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 Tantrasāra (Tantrasara): Chapter 6

Kālādhvaprakāśanam - Explaining the path of Time


 Introduction

This is the sixth chapter (called Kālādhvaprakāśanam).

This work was written by the great Master Abhinavagupta and is a summary of Tantrāloka. Tantrāloka is the most important and voluminous work of the greatest Trika Master. Abhinavagupta was also the teacher of eminent Kṣemarāja and lived about 975-1025 AD in Kashmir.

This treatise whose name is Tantrasāra is a summarized encyclopedia of Tantra. Since it is a very advanced text in Trika Shaivism, there is no surprise if a neophyte finds it difficult to understand. To start to understand it, the level of the reader must be the one of a real disciple in Trika Shaivism. If this requirement is not met, then there will be a lot of confusion and constant disappointment. Because in spite of my great efforts to explain the things so easily as possible, to study this treatise requires some spiritual caliber. In this system, sometimes it is not possible even to write about certain topics due to the extreme limitation of the words. Because in the end, all this knowledge has to do with 'states', and it is extremely difficult to write about 'states' in a precise way. Abhinavagupta has done his best to accomplish this formidable task of writing about what is superior and intangible. Anyway, despite his incredible skills to carry out this, he is not revealing everything. It is not because he is all the time hiding things from the reader, but because he is sometimes hiding and on other occasions he just cannot write about some extremely subtle topics because of the limitation of the words.

Goal of life is Liberation. Man has searched for freedom always in human history, but according to Trika Shaivism that is not real Liberation. Real Liberation does not mean that your body should be free from some prison and things like that. Real Liberation amounts to attaining His Svātantrya or Absolute Freedom. When the Great Lord's Svātantrya is achieved, then you see unity in all the things, i.e. you stop seeing duality as before. All is forever identified with Svātantrya, with Him, and that is the end of the story called 'you in bondage'. From this point on nothing will get in your way, because if something apparently gets in your way, that is Svātantrya again. This constant awareness of unity in all is real Freedom. There is no other attainment greater than this!

Keeping the above in mind, now read Tantrasāra and experience Supreme Delight, dear Śiva.

Important: All that is in brackets and italicized within the translation has been added by me in order to complete the sense of a particular phrase or sentence. In turn, all that is between double hyphen (--...--) constitutes clarifying further information also added by me.

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 Chapter 6

तन्त्रसारः
षष्ठमाह्निकम्

अथ बाह्यविधिः।

स एव स्थानप्रकल्पनशब्देनोक्तस्तत्र त्रिधा स्थानं - प्राणवायुः शरीरं बाह्यं च तत्र प्राणे तावद्विधिः सर्वोऽसौ वक्ष्यमाणोऽध्वा प्राणस्थः कल्यते तस्य क्रमाक्रमकलनैव कालः स च परमेश्वर एवान्तर्भाति तद्भासनं च देवस्य काली नाम शक्तिर्भेदेन तु तदाभासनं क्रमाक्रमयोः प्राणवृत्तिः। संविदेव हि प्रमेयेभ्यो विभक्तं रूपं गृह्णात्यत एव चावच्छेदयोगाद्वेद्यतां यान्ती नभस्ततः स्वातन्त्र्यान्मेये स्वीकारौत्सुक्येन निपतन्ती क्रियाशक्तिप्रधाना प्राणनारूपा जीवस्वभावा पञ्चभी रूपैर्देहं यतः पूरयति ततोऽसौ चेतन इव भाति। तत्र क्रियाशक्तौ कालाध्वा प्राच्यभाग उत्तरे तु मूर्तिवैचित्र्यरूपो देशाध्वा तत्र वर्णमन्त्रपदाध्वनः कालाध्वनि स्थितिः परसूक्ष्मस्थूलरूपत्वात्। देशाध्वस्थितिस्तु तत्त्वपुरकलात्मनेति भविष्यति स्वावसरे। तत्र यद्यपि देहे सबाह्याभ्यन्तरमोतप्रोतरूपः प्राणस्तथापि प्रस्फुटसंवेद्यप्रयत्नोऽसौ हृदयात्प्रभृतीति तत एवायं निरूपणीयः। तत्र प्रभुशक्तिरात्मशक्तिर्यत्न इति त्रितयं प्राणेरणे हेतुः - गुणमुख्यभावात्। तत्र हृदयाद्द्वादशान्तान्तं स्वाङ्गुलैः सर्वस्य षट्त्रिंशदङ्गुलः प्राणचारो निर्गमे प्रवेशे च स्वोचितबलयत्नदेहत्वात्सर्वस्य। तत्र घटिका तिथिर्मासो वर्षं च वर्षसमूहात्मेति समस्तः कालः परिसमाप्यते। तत्र सपञ्चांशेऽङ्गुले चषक इति स्थित्या घटिकोदयो घटिका हि षष्ट्या चषकैस्तस्माद्द्वासप्तत्यङ्गुला भवति।

