects striking or beating each other. In all the living beings, their breathing continuously and spontaneously goes on with the sounds "ha" and "sa" at every inhalation and exhalation. This process occurs by itself, automatically.
अतश्च स्थितेऽपि नैसर्गिके प्राणसम्बन्धे यस्तदारूढ आन्तरीं कलां विमृशन्नास्ते स लोकोत्तर एवेत्याह—
नासिकान्तर्मध्यसंयमात् किमत्र सव्यापसव्यसौषुम्नेषु॥४४॥
सर्वनाडीचक्रप्रधानरूपेषु सव्यापसव्यसौषुम्नेषु दक्षिणवाममध्यनाडीपदेषु या नासिका नसते कौटिल्येन वहतीति कृत्वा कुटिलवाहिनी प्राणशक्तिस्तस्या अन्तरित्यान्तरी संवित् तस्या अपि मध्यं सर्वान्तरतमतया प्रधानम्।
तस्य देवातिदेवस्य परबोधस्वरूपिणः।
विमर्शः परमा शक्तिः सर्वज्ञा ज्ञानशालिनी॥
इति श्रीकालिकाक्रमोक्तनीत्या यद्विमर्शमयं रूपं तत्संयमादन्तर्निभालनप्रकर्षात्किमत्रोच्यत अयं हि सर्वदशासु देदीप्यमानो निर्व्युत्थानः परः समाधिः। तदुक्तं श्रीविज्ञानभैरवे
ग्राह्यग्राहकसंवित्तिः सामान्या सर्वदेहिनाम्।
योगिनां तु विशेषोऽयं सम्बन्धे सावधानता॥
Ataśca sthite'pi naisargike prāṇasambandhe yastadārūḍha āntarīṁ kalāṁ vimṛśannāste sa lokottara evetyāha—
Nāsikāntarmadhyasaṁyamāt kimatra savyāpasavyasauṣumneṣu||44||
Sarvanāḍīcakrapradhānarūpeṣu savyāpasavyasauṣumneṣu dakṣiṇavāmamadhyanāḍīpadeṣu yā nāsikā nasate kauṭilyena vahatīti kṛtvā kuṭilavāhinī prāṇaśaktistasyā antarityāntarī saṁvit tasyā api madhyaṁ sarvāntaratamatayā pradhānam|
Tasya devātidevasya parabodhasvarūpiṇaḥ|
Vimarśaḥ paramā śaktiḥ sarvajñā jñānaśālinī||
iti śrīkālikākramoktanītyā yadvimarśamayaṁ rūpaṁ tatsaṁyamādantarnibhālanaprakarṣātkimatrocyata ayaṁ hi sarvadaśāsu dedīpyamāno nirvyutthānaḥ paraḥ samādhiḥ| Taduktaṁ śrīvijñānabhairave
Grāhyagrāhakasaṁvittiḥ sāmānyā sarvadehinām|
Yogināṁ tu viśeṣo'yaṁ sambandhe sāvadhānatā||
Hence (atas ca), while the natural link or association of the vital energy (with the body) exists (sthite api naisargike prāṇa-sambandhe), the one who (yaḥ), being established (ārūḍhaḥ) in that --in the state of knower who is a form adopted by Prāṇanā, the universal vital energy-- (tad)1 , continues (āste) to be aware (vimṛśan) of the inner (āntarīm) perfect I-consciousness --i.e. Śakti-- (kalām), (is) extraordinary --lit. he is beyond of what is common-- (saḥ loka-uttaraḥ eva). (Śiva) said (āha) so (iti) (in the following aphorism)—
(There is vital energy --prāṇaśakti or prāṇa--) in the left subtle channel --Iḍā-- (apasavya), in the right subtle channel --Piṅgalā-- (savya) (and) in Suṣumnā --the middle one-- (sauṣumneṣu).
By the intense and constant awareness (saṁyamāt) of the center --that is, the perfect I-consciousness-- (madhya) of the inner aspect (antar) of (the aforesaid) prāṇaśakti (nāsikā), (the Yogī abides in the constant awareness of the supreme and perfect I-consciousness forever).
What else (could one say) (kim) in this respect (atra)?||44||
(There is) nāsikā --prāṇaśakti or prāṇa-- (yā nāsikā) in the main ones (pradhāna-rūpeṣu) of the group (cakra) (composed of) all (sarva) the subtle channels (nāḍī) —in savya, apasavya and Suṣumnā (savya-apasavya-sauṣumneṣu)—, viz. in the right, left and middle subtle channels (dakṣiṇa-vāma-madhya-nāḍī-padeṣu) --known as Piṅgalā, Iḍā and Suṣumnā--, (respectively)2 . (And "nāsikā" is) prāṇaśakti --or prāṇa-- (prāṇa-śaktiḥ), the one who flows (vāhinī) in zigzags (kuṭila), by considering that (iti kṛtvā) (the terms "nāsikā" and "kuṭilavāhinī" derive from "nasate kauṭilyena vahati" or) "she zigzags (nasate), viz. she flows (vahati) in a zigzag (kauṭilyena)"3 . (The word) "antár" (antar iti) (means) inner aspect (āntarī) (or) Consciousness (saṁvid) of that (nāsikā) (tasyāḥ). (And) "madhya" or "center" (madhyam) of that (inner aspect of nāsikā) (tasyāḥ) too (api), being the innermost (antaratamatayā) of all (sarva), (is) "Pradhāna" or "the essential Reality" --in short, the perfect I-consciousness that is in the center of all-- (pradhānam)|
"Of that God who surpasses all other gods (deva-atidevasya) (and) whose essential nature (sva-rūpiṇaḥ) is the Highest (para) Consciousness (bodha) --i.e. this God is Śiva or Prakāśa--, Vimarśa --I-consciousness-- (vimarśaḥ) (is) the Supreme (paramā) Power (śaktiḥ) who is omniscient (sarvajñā), viz. full of (śālinī) knowledge (jñāna... iti)"||
Using what was expressed in venerable Kālikākrama as a guide (śrī-kālikākrama-ukta-nītyā), by saṁyama (saṁyamāt) (or) the intensity (prakarṣāt) of a (constant) inner (antar) awareness (nibhālana) of that (tad) essential nature (rūpam) which (yad) is Vimarśa --I-consciousness-- (vimarśa-mayam), it is said (ucyate) "kimatra" --an exclamation showing delight and whose meaning is "What else (could one say) in this respect?"-- (kim atra) (in the sense that, as a result of such a saṁyama, there does arise) this (ayam hi) supreme (paraḥ) Nirvyutthānasamādhi (nirvyutthānaḥ... samādhiḥ) which shines intensely (dedīpyamānaḥ) in all the states --i.e. under all circumstances-- (sarva-daśāsu)4 |
That (tad) has been declared (uktam) in venerable Vijñānabhairava (śrī-vijñānabhairave):
"The consciousness (saṁvittiḥ) of object (grāhya) (and) subject (grāhaka) is common (sāmānyā) to all the embodied ones (sarva-dehinām); but (tu) in the case of the Yogī-s (yoginām) this (ayam) (is the) distinction (viśeṣaḥ): there is attentiveness (sa-avadhānatā) to the relation (between object and subject) (sambandhe... iti)"||
1 This is not my invention but what the great scholars comment on this word "tad" (that) in the present context. Besides, you can easily verify that this statement completely agrees with what was affirmed in the commentary on the previous aphorism.
2 In order not to have a flock of Sanskrit students correcting my translation of "savya" and "apasavya" as "right" and "left", respectively, I need to say something: Yes, you are right! If you consult a dictionary, you will see that "savya" means "left" and "apasavya" means "right". Anyway, Kṣemarāja is fond of considering the meanings of "savya" and "apasavya" as if they were indeclinables always (whether or not they act as indeclinables). If you check the dictionary, "savya" and "apasavya", as indeclinables --i.e. as savyam/savyena and apasavyam/apasavyena--, mean "to the right" and "to the left", respectively. Now, you can easily understand why he interprets the meanings of "savya" and "apasavya" in an opposite manner to what one would expect. Yes, it is a little hellish and confusing... in fact, it makes me dizzy just reading savya and apasavya, it is like a tongue twister!... but we cannot help it, you know. Remember this in the future, please.
3 She (i.e. nāsikā or prāṇaśakti, the vital energy) zigzags because of her flowing through the subtle channels in the subtle body, which curve in general. This is specially true in respect to Iḍā and Piṅgalā, since these move to the left and right of Suṣumnā, zigzagging.
4 From that stanza of Kālikākrama, it is very clear that the Supreme Power of the Lord is nothing but one's own I-consciousness. Using that teaching as a guide, the commentator explains that by saṁyama of that supreme I-consciousness, the great Yogī attains Nirvyutthānasamādhi or an absorption in his "I" from which he will never return to the ordinary state or vyutthāna, but he will retain such a realization under all circumstances, in all the states and conditions. The word saṁyama is not be interpreted here as defined by the great sage Patañjali in his Yogasūtra-s III, 4, but rather as "antarnibhālanaprakarṣa" or "the intensity of a (constant) inner awareness". Awareness of what? Of his own supremely perfect I-consciousness or Vimarśa, which is the innermost central Reality. In other words, he becomes aware of his true nature again and again (constantly). Having such a sublime Yogī achieved the highest state of consciousness, "kimatra", i.e. "What else (could one say) in this respect?".
एवमीदृशस्य योगफलं दर्शयन् प्रकरणमुपसंहरति—
चैतन्यात्मनः स्वरूपादुदितस्यास्य विश्वस्य भूयः पुनर्विगलितभेदसंस्कारात्मना बाहुल्येन च प्रतिमीलनम् चैतन्याभिमुख्येन निमीलनं पुनरपि चैतन्यात्मस्वस्वरूपोन्मीलनरूपं परयोगाभिनिविष्टस्य योगिनो भवति। तदुक्तं श्रीस्वच्छन्दे
उन्मनापरतो देवि तत्रात्मानं नियोजयेत्।
तस्मिन्युक्तस्ततो ह्यात्मा तन्मयश्च प्रजायते॥
इति। तथा च
उद्बोधितो यथा वह्निर्निर्मलोऽतीव भास्वरः।
न भूयः प्रविशेत्काष्ठं तथात्माध्वन उद्धृतः॥
मलकर्मकलाद्यैस्तु निर्मुक्तो विगतक्लमः।
तत्रस्थोऽपि न बध्येत यतोऽतीव सुनिर्मलः॥
इति। भूयः स्यादित्यभिदधतोऽयमाशयो यत् शिवत्वमस्य योगिनो नापूर्वमपि तु स्वभाव एव केवलं मायाशक्त्युत्थापितस्वविकल्पदौरात्म्याद्भासमानमपि तन्नायं प्रत्यवम्रष्टुं क्षम इत्यस्योक्तोपायप्रदर्शनक्रमेण तदेवाभिव्यज्यत इति शिवम्॥४५॥
Evamīdṛśasya yogaphalaṁ darśayan prakaraṇamupasaṁharati—
Caitanyātmanaḥ svarūpāduditasyāsya viśvasya bhūyaḥ punarvigalitabhedasaṁskārātmanā bāhulyena ca pratimīlanam caitanyābhimukhyena nimīlanaṁ punarapi caitanyātmasvasvarūponmīlanarūpaṁ parayogābhiniviṣṭasya yogino bhavati| Taduktaṁ śrīsvacchande
Unmanāparato devi tatrātmānaṁ niyojayet|
Tasminyuktastato hyātmā tanmayaśca prajāyate||
iti| Tathā ca
Udbodhito yathā vahnirnirmalo'tīva bhāsvaraḥ|
Na bhūyaḥ praviśetkāṣṭhaṁ tathātmādhvana uddhṛtaḥ||
Malakarmakalādyaistu nirmukto vigataklamaḥ|
Tatrastho'pi na badhyeta yato'tīva sunirmalaḥ||
iti| Bhūyaḥ syādityabhidadhato'yamāśayo yat śivatvamasya yogino nāpūrvamapi tu svabhāva eva kevalaṁ māyāśaktyutthāpitasvavikalpadaurātmyādbhāsamānamapi tannāyaṁ pratyavamraṣṭuṁ kṣama ityasyoktopāyapradarśanakrameṇa tadevābhivyajyata iti śivam||45||
In this way (evam), (now Śiva) summarizes (upasaṁharati) the book and its subject --Śivasūtra-s-- (prakaraṇam) by showing (darśayan) the fruit (phalam) of Yoga (yoga) for such (a Yogī) (īdṛśasya)—
(Regarding the enlightened Yogī), there is (syāt) over and over again (bhūyas) the awareness of the Supreme Self both internally and externally (pratimīlanam)||45||
A pratimīlana (pratimīlanam) —completely (bāhulyena ca) free (vigalita) from (any) residual impression (saṁskāra-ātmanā) of duality (bheda)— takes place (bhavati) over and over again (bhūyas punar) in the case of the Yogī (yoginaḥ) who is immersed (abhiniviṣṭasya) in the Highest (para) Yoga (yoga). (A pratimīlana) of this (asya) universe (viśvasya) which has arisen (uditasya) from his own essential nature (sva-rūpāt) (or) Consciousness in Absolute Freedom (caitanya-ātmanaḥ). (This pratimīlana is, on one hand,) an inward absorption in the Supreme Self (nimīlanam) —when (the Yogī is) oriented (abhimukhyena) toward the (inner) Consciousness (caitanya)—, (and) on the other hand (punar api), a outward absorption in the (same) Supreme Self (unmīlana-rūpam), (where the Yogī experiences the entire universe as being) his own (sva) Essence (sva-rūpa) whose nature (ātma) is (the same) Caitanya or Consciousness (caitanya)1 |
That (tad) was described (uktam) in venerable Svacchandatantra (śrīsvacchande):
"Oh goddess (devi)!, Unmanā (unmanā) is beyond (Samanā) (paratas); one should join oneself (ātmānam niyojayet) to that --to Unmanā-- (tatra). Consequently (tatas hi), the self (ātmā) who is united (yuktaḥ) with that (tasmin), becomes (prajāyate) identical (mayaḥ ca) with that (tad... iti)2 "||
(See IV, 332 in Svacchandatantra)
So also (tathā ca), (in the very Svacchandatantra, it has been said):
"As (yathā) a fire (vahniḥ) that has risen (udbodhitaḥ) pure (nirmalaḥ) (and) very (atīva) radiant (bhāsvaraḥ) (from a piece of wood) does not (na) enter (praviśet) the piece of wood (kāṣṭham) again (bhūyas), so (tathā), the Self (ātmā) who has arisen (uddhṛtaḥ) from Ṣaḍadhvā --the Six Courses-- (ādhvanaḥ), being liberated (nirmuktaḥ) from Āṇavamala, Kārmamala and Māyīyamala, etc. (mala-karma-kalā-ādyaiḥ tu), is a vigataklama or one whose fatigues have ceased (vigata-klamaḥ). Even though (api) he dwells (sthaḥ) there --in the world-- (tatra), is not (na) bound (by the pleasures of this world) (badhyeta) since (yatas) he is extremely immaculate (atīva sunirmalaḥ... iti)3 "||
(See X, 371-372 in Svacchandatantra)
(In saying) "Bhūyaḥ syāt" or "there is over and over again" (bhūyaḥ syāt iti) (in the aphorism), this (ayam) (is) the intention (āśayaḥ) of the One who declares it --i.e. Śiva, the author of Śivasūtra-s-- (abhidadhataḥ):
That (yad) the Śiva-hood --the state of Śiva-- (śivatvam) of this (asya) Yogī (yoginaḥ) is not (na) quite new (apūrvam) but rather (api tu) (his) own essential nature (sva-bhāvaḥ eva)! Only (kevalam) on account of the wickedness (daurātmyāt) of his (sva) thoughts (vikalpa) aroused (utthāpita) by māyāśakti --His power to produce duality-- (māyā-śakti)4 , although (api) that --viz. the state of Śiva-- (tad) was manifest (bhāsamānam), he (ayam) was not (na) able (kṣamaḥ) to recognize (it) --to touch it-- (pratyavamraṣṭum). In this manner (iti), that (state of Śiva) (tad eva) has been (now) manifested (abhivyajyate) for him --for the enlightened Yogī-- (asya) by the series (of aphorisms) (krameṇa) showing and explaining (pradarśana) the means (upāya) which have been described (uktam). Let there be welfare (for all beings) (iti śivam)!||45||
1 Simply put: This Yogī experiences the Supreme Self both inside and outside. Inside, the Lord appears as his inner Self or real "I", and outside, He appears as the entire universe. Therefore, such an enlightened Yogī perceives only God all the time. This astonishing state of consciousness is known as Pratimīlana.
2 To fully understand the subject dealing with Samanā and Unmanā, read Meditation 6.
3 The expression "who has arisen from Ṣaḍadhvā --the Six Courses--" indicates that such a liberated soul has gone beyond them. In turn, the words "mala, karma and kalā" point out "Āṇavamala, Kārmamala and Māyīyamala". Why? First of all, Āṇavamala is very often designated by the mere term "mala" (impurity) because it is the most important impurity. Next, as the word "karma" means "action", it is obvious the reason why Kārmamala (impurity related to doership) is called like that. But, it is mysterious that Māyīyamala is being named "kalā" in the stanza of Svacchandatantra, because "kalā" generally means "śakti" or "power". Anyway, if you resort to a dictionary, you will find that the word mainly means "part". And this is the key to solve the mystery: Māyīyamala forces you consider the things to be different from each other. In this way, Māyīyamala generates an entire universe composed of parts, each of them being different from the others. Now, the mystery is gone!
And, obviously, he is one whose fatigues have ceased (vigataklama) since he is completely free from all that is related to this world. He has no more problems because, "in order to have a problem", you need "an individual" first. As this great Yogī has gone beyond his individuality and realized his divinity, "the individual" is not more in him. As the individual is absent, the problems cannot exist either. A mere living body is not enough "to have a problem". It is complicated when put into words, but simple if you have that experience. So, with all your forces, from the bottom of your heart, strive to be like him: Absolutely Free!
4 The meaning of this term was already explained by the note 1 of III, 38.
वृत्तिः शैवरहस्यार्थे शिवसूत्रेषु दर्शिता॥१॥
सुकृतिनो रसयन्तु भवच्छिदे स्फुटमिमां शिवसूत्रविमर्शिनीम्॥२॥
इयमरोचकिनां रुचिवर्धिनी परिणतिं तनुते परमां मतेः।
रसनमात्रत एव सुधौघवन्मृतिजराजननादिभयापहृत्॥३॥
देहप्राणसुखादिभिः परिमिताहन्तास्पदैः संवृतश्चैतन्यं चिनुते निजं न सुमहन्माहेश्वरं स्वं जनः।
मध्ये बोधसुधाब्धि विश्वमभितस्तत्फेनपिण्डोपमं यः पश्येदुपदेशतस्तु कथितः साक्षात्स एकः शिवः॥४॥
तरत तरसा संसाराब्धिं विधत्त परे पदे पदमविचलं नित्यालोकप्रमोदसुनिर्भरे।
विमृशत शिवप्रोक्तं सूत्रं रहस्यसमुज्ज्वलं प्रसभविलसत्सद्युक्त्यान्तः समुत्प्लवदायि तत्॥५॥
इति श्रीमन्महामाहेश्वराचार्यवर्याभिनवगुप्तपादपद्मोपजीविश्रीक्षेमराजविरचितायां शिवसूत्रविमर्शिन्यामाणवोपायप्रकाशनं नाम तृतीय उन्मेषः॥३॥
समाप्ता चेयं शिवसूत्रविमर्शिनी॥
कृतिः श्रीक्षेमराजस्य क्षेमायास्तु विमर्शिनाम्।
Vṛttiḥ śaivarahasyārthe śivasūtreṣu darśitā||1||
Sukṛtino rasayantu bhavacchide sphuṭamimāṁ śivasūtravimarśinīm||2||
Iyamarocakināṁ rucivardhinī pariṇatiṁ tanute paramāṁ mateḥ|
Rasanamātrata eva sudhaughavanmṛtijarājananādibhayāpahṛt||3||
Dehaprāṇasukhādibhiḥ parimitāhantāspadaiḥ saṁvṛtaścaitanyaṁ cinute nijaṁ na sumahanmāheśvaraṁ svaṁ janaḥ|
Madhye bodhasudhābdhi viśvamabhitastatphenapiṇḍopamaṁ yaḥ paśyedupadeśatastu kathitaḥ sākṣātsa ekaḥ śivaḥ||4||
Tarata tarasā saṁsārābdhiṁ vidhatta pare pade padamavicalaṁ nityālokapramodasunirbhare|
Vimṛśata śivaproktaṁ sūtraṁ rahasyasamujjvalaṁ prasabhavilasatsadyuktyāntaḥ samutplavadāyi tat||5||
Iti śrīmanmahāmāheśvarācāryavaryābhinavaguptapādapadmopajīviśrīkṣemarājaviracitāyāṁ śivasūtravimarśinyāmāṇavopāyaprakāśanaṁ nāma tṛtīya unmeṣaḥ||3||
Samāptā ceyaṁ śivasūtravimarśinī||
Kṛtiḥ śrīkṣemarājasya kṣemāyāstu vimarśinām|
"This very (sā iyam) commentary (vṛttiḥ) on the Śivasūtra-s (śivasūtreṣu), beautified (sundarā) by her connection (saṅgati) with the Spandakārikā-s --a running commentary on the Śivasūtra-s-- (spanda) (and) by her conformity (saṁvāda) with the Revealed Scriptures (āgama), has been displayed (darśitā) for (expounding) (arthe) the secret (rahasya) of Śiva (śaiva)1 "||1||
"Let the virtuous ones (sukṛtinaḥ) taste (rasayantu) —in order to cut (chide) the transmigratory existence (bhava), evidently (sphuṭam)— this (imām) Śivasūtravimarśinī (śivasūtravimarśinīm) abundantly furnished with (ulbaṇām) the elixir (rasa) made out of the essence (sāra) of the ever-new (navanava) Nectar (amṛta) that flows (saṁsravat) from the teaching (nidarśana) about the secret doctrine (rahasya) of Śiva (śiva)!"||2||
"This (Śivasūtravimarśinī) (iyam) increases (vardhinī) the appetite (ruci) (for knowledge --in the form of the doctrine of Śiva--) of those who do not have it (arocakinām) (and) produces (tanute) a supreme (paramām) transformation (pariṇatim) of (one's) understanding (mateḥ). By merely tasting (her) (rasana-mātratas eva), she removes (apahṛt) fear (bhaya) of death (mṛti), old age (jarā), birth (janana), etc. (ādi), like (vat) a flood (ogha) of Nectar (sudhā)2 "||3||
"Covered (saṁvṛtaḥ) by body, vital energy, pleasure, etc. (deha-prāṇa-sukha-ādibhiḥ), due to the limited seats (parimita... āspadaiḥ) for (his) I-ness --for his I-consciousness-- (ahantā), man (janaḥ) does not (na) perceives (cinute) the Absolutely Free Consciousness (caitanyam) of the Very Glorious Lord (sumahat-māheśvaram) as of his own (nijam... svam). However (tu), he (saḥ) is said (kathitaḥ) (to be) Śiva Himself (ekaḥ śivaḥ) in person (sākṣāt) who (yaḥ) —by means of the (imparted) teaching (upadeśatas)— beholds (paśyet) the universe (viśvam), in the middle (madhye) of the ocean (abdhi) of the Nectar (sudhā) of Consciousness (bodha), as (upamam) a mass (piṇḍa) of its --of that ocean-- (tad) foam (phena) everywhere (abhitas)3 "||4||
"Cross (tarata) quickly (tarasā) the ocean (abdhim) of Saṁsāra --Transmigration full of misery-- (saṁsāra) (and) establish yourselves (vidhatta) firmly (padam avicalam) in the Highest State (pare pade) which is completely full (sunirbhare) of eternal (nitya) Light (āloka) (and) Joy (pramoda)! Reflect (vimṛśata) on the Sūtra --the aphorisms-- (sūtram) enunciated (proktam) by Śiva (śiva), (which looks) radiant (samujjvalam) (because of) the secret doctrine (contained in It --in the Sūtra--) (rahasyam)! That (Sūtra) (tad) causes (dāyi) a jump (of Bliss) (samutplava) (and) shines (vilasat) vigorously (prasabha) inside (antar) (when taught) by a sage (sat-yuktyā)"||5||
Here ends (iti) the third (tṛtīyaḥ) Section (unmeṣaḥ) called (nāma) Āṇavopāyaprakāśana --(the Section) revealing the means that pertains to an aṇu or limited being-- (āṇava-upāya-prakāśanam), in Śivasūtravimarśinī (śivasūtravimarśinyām) written (viracitāyām) by venerable (śrī) Kṣemarāja (kṣemarāja) dependant (upajīvi) on the lotus feet --i.e. feet beautiful like a lotus-- (pāda-padma) of the eminent (śrīmat) Abhinavagupta (abhinavagupta), the best (varya) of the spiritual preceptors (ācārya) (and) a great (mahā) devotee of Maheśvara, the Great Lord --epithet of Śiva-- (māheśvara)||3||
This (iyam) Śivasūtravimarśinī (śivasūtra-vimarśinī) is finished (samāptā)||
Let the work of venerable Kṣemarāja be (kṛtiḥ śrī-kṣemarājasya... astu) for the peace and security (kṣemāya) of the ones who ponder (deeply over the meaning of existence) (vimarśinām)! Śivasūtravimarśinī (śivasūtravimarśinī) (has been expounded) with the aim (arthā) of (arousing) bodha or awareness --understanding-- (bodha) of the (inherent) unity (aikya) between one's own (sva) Self (ātma) (and) Śiva (śiva)||
1 In Sanskrit, the word "vṛtti" or "commentary" is feminine in gender as well as the title of this commentary on the Śivasūtra-s: "Śivasūtravimarśinī". The celebrated Spandakārikā-s were composed by Vasugupta (the sage whom Śiva revealed His Śivasūtra-s), according to Kṣemarāja, or by his main disciple, called Kallaṭa, according to other authors.
The Revealed Scriptures are the ancient Tantra-s (e.g. Svacchandatantra, Mālinīvijayatantra, etc.). The subject is long and complex (as always in this ocean of Sanskrit, lol!), but if you read the entire text of the present commentary, you surely saw a lot of quotes extracted from those very scriptures.
2 For the sake of clarification: "she removes fear of death, old age, birth, etc." means "she removes fear of death, fear of old age, fear of birth, etc." and NOT "she removes fear of death, she removes old age, she removes birth, etc.". It is a minor thing, but I thought it was important to clarify that point. While "order" in a sentence is crucial in English, it is not so important in Sanskrit. Concord in Sanskrit is mainly dependant on gender, number, person and tense (or mood). While these are OK, you can move the words freely "in general" (there are several exceptions, obviously).
The sage Kṣemarāja uses in this stanza the meter known as Śārdūlavikrīḍita (lit. tiger's play... ominous name, really!, hehe), which consists of 19 syllables per pāda (or quarter). In the above poetry, the fourth stanza looks like this:
Dehaprāṇasukhādibhiḥ parimitāhantāspadaiḥ saṁvṛtaścaitanyaṁ cinute nijaṁ na sumahanmāheśvaraṁ svaṁ janaḥ|
Madhye bodhasudhābdhi viśvamabhitastatphenapiṇḍopamaṁ yaḥ paśyedupadeśatastu kathitaḥ sākṣātsa ekaḥ śivaḥ||4||
But, for tracing the meter you need to divide it into four quarters with 19 syllables each, this way:
Dehaprāṇasukhādibhiḥ parimitāhantāspadaiḥ saṁvṛta-
ścaitanyaṁ cinute nijaṁ na sumahanmāheśvaraṁ svaṁ janaḥ|
Madhye bodhasudhābdhi viśvamabhitastatphenapiṇḍopamaṁ
yaḥ paśyedupadeśatastu kathitaḥ sākṣātsa ekaḥ śivaḥ||4||
Now it is ready for marking the syllables, but before a little Sanskrit prosody:
According to Sanskrit prosody, a stanza or padya consists of four pāda-s --also known as "pada-s"-- or quarters. Such a stanza may be either vṛtta (with meter regulated by the number and position of syllables --akṣara-- in each pāda or quarter) or jāti (with meter regulated by the number of syllabic instants --mātrā-- in each pāda or quarter). Forget about "jāti" here because the meter of the present stanza is of the class "vṛtta". This class contains three subclasses: (1) samavṛtta (the four quarters of a stanza are similar), (2) ardhasamavṛtta (the alternate quarters are similar) and (3) viṣama (the four quarters are dissimilar).
Well, the current stanza belongs to the subclass samavṛtta (all the quarters are similar). This subclass is composed of 26 varieties, from 1 syllable per quarter through 26 syllables per quarter. In turn, each variety is divided into subvarieties according to the position of short (lit. light) and long (lit. heavy) syllables, etc. Within the variety of 19 syllables per quarter, Kṣemarāja chose the subvariety known as Śārdūlavikrīḍita. There are other two more specimens called Meghavisphūrjitā (lit. the rumbling of cloud) and Sumadhurā (lit. very sweet), all of them within the variety of 19 syllables per quarter. Good!
Syllables are short or long because they contain short or long vowels. Short vowels are: a, i, u, ṛ, ḷ. Long vowels are long for two reasons: (1) They are naturally long (ā, ī, ū, ṝ, e, ai, o, au), (2) they are prosodically long because of their being followed by Anusvāra or Visarga, or by two or more consonants (e.g. aṁ, aḥ, antr). The last syllable of a quarter is "always" short or long according to the meter requirements, despite it is short or naturally/prosodically long, i.e. the authors are free to use any syllable (short or long) for the last one in a quarter and this will "always" meet the meter requirements. Remember this!
In turn, in order to make the things any simpler (no jokes), Sanskrit prosody takes each particular series of three syllables in a quarter and gives it a certain name. These groups of three syllables are known as "gaṇa-s" (do not mistake these for the well-known gaṇa-s or houses used for classifying verbs) and only exist in this manner in stanzas that are vṛtta (with meter regulated by the number and position of syllables --akṣara-- in each pāda or quarter) like the current one I am analyzing. Each gaṇa is formed from three syllables, but in this particular way:
Either the three syllables are long or the three syllables are short or a mixture (several combinations of short and long syllables). Look:
- ma: long-long-long
- na: short-short-short
- bha: long-short-short
- ya: short-long-long
- ja: short-long-short
- ra: long-short-long
- sa: short-short-long
- ta: long-long-short
The name "la" is used for designating a short syllable, and the name "ga" indicates a long syllable at the end of a quarter. OK, my God, yes, it was hard, but if I had not explained that to you, you would not understand what I am about to say afterward. One more thing, the subvariety called Śārdūlavikrīḍita (chosen by the sage to compose this stanza) follows this gaṇa pattern in each of its quarters:
ma, sa, ja, sa, ta, ta, ga — viz. long-long-long, short-short-long, short-long-short, short-short-long, long-long-short, long-long-short, long (in this case, the last syllable is long, but remember that the last syllable "always" meets the meter requirements whether it is short or long, i.e. the author is free to use a short or long syllable at the end of a quarter).
Let us mark the syllables in the original poetry to check if the stanza (as formulated originally) is following the gaṇa pattern as it should:
long-long-long, short-short-long, short-long-short, short-short-long, long-long-short, long-long-short, long
long-long-long, short-short-long, short-long-short, short-short-long, long-long-short, long-long-short, long
long-long-long, short-short-long, short-long-short, short-short-long, long-long-short, long-long-short, long
long-long-long, short-short-long, short-long-short, short-short-long, long-long-short, long-long-short, long
Excellent, Kṣemarāja! Evidently you know about Sanskrit prosody! (joking). Well, as you can see, the sage fully met the meter requirements. Anyway, when you analyze the stanza from a grammatical viewpoint, you notice something strange. Look at the first expression of the third quarter: "Madhye bodhasudhābdhi" (In the middle... the ocean of the Nectar of Consciousness?!). When you try to translate it you realize that "abdhi" (ocean) is NOT properly declined either in Genitive case (abdheḥ) or in Locative case (abdhau) since "abdhi" is a masculine noun ending in "i" [See Declension (2)]. As you know that words associated with the indeclinable "madhye" (in the middle) must be declined in Genitive generally, and sometimes even in Locative, when they are not forming a compound, you wonder what happened there. Simple: If the sage had declined the word properly in Genitive or Locative (abdheḥ would changed to abdher by the 7th Rule of Visarga Sandhi, and abdhau would remain the same), the phrase would look: "Madhye bodhasudhābdher" or "Madhye bodhasudhābdhau", and now you could translate it without any problem as "In the middle of the ocean of the Nectar of Consciousness". And the pāda or quarter would look like this:
That was good from a grammatical viewpoint, but what about its meeting the meter requirements? Let us see:
long-long-long, short-short-long, long-long-short, short-short-long, long-long-short, long-long-short, long
long-long-long, short-short-long, long-long-short, short-short-long, long-long-short, long-long-short, long
Oh no, it should be a "short" syllable! That did not meet the meter requirements (neither "abdher" nor "abdhau" did so!). That is why Kṣemarāja opted to leave the word "abdhi" as such, in a crude form (in a uninflected state or prātipadika), in the way the word "abdhi" occurs in the dictionaries. By doing so, he makes very clear that it is not a grammatical error but a poetic license he implemented in order to fully meet the requirements of the Śārdūlavikrīḍita meter.
This document was conceived by Gabriel Pradīpaka, one of the two founders of this site, and spiritual guru conversant with Sanskrit language and Trika philosophy.
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