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Śivasūtravimarśinī (Shiva Sutra Vimarshini) Section III (aphorisms 12 to 22) - Non-dual Shaivism of Kashmir
Śivasūtravimarśinī continues: Kṣemarāja keeps commenting the aphorisms.
This is the second set of 11 aphorisms out of 45 aphorisms of which the third Section (dealing with Āṇavopāya) consists. As you know, the entire work is composed of 77 aphorisms of the Śivasūtra-s plus their respective commentaries.
Of course, I will also insert the Śiva's aphorisms on which Kṣemarāja is commenting. Even though I will not comment on either the original sūtra-s or the Kṣemarāja's commentary, I will write some notes to make a particular point clear when necessary. If you want a detailed explanation of the hidden meanings in this scripture, go to "Scriptures (study)/Śivasūtravimarśinī" in the Trika section.
Kṣemarāja's Sanskrit will be in dark green color while the original Śiva's aphorisms will be shown in dark red color. In turn, within the transliteration, the original aphorisms will be in brown color, while the Kṣemarāja's comments will be shown in black. Also, within the translation, the original aphorisms by Śiva, i.e. the Śivasūtra-s, will be in green and black colors, while the commentary by Kṣemarāja will contain words in both black and red colors.
Read Śivasūtravimarśinī and experience Supreme Delight, dear Śiva.
Important: All that is in brackets and italicized within the translation has been added by me in order to complete the sense of a particular phrase or sentence. In turn, all that is between double hyphen (--...--) constitutes clarifying further information also added by me.
धीः तात्त्विकस्वरूपविमर्शनविशारदा (...विशादा) धिषणा तद्वशात्सत्त्वस्य स्फुरत्तात्मनः सूक्ष्मस्यान्तरपरिस्पन्दस्य सिद्धिरभिव्यक्तिर्भवति। नाट्ये च सात्त्विकाभिनयसिद्धिर्बुद्धिकौशलादेव लभ्यते॥१२॥
Dhīḥ tāttvikasvarūpavimarśanaviśāradā (...viśādā) dhiṣaṇā tadvaśātsattvasya sphurattātmanaḥ sūkṣmasyāntaraparispandasya siddhirabhivyaktirbhavati| Nāṭye ca sāttvikābhinayasiddhirbuddhikauśalādeva labhyate||12||
And (ca) of this (Yogī) (asya)—
By means of (vaśāt) the superior spiritual intelligence (dhī), (there is) the realization (siddhiḥ) of the flashing, subtle and inner vibration of the perfect I-consciousness (sattva)||12||
Dhī (dhī) (is) the intelligence (dhiṣaṇā) proficient (viśāradā) (or) skilled (viśādā) in the awareness (vimarśana) of the real (tāttvika) essential nature (sva-rūpa). By means of (vaśāt) that (superior spiritual intelligence) (tad), there is (bhavati) siddhi (siddhiḥ) (or) realization --i.e. manifestation, becoming evident-- (abhivyaktiḥ) of Sattva (sattvasya), viz. of the subtle (sūkṣmasya) (and) inner (āntara) vibration --parispanda-- (parispandasya) whose essence (ātmanaḥ) (is) Sphurattā --flashing perfect I-consciousness-- (sphurattā)|
In a dancing drama (nāṭye) also (ca), siddhi or perfection (siddhiḥ) in the acting out (abhinaya) of Sattva or internal feeling/sentiment (sāttvika) is achieved (labhyate) only (eva) through skillfulness (kauśalāt) of intelligence (buddhi)1 ||12||
1 First of all: Here the term "Sattva" has no relation at all to the celebrated Guṇa or quality of Prakṛti (See Trika 5). Now, the sage postulated an analogy regarding a nāṭya or dancing drama: While in Yoga there is siddhi or realization of Sattva (the flashing, subtle and inner vibration of the perfect I-consciousness) by means of dhī (the superior spiritual intelligence), in a dancing drama there is siddhi or perfection in the acting out of Sattva (internal feeling or sentiment) through the skillfulness of intelligence (buddhi), i.e. through talent. The term "buddhi" is here synonymous with "धी" - "dhī", but in the usual meaning of the latter, viz. intelligence. Now it is clear.
एवं स्फुरत्तात्मकसत्त्वासादनादेवास्य योगिनः—
सिद्धः सम्पन्नः स्वतन्त्रभावः सहजज्ञत्वकर्तृत्वात्मकमशेषविश्ववशीकारि स्वातन्त्र्यम्। यदुक्तं श्रीश्रीनाथपादैः
श्रयेत्स्वातन्त्र्यशक्तिं स्वां सा श्रीकाली परा कला।
सर्वतत्त्वानि भूतानि वर्णा मन्त्राश्च ये स्मृताः।
नित्यं तस्य वशास्ते वै शिवभावनयानया॥
Evaṁ sphurattātmakasattvāsādanādevāsya yoginaḥ—
Siddhaḥ sampannaḥ svatantrabhāvaḥ sahajajñatvakartṛtvātmakamaśeṣaviśvavaśīkāri svātantryam| Yaduktaṁ śrīśrīnāthapādaiḥ
Śrayetsvātantryaśaktiṁ svāṁ sā śrīkālī parā kalā|
Sarvatattvāni bhūtāni varṇā mantrāśca ye smṛtāḥ|
Nityaṁ tasya vaśāste vai śivabhāvanayānayā||
In this way (evam), by attaining (āsādanāt eva) Sattva (sattva) which consists of (ātmaka) Sphurattā --flashing perfect I-consciousness-- (sphurattā), (in the case) of this (asya) Yogī (yoginaḥ)—
The state (bhāvaḥ) of being Independent and Free (svatantra) (is) achieved (siddhaḥ)||13||
Siddha (siddhaḥ) (means) "accomplished, achieved" (and so on) (sampannaḥ), (while) svatantrabhāva (svatantra-bhāvaḥ) (means) Freedom (svātantryam) which brings the entire universe into subjection (aśeṣa-viśva-vaśīkāri) (and) whose nature (ātmakam) is Natural (sahaja) Knowledge (jñatva) (and) Activity (kartṛtva)|
That (yad) (has been) said (uktam) by most venerable Nāthapāda (śrīśrī-nāthapādaiḥ):
"One should resort (śrayet) to his own (svām) Power (śaktim) of Absolute Freedom (svātantrya). She --such a Power-- (sā) (is) venerable Kālī (śrī-kālī), the Highest (parā) Kalā --i.e. Śakti or Power-- (kalā... iti)1 "|
In venerable Svacchandatantra (śrīsvacchande) (it has) also (been declared) (api):
"All (sarva) the tattva-s or principles --viz. the 36 categories of the universal manifestation-- (tattvāni), the living beings (bhūtāni), the letters (varṇāḥ) and (ca) the mantra-s (mantrāḥ) that (ye) are known (smṛtāḥ); they (all) (te) are always subject (nityam... vaśāḥ) to him --i.e. to the Yogī-- (tasya) indeed (vai), by this contemplation (bhāvanayā anayā) on Śiva (śiva... iti)"|
(See VII, 245 in Svacchandatantra)
1 The term Kalā is another term that any translator would always prefer to leave untranslated. Why? Because the amount of possible "lengthy" meanings is too varied (Check Gutturals in the Trika glossary to get a glimpse of it). Besides, there is a series of additional meanings derived from roots. But for now, the translation "Śakti or Power" is more than enough. The term Parā means "Highest" here, but there is another possible translation derived from a root too. Oh God, be merciful to us mere mortals! Good, keep reading.
यथा तत्र तथान्यत्र॥१४॥
यत्र देहे योगिनः स्वाभिव्यक्तिर्जाता तत्र यथा तथान्यत्र सर्वत्र सदावहितस्य सा भवति। यथोक्तं श्रीस्वच्छन्दे
स्वच्छन्दश्चैव स्वच्छन्दः स्वच्छन्दो विचरेत्सदा।
लभते तत्प्रयत्नेन परीक्ष्यं तत्त्वमादरात्।
यतः स्वतन्त्रता तस्य सर्वत्रेयमकृत्रिमा॥
Yathā tatra tathānyatra||14||
Yatra dehe yoginaḥ svābhivyaktirjātā tatra yathā tathānyatra sarvatra sadāvahitasya sā bhavati| Yathoktaṁ śrīsvacchande
Svacchandaścaiva svacchandaḥ svacchando vicaretsadā|
Labhate tatprayatnena parīkṣyaṁ tattvamādarāt|
Yataḥ svatantratā tasya sarvatreyamakṛtrimā||
His (asya) state (eṣaḥ... bhāvaḥ) of being Independent and Free (svatantra)1 —
As (yathā) there (tatra), so (tathā) elsewhere (anyatra), (that is, "just as that independent Yogī can exhibit Freedom in his own body, he is able to do so in any other place too"; this is the sense)||14||
Just as (yathā) his own (sva) (power of) manifestation (abhivyaktiḥ) appears (jātā) there (tatra) —in that body (yatra dehe) of the Yogī (vāhinīnām)—, so (tathā) that (power of manifestation) (apāna) of the ever attentive (Yogī) (sadā-avahitasya) takes place (bhavati) elsewhere (anyatra) (too), i.e. everywhere (sarvatra)|
As (yathā) (has been) said (uktam) in venerable Svacchandatantra (śrī-svacchande):
"(The lord of the Yogī-s) rambles about (vicaret) always (sadā) free (svacchandaḥ ca eva svacchandaḥ svacchandaḥ), (whether in the beginning, in the middle or at the end)2 "||
(See VII, 260 in Svacchandatantra)
In Spandakārikā-s (spande) (has) also (been stated) (api):
"That (tad) principle (of Spanda) (tattvam) should be inspected (parīkṣyam) with care (prayatnena) (and) respect (ādarāt), [by which this group of organs or instruments --intellect, ego, mind, powers of perception and powers of action--, (though) insentient, (proceeds) as (if it were) sentient by itself, (and) together with the inner group (of Karaṇeśvarī-s or goddesses of the senses)] enters (labhate) [into the states of "Pravṛtti" --i.e. to go toward external things--, "Sthiti" --i.e. to maintain those very external things for a while-- (and) "Saṁhṛti" --i.e. to dissolve those things in one's own Self--], inasmuch as (yatas) this (iyam) natural (akṛtrimā) Freedom (svatantratā) of Its (tasya) (exists) everywhere (sarvatra... iti)3 "||
(See Spandakārikā-s I, 7)
1 Literally: This (eṣaḥ) state (bhāvaḥ) of being Independent and Free (svatantra) of his --belonging to him-- (asya). As it sounds weird, I opted to translate the phrase in a more legible way.
2 In order to understand why I translated in the manner I did, I am quoting now the Kṣemarāja's commentary in his Svacchandoddyota: "नित्यमादिमध्यान्तकोटिष्वयं श्रीस्वच्छन्दभैरव एव स्फुरन् स्थितः - इति यावत्॥" - "Nityamādimadhyāntakoṭiṣvayaṁ śrīsvacchandabhairava eva sphuran sthitaḥ - iti yāvat||" - "This Holy Free Bhairava --the Supreme Being-- continues to shine forth or become displayed constantly, i.e. in the beginning, in the middle and at the end. Such is the explanation".
In other words, the Supreme Being (Bhairava) continues to become manifest in the lord of the Yogī-s, whether in the beginning, middle or at the end of everything (past, present and future). In short, such a great Yogī wanders around constantly in a state of Freedom.
3 As the stanza I, 7 is extremely linked to the previous one (I, 6), I had to include the latter in brackets. Check those stanzas (I, 6-7) in Spandakārikā-s to fully understand what I am saying.
न चैवमप्युदासीनेनानेन भाव्यमपि तु—
कर्तव्यमिति शेषः। बीजं विश्वकारणं स्फुरत्तात्मा परा शक्तिः। यदुक्तं श्रीमृत्युजिद्भट्टारके
सा योनिः सर्वदेवानां शक्तीनां चाप्यनेकधा।
अग्नीषोमात्मिका योनिस्तस्याः सर्वं प्रवर्तते॥
इत्यादि। तत्र परशक्त्यात्मनि बीज अवधानं भूयो भूयश्चित्तनिवेशनं कार्यम्॥१५॥
Na caivamapyudāsīnenānena bhāvyamapi tu—
Kartavyamiti śeṣaḥ| Bījaṁ viśvakāraṇaṁ sphurattātmā parā śaktiḥ| Yaduktaṁ śrīmṛtyujidbhaṭṭārake
Sā yoniḥ sarvadevānāṁ śaktīnāṁ cāpyanekadhā|
Agnīṣomātmikā yonistasyāḥ sarvaṁ pravartate||
ityādi| Tatra paraśaktyātmani bīja avadhānaṁ bhūyo bhūyaścittaniveśanaṁ kāryam||15||
Even so --i.e. even after having obtained the aforesaid supernatural powers-- (evam api), this (Yogī) should not become indifferent (na ca eva... udāsīnena anena bhāvyam) but rather (api tu)—
(That Yogī should give full) attention (avadhānam) to the Seed, (in other words, "to the Highest Śakti or the perfect I-consciousness that is the source of the entire manifestation") (bīja)||15||
"Should be given or paid" (kartavyam), this is to be supplied (to the aphorism to complete the sense) (iti śeṣaḥ) --in other words, "attention should be given or paid to the Seed"--|
The Seed (bījam) (is) the Highest (parā) Śakti or Power (śaktiḥ) who is the cause (kāraṇam) of the universe (viśva) (and) whose nature (ātmā) (consists of) Sphurattā --flashing perfect I-consciousness-- (sphurattā)|
That (yad) is declared (uktam) in most venerable Mṛtyujit --i.e. Netratantra-- (śrī-mṛtyujit-bhaṭṭārake):
"She --the Highest Śakti-- (sā) (is), in various ways (anekadhā), the Source (yoniḥ) of all the gods (sarva-devānām) and (ca) also (api) of the śakti-s or powers (śaktīnām). (This) Source (yoniḥ) has fire and moon for Its nature (agnī-soma-ātmikā)1 . Everything (sarvam) originates (pravartate) from It --from such a Source-- (tasyāḥ), etc. (iti ādi)"||
(See VII, 40 in Netratantra)
Attention (avadhānam) (should be given or paid) to that (tatra) Seed (bīje) whose essence (ātmani) (is) the Highest (parā) Śakti or Power (śakti), i.e. mental concentration (citta-niveśanam) (on that Seed) is to be performed (kāryam) over and over again (bhūyas bhūyas)||15||
1 Fire and moon mean different things according to the contexts: e.g. knowledge and activity, etc.
एवं हि सत्यसौ योगी—
आसनस्थः सुखं ह्रदे निमज्जति॥१६॥
आस्यते नित्यमैकात्म्येन स्थीयत अस्मिनित्यासनं परं शाक्तं बलं यस्तत्र तिष्ठति परिहृतपरापरध्यानधारणादिसर्वक्रियाप्रयासो नित्यमन्तर्मुखतया तदेव परामृशति यः स सुखमनायासतया ह्रदे विश्वप्रवाहप्रसरहेतौ स्वच्छोच्छलत्तादियोगिनि परामृतसमुद्रे निमज्जति देहादिसङ्कोचसंस्कारब्रोडनेन तन्मयीभवति। यदुक्तं श्रीमृत्युजिद्भट्टारक एव
नोर्ध्वे ध्यानं प्रयुञ्जीत नाधस्तान्न च मध्यतः।
नाग्रतः पृष्ठतः किञ्चिन्न पार्श्वोरुभयोरपि॥
नान्तःशरीरसंस्थाने न बाह्ये भावयेत्क्वचित्।
नाकाशे बन्धयेल्लक्ष्यं नाधो दृष्टिं निवेशयेत्॥
न चाक्ष्णोर्मीलनं किञ्चिन्न किञ्चिद्दृष्टिबन्धनम्।
अवलम्बं निरालम्बं सालम्बं न च भावयेत्॥
नेन्द्रियाणि न भूतानि शब्दस्पर्शरसादि यत्।
सर्वं त्यक्त्वा समाधिस्थः केवलं तन्मयो भवेत्॥
सावस्था परमा प्रोक्ता परस्य परमात्मनः।
निराभासं पदं तत्तु तत्प्राप्य विनिवर्तते॥
Evaṁ hi satyasau yogī—
Āsanasthaḥ sukhaṁ hrade nimajjati||16||
Āsyate nityamaikātmyena sthīyata asminityāsanaṁ paraṁ śāktaṁ balaṁ yastatra tiṣṭhati parihṛtaparāparadhyānadhāraṇādisarvakriyāprayāso nityamantarmukhatayā tadeva parāmṛśati yaḥ sa sukhamanāyāsatayā hrade viśvapravāhaprasarahetau svacchocchalattādiyogini parāmṛtasamudre nimajjati dehādisaṅkocasaṁskārabroḍanena tanmayībhavati| Yaduktaṁ śrīmṛtyujidbhaṭṭāraka eva
Nordhve dhyānaṁ prayuñjīta nādhastānna ca madhyataḥ|
Nāgrataḥ pṛṣṭhataḥ kiñcinna pārśvorubhayorapi||
Nāntaḥśarīrasaṁsthāne na bāhye bhāvayetkvacit|
Nākāśe bandhayellakṣyaṁ nādho dṛṣṭiṁ niveśayet||
Na cākṣṇormīlanaṁ kiñcinna kiñciddṛṣṭibandhanam|
Avalambaṁ nirālambaṁ sālambaṁ na ca bhāvayet||
Nendriyāṇi na bhūtāni śabdasparśarasādi yat|
Sarvaṁ tyaktvā samādhisthaḥ kevalaṁ tanmayo bhavet||
Sāvasthā paramā proktā parasya paramātmanaḥ|
Nirābhāsaṁ padaṁ tattu tatprāpya vinivartate||
(This) being (sati) so (evam hi), that (asau) Yogī (yogī)—
Established (sthaḥ) in the power of the Supreme Śakti (or the perfect I-consciousness, which is as a "seat" for him) (āsana), (the enlightened Yogī) easily (sukham) plunges (nimajjati) into the Lake (of the divine and immortal Consciousness) (hrade)||16||
Āsana or seat is (iti āsanam) (this) on which he --the Yogī-- sits (āsyate), i.e. this upon which he stands (sthīyate asmin) constantly (nityam) with (a feeling of) unity or identity (aikātmyena). (Here, Āsana or seat means) the power (balam) of the Supreme Śakti (param śāktam). He (saḥ) who (yaḥ) stands (tiṣṭhati) there (tatra) (and) who (yaḥ) always (nityam) mentally seizes (parāmṛśati) that very (Reality) --viz. the power of the Supreme Śakti-- (tad eva), in an introspective manner (antar-mukhatayā), after abandoning (parihṛta) all (sarva) the efforts (prayāsaḥ) (involving) activity (kriyā) (such as) higher --i.e. pertaining to Śāktopāya-- (para) (and) lower --i.e. pertaining to Āṇavopāya-- (apara) meditation (dhyāna), concentration (dhāraṇā), etc. (ādi), easily (sukham) —without making any effort (anāyāsatayā)— plunges (nimajjati) into the Lake (hrade) —becomes (bhavati) identical (mayī) with that (Lake) (tad) by sinking (broḍanena) the residual impressions (saṁskāra) of the contraction (saṅkoca) (in the form of) body (deha), etc. (ādi)—. (In other words, he plunges) into the supreme ocean of immortality (para-amṛta-samudre) possessed of (the characteristic) (yogini) of being transparent (svaccha), springing up (ucchalattā), etc. (ādi) (and) which is the cause (hetau) of the expansion (prasara) of the continuous universal flow (viśva-pravāha)|
That (yad) (has been) said (uktam) in most venerable Mṛtyujit --Netratantra-- (śrī-mṛtyujit-bhaṭṭārake eva):
"Meditation (dhyānam) should be directed (prayuñjīta) neither (na) upward (ūrdhve) nor (na) downward (adhastāt), nor (na ca) toward the middle (madhyataḥ), nor (na) toward the front (agratas) (or) backward (pṛṣṭhatas), nor (na) even (api) toward something (kiñcid) (located) at both sides (pārśvoḥ ubhayoḥ)1 .
Neither (na) one should contemplate (bhāvayet) on something (kvacid) residing (saṁsthāne) within (antar) the body (śarīra) nor (na) on (something) outside (bāhye). Neither (na) one should fix (his) gaze (bandhayet lakṣyam) on the sky (ākāśe), nor (na) should one direct (niveśayet) (his) glance (dṛṣṭi) toward (something) down below (adhas)2 .
No (na kiñcid) closing (mīlanam) of (one's) eyes (cākṣṇoḥ) (and) no (na kiñcid) fixing (bandhanam) of (one's) glance (dṛṣṭi) (at all) --which involves keeping the eyes widely open without blinking--; neither (na ca) one should contemplate (bhāvayet) on something as a support (avalambam) (nor) on a negation of support (nirālamba) (nor) on a support again and again (sālambam)3 .
Neither (one should contemplate) (na) on the Indriya-s --Powers of perception and action, tattva-s 17 to 26-- (indriyāṇi), nor (na) on Mahābhūta-s --Gross elements, tattva-s 32 to 36-- (bhūtāni), (nor) on what (yad) (is composed of) Sound-as-such (śabda), Touch-as-such (sparśa), Flavor-as-such (rasa), etc. (ādi) --i.e. the five Tanmātra-s or Subtle elements, tattva-s 27 to 31--. After abandoning (tyaktvā) all (that) (sarvam), established (sthaḥ) in Samādhi (samādhi), one should only become (kevalam... bhavet) identified (mayaḥ) with That --i.e. the Highest Reality-- (tad)4 .
That (sā) (is) said to be (proktā) the supreme (paramā) State (avasthā) of the Highest One (parasya), viz. of the Supreme Being (parama-ātmanaḥ). That (tad) Condition (padam) (is) devoid of (external) appearances (nis-ābhāsam) --i.e. nothing appears or becomes manifest in that State--. Having attained (prāpya) It --in short, having achieved that State-- (tad), one ceases (to transmigrate) (vinivartate... iti)5 "||
(See VIII, 41-45 in Netratantra)
1 The sage Kṣemarāja comments on all these stanzas of Netratantra in detail in his Netroddyota (his scholarly commentary on Netratantra), but the topic is so lengthy and complex that I cannot display it "completely in Sanskrit" through mere notes of explanation here (e.g. to explain some of this series of five stanzas, he quotes several stanzas of Vijñānabhairavatantra, each of which would need a "special" explanation by me, apart from the translation). For a more detailed explanation of this kind of complex/long topics, consult always the section "Scriptures (study)/Śivasūtravimarśinī" in the Trika section. Anyway, on this first stanza (41), the sage clearly and briefly specifies the following: "ऊर्ध्वे द्वादशान्तेऽधः कन्दादौ मध्ये हृदादावग्रतः पृष्ठतः पार्श्वयोस्तत्पुरुषसद्योजातादिरूपम्।" - "Ūrdhve dvādaśānte'dhaḥ kandādau madhye hṛdādāvagrataḥ pṛṣṭhataḥ pārśvayostatpuruṣasadyojātādirūpam|" - "Upward —toward the (ūrdhva)dvādaśānta (or point at the end of 12 fingers from the space between the eyebrows up to Brahmarandhra on top of the head)—; downward —toward the Kanda --the egg-like source of all the channels in the subtle body--, etc.—; toward the middle —toward the heart, etc.—, toward the front, backward, toward (something situated) at both sides —toward that whose form is Tatpuruṣa, Sadyojāta, etc. --i.e. Tatpuruṣa, Sadyojāta, Vāmadeva and Aghora--—".
Read the Trika glossary for learning more about dvādaśānta and Kanda. There are the five aspects or heads of Śiva: (1) Tatpuruṣa (facing the east --toward the front--, and being symbolic of Śakti, the second tattva or category), (2) Sadyojāta (facing the west --backward--, and being symbolic of Sadāśiva, the third tattva or category), (3) Vāmadeva (facing the north --to the left--, and being symbolic of Īśvara, the fourth tattva or category), (4) Aghora (facing the south --to the right--, and being symbolic of Sadvidyā, the fifth tattva or category) —these first four aspects or heads were abovementioned by Kṣemarāja regarding meditation directed to the front, backward and toward something located at both sides (left and right)—, and finally (5) Īśāna (facing upward and being symbolic of Śiva, the first tattva or category). This subject-matter is much more complex and massive, obviously... I have hardly scratched its surface. Therefore, just trust me, please.
2 This is the stanza VIII, 42 in Netratantra. The great Kṣemarāja quotes the 28th stanza of Vijñānabhairavatantra to explain contemplation on something residing inside the body. This stanza specifies meditation on Kuṇḍalinī arising from Mūlādhāra (the cakra located at the root of the spinal column) and going up to Brahmarandhra on top of the head. Next, he quotes the stanza 122 of the same book in order to explain contemplation on something placed outside. This stanza deals with the achievement of vacuity from the concentration on a particular object. Finally, to explain concentration on the sky and on something down below, he quotes the stanzas 76 and 115 of Vijñānabhairavatantra, respectively. The former deals with mere fixing one's gaze on a portion of the sky, while the latter explains how to fix the eyes on the space inside a very deep well so one can attain dissolution of mind.
3 This is the stanza VIII, 43 in Netratantra. Kṣemarāja quotes the stanza 88 of Vijñānabhairavatantra to describe closing of the eyes. This stanza deals with the contemplation on the terrible form of Bhairava (Lord Śiva) by firstly closing the eyes and beholding the terrible darkness in front of oneself, etc. Afterward, the sage uses the stanza 60 of the same scripture to give an example of fixing of the glance. This stanza recommends casting one's gaze on a region in which there are no trees, on a mountain, on a wall, etc. in order to make his mental fluctuations cease to function.
Next, to explain the deep meaning of the word "avalamba" he says: "अवलम्ब्यत इति अवलम्बो ध्येय आकारस्" - "avalambyata iti avalambo dhyeya ākāras" - "Avalamba or support is a form (being used) as an object of meditation (for one's attention) to hold on to". The sage quotes the stanza 62 of Vijñānabhairavatantra to exemplify it. This stanza describe mental concentration on the gap between two bhāva-s or objects arising in one's own mind. When the first bhāva appears, one holds on to it and never lets the second one become displayed. In this sense, the first is called "positive" while the second one is named "negative". As one continues to fix his attention on the first bhāva firmly, he slips toward the gap between both bhāva-s (one arisen and the other never arisen... yes, it sounds crazy, but I am speaking the truth).
And the sage explains "nirālamba" by quoting the 61st stanza, which describes concentration on the gap between two bhāva-s or objects. Both bhāva-s are positive, i.e. they are allowed to arise, but at the same time they are "denied/rejected" in the sense that one's attention is on the gap between them both. Hence, it s known as nirālamba or negation of support or ālamba.
Lastly, Kṣemarāja explains "sālamba" in this way: "सहालम्बेन वर्तते सालम्बं साकारं ज्ञानम्" - "sahālambena vartate sālambaṁ sākāraṁ jñānam" - "sālamba (is) form-based knowledge or perception which (consequently) takes place by using something as a support". After that, he quotes the 98th stanza of Vijñānabhairavatantra, which describes concentration on a bhāva appearing as a desire or knowledge in one's mind. This bhāva is a positive one as it is allowed to arise. Next, if one fixes his attention on it by regarding it as his own Self shining forth in that way, he has a vision of that very Self. Anyway, the support or ālamba constantly is gone and one has to bring it back again and again in order to continue his concentration. Hence I translated in the way I did above, viz. "... on a support again and again". This is a difference between "avalamba" and "sālamba", i.e. while in the former one's concentration is firm on a bhāva or object arisen in the mind (by not allowing the second bhāva to arise ever), in the latter the bhāva is constantly lost and one has to recover it in order to go on. Of course, the sālamba method is the one that the vast majority of people use when sitting for meditation. Enough of this for now.
4 I need to translate the Kṣemarāja's commentary on the meaning of Samādhi in this context:
"... समाधिस्थ इत्यकिञ्चिच्चिन्तकत्वेन स्वस्वरूपविमर्शनप्रवणस्तन्मय इत्यानन्दपदसंलीनसमरसज्ञानमयः॥४४॥" - "... samādhistha ityakiñciccintakatvena svasvarūpavimarśanapravaṇastanmaya ityānandapadasaṁlīnasamarasajñānamayaḥ||44||" - "'... Established in Samādhi', i.e. devoted to the consciousness of his own essential nature (and consequently) identified with That by thinking of nothing. (In other words,) full of homogenous Knowledge which is closely connected with the state of Ānanda or (divine) Bliss||44||".
I had to made that very clear so the reader will not consider Samādhi here as defined by Patañjali in his Yogasūtra-s (See definition of Samādhi --Perfect Concentration-- in Yogasūtra-s III, 3).
5 Kṣemarāja comments briefly on VIII, 45 in his Netroddyota:
"सांसारिकीं स्थितिमुज्झति॥४५॥" - "Sāṁsārikīṁ sthitimujjhati||45||" - "One abandons the transmigratory state||45||".
तदेवं नाडीसंहाराद्याणवोपायक्रमासादितमोहजयोन्मज्जच्छुद्धविद्यात्मकशाक्तबलासादनप्रकर्षादात्मीकृतपरामृतह्रदात्मकशाम्भवपदो योगी—
स्वस्य चैतन्यस्य सम्बन्धिनी मात्रा चिद्रसाश्यानतात्मांशस्तद्रूपं यथेष्टवेद्यवेदकावभासात्मकं निर्माणमापादयति निर्मितत्वेन दर्शयति। यदुक्तं श्रीस्वच्छन्दे
तदेव भवति स्थूलं स्थूलोपाधिवशात्प्रिये।
स्थूलसूक्ष्मविभेदेन तदेकं संव्यवस्थितम्॥
आत्मानमत एवायं ज्ञेयीकुर्यात्पृथक्स्थिति।
ज्ञेयं न तु...॥
जलं हिमं च यो वेद गुरुवक्त्रागमात्प्रिये।
नास्त्येव तस्य कर्तव्यं तस्यापश्चिमजन्मता॥
इति वा यस्य संवित्तिः क्रीडात्वेनाखिलं जगत्।
स पश्यन्सततं युक्तो जीवन्मुक्तो न संशयः॥
इत्यनेन स्पन्दे प्रतिपादितम्॥१७॥
Tadevaṁ nāḍīsaṁhārādyāṇavopāyakramāsāditamohajayonmajjacchuddhavidyātmakaśāktabalāsādanaprakarṣādātmīkṛtaparāmṛtahradātmakaśāmbhavapado yogī—
Svasya caitanyasya sambandhinī mātrā cidrasāśyānatātmāṁśastadrūpaṁ yatheṣṭavedyavedakāvabhāsātmakaṁ nirmāṇamāpādayati nirmitatvena darśayati| Yaduktaṁ śrīsvacchande
Tadeva bhavati sthūlaṁ sthūlopādhivaśātpriye|
Sthūlasūkṣmavibhedena tadekaṁ saṁvyavasthitam||
Ātmānamata evāyaṁ jñeyīkuryātpṛthaksthiti|
Jñeyaṁ na tu...||
Jalaṁ himaṁ ca yo veda guruvaktrāgamātpriye|
Nāstyeva tasya kartavyaṁ tasyāpaścimajanmatā||
Iti vā yasya saṁvittiḥ krīḍātvenākhilaṁ jagat|
Sa paśyansatataṁ yukto jīvanmukto na saṁśayaḥ||
ityanena spande pratipāditam||17||
That (tad) (being) so (evam), through the pre-eminence and excellence (prakarṣāt) attained (āsādana) by the power (bala) of Śakti (śākta) consisting of (ātmaka) of Śuddhavidyā --Pure Knowledge1 -- (śuddha-vidyā) arising (unmajjat) from the conquest (jaya) of Moha or Delusion --Māyā-- (moha), which is achieved (āsādita) by a succession (krama) of āṇava --i.e. pertaining to Āṇavopāya-- (āṇava) methods (upāya) (such as) dissolution (of the vital energy) (saṁhāra) in the subtle channels (nāḍī), etc. (ādi) --See III, 5--, the Yogī (yogī) takes possession of the state (ātmī-kṛta... padaḥ) of Śiva (śāmbhava) that is (nothing but) (ātmaka) the Lake (hrada) of supreme (para) immortality (amṛta)—
(That very liberated Yogī can) produce (nirmāṇam āpādayati) (any forms according to) the measure or aspect of the creative Consciousness (which is his "āsana" or "seat" --see 16th aphorism--) (svamātrā)||17||
(The term svamātrā means) the measure (mātrā) related to (sambandhinī) his own (svasya) (creative) Consciousness (caitanyasya), (in short,) to the portion (aṁśaḥ) whose nature is (ātmā) a coagulation (āśyānatā) of the essence (rasa) of Consciousness (cit)2 . According to the measure of that (creative Consciousness) (tad-rūpam), (the liberated Yogī) effects (āpādayati) the production (nirmāṇam) consisting of (ātmakam) the manifestation (avabhāsa) of knowers --i.e. beings-- (vedaka) (and) knowables --i.e. objects-- (vedya) as (yathā) desired (by him) (iṣṭa). (In other words,) he shows (all those things) (darśayati) by manifesting (them) (nirmitatvena)|
That (yad) is stated (uktam) in venerable Svacchandatantra (śrī-svacchande):
"Oh dear one (priye)!, That (tad)3 alone (eva) exists (bhavati) as what is gross (sthūlam) due to (Its) desire (vaśāt) of appearing (upādhi) as what is gross (sthūla). That (tad) alone (ekam) appears as (saṁvyavasthitam) the varieties or divisions (vibhedena) of gross (sthūla) (and) subtle (sūkṣma... iti)"||
(See IV, 295 in Svacchandatantra)
In Īśvarapratyabhijñā (pratyabhijñāyām) (it has) also (been declared) (api):
"Because of this very (Vimarśaśakti --lit. the power of manifesting consciousness--) (atas eva), He (ayam) makes Himself as the jñeya or knowable --i.e. the object-- (ātmānam... jñeyī-kuryāt). The knowable (jñeyam) does not (na tu) have a separate existence (pṛthak-sthiti... iti). [If (He) were to depend --lit. being oriented toward-- on that (knowable), His Absolute Freedom would be broken]4 "|
(See I, 5, 15 in Īśvarapratyabhijñā)
In the Āgama --revealed scripture-- (āgame) also (api), (the following) has been said (uktam) with this very intention (anena eva āśayena):
"Oh dear one (priye)!, he who (yaḥ) knows (veda), through what comes from (āgamāt) the mouth (vaktra) of (his) spiritual preceptor (guru), that water (jalam) and (ca) ice (himam) (are the same thing, is fully liberated). For him (tasya) there is nothing to be done (na asti eva... kartavyam). The state of having a last birth (apaścima-janmatā) belongs to him (tasya) --i.e. he will not have any further birth, because, having attained the goal of existence, no more Saṁsāra or Transmigration is necessary for him--"||
This very (teaching) (etad) has been explained (pratipāditam) by this (aphorism) (anena) in Spandakārikā-s (spande):
"Or (iti vā) he (saḥ) who has that (yasya) knowledge or realization (saṁvittiḥ) (and) is constantly (satatam) united (with the Supreme Self) (yuktaḥ) views (paśyan) the whole (akhilam) world (jagat) as a (divine) play (krīḍātvena). He is liberated while living (jīvanmuktaḥ), there is no (na) doubt (saṁśayaḥ... iti) (about it)"||
(See Spandakārikā-s II, 5)
1 This is not the fifth tattva or category of the universal manifestation (also known as Sadvidyā) at all. Pure Knowledge in this context is nothing but an expansion of the limited knowledge. Read II, 10 of the present scripture to fully understand this.
2 Creation in Trika is not like the work of a craftsman, that is, like something created by someone who used external tools and finally produced something that is different from himself. NO. It is only Consciousness or Caitanya who becomes everything and everybody constantly, i.e. It coagulates, takes the form of those things and beings without resorting to anything else than Its own essence. Hence the term "manifestation" is more appropriate or proper than "creation" in a Trika context.
3 In his Svacchandoddyota, Kṣemarāja describes "That" as "महाप्रकाशात्मा श्रीस्वतन्त्रनाथः" - "Mahāprakāśātmā śrīsvatantranāthaḥ" - "The venerable free Lord whose nature is the Great Light". All in all, He is none other than Caitanya or Consciousness in absolute Freedom.
4 I had to translate the entire stanza in order to show the complete meaning. The remaining part, which was dropped and marked by suspension points, is: "तदौन्म्य्ख्यात्खण्ड्येतास्य स्वतन्त्रता॥१५॥" - "tadaunmykhyātkhaṇḍyetāsya svatantratā||15||". Its translation occurs in brackets in the text itself above. Additionally, I added the term "Vimarśaśakti" to my translation. Why? Because before the eminent sage Abhinavagupta (guru of Kṣemarāja) commented on this stanza (in fact, he commented on the stanzas 15 and 16 at the same time) in his Īśvarapratyabhijñāvimarśinī (the great scholarly commentary on Utpaladeva's Īśvarapratyabhijñā), he raised an objection in which occurs the term Vimarśaśakti. Then, the stanzas 15 and 16 dissipate that doubt being raised by him, of course. These authors (e.g. Abhinavagupta, Kṣemarāja, etc.) generally use the method of raising objections in order to make their commentaries more entertaining and didactic (didactic for Sanskrit scholars, obviously, lol!). OK, now everything is clear. Just trust me always, reader, because in general I am reading many "insanely long" scriptures simultaneously while I translate the present one. Sometimes I cannot explain everything in detail, you know, or this translation will become quite an encyclopedia.
न चैवं स्वशक्तिनिर्मितभूतभावशरीरवतोऽस्य जन्मादिबन्धः कश्चिदित्याह—
प्रोक्तायाः सहजविद्याया अविनाशे सततोन्मग्नतया स्फुरणे जन्मनोऽज्ञानसहकारिकर्महेतुकस्य दुःखमयस्य देहेन्द्रियादिसमुदायस्य नाशो विध्वंसः सम्पन्न एव। यदुक्तं श्रीकण्ठ्याम्
सप्रपञ्चं परित्यज्य हेयोपादेयलक्षणम्।
तृणादिकं तथा पर्णं पाषाणं सचराचरम्॥
सर्वं शिवमयं ध्यात्वा भूयो जन्म न प्राप्नुयात्॥
सुनिर्वाणं परं शुद्धं गुरुपारम्परागतम्।
तद्विदित्वा विमुच्येत गत्वा भूयो न जायते॥
तत्त्वत्रयविनिर्मुक्तं शाश्वतं त्वचलं ध्रुवम्।
दिव्येन योगमार्गेण दृष्ट्वा भूयो न जायते॥
Na caivaṁ svaśaktinirmitabhūtabhāvaśarīravato'sya janmādibandhaḥ kaścidityāha—
Proktāyāḥ sahajavidyāyā avināśe satatonmagnatayā sphuraṇe janmano'jñānasahakārikarmahetukasya duḥkhamayasya dehendriyādisamudāyasya nāśo vidhvaṁsaḥ sampanna eva| Yaduktaṁ śrīkaṇṭhyām
Saprapañcaṁ parityajya heyopādeyalakṣaṇam|
Tṛṇādikaṁ tathā parṇaṁ pāṣāṇaṁ sacarācaram||
Sarvaṁ śivamayaṁ dhyātvā bhūyo janma na prāpnuyāt||
Sunirvāṇaṁ paraṁ śuddhaṁ gurupāramparāgatam|
Tadviditvā vimucyeta gatvā bhūyo na jāyate||
Tattvatrayavinirmuktaṁ śāśvataṁ tvacalaṁ dhruvam|
Divyena yogamārgeṇa dṛṣṭvā bhūyo na jāyate||
In this way (evam), there is no (na ca... kaścid) bondage (bandhaḥ) (in the form) of birth (janma), etc. (ādi), for the one who has acquired a body (śarīravataḥ) created (nirmita) from his own (sva) Śakti or Power (śakti), which --i.e. the body-- consists of bhūta-s --viz. Mahābhūta-s or Gross elements (tattva-s 32 to 36)-- (bhūta) (and) bhāva-s --viz. Tanmātra-s or Subtle elements (tattva-s 27 to 31), emotions, etc.-- (bhāva). (The author of the Śivasūtra-s, i.e. Śiva,) said so (iti āha)—
As long as Sahajavidyā or Śuddhavidyā, (the Natural or Pure Knowledge) (vidyā), does not disappear (avināśe), (the possibility of another) birth (janma) (does) disappear (for that sublime Yogī) (vināśaḥ)||18||
As long as there is not disappearance (avināśe) of the aforesaid (proktāyāḥ) Natural Knowledge (sahajavidyāyāḥ), i.e. so long as it continues to be manifested (sphuraṇe) as a constant emergent reality (unmagnatayā), the disappearance (nāśaḥ) (or) cessation (vidhvaṁsaḥ) of (another) birth (janmanaḥ) consisting of the multitude (samudāyasya) of body (deha), senses (indriya), etc. (ādi), full (mayasya) of pain (duḥkha), (and) caused (hetukasya) by (one's own) actions (karma) with the cooperation (sahakāri) of Ignorance (or Māyā and her progeny) (ajñāna), is accomplished (sampannaḥ) indeed (eva)1 |
That (yad) is stated (uktam) in venerable Kaṇṭhī (śrī-kaṇṭhyām):
"Having left (parityajya) (the world) with (its) phenomena (sa-prapañcam) appearing as (lakṣaṇam) what is acceptable (upādeya) (or) rejectable (heya), and also (tathā) (as) a blade of grass (tṛṇa) and the like (ādikam), a leaf (parṇam), a stone (pāṣāṇam), along with (sa) the movable and immovable beings (cara-acaram), beginning with (ādi) Śiva --tattva or category 1-- (śiva) (and) ending (paryantam) in the earth --tattva or category 36-- (avani), accompanied by (upabṛṁhitam) the positive and negative entities (bhāva-abhāva); (and) after meditating (dhyātvā) on all (sarvam) as identical with (mayam) Śiva (śiva), one does not obtain (na prāpnuyāt) a birth (janma) again (bhūyas... iti)"||
(And) in venerable Svacchandatantra (śrī-svacchande):
"The excellent (su) emancipation (nirvāṇam) come from (āgatam) a tradition (pārampara) of spiritual preceptors (guru) (is) greatly (param) pure (śuddham). Having known that (emancipation) --i.e. having experienced it-- (tad-viditvā) one becomes liberated (while alive) (vimucyeta)2 , (and) after passing away (gatvā) he is not born (na jāyate) again (bhūyas... iti)3 "|
(See IV, 240-241 in Svacchandatantra)
(It has) also (been said) (api) in venerable Mṛtyujit --Netratantra-- (śrī-mṛtyujiti):
"After having seen (dṛṣṭvā), by the divine (divyena) path (mārgeṇa) of Yoga (yoga), what is free (vinirmuktam) of the three tattva-s or principles (tattva-traya), what is certainly eternal (śāśvatam tu), unchanging (acalam) (and) permanent (dhruvam), one is not born (na jāyate) again (bhūyas... iti)4 "||
(See VIII, 26-27 in Netratantra)
1 While Natural or Pure Knowledge continues to be manifested as a constant emergent reality, there will be cessation of another birth for such a great Yogī. Birth consists of multitude of things (e.g. body, senses, etc.), is full of pain and takes place by the law of Karma (i.e. it is produced by one's actions). It also receives the cooperation or assistance of Ignorance in the form of Māyīyamala (mayic impurity generating difference and separation) and Kārmamala (impurity generating confusion regarding the nature of the real Doer). See Trika 4 for more information about these two mala-s or impurities. Finally, as the bodies manifested by the liberated Yogī arise from his own Icchāśakti and not through the law of Karma, rebirth is not possible for this sublime Yogī at all, because all actions performed by those bodies are not karmic and therefore they will not bring about another birth for him.
2 The sage Kṣemarāja commented in his Svacchandoddyota: "विमुच्यत इति जीवन्नेव विमुक्तः स्यात्" - "vimucyata iti jīvanneva vimuktaḥ syāt" - "'vimucyate' (means) one is liberated while alive". Hence I added "while alive" to my translation despite "vimucyate" means "is/becomes liberated" plainly.
3 Kṣemarāja explains this last portion of the stanza in his commentary on Svacchandatantra: "गत्वेति देहान्ते तदैकात्म्यमेति॥" - "gatveti dehānte tadaikātmyameti||" - "'gatvā' (means) 'in the end of the body' --i.e. when death arrives--, (at that time,) one attains unity with That --with the Highest Reality, and consequently he is not born again--". According to Trika and most of philosophical systems in India, one takes birth as a human being only to achieve Emancipation. Every system, obviously, postulates Emancipation in a different way. In Trika, final Liberation is the same as attaining unity with the Highest Reality. This is why another birth is not necessary in the case of a liberated soul.
4 The sage Kṣemarāja comments in his Netroddyota several things on certain conflicting terms and expressions in this stanza of Netratantra: (1) "दृष्ट्वा साक्षात्कृत्य" - "dṛṣṭvā sākṣātkṛtya" - "After having seen, i.e. after having realized"; (2) "दिव्येन योगमार्गेण विकल्पहानोन्मिषदविकल्पविमर्शावष्टम्भोपायेन" - "divyena yogamārgeṇa vikalpahānonmiṣadavikalpavimarśāvaṣṭambhopāyena" - "by the divine path of Yoga, i.e. by the method or means based on avikalpavimarśa or 'consciousness devoid of thoughts' which shines forth with the cessation of the thoughts"; (3) "तत्त्वत्रयं नरशक्तिशिवाख्यम्।" - "Tattvatrayaṁ naraśaktiśivākhyam|" - "The three tattva-s or principles are known as nara (man), Śakti and Śiva", even the last two are manifestations of That (Paramaśiva) which is free from that triple division, in short, That is not even a Lord and His Power, let alone a man (a mysterious topic I cannot explain in depth here); (4) "अचलमपरिणामि" - "acalamapariṇāmi" - "acala, i.e. unchanging"; and finally (5) "ध्रुवं नित्यम्" - "dhruvaṁ nityam" - "dhruva, viz. permanent".
यदा तु शुद्धविद्यास्वरूपमस्य निमज्जति तदा—
कवर्गादिषु माहेश्वर्याद्याः पशुमातरः॥१९॥
अधिष्ठात्र्यो भवन्तीति शेषः।
या सा शक्तिर्जगद्धातुः कथिता समवायिनी।
इच्छात्वं तस्य सा देवि सिसृक्षोः प्रतिपद्यते।
सैकापि सत्यनेकत्वं यथा गच्छति तच्छृणु॥
एवमेतदिति ज्ञेयं नान्यथेति सुनिश्चितम्।
ज्ञापयन्ती जगत्यत्र ज्ञानशक्तिर्निगद्यते॥
एवम्भूतमिदं वस्तु भवत्विति यदा पुनः।
जाता तदैव तत्तद्वत्कुर्वत्यत्र क्रियोच्यते॥
एवं सैषा द्विरूपापि पुनर्भेदैरनन्तताम्।
तत्र तावत्समापन्नमातृभावा विभिद्यते।
द्विधा च नवधा चैव पञ्चाशद्धा च मालिनी॥
बीजयोन्यात्मकाद्भेदाद्द्विधा बीजं स्वरा मताः।
कादिभिश्च स्मृता योनिर्नवधा वर्गभेदतः॥
बीजमत्र शिवः शक्तिर्योनिरित्यभिधीयते।
वर्गाष्टकविभेदेन माहेश्वर्यादि चाष्टकम्॥
रुद्राणां वाचकत्वेन तत्सङ्ख्यानां निवेशिता॥
इति श्रीमालिनीविजयनिरूपितनीत्या पारमेश्वरी परावाक् प्रसरन्तीच्छाज्ञानक्रियारूपतां श्रित्वा बीजयोनिवर्गवर्ग्यादिरूपा शिवशक्तिमाहेश्वर्यादिवाचकादिक्षान्तरूपां मातृकात्मतां श्रित्वा सर्वप्रमातृष्वविकल्पकसविकल्पकतत्तत्संवेदनदशास्वन्तःपरामर्शात्मना स्थूलसूक्ष्मशब्दानुवेधनं विदधाना वर्गवर्ग्यादिदेवताधिष्ठानादिद्वारेण स्मयहर्षभयरागद्वेषादिप्रपञ्चं प्रपञ्चयन्त्यसङ्कुचितस्वतन्त्रचिद्घनस्वस्वरूपमावृण्वाना सङ्कुचितपरतन्त्रदेहादिमयत्वमापादयति। तदुक्तं श्रीतिमिरोद्घाटेऽपि
पीठेश्वर्यो महाघोरा मोहयन्त्यो मुहुर्मुहुः॥
इति पूर्वमपि संवादितम्। ज्ञानाधिष्ठानं मातृका (१-४) इति सामान्येनोक्तमिदं तु प्राप्ततत्त्वोऽपि प्रमाद्यन् माहेश्यादिभिः पशुजनाधिष्ठातृभूताभिरपि शब्दानुवेधद्वारेण मोह्यत इत्याशयेनेति विशेषः॥१९॥
Yadā tu śuddhavidyāsvarūpamasya nimajjati tadā—
Kavargādiṣu māheśvaryādyāḥ paśumātaraḥ||19||
Adhiṣṭhātryo bhavantīti śeṣaḥ|
Yā sā śaktirjagaddhātuḥ kathitā samavāyinī|
Icchātvaṁ tasya sā devi sisṛkṣoḥ pratipadyate|
Saikāpi satyanekatvaṁ yathā gacchati tacchṛṇu||
Evametaditi jñeyaṁ nānyatheti suniścitam|
Jñāpayantī jagatyatra jñānaśaktirnigadyate||
Evambhūtamidaṁ vastu bhavatviti yadā punaḥ|
Jātā tadaiva tattadvatkurvatyatra kriyocyate||
Evaṁ saiṣā dvirūpāpi punarbhedairanantatām|
Tatra tāvatsamāpannamātṛbhāvā vibhidyate|
Dvidhā ca navadhā caiva pañcāśaddhā ca mālinī||
Bījayonyātmakādbhedāddvidhā bījaṁ svarā matāḥ|
Kādibhiśca smṛtā yonirnavadhā vargabhedataḥ||
Bījamatra śivaḥ śaktiryonirityabhidhīyate|
Vargāṣṭakavibhedena māheśvaryādi cāṣṭakam||
Rudrāṇāṁ vācakatvena tatsaṅkhyānāṁ niveśitā||
iti śrīmālinīvijayanirūpitanītyā pārameśvarī parāvāk prasarantīcchājñānakriyārūpatāṁ śritvā bījayonivargavargyādirūpā śivaśaktimāheśvaryādivācakādikṣāntarūpāṁ mātṛkātmatāṁ śritvā sarvapramātṛṣvavikalpakasavikalpakatattatsaṁvedanadaśāsvantaḥparāmarśātmanā sthūlasūkṣmaśabdānuvedhanaṁ vidadhānā vargavargyādidevatādhiṣṭhānādidvāreṇa smayaharṣabhayarāgadveṣādiprapañcaṁ prapañcayantyasaṅkucitasvatantracidghanasvasvarūpamāvṛṇvānā saṅkucitaparatantradehādimayatvamāpādayati| Taduktaṁ śrītimirodghāṭe'pi
Pīṭheśvaryo mahāghorā mohayantyo muhurmuhuḥ||
iti pūrvamapi saṁvāditam| Jñānādhiṣṭhānaṁ mātṛkā (1-4) iti sāmānyenoktamidaṁ tu prāptatattvo'pi pramādyan māheśyādibhiḥ paśujanādhiṣṭhātṛbhūtābhirapi śabdānuvedhadvāreṇa mohyata ityāśayeneti viśeṣaḥ||19||
But (tu), when (yadā) the essential nature (sva-rūpam) of Śuddhavidyā or Pure Knowledge (śuddha-vidyā) belonging to this (Yogī) (asya) sinks down (nimajjati), then (tadā)—
Māheśvarī (māheśvarī) and other goddesses (ādyāḥ) (who have their sphere of influence) in "ka" (ka) group (varga), etc. (ādiṣu), (and are) the mothers (mātaraḥ) of the limited beings (paśu), (become his presiding deities)||19||
"(Those goddesses) become (bhavanti) (his --of such Yogī--) presiding deities (adhiṣṭhātryaḥ... iti)", this is to be supplied (to the aphorism to complete the sense) (iti śeṣaḥ)|
"It is said (kathitā) that that (yā sā) Śakti or Power (śaktiḥ) of the Creator (dhātuḥ) of the world (jagat) (is) inherent (samavāyinī) (in Him). Oh goddess (devi)!, She (sā) changes into (pratipadyate) the Will (icchātvam) of that (Creator) (tasya) (when) He is desirous to manifest (sisṛkṣoḥ) (the universe). Listen (tad śṛṇu) how (yathā) She (sā) becomes (gacchati) many (anekatvam) even though (api) She is (satī) one (ekā):
By announcing (jñāpayantī) with determination (suniścitam) that 'This (etad) knowable or object (jñeyam) (is) like this (evam... iti), (and) not (na) otherwise (anyathā... iti)!', She is called (nigadyate) Power of Knowledge (jñāna-śaktiḥ) in this world (jagati atra).
However (punar), when (yadā) She becomes manifest (jātā) (as) 'Let this thing become (idam vastu bhavatu) of such a nature (evam-bhūtam... iti)!', then (tadā eva), by making (kurvatī) that (thing) (tad) like that (tad-vat) here (atra), She is said to be (ucyate) (the Power of) Action (kriyā).
Thus (evam), though (api) that very (Śakti) (sā eṣā) has two (main) forms (dvi-rūpā), She undergoes (prāptā) endless (anantatām) changes (bhedaiḥ), according to (vaśāt) the characteristics (upādhi) of the (desired) objects (artha). (Consequently, this) Mistress (īśvarī) (is) like (iva) a thought-gem (cintā-maṇiḥ) --which yields its possessor all desires--.
Then (tatra), (when the Mistress) firstly assumes the condition (tāvat samāpanna... bhāvā) of mother (mātṛ), She is divided (vibhidyate) in two ways (dvidhā) and (ca... ca eva) in nine ways (navadhā), and (ca) (when such a Mistress is divided in) fifty ways (pañcāśaddhā) (She becomes) a wearer of a garland (mālinī) (made out of the fifty letters of the Sanskrit alphabet).
With the division consisting (ātmakāt bhedāt) of bīja (bīja) (and) yoni (yoni), She appears in two ways (dvidhā). The vowels (svarāḥ) are considered as (matāḥ) bīja or seed (bījam). With ka, etc. (ka-ādibhiḥ) She is said to be (smṛtā) yoni or womb (yoniḥ) --i.e. the consonants are regarded as yoni--. (Therefore,) according to the division (bhedatas) of the varga-s or groups of letters (varga), (She appears) in nine ways (navadhā)1 .
In this (context) (atra), bīja --vowel-- (bījam) (and) yoni --consonant-- (yoniḥ) are called (iti abhidhīyate) Śiva (śivaḥ) (and) Śakti (śaktiḥ). With the division (vibhedena) into eight (aṣṭaka) groups of letters (varga) (there is) a group of eight (deities) (aṣṭakam) (such as) Māheśvarī (māheśvarī), etc. (ādi) indeed (ca).
(And) according to the letter by letter division (prativarṇa-vibhedena), She shines (ujjvalā) as fifty ( śata-ardha) rays (kiraṇa) --viz. She appears as the fifty letters of the Sanskrit alphabet--. In her being the indicator (vācakatvena) of the Rudra-s (rudrāṇām), whose number amounts (saṅkhyānām) to that --i.e. to fifty-- (tad), She is established (in that very number) (niveśitā... iti)2 "||
(See Mālinīvijayatantra III, 5-13)
According to the precept(s) (nītyā) defined and ascertained (nirūpita) in venerable Mālinīvijayatantra (śrī-mālinīvijaya), the Highest Speech (parā-vāk) relating to the Supreme Lord (pārameśvarī) --i.e. His Śakti or Power-- expands (prasarantī) by resorting (śritvā) to what is formed (rūpatām) of Will (icchā), Knowledge (jñāna) (and) Action (kriyā). (Afterward, She continues to expand) by taking the form (rūpā) of vowels (bīja), consonants (yoni), groups of letters (varga), letters belonging to those groups (vargī), etc. (ādi) after assuming (śritvā) the nature (ātmatām) of Mātṛkā (mātṛkā) whose form (rūpām) begins with "a" (a-ādi) and ends in "kṣa" (kṣa-anta) --viz. the entire Sanskrit alphabet--, (all of which --i.e. all those fifty letters--) are indicators (vācaka) of Śiva (śiva), Śakti (śakti), Māheśvarī (māheśvarī), etc. (ādi)3 . In all the experients (sarva-pramātṛṣu)4 , when taking place various states (tad-tad-daśāsu) of knowledge (saṁvedana) with thoughts (savikalpaka) (and) without thoughts (avikalpaka), She performs (vidadhānā), through the inner awareness (antar-parāmarśa-ātmanā), the application --i.e. the penetration, since the words penetrate internally-- (anuvedhanam) of gross (sthūla) (and) subtle (sūkṣma) words (śabda). By means of (dvāreṇa) the regency or power (adhiṣṭhāna), etc. (ādi) of the deities (devatā) of the groups of letters (varga), of the letters belonging to such groups (vargī), etc. (ādi), She displays (prapañcayantī) the manifestation (prapañcam) of wonder (smaya), joy (harṣa), fear (bhaya), attachment (rāga), aversion (dveṣa) and so on (ādi). (And) by concealing (āvṛṇvānā) one's (sva) essential nature (sva-rūpam) which is a uncontracted --unconditioned-- (asaṅkucita) independent (svatantra) mass (ghana) of Consciousness (cit), She produces (āpādayati) identification (mayatvam) with a contracted --conditioned-- (saṅkucita) dependent (paratantra) body (deha), etc. (ādi)|
That (tad) has been said (uktam) in venerable Timirodghāṭa (śrī-timirodghāṭe) too (api):
"The Mahāghorā-s --lit. "very terrible"-- (mahāghorāḥ), (that is, the śakti-s or powers) who are (sthāḥ) in the middle (madhya) of Consciousness (citi) in Karandhra --i.e. in Brahmarandhra-- (ka-randhra), who hang (avalambikāḥ) by the Brahmā's noose (brahma-pāśa) (and) are the Mistresses (īśvaryaḥ) of the pīṭha-s or seats --the sense-organs-- (pīṭha), delude (mohayanti) over and over again (muhur... muhur... iti)5 "||
(What was quoted above) has been declared (saṁvāditam) previously (pūrvam) as well (api) --in I, 4--|
"The basis (adhiṣṭhānam) of the (limited and contracted) knowledge (jñāna) (is) the un-understood Mother (mātṛkā). (I, 4) (of the current scripture) (1-4 iti)". This (idam) was certainly expressed (uktam... tu) in a general manner (sāmānyena). (Here, in the present aphorism --III, 19--, Mātṛkā is dealt with more specifically), with the intention (āśayena) (of showing that) "(if) even (api) someone who has attained the (Supreme) Principle (prāpta-tattvaḥ) is careless and heedless (pramādyan) is also deluded (api... mohyate) by Māheśī --or Māheśvarī--, etc. (māheśī-ādibhiḥ), who are (bhūtābhiḥ) the presiding (deities) (adhiṣṭhātṛ) of the limited people (paśu-jana) by the application --penetration-- (anuvedha-dvāreṇa) of words (śabda... iti)". This is the difference (iti viśeṣaḥ) (between both analyses --the analysis expressed in I, 4 and the present one--)||19||
1 The Sanskrit alphabet in its traditional form contains 8 varga-s or groups of letters:
- A-varga (Vowels), whose presiding deity is Yogīśvarī (also called Mahālakṣmī)
- Ka-varga (Gutturals), whose presiding deity is Brāhmī
- Ca-varga (Palatals), whose presiding deity is Māheśvarī
- Ṭa-varga (Cerebrals), whose presiding deity is Kaumārī
- Ta-varga (Dentals), whose presiding deity is Vaiṣṇavī
- Pa-varga (Labials), whose presiding deity is Vārahī
- Ya-varga (Semivowels), whose presiding deity is Aindrī (also called Indrāṇī)
- Śa-varga (Sibilants, Sonant Aspirate + Kūṭabīja --the conjunct kṣa formed from "ka + sa" but very often considered to be a letter in itself--), whose presiding deity is Cāmuṇḍā
Now, the alphabet presented in its traditional form "does not" include Kūṭabīja (the letter kṣa), but when it does, Kūṭabīja is usually assigned to the eighth varga or group (Śa-varga). Well, the question of the million is: If there are 8 varga-s or groups, why did the Lord say this above?: "(Therefore,) according to the division of the varga-s or groups of letters, (She appears) in nine ways". Simple: Kūṭabīja sometimes is regarded as forming its own separate varga, i.e. a Kṣa-varga. In this special case, the total of varga-s would be 9 and not 8. Now, that portion of the text is clear, isn't it?
2 To fully understand this matter, both teacher and pupil should be very acquainted with the knowledge displayed in Mālinīvijayatantra. Anyway, here we go: Indicator means that She indicates or describes those fifty Rudra-s or deities assigned to each of the fifty letters of the Sanskrit alphabet. The Lord made Her so, i.e. fifty-fold, and this is why She is established in the number fifty. Apart from the Rudra-s there are fifty consorts for each of them, i.e. fifty Rudrāṇī-s. Oh, this subject-matter is so long and complex. Always consult "Scriptures (study)/Śivasūtravimarśinī" in the Trika section for more detailed information.
3 For more information about all this, read my explanation on the II, 7 of the present scripture: First Steps (4) and First Steps (5).
4 There are seven experients, or rather seven stages for one Experient:
(1) Śiva (his scope is the Śiva and Śakti tattva-s, the first two categories);
(2) Mantramaheśvara (his scope is the Sadāśiva-tattva, the third category);
(3) Mantreśvara (his scope is the Īśvara-tattva, the fourth category);
(4) Mantra (his scope is the Sadvidyā or Śuddhavidyā tattva, the fifth category);
(5) Vijñānākala (his scope lies between the Sadvidyā and Māyā tattva-s, i.e. between the fifth and sixth categories);
(6) Pralayākala (his scope is Māyā and her five Kañcuka-s, from the sixth through eleventh categories);
(7) Sakala (his scope comprehends from Puruṣa --the twelfth category-- down to the last one).
5 As this stanza was quoted before by Kṣemarāja in I, 4 of the present scripture I am translating, read the note 2 there in order to understand its meaning.
यत एवमतः शुद्धविद्यास्वरूपमुक्तयुक्तिभिरासादितमपि यथा न नश्यति तथा सर्वदशासु योगिना सावधानेन भवितव्यमित्याह—
त्रिषु चतुर्थं तैलवदासेच्यम्॥२०॥
त्रिषु जागरादिषु पदेषु चतुर्थं शुद्धविद्याप्रकाशरूपं तुर्यानन्दरसात्मकं धाम तैलवदिति यथा तैलं क्रमेणाधिकमधिकं प्रसरदाश्रयं व्याप्नोति तथासेच्यम्। त्रिष्वपि पदेषून्मेषोपशान्त्यात्मकाद्यन्तकोट्योः परिस्फुरता तुर्यरसेन मध्यदशामप्यवष्टम्भयुक्त्या व्याप्नुयाद्येन तन्मयीभावमाप्नुयात्। जाग्रत्स्वप्नसुषुप्तेषु तुर्याभोगसम्भवः (१-७) इत्यनेनोद्यमशक्तिचक्रानुसन्ध्यवष्टम्भभाजः स्वरसप्रसरज्जागरादिपदेषु सत्तामात्रं तुर्यस्योक्तम्। त्रितयभोक्ता वीरेशः (१-११) इति शाम्भवोपायानुगुणहठपाकयुक्त्या जागरादिसंहारो दर्शितः। अनेन तु सूत्रेणाणवोचितावष्टम्भयुक्त्या दलकल्पं जागरादित्रयं तुर्यरसासिक्तं कार्यमित्युक्तमिति विशेषः॥२०॥
Yata evamataḥ śuddhavidyāsvarūpamuktayuktibhirāsāditamapi yathā na naśyati tathā sarvadaśāsu yoginā sāvadhānena bhavitavyamityāha—
Triṣu caturthaṁ tailavadāsecyam||20||
Triṣu jāgarādiṣu padeṣu caturthaṁ śuddhavidyāprakāśarūpaṁ turyānandarasātmakaṁ dhāma tailavaditi yathā tailaṁ krameṇādhikamadhikaṁ prasaradāśrayaṁ vyāpnoti tathāsecyam| Triṣvapi padeṣūnmeṣopaśāntyātmakādyantakoṭyoḥ parisphuratā turyarasena madhyadaśāmapyavaṣṭambhayuktyā vyāpnuyādyena tanmayībhāvamāpnuyāt| Jāgratsvapnasuṣupteṣu turyābhogasambhavaḥ (1-7) ityanenodyamaśakticakrānusandhyavaṣṭambhabhājaḥ svarasaprasarajjāgarādipadeṣu sattāmātraṁ turyasyoktam| Tritayabhoktā vīreśaḥ (1-11) iti śāmbhavopāyānuguṇahaṭhapākayuktyā jāgarādisaṁhāro darśitaḥ| Anena tu sūtreṇāṇavocitāvaṣṭambhayuktyā dalakalpaṁ jāgarāditrayaṁ turyarasāsiktaṁ kāryamityuktamiti viśeṣaḥ||20||
Because (yatas) (it is) in this way (evam) --viz. because even someone who has attained the Supreme Principle can still be deluded by such deities--, therefore (atas) the Yogī should so be attentive and careful (tathā... yoginā sāvadhānena bhavitavyam) under all circumstances (sarva-daśāsu) so that (yathā) the essential nature (sva-rūpam) of Pure Knowledge (śuddha-vidyā) acquired (by him) (āsāditam api) does not disappear (na naśyati). (Śiva, the author of the Śivasūtra-s,) said so (iti āha)—
The fourth state of consciousness, (which is a Witness) (caturtham), should be poured (āsecyam) like (vat) (a continuous flow of) oil (taila) into (the other) three (triṣu), (that is, in waking, dreaming and deep sleep)||20||
(The term) triṣu (triṣu) (means) into the (other three) states (padeṣu) of waking, etc. (jāgarā-ādiṣu). (The word) caturtha --lit. fourth-- (caturtham) (means) the condition (dhāma) consisting in (ātmakam) the elixir (rasa) of the Turya's bliss --i.e. the bliss of the fourth state of consciousness-- (turya-ānanda), whose nature (rūpam) is the Light (prakāśa) of Pure Knowledge (śuddha-vidyā). (The expression) "tailavat" (taila-vat iti) (means that) just as (yathā) (a continuous flow of) oil (tailam), by gradually spreading (krameṇa... prasarat) more and more (adhikam adhikam), permeates (vyāpnoti) a recipient (āśrayam), so (tathā) should (the fourth state of consciousness) be poured (āsecyam) (into waking, dreaming and deep sleep)|
By the device (yuktyā) of firm grip --viz. firm attention to the Self, who is a Witness-- (avaṣṭambha), (the Yogī) should also permeate (api... vyāpnuyāt) the intervening (madhya) state (daśām) with the elixir (rasena) of Turya --the Fourth State-- (uktam) which bursts forth (parisphuratā) at the initial and the final points (ādi-anta-koṭyoḥ) —where there is cessation (upaśānti-ātmaka) of unmeṣa --i.e. of the display of the universal manifestation-- (unmeṣa)— during the three (triṣu api) states (of wakefulness, dreaming and deep sleep) (padeṣu). By means of that --i.e. by doing so-- (yena), (the group of three ordinary states of consciousness) attains (āpnuyāt) the condition (bhāvam) of identification (mayī) with It --with Turya or the Fourth State-- (tad)1 |
"(Even) during such different (states of consciousness) (bhede) as waking (jāgrat), dreaming (svapna) and profound sleep (suṣupta), there is (sambhavaḥ) the delight and enjoyment (ābhoga) of the Fourth State (turya). (I, 7) (of the present scripture) (1-7 iti)". By this (aphorism) (anena), only (mātra) the existence (sattā) of Turya (turyasya) was declared (uktam), which spreads (prasarat) its own (sva) elixir (rasa) in the states (padeṣu) of wakefulness (jāgarā), etc. (ādi) (in the case) of one who is devoted to (bhājaḥ) the firm grip (avaṣṭambha) of the continuous awareness (anusandhi) of the group (cakra) of powers (śakti) (or simply in one in whom there is) udyama or spontaneous emergence (of that Fourth State) (udyama)|
"He is a master (īśaḥ) of (his) senses (vīra) who is an enjoyer (of the aforesaid "ābhoga" or divine delight) (bhoktā) in the triad (of waking, dreaming and deep sleep) (tritaya). (I, 11) (of the current scripture) (1-11 iti)". (In this aphorism,) the dissolution (saṁhāraḥ) of wakefulness (jāgarā), etc. (ādi) was shown (darśitaḥ) by the device (yuktyā) of haṭhapāka --lit. assimilation by force and obstinacy-- (haṭha-pāka) in accordance with (anuguṇa) Śāmbhavopāya --the means or method pertaining to Śiva-- (śāmbhava-upāya)2 . However (tu), by this (anena) aphorism --i.e. the present one-- (sūtreṇa) it is said that (iti uktam) the triad (trayam) of wakefulness (jāgarā), etc. (ādi), like (kalpam) the sheath of a sword (dala)3 , should be impregnated (āsiktam kāryam) with the elixir (rasa) of the Fourth State (turya) by the device (yuktyā) of (abovementioned) firm grip (avaṣṭambha), which is proper to (ucita) Āṇavopāya --the means or method pertaining to an aṇu or limited individual-- (āṇava). This is the difference (iti viśeṣaḥ) (between these aphorisms, viz. between I, 7, I, 11 and the current one --III, 20--)||20||
1 To fully understand what the sage expressed in this paragraph, you need to be a Yogī very familiar with these processes. Anyway, if you are not such a Yogī yet, you can try to understand it intellectually. Listen: Most of people only experience their own Self at the beginning and the end of each of the three ordinary states of consciousness (wakefulness, dreaming and deep sleep). Of course, at the initial stage of his practice, a person is... like the rest. So, his perception of the Self as a Witness occurs only at the initial and final points of those three aforesaid states. The state in which one's own Self resides is known as Turya or Fourth State as it is different from the other three. When an ordinary state of consciousness (whether it be waking, dreaming or deep sleep) begins or ends, at that point there is cessation of unmeṣa or the display of the universal manifestation. By unmeṣa is meant to say any manifestation in waking (e.g. a tree), dreaming (e.g. strange colors) and deep sleep (e.g. void). Unmeṣa is only present "in the middle" of the ordinary states of consciousness. At the beginning and the end of them unmeṣa is absent.
On the other hand, Turya or the Fourth State never departs from its own nature, i.e. it lasts forever. It is not like the other three states which are transient. Turya is evident for most people only when unmeṣa is not present, but when the latter appears those people are not conscious of their Self anymore. As the Yogī advances in his practice, one day Pure Knowledge (Śuddhavidyā) emerges and he fully realizes his own Self as a Witness of all experiences happening to him in waking, dreaming and deep sleep. This marks his achievement of Turya. From that stage on, he should make Turya permeate the other three states little by little, like a continuous flow of oil pervading a recipient. In the end, all these ordinary states of consciousness (wakefulness, dreaming and deep sleep) will become identical with Turya and "one State" will remain alone, i.e. the Yogī will be fully established in his Self constantly. As a matter of fact, only one State is here forever. The other three states are just the blissful play of Śakti. They arise when She conceals (apparently) Turya and exhibits unmeṣa or the display of the universal manifestation. Beyond my explanation, all this is a matter of personal experience. So, become quite a Yogī and experience your own immensity. OK, it is enough.
2 Since that aphorism (I, 11) occurs in the first Section dealing with Śāmbhavopāya, the dissolution of the ordinary states of consciousness (waking, dreaming and deep sleep) is shown by the device of haṭhapāka or assimilation of an experience by force and obstinacy "at one stroke" (figuratively speaking). This device is kramātikrama as it goes past krama or sequence, i.e. the Yogī achieves the Fourth State in one step. Of course, this requires an enormous spiritual power that is absent in the vast majority of the aspirants. Most of people will start their spiritual path from Āṇavopāya and in due course they will reach Śāktopāya and Śāmbhavopāya (this generally takes many years, decades or even the entire life). Very few will start from Śāktopāya and only the most worthy ones will begin their spiritual journey from Śāmbhavopāya. Obviously, the lesser worthy a pupil the greater the upāya (means or method) he wants to start with, lol! This is the common problem with people in general: they overestimate their own capacities to deal with spiritual matters. In a class of quantum physics most of them would surely remain completely silent, but in a Yoga class they are all the time opining about almost everything at hand. Why? Because of their own ignorance appearing in the form of arrogance. Since Yoga is such a complex/deep science, only Yoga experts and scholars can say something which is worth being heard really.
3 Here the term "dala" means "खड्गकोश" - "khaḍgakośa" or the sheath of a sword. Just like the sheath of a sword is different from the sword but it can hold it, so the three ordinary states of consciousness are different from Turya (the Fourth One) but they can hold It and be filled with It.
मग्नः स्वचित्तेन प्रविशेत्॥२१॥
प्राणादिस्थूलभावं तु त्यक्त्वा सूक्ष्ममथान्तरम्।
सूक्ष्मातीतं तु परमं स्पन्दनं लभ्यते यतः॥
इति श्रीमृत्युजिद्भट्टारकनिरूपितनीत्या प्राणायामध्यानधारणादिस्थूलोपायान्परित्यज्य स्वचित्तेनाविकल्पकरूपेणान्तर्मुखान्तरविमर्शचमत्कारात्मना संवेदनेन प्रविशेत्समाविशेत्। कीदृक्सन् मग्नः शरीरप्राणादिप्रमातृतां तत्रैव चिच्चमत्काररसे मज्जनेन प्रशमयन्। तदुक्तम् श्रीस्वच्छन्दे
व्यापारं मानसं त्यक्त्वा बोधरूपेण योजयेत्।
तदा शिवत्वमायाति पशुर्मुक्तो भवार्णवात्॥
मानसं चेतना शक्तिरात्मा चेति चतुष्टयम्।
यदा प्रिये परिक्षीणं तदा तद्भैरवं वपुः॥
इति। एतदेव ज्ञानगर्भे स्तोत्रे
विहाय सकलाः क्रिया जननि मानसीः सर्वतो विमुक्तकरणक्रियानुसृतिपारतन्त्र्योज्ज्वलम्।
स्थितैस्त्वदनुभावतः सपदि वेद्यते सा परा दशा नृभिरतन्द्रितासमसुखामृतस्यन्दिनी॥
Magnaḥ svacittena praviśet||21||
Prāṇādisthūlabhāvaṁ tu tyaktvā sūkṣmamathāntaram|
Sūkṣmātītaṁ tu paramaṁ spandanaṁ labhyate yataḥ||
iti śrīmṛtyujidbhaṭṭārakanirūpitanītyā prāṇāyāmadhyānadhāraṇādisthūlopāyānparityajya svacittenāvikalpakarūpeṇāntarmukhāntaravimarśacamatkārātmanā saṁvedanena praviśetsamāviśet| Kīdṛksan magnaḥ śarīraprāṇādipramātṛtāṁ tatraiva ciccamatkārarase majjanena praśamayan| Taduktam śrīsvacchande
Vyāpāraṁ mānasaṁ tyaktvā bodharūpeṇa yojayet|
Tadā śivatvamāyāti paśurmukto bhavārṇavāt||
Mānasaṁ cetanā śaktirātmā ceti catuṣṭayam|
Yadā priye parikṣīṇaṁ tadā tadbhairavaṁ vapuḥ||
iti| Etadeva jñānagarbhe stotre
Vihāya sakalāḥ kriyā janani mānasīḥ sarvato vimuktakaraṇakriyānusṛtipāratantryojjvalam|
Sthitaistvadanubhāvataḥ sapadi vedyate sā parā daśā nṛbhiratandritāsamasukhāmṛtasyandinī||
Regarding this --i.e. in respect to impregnating the three ordinary states with Turya-- (atra), (Śiva) said (āha) the means (upāyam)—
One should enter (that fourth state of consciousness --see aphorism 20--) (praviśet) by being immersed (into it) (magnaḥ) with one's own (sva) mind (cittena) (which must be devoid of any thought, obviously)||21||
(In Mṛtyujit —also known as Netratantra— it is declared,) beginning with (upakramya):
"By leaving (tu tyaktvā) the gross (sthūla) condition (bhāvam) of prāṇa (prāṇa), etc. (ādi), and then (atha) (by abandoning even) the inner (āntaram) subtle (sūkṣmam) (prāṇāyāma), the Supreme (paramam) Vibration (spandanam) who is beyond (ātītam tu) the subtle (prāṇāyāma) (sūkṣma) is obtained (labhyate) from that --from abandoning gross and subtle prāṇāyāma-s-- (yatas... iti)1 "||
(See VIII, 12 in Netratantra)
(and ending with:)
"... one enters (praviśet) (the Supreme State) with his own mind (sva-cetasā) as that --viz. as a knower-- (tad.. iti)2 "|
(See first portion of the stanza VIII, 14 in Netratantra)
By the precept(s) (nītyā) stated (nirūpita) in most venerable (śrī... bhaṭṭāraka) Mṛtyujit --Netratantra-- (mṛtyujit), after completely abandoning (parityajya) gross (sthūla) methods (upāyān) (such as) prāṇāyāma (prāṇāyāma), meditation (dhyāna), concentration (dhāraṇā), etc. (ādi), one should enter (praviśet) (or) penetrate (samāviśet) (into Turya or the Fourth State) with his own mind (svacittena), viz. with a awareness (saṁvedanena) devoid of thoughts (avikalpaka-rūpeṇa) and whose nature (ātmanā) is an introverted (antarmukha) camatkāra --bliss full of astonishment-- (bhūtebhyaḥ) of inner (āntara) consciousness (vimarśa) --i.e. of I-consciousness--|
In what way (kīdṛk san)? By being immersed (into it) (magnaḥ), (in other words,) by extinguishing (praśamayan) (the notion) that body (śarīra), vital energy (prāṇa), etc. (ādi) are the Pramātā or Experient --one's own Self as a Witness-- (pramātṛtām) by immersion (majjanena) in that itself (tatra eva), i.e. in the elixir (rase) of the bliss (camatkāra) of Consciousness (cit) --in short, "in Turya or the Fourth State"--|
That (tad) has been said (uktam) in venerable Svacchandatantra (śrī-svacchande):
"By abandoning (tyaktvā) (all) mental (mānasam) activity (vyāpāram) (the Yogī) should become united (yojayet) (with Śiva) with (the touch of) a awareness without any thoughts (bodharūpeṇa). Then (tadā), the limited individual (paśuḥ), being liberated (muktaḥ) from the ocean (arṇavāt) of transmigratory existence --i.e. misery-- (bhava), attains (āyāti) the state of Śiva (śivatvam... iti)3 "||
(See IV, 437 in Svacchandatantra)
(And) in most venerable Vijñānabhairava (śrī-vijñāna-bhaṭṭārake) (it has) also (been stated the following) (api):
"Oh dear one (priye)!, when (yadā) the group of four (catuṣṭayam) (composed of) 'mind full of ideas and desires (mānasam), ascertaining intellect (cetanā), vital energy (śaktiḥ) and (ca) limited experient (ātmā)' is completely dissolved (parikṣīṇam), then (tadā) that (aforesaid) (tad) vapus or essential nature (vapus) (known as) Bhairava --the Lord-- (bhairavam... iti) (arises)"||
This (etad) very (truth) (eva) (has been expressed) in the hymn Jñānagarbha (jñānagarbhe stotre) by this (stanza) (anena) which was composed (nibaddham) by the great spiritual preceptor (mahā-gurubhiḥ) --it refers to Pradyumnabhaṭṭa, one of the main disciples of Kallaṭa, the eminent disciple of Vasugupta himself--:
"Oh Mother (janani)!, after abandoning (vihāya) completely (sarvatas) all (sakalāḥ) mental (mānasīḥ) activities (kriyāḥ), (there does emerge) a splendid condition (ujjvalam) that is free (vimukta) from the dependence (pāratantrya) on going after (anusṛti) sense (karaṇa) activities (kriyā). That (sā) Supreme (parā) State (daśā) oozing with (syandinī) the nectar (amṛta) of a unparalleled (asama) happiness (sukha) which is without any stupefaction or bewilderment (atandrita) is realized (vedyate) immediately (sapadi), through Your Grace (tvat-anubhāvataḥ), by men (nṛbhiḥ) who are (in the aforesaid splendid condition) (sthitaiḥ... iti)"||
1 For you to understand why I translated the stanza in the way I did, I need to show you what Kṣemarāja comments on this stanza in his Netroddyota: "प्राणादौ प्राणापानसमानेषु यः स्थूलो रेचकपूरकादिर्भावः स्वभावस्तं त्यक्त्वा उज्झित्वा अथेति एतत्स्थूलप्राणायामानन्तरभावि सूक्ष्ममान्तरमिति मध्यपथेन रेचनाचमनादिरूपं च तं त्यक्त्वा यतो यस्मात्सूक्ष्ममप्यतीतं परममिति प्राणाद्यचित्स्फुरत्तात्म स्पन्दनं लभ्यते..." - "Prāṇādau prāṇāpānasamāneṣu yaḥ sthūlo recakapūrakādirbhāvaḥ svabhāvastaṁ tyaktvā ujjhitvā atheti etatsthūlaprāṇāyāmānantarabhāvi sūkṣmamāntaramiti madhyapathena recanācamanādirūpaṁ ca taṁ tyaktvā yato yasmātsūkṣmamapyatītaṁ paramamiti prāṇādyacitsphurattātma spandanaṁ labhyate..." - "(The expression 'Prāṇādisthūlabhāvaṁ tu tyaktvā' means) 'by leaving or abandoning the gross bhāva —condition, state— which consists of exhalation, inhalation, etc. and (is focused) on prāṇa, etc., i.e. on prāṇa, apāna and samāna'. (The phrase 'sūkṣmamathāntaram' means) 'and then by abandoning the inner subtle (prāṇāyāma) that takes place immediately after this gross prāṇāyāma (and) whose nature is exhalation, absorption, etc. through the middle path --i.e. Suṣumnā--'. 'Yatas', i.e. 'from which' --from abandoning gross and subtle prāṇāyāma-s--, the Supreme Vibration (or Spanda), which is even beyond the subtle prāṇāyāma --hence It is Supreme-- and whose essential nature is Sphurattā or Consciousness located immediately before the vital energy --Prāṇa--, is obtained...".
In other words, Spanda is nothing but the Supreme I-consciousness that is always before any manifestation such as vital energy, etc. This is the meaning. OK, now everything is completely clear... obviously if you know what prāṇāyāma, Suṣumnā, etc. really are. If you have no idea, you need to reread the commentaries on previous aphorisms of this scripture. My apologies, but I cannot explain all the time the same things, you know, hehe. Make sure you are very familiar with these common Sanskrit terms because you will bump into them constantly during your studies of Trika and other philosophical systems.
2 Kṣemarāja seems to have simplified this little portion or had a different reading. I read from Netratantra VIII, 14: "... प्रविशेद्धाम परमं तत्स्वचेतसा।" - "... praviśeddhāma paramaṁ tatsvacetasā|" - "... one enters the Supreme State with his own mind as that --i.e. as a knower--".
As "praviśet" is the conjugation of the verb "praviś" (to enter) in Potential Mood, 3rd P. singular (Parasmaipada), it is generally translated as "he/she/it should enter". But according to the context, the Potential Mood has force of Present Tense and consequently "praviśet" can also be properly translated as "he/she/it enters". Hence my above translation of "praviśet" is in Present Tense ("one enters"), while in the very aphorism 21 I translated it as "one should enter". Now you understand why I translated in the manner I did.
3 Again, since in this stanza the meaning of the term "bodha" is obscure, I will elucidate it by resorting to the Svacchandoddyota of the eminent Kṣemarāja: "बोधरूपेणेति अविकल्पसंवित्स्पर्शेनैव" - "bodharūpeṇeti avikalpasaṁvitsparśenaiva" - "(the expression) 'bodharūpeṇa' (means) 'with the touch of a awareness without any thoughts'".
इत्थं च परमपदप्रविष्टस्यास्य वस्तुस्वाभाव्याद्यदा पुनः प्रसरणं भवति तदा—
परस्फुरत्तात्मकशाक्तपरिमलसंस्कृतस्य प्राणस्य सम्यगिति विकसितसमग्रग्रन्थ्यात्मकान्तरावष्टम्भबलाद् आ ईषद्बहिर्मन्दमन्दं चारे प्रसरणे समं चिदानन्दघनात्मतयैकरूपं दर्शनं संवेदनमर्थात्सर्वदशास्वस्य भवतीत्यर्थः। उक्तं च श्रीमदानन्दभैरवे
उत्सृज्य लौकिकाचारमद्वैतं मुक्तिदं श्रयेत्।
स समं सर्वदेवानां तथा वर्णाश्रमादिके॥
द्रव्याणां समतादर्शी स मुक्तः सर्वबन्धनैः।
इति। अत एव श्रीप्रत्यभिज्ञायाम्
बुद्धिप्राणप्रसरेऽपि बाह्यदेशाद्युपादानानाहितसङ्कोचानां विश्वात्मस्वरूपलाभ एव॥
Itthaṁ ca paramapadapraviṣṭasyāsya vastusvābhāvyādyadā punaḥ prasaraṇaṁ bhavati tadā—
Parasphurattātmakaśāktaparimalasaṁskṛtasya prāṇasya samyagiti vikasitasamagragranthyātmakāntarāvaṣṭambhabalād ā īṣadbahirmandamandaṁ cāre prasaraṇe samaṁ cidānandaghanātmatayaikarūpaṁ darśanaṁ saṁvedanamarthātsarvadaśāsvasya bhavatītyarthaḥ| Uktaṁ ca śrīmadānandabhairave
Utsṛjya laukikācāramadvaitaṁ muktidaṁ śrayet|
Sa samaṁ sarvadevānāṁ tathā varṇāśramādike||
Dravyāṇāṁ samatādarśī sa muktaḥ sarvabandhanaiḥ|
iti| Ata eva śrīpratyabhijñāyām
Buddhiprāṇaprasare'pi bāhyadeśādyupādānānāhitasaṅkocānāṁ viśvātmasvarūpalābha eva||
Thus (ittham ca), in the case of this (Yogī) (asya) who has entered (praviṣṭasya) the Supreme (parama) State (pada), when (yadā) there is (bhavati) a spreading out --manifestation-- (prasaraṇam) again (punar) due to the essential nature (svābhāvyāt) of Reality (vastu), then (tadā)—
When a slow but firm spreading out (samācāre) of the (Yogī's) vital energy (prāṇa) (occurs), there is equable (sama) vision (darśanam), (that is, the Yogī realizes unity underlying all)||22||
"Of the (Yogī's) vital energy (prāṇasya)" (means) "of this which has been consecrated (saṁskṛtasya) by the fragrance (parimala) of Śakti (śākta) who is (ātmaka) the Highest (para) Sphurattā or gleaming I-consciousness (sphurattā)". (In the aphorism, the term "samācāre" is the Locative case singular of "samācāra". The prefix "sam" in "samācāre" implies) "samyak" --derived from "samyañc"-- (samyak iti) (or) "by the force (balāt) of a firm hold onto (avaṣṭambha) the inner (Self) (antara) in whom all (samagra) the knots (granthi) are open --i.e. untied-- (vikasita)"1 . (The prefix) "ā" (in "samācāre") (ātmani) (indicates) "a little (īṣat) slowly (manda-mandam) outward (bahis)", (while the word) "cāre" (in "samācāre") (cāre) (means) "in the spreading out (prasaraṇe)" --i.e. when a spreading out occurs--. (The term) "sama" (in "samadarśanam") (samam) (points out) "this which appears uniformly (eka-rūpam) as (ātmatayā) a mass (ghana) of Consciousness --i.e. Śiva-- (cit) and Bliss --i.e. Śakti-- (ānanda)". (Finally,) "darśana" (darśanam) (means) "awareness (saṁvedanam)". (So,) according to the sense (of the words) —which was explained in detail— (arthāt), (samadarśana or awareness which perceives all uniformly as a mass of Consciousness and Bliss, i.e. "an equable vision",) takes place (bhavati) in this (Yogī) (asya) under all circumstances --viz. in all the states of consciousness since they are fully permeated by Turya or the Fourth State-- (sarva-daśāsu). This is the meaning (iti arthaḥ)|
(This was) also said (uktam ca) in venerable Ānandabhairava (śrīmat-ānandabhairave):
"Having abandoned (utsṛjya) the customary (laukika) practices (ācāram), one should resort (śrayet) to non-dualism (advaitam) which gives Liberation (mukti-dam). He (saḥ) (beholds) equably (samam) all the gods (sarva-devānām) and also (tathā) the castes (varṇa), stages of life (āśrama), etc. (ādike)2 . He sees (darśī) (all) the things (dravyāṇām) with equanimity (samatā). He (saḥ) is free (muktaḥ) from all bonds (sarva-bandhanaiḥ... iti)"||
For this reason (atas eva), it is declared (uktam) in (the commentary on) venerable Īśvarapratyabhijñā (śrī-pratyabhijñāyām):
"For those who do not have limitations (anāhita-saṅkocānām) (produced by) the assumption (upādāna) of external (bāhya) space (deśa), etc. (ādi), even though (api) occurs manifestation (prasare) of intellect (buddhi) (and) vital energy (prāṇa), (there is) perception (lābhaḥ eva) of their own essential nature (sva-rūpa) as being the Self (ātma) of the universe (viśva... iti) --in short, they see that their self is really the Self or Soul the universe is composed of--"||
1 In the subtle body there are three knots (granthi-s) called Brahmagranthi, Viṣṇugranthi and Rudragranthi. Each of these knots marks a particular limitation (a long topic!). As the inner Self is fully free, He is poetically designated by Kṣemarāja as One in whom all the knots are untied. This is the meaning.
2 The system of castes and stages of life is another long complex topic dealt with in depth in many scriptures (e.g. Manu's code). Anyway, here you are a summary:
There are four castes, viz. (1) Brāhmaṇa —priests—, (2) Kṣatriya —members of the military or reigning order—, (3) Vaiśya —people engaged in trade and agriculture— and (4) Śūdra —servants—. And there are four stages of life, viz. (1) Brahmacārin —celibate students of the Veda till they are 25 years old—, (2) Gṛhastha —householders; 25 to 50 years—, (3) Vānaprastha —anchorites who have left their houses and families for an ascetic life in the woods; 50 to 75 years— and (4) Sannyāsin —the ones who have renounced all worldly concerns, from 75 years on—.
This document was conceived by Gabriel Pradīpaka, one of the two founders of this site, and spiritual guru conversant with Sanskrit language and Trika philosophy.
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