अथ तिथ्युदयः। सपादमङ्गुलद्वयं तुटिरुच्यते तासु चतसृषु प्रहरस्तुट्यर्धं तुट्यर्धं तत्र सन्ध्यैवं निर्गमे दिनं प्रवेशे रात्रिरिति तिथ्युदयः।

अथ मासोदयः। तत्र दिनं कृष्णपक्षो रात्रिः शुक्लस्तत्र पूर्वं तुट्यर्धमन्त्यं च तुट्यर्धं विश्रान्तिरकालकलिता मध्यास्तु पञ्चदश तुटय एव तिथयस्तत्र प्रकाशो विश्रान्तिश्चेत्येत एव दिननिशे। तत्र वेद्यमयताप्रकाशो दिनं वेद्यस्य विचारयितरि लयो रात्रिस्ते च प्रकाशविश्रान्ती चिराचिरवैचित्र्यादनन्तभेदे तत्साम्ये तु विषुवत्। तत्र कृष्णपक्षे प्राणार्केऽपानचन्द्र आप्यायिकामेकामेकां कलामर्पयति यावत्पञ्चदश्यां तुटौ द्वादशान्तसमीपे क्षीणपृथग्भूतकलाप्रसरश्चन्द्रमाः प्राणार्क एव लीयते। तदनन्तरं यत् तुट्यर्धं स पक्षसन्धिः। तस्य च तुट्यर्धस्य प्राच्यमर्धमामावस्यं द्वितीयं प्रातिपदम्। तत्र प्रातिपदे तस्मिन्भागे स आमावस्यो भागो यदा कासप्रयत्नावधानादिकृतात्तिथिच्छेदाद्विशति तदा तत्र ग्रहणं तत्र च वेद्यरूपसोमसहभूतो मायाप्रमातृराहुः स्वभावतया विलापनाशक्तः केवलमाच्छादनमात्रसमर्थः सूर्यगतं चान्द्रममृतं पिबतीति। प्रमातृप्रमाणप्रमेयत्रितयाविभागकारित्वात्स पुण्यः कालः पारलौकिकफलप्रदः। ततः प्रविशति प्राणे चिदर्क एकैकया कलया अपानचन्द्रमापूरयति यावत्पञ्चदशी तुटिः पूर्णिमा तदनन्तरं पक्षसन्धिर्ग्रहणं चेति प्राग्वदेतत्तु ऐहिकफलप्रदमिति मासोदयः।

अथ वर्षोदयः। तत्र कृष्णपक्ष एवोत्तरायणं षट्सु षट्स्वङ्गुलेषु सङ्क्रान्तिर्मकरान्मिथुनान्ताम्। तत्र प्रत्यङ्गुलं पञ्च तिथयस्तत्रापि दिनरात्रिविभाग एवं प्रवेशे दक्षिणायनं गर्भत्वमुद्भवेच्छा उद्बुभूषुता उद्भविष्यत्वमुद्भवारम्भ उद्भवत्ता जन्मादिविकारषट्कं चेति क्रमान्मकरादिष्विति। तथैवोपासात्र फलं समुचितं करोति। अत्र च दक्षाद्याः पितामहान्ता रुद्राः शक्तयश्च द्वादशाधिपतय इति वर्षोदयः।

प्रत्यङ्गुलं षष्टिस्तिथय इति क्रमेण सङ्क्रान्तौ वर्षमित्यनेन क्रमेण प्रवेशनिर्गमयोर्द्वादशाब्दोदयः प्रत्यङ्गुलं तिथीनां शतत्रयं सपञ्चांशेऽङ्गुले वर्षं यत्र प्राक् चषकमुक्तमिति गणनया सङ्क्रान्तौ पञ्च वर्षाणीत्यनया परिपाट्यैकस्मिन्प्राणनिर्गमप्रवेशकाले षष्ट्यब्दोदयोऽत्र एकविंशतिसहस्राणि षट् शतानीति तिथीनां सङ्ख्या। तावती एव अहोरात्रे प्राणसङ्ख्येति न षष्ट्यब्दोदयादधिकं परीक्ष्यत आनन्त्यात्। तत्र मानुषं वर्षं देवानां तिथिरनेन क्रमेण दिव्यानि द्वादशवर्षसहस्राणि चतुर्युगम्। चत्वारि त्रीणि द्व एकमिति कृतात्प्रभृति तावद्भिः शतैरष्टौ सन्ध्याः। चतुर्युगानामेकसप्तत्या मन्वन्तरं मन्वन्तरैश्चतुर्दशभिर्ब्राह्मं दिनं ब्रह्मदिनान्ते कालाग्निदग्धे लोकत्रयेऽन्यत्र च लोकत्रये धूमप्रस्वापिते सर्वे जना वेगवदग्निप्रेरिता जनलोके प्रलयाकलीभूय तिष्ठन्ति। प्रबुद्धास्तु कूष्माण्डहाटकेशाद्या महोलोके क्रीडन्ति। ततो निशासमाप्तौ ब्राह्मी सृष्टिः। अनेन मानेन वर्षशतं ब्रह्मायुः। तद् विष्णोर्दिनं तावती च रात्रिस्तस्यापि शतमायुः। तद् दिनं तदूर्ध्वे रुद्रलोकप्रभो रुद्रस्य तावती रात्रिः प्राग्वद्वर्षं तच्छतमपि चावधिः। तत्र रुद्रस्य तदवसितौ शिवत्वगती रुद्रस्योक्ताधिकारावधिर्ब्रह्माण्डधारकाणां तद् दिनं शतरुद्राणां निशा तावती तेषामपि च शतमायुः। शतरुद्रक्षये ब्रह्माण्डविनाशः। एवं जलतत्त्वादव्यक्तान्तमेतदेव क्रमेण रुद्राणामायुः। पूर्वस्यायुरुत्तरस्य दिनमिति। ततश्च ब्रह्मा रुद्राश्चाबाद्यधिकारिणोऽव्यक्ते तिष्ठन्तीति। श्रीकण्ठनाथश्च तदा संहर्ता। एषोऽवान्तरप्रलयस्तत्क्षये सृष्टिः। तत्र शास्त्रान्तरमुक्ता अपि सृज्यन्ते। यत्तु श्रीकण्ठनाथस्य स्वमायुस्तत् कञ्चुकवासिनां रुद्राणां दिनं तावती रजनी तेषां यद् आयुस्तद् गहनेशदिनं तावत्येव क्षपा तस्यां च समस्तमेव मायायां विलीयते। पुनर्गहनेशः सृजति। एवं योऽव्यक्तकालस्तं दशभिः परार्धैर्गुणयित्वा मायादिनं कथयेत्तावती रात्रिः। स एव प्रलयः। मायाकालः परार्धशतेन गुणित ऐश्वरतत्त्वे दिनम्। अत्र प्राणो जगत्सृजति तावती रात्रिर्यत्र प्राणप्रशमः प्राणे च ब्रह्मबिलधाम्नि शान्तेऽपि या संवित्तत्राप्यस्ति क्रमः। ऐश्वरे काले परार्धशतगुणिते या सङ्ख्या तत् सादाशिवं दिनं तावती निशा स एव महाप्रलयः। सदाशिवः स्वकालपरिक्षये बिन्द्वर्धचन्द्रनिरोधिका आक्रम्य नादे लीयते नादः शक्तितत्त्वे तत् व्यापिन्यां सा चानाश्रिते। शक्तिकालेन परार्धकोटिगुणितेनानाश्रितदिनम्। अनाश्रितः सामनसे पदे यत्तत् सामनस्यं साम्यं तद् ब्रह्म। अस्मात्सामनस्यादकल्यात्कालान्निमेषोन्मेषमात्रतया प्रोक्ताशेषकालप्रसरप्रविलयचक्रभ्रमोदयः। एकं दश शतं सहस्रमयुतं लक्षं नियुतं कोटिरर्बुदं वृन्दं खर्वं निखर्वं पद्मं शङ्कुः समुद्रमन्त्यं मध्यं परार्धमिति क्रमेण दशगुणितान्यष्टादश इति गणितविधिः। एवमसङ्ख्याः सृष्टिप्रलया एकस्मिन्महासृष्टिरूपे प्राणे सोऽपि संविदि सोपाधौ स चिन्मात्रे चिन्मात्रस्यैवायं स्पन्दो यदयं कालोदयो नाम। तत एव स्वप्नसङ्कल्पादौ वैचित्र्यमस्य न विरोधावहम्। एवं यथा प्राणे कालोदयस्तथापानेऽपि हृदयान्मूलपीठपर्यन्तम्। यथा च हृत्कण्ठतालुललाटरन्ध्रद्वादशान्तेषु ब्रह्मविष्णुरुद्रेशसदाशिवानाश्रिताख्यं कारणषट्कं तथैवापानेऽपि हृत्कन्दानन्दसङ्कोचविकासद्वादशान्तेषु बाल्ययौवनवार्द्धकनिधनपुनर्भवमुक्त्यधिपतय एते।

अथ समाने कालोदयः। समानो हार्दीषु दशासु नाडीषु सञ्चरन्समस्ते देहे साम्येन रसादीन् वाहयति। तत्र दिगष्टके सञ्चरन्तद्दिक्पतिचेष्टामिव प्रमातुरनुकारयति। ऊर्ध्वाधस्तु सञ्चरन्तिसृषु नाडीषु गतागतं करोति। तत्र विषुवद्दिने बाह्ये प्रभातकाले सपादां घटिकां मध्यमार्गे वहति। ततो नवशतानि प्राणविक्षेपाणामिति गणनया बहिः सार्धघटिकाद्वयं वामे दक्षिणे वामे दक्षिणे वाम इति पञ्च सङ्क्रान्तयः। ततः सङ्क्रान्तिपञ्चके वृत्ते पादोनासु चतुर्दशसु घटिकास्वतिक्रान्तासु दक्षिणं शारदं विषुवन्मध्याह्ने नव प्राणशतानि। ततोऽपि दक्षिणे वामे दक्षिणे वामे दक्षिण इति सङ्क्रान्तिपञ्चकं प्रत्येकं नवशतानीत्येवं रात्रावपीति। एवं विषुवद्दिवसे तद्रात्रौ च द्वादश द्वादश सङ्क्रान्तयः। ततो दिनवृद्धिक्षयेषु सङ्क्रान्तिवृद्धिक्षयः। एवमेकस्मिन् समानमरुति वर्षद्वयं श्वासप्रश्वासयोगाभावात्। अत्रापि द्वादशाब्दोदयादि पूर्ववत्। उदाने तु द्वादशान्तावधिश्चारः स्पन्दमात्रात्मनः कालस्य। अत्रापि पूर्ववद्विधिः। व्याने तु व्यापकत्वादक्रमेऽपि सूक्ष्मोच्छलत्तायोगेन कालोदयः।

अथ वर्णोदयः। तत्रार्धप्रहरेऽर्धप्रहरे वर्गोदयो विषुवति समो वर्णस्य वर्णस्य द्वे शते षोडशाधिके प्राणानां बहिः षट्त्रिंशच्चषकाणीत्युदयोऽयमयत्नजो वर्णोदयः। यत्नजस्तु मन्त्रोदयोऽरघट्टघटीयन्त्रवाहनवद् एकानुसन्धिबलाच्चित्रं मन्त्रोदयं दिवानिशमनुसन्दधन्मन्त्रदेवतया सह तादात्म्यमेति। तत्र सदोदिते प्राणचारसङ्ख्ययैवोदयसङ्ख्या व्याख्याता तद्द्विगुणिते तदर्धमित्यादि क्रमेणाष्टोत्तरशते चक्रे द्विशत उदय इति क्रमेण स्थूलसूक्ष्मे चारस्वरूपे विश्रान्तस्य प्राणचारे क्षीणे कालग्रासे वृत्ते सम्पूर्णमेकमेवेदं संवेदनं चित्रशक्तिनिर्भरं भासते। कालभेद एव संवेदनभेदको न वेद्यभेदः शिखरस्थज्ञानवज् ज्ञानस्य यावानवस्थितिकालः स एव क्षणः प्राणोदये चैकस्मिनेकमेव ज्ञानमवश्यं चैतत् - अन्यथा विकल्पज्ञानमेकं न किञ्चित्स्यात् - क्रमिकशब्दारूषितत्वान्मात्राया अपि क्रमिकत्वात्। यदाह

तस्यादित उदात्तमर्धह्रस्वम्।

इति। तस्मात्स्पन्दान्तरं यावन्नोदितं तावदेकमेव ज्ञानम्। अत एवैकाशीतिपदस्मरणसमये विविधधर्मानुप्रवेशमुखेनैक एवासौ परमेश्वरविषयो विकल्पः कालग्रासेनाविकल्पात्मैव सम्पद्यत इति। एवमखिलं कालाध्वानं प्राणोदय एव पश्यन्सृष्टिसंहारांश्च विचित्रान्निःसङ्ख्यान्तत्रैवाकलयनात्मन एव पारमेश्वर्यं प्रत्यभिजानन्मुक्त एव भवतीति।

संविद्रूपस्यात्मनः प्राणशक्तिं पश्यन्रूपं तत्रगं चातिकालम्।
साकं सृष्टिस्थेमसंहारचक्रैर्नित्योद्युक्तो भैरवीभावमेति॥

Tantrasāraḥ
Ṣaṣṭhamāhnikam

Atha bāhyavidhiḥ|

Sa eva sthānaprakalpanaśabdenoktastatra tridhā sthānaṁ - Prāṇavāyuḥ śarīraṁ bāhyaṁ ca tatra prāṇe tāvadvidhiḥ sarvo'sau vakṣyamāṇo'dhvā prāṇasthaḥ kalyate tasya kramākramakalanaiva kālaḥ sa ca parameśvara evāntarbhāti tadbhāsanaṁ ca devasya kālī nāma śaktirbhedena tu tadābhāsanaṁ kramākramayoḥ prāṇavṛttiḥ| Saṁvideva hi prameyebhyo vibhaktaṁ rūpaṁ gṛhṇātyata eva cāvacchedayogādvedyatāṁ yāntī nabhastataḥ svātantryānmeye svīkārautsukyena nipatantī kriyāśaktipradhānā prāṇanārūpā jīvasvabhāvā pañcabhī rūpairdehaṁ yataḥ pūrayati tato'sau cetana iva bhāti| Tatra kriyāśaktau kālādhvā prācyabhāga uttare tu mūrtivaicitryarūpo deśādhvā tatra varṇamantrapadādhvanaḥ kālādhvani sthitiḥ parasūkṣmasthūlarūpatvāt| Deśādhvasthitistu tattvapurakalātmaneti bhaviṣyati svāvasare| Tatra yadyapi dehe sabāhyābhyantaramotaprotarūpaḥ prāṇastathāpi prasphuṭasaṁvedyaprayatno'sau hṛdayātprabhṛtīti tata evāyaṁ nirūpaṇīyaḥ| Tatra prabhuśaktirātmaśaktiryatna iti tritayaṁ prāṇeraṇe hetuḥ - Guṇamukhyabhāvāt| Tatra hṛdayāddvādaśāntāntaṁ svāṅgulaiḥ sarvasya ṣaṭtriṁśadaṅgulaḥ prāṇacāro nirgame praveśe ca svocitabalayatnadehatvātsarvasya| Tatra ghaṭikā tithirmāso varṣaṁ ca varṣasamūhātmeti samastaḥ kālaḥ parisamāpyate| Tatra sapañcāṁśe'ṅgule caṣaka iti sthityā ghaṭikodayo ghaṭikā hi ṣaṣṭyā caṣakaistasmāddvāsaptatyaṅgulā bhavati|

Atha tithyudayaḥ| Sapādamaṅguladvayaṁ tuṭirucyate tāsu catasṛṣu praharastuṭyardhaṁ tuṭyardhaṁ tatra sandhyaivaṁ nirgame dinaṁ praveśe rātririti tithyudayaḥ|

Atha māsodayaḥ| Tatra dinaṁ kṛṣṇapakṣo rātriḥ śuklastatra pūrvaṁ tuṭyardhamantyaṁ ca tuṭyardhaṁ viśrāntirakālakalitā madhyāstu pañcadaśa tuṭaya eva tithayastatra prakāśo viśrāntiścetyeta eva dinaniśe| Tatra vedyamayatāprakāśo dinaṁ vedyasya vicārayitari layo rātriste ca prakāśaviśrāntī cirāciravaicitryādanantabhede tatsāmye tu viṣuvat| Tatra kṛṣṇapakṣe prāṇārke'pānacandra āpyāyikāmekāmekāṁ kalāmarpayati yāvatpañcadaśyāṁ tuṭau dvādaśāntasamīpe kṣīṇapṛthagbhūtakalāprasaraścandramāḥ prāṇārka eva līyate| Tadanantaraṁ yat tuṭyardhaṁ sa pakṣasandhiḥ| Tasya ca tuṭyardhasya prācyamardhamāmāvasyaṁ dvitīyaṁ prātipadam| Tatra prātipade tasminbhāge sa āmāvasyo bhāgo yadā kāsaprayatnāvadhānādikṛtāttithicchedādviśati tadā tatra grahaṇaṁ tatra ca vedyarūpasomasahabhūto māyāpramātṛrāhuḥ svabhāvatayā vilāpanāśaktaḥ kevalamācchādanamātrasamarthaḥ sūryagataṁ cāndramamṛtaṁ pibatīti| Pramātṛpramāṇaprameyatritayāvibhāgakāritvātsa puṇyaḥ kālaḥ pāralaukikaphalapradaḥ| Tataḥ praviśati prāṇe cidarka ekaikayā kalayā apānacandramāpūrayati yāvatpañcadaśī tuṭiḥ pūrṇimā tadanantaraṁ pakṣasandhirgrahaṇaṁ ceti prāgvadetattu aihikaphalapradamiti māsodayaḥ|

Atha varṣodayaḥ| Tatra kṛṣṇapakṣa evottarāyaṇaṁ ṣaṭsu ṣaṭsvaṅguleṣu saṅkrāntirmakarānmithunāntām| Tatra pratyaṅgulaṁ pañca tithayastatrāpi dinarātrivibhāga evaṁ praveśe dakṣiṇāyanaṁ garbhatvamudbhavecchā udbubhūṣutā udbhaviṣyatvamudbhavārambha udbhavattā janmādivikāraṣaṭkaṁ ceti kramānmakarādiṣviti| Tathaivopāsātra phalaṁ samucitaṁ karoti| Atra ca dakṣādyāḥ pitāmahāntā rudrāḥ śaktayaśca dvādaśādhipataya iti varṣodayaḥ|

Pratyaṅgulaṁ ṣaṣṭistithaya iti krameṇa saṅkrāntau varṣamityanena krameṇa praveśanirgamayordvādaśābdodayaḥ pratyaṅgulaṁ tithīnāṁ śatatrayaṁ sapañcāṁśe'ṅgule varṣaṁ yatra prāk caṣakamuktamiti gaṇanayā saṅkrāntau pañca varṣāṇītyanayā paripāṭyaikasminprāṇanirgamapraveśakāle ṣaṣṭyabdodayo'tra ekaviṁśatisahasrāṇi ṣaṭ śatānīti tithīnāṁ saṅkhyā| Tāvatī eva ahorātre prāṇasaṅkhyeti na ṣaṣṭyabdodayādadhikaṁ parīkṣyata ānantyāt| Tatra mānuṣaṁ varṣaṁ devānāṁ tithiranena krameṇa divyāni dvādaśavarṣasahasrāṇi caturyugam| Catvāri trīṇi dva ekamiti kṛtātprabhṛti tāvadbhiḥ śatairaṣṭau sandhyāḥ| Caturyugānāmekasaptatyā manvantaraṁ manvantaraiścaturdaśabhirbrāhmaṁ dinaṁ brahmadinānte kālāgnidagdhe lokatraye'nyatra ca lokatraye dhūmaprasvāpite sarve janā vegavadagnipreritā janaloke pralayākalībhūya tiṣṭhanti| Prabuddhāstu kūṣmāṇḍahāṭakeśādyā maholoke krīḍanti| Tato niśāsamāptau brāhmī sṛṣṭiḥ| Anena mānena varṣaśataṁ brahmāyuḥ| Tad viṣṇordinaṁ tāvatī ca rātristasyāpi śatamāyuḥ| Tad dinaṁ tadūrdhve rudralokaprabho rudrasya tāvatī rātriḥ prāgvadvarṣaṁ tacchatamapi cāvadhiḥ| Tatra rudrasya tadavasitau śivatvagatī rudrasyoktādhikārāvadhirbrahmāṇḍadhārakāṇāṁ tad dinaṁ śatarudrāṇāṁ niśā tāvatī teṣāmapi ca śatamāyuḥ| Śatarudrakṣaye brahmāṇḍavināśaḥ| Evaṁ jalatattvādavyaktāntametadeva krameṇa rudrāṇāmāyuḥ| Pūrvasyāyuruttarasya dinamiti| Tataśca brahmā rudrāścābādyadhikāriṇo'vyakte tiṣṭhantīti| Śrīkaṇṭhanāthaśca tadā saṁhartā| Eṣo'vāntarapralayastatkṣaye sṛṣṭiḥ| Tatra śāstrāntaramuktā api sṛjyante| Yattu śrīkaṇṭhanāthasya svamāyustat kañcukavāsināṁ rudrāṇāṁ dinaṁ tāvatī rajanī teṣāṁ yad āyustad gahaneśadinaṁ tāvatyeva kṣapā tasyāṁ ca samastameva māyāyāṁ vilīyate| Punargahaneśaḥ sṛjati| Evaṁ yo'vyaktakālastaṁ daśabhiḥ parārdhairguṇayitvā māyādinaṁ kathayettāvatī rātriḥ| Sa eva pralayaḥ| Māyākālaḥ parārdhaśatena guṇita aiśvaratattve dinam| Atra prāṇo jagatsṛjati tāvatī rātriryatra prāṇapraśamaḥ prāṇe ca brahmabiladhāmni śānte'pi yā saṁvittatrāpyasti kramaḥ| Aiśvare kāle parārdhaśataguṇite yā saṅkhyā tat sādāśivaṁ dinaṁ tāvatī niśā sa eva mahāpralayaḥ| Sadāśivaḥ svakālaparikṣaye bindvardhacandranirodhikā ākramya nāde līyate nādaḥ śaktitattve tat vyāpinyāṁ sā cānāśrite| Śaktikālena parārdhakoṭiguṇitenānāśritadinam| Anāśritaḥ sāmanase pade yattat sāmanasyaṁ sāmyaṁ tad brahma| Asmātsāmanasyādakalyātkālānnimeṣonmeṣamātratayā proktāśeṣakālaprasarapravilayacakrabhramodayaḥ| Ekaṁ daśa śataṁ sahasramayutaṁ lakṣaṁ niyutaṁ koṭirarbudaṁ vṛndaṁ kharvaṁ nikharvaṁ padmaṁ śaṅkuḥ samudramantyaṁ madhyaṁ parārdhamiti krameṇa daśaguṇitānyaṣṭādaśa iti gaṇitavidhiḥ| Evamasaṅkhyāḥ sṛṣṭipralayā ekasminmahāsṛṣṭirūpe prāṇe so'pi saṁvidi sopādhau sa cinmātre cinmātrasyaivāyaṁ spando yadayaṁ kālodayo nāma| Tata eva svapnasaṅkalpādau vaicitryamasya na virodhāvaham| Evaṁ yathā prāṇe kālodayastathāpāne'pi hṛdayānmūlapīṭhaparyantam| Yathā ca hṛtkaṇṭhatālulalāṭarandhradvādaśānteṣu brahmaviṣṇurudreśasadāśivānāśritākhyaṁ kāraṇaṣaṭkaṁ tathaivāpāne'pi hṛtkandānandasaṅkocavikāsadvādaśānteṣu bālyayauvanavārddhakanidhanapunarbhavamuktyadhipataya ete|

Atha samāne kālodayaḥ| Samāno hārdīṣu daśāsu nāḍīṣu sañcaransamaste dehe sāmyena rasādīn vāhayati| Tatra digaṣṭake sañcarantaddikpaticeṣṭāmiva pramāturanukārayati| Ūrdhvādhastu sañcarantisṛṣu nāḍīṣu gatāgataṁ karoti| Tatra viṣuvaddine bāhye prabhātakāle sapādāṁ ghaṭikāṁ madhyamārge vahati| Tato navaśatāni prāṇavikṣepāṇāmiti gaṇanayā bahiḥ sārdhaghaṭikādvayaṁ vāme dakṣiṇe vāme dakṣiṇe vāma iti pañca saṅkrāntayaḥ| Tataḥ saṅkrāntipañcake vṛtte pādonāsu caturdaśasu ghaṭikāsvatikrāntāsu dakṣiṇaṁ śāradaṁ viṣuvanmadhyāhne nava prāṇaśatāni| Tato'pi dakṣiṇe vāme dakṣiṇe vāme dakṣiṇa iti saṅkrāntipañcakaṁ pratyekaṁ navaśatānītyevaṁ rātrāvapīti| Evaṁ viṣuvaddivase tadrātrau ca dvādaśa dvādaśa saṅkrāntayaḥ| Tato dinavṛddhikṣayeṣu saṅkrāntivṛddhikṣayaḥ| Evamekasmin samānamaruti varṣadvayaṁ śvāsapraśvāsayogābhāvāt| Atrāpi dvādaśābdodayādi pūrvavat| Udāne tu dvādaśāntāvadhiścāraḥ spandamātrātmanaḥ kālasya| Atrāpi pūrvavadvidhiḥ| Vyāne tu vyāpakatvādakrame'pi sūkṣmocchalattāyogena kālodayaḥ|

Atha varṇodayaḥ| Tatrārdhaprahare'rdhaprahare vargodayo viṣuvati samo varṇasya varṇasya dve śate ṣoḍaśādhike prāṇānāṁ bahiḥ ṣaṭtriṁśaccaṣakāṇītyudayo'yamayatnajo varṇodayaḥ| Yatnajastu mantrodayo'raghaṭṭaghaṭīyantravāhanavad ekānusandhibalāccitraṁ mantrodayaṁ divāniśamanusandadhanmantradevatayā saha tādātmyameti| Tatra sadodite prāṇacārasaṅkhyayaivodayasaṅkhyā vyākhyātā taddviguṇite tadardhamityādi krameṇāṣṭottaraśate cakre dviśata udaya iti krameṇa sthūlasūkṣme cārasvarūpe viśrāntasya prāṇacāre kṣīṇe kālagrāse vṛtte sampūrṇamekamevedaṁ saṁvedanaṁ citraśaktinirbharaṁ bhāsate| Kālabheda eva saṁvedanabhedako na vedyabhedaḥ śikharasthajñānavaj jñānasya yāvānavasthitikālaḥ sa eva kṣaṇaḥ prāṇodaye caikasminekameva jñānamavaśyaṁ caitat - Anyathā vikalpajñānamekaṁ na kiñcitsyāt - Kramikaśabdārūṣitatvānmātrāyā api kramikatvāt| Yadāha

Tasyādita udāttamardhahrasvam|

iti| Tasmātspandāntaraṁ yāvannoditaṁ tāvadekameva jñānam| Ata evaikāśītipadasmaraṇasamaye vividhadharmānupraveśamukhenaika evāsau parameśvaraviṣayo vikalpaḥ kālagrāsenāvikalpātmaiva sampadyata iti| Evamakhilaṁ kālādhvānaṁ prāṇodaya eva paśyansṛṣṭisaṁhārāṁśca vicitrānniḥsaṅkhyāntatraivākalayanātmana eva pārameśvaryaṁ pratyabhijānanmukta eva bhavatīti|

Saṁvidrūpasyātmanaḥ prāṇaśaktiṁ paśyanrūpaṁ tatragaṁ cātikālam|
Sākaṁ sṛṣṭisthemasaṁhāracakrairnityodyukto bhairavībhāvameti||

Essence of Tantra (tantra-sāraḥ)
Sixth (ṣaṣṭham) chapter (āhnikam)

And now (atha) the external method (bāhya-vidhiḥ)|

It (saḥ eva) is called (uktaḥ) by the word "Sthānaprakalpana" (sthāna-prakalpana-śabdena). There (tatra), (there is) a triple (tridhā) place (sthānam): The vital energy (prāṇa-vāyuḥ), the body (śarīram) and (ca) the external object (bāhyam). There (tatra), firstly (tāvat) (there is) the method (vidhiḥ) regarding the vital energy (prāṇe): All (sarvaḥ) that (asau) course (adhvā) --i.e. the six courses of varṇa, mantra, pada, kalā, tattva and bhuvana--, which will be described later (vakṣyamāṇaḥ), is considered (kalyate) as located in the vital energy (prāṇa-sthaḥ). Its (tasya) power of effecting or producing in succession or without it --i.e. without succession-- (krama-akrama-kalanā eva) (is) Kāla or Time (kālaḥ). And (ca) it --viz. Time-- (saḥ) appears inside (antarbhāti) the Supreme Lord (parama-īśvare). Its manifestation --the manifestation of Time-- (tad-bhāsanam) (is) the Power (śaktiḥ) whose name is (nāma) the Kālī (kālī) of God --of Śiva-- (devasya). But (tu) in duality (bhedena), its manifestation (tad-ābhāsanam) (is) the modality of vital energy (prāṇa-vṛttiḥ) both in succession and in absence of succession (krama-akramayoḥ)|

Consciousness Itself (saṁvid eva hi) assumes (gṛhṇāti) a form (rūpam) which is separated (vibhaktam) from the knowables --viz. from the objects-- (prameyebhyaḥ). On this account (atas eva ca), (Consciousness) who becomes the knowable or object (vedyatām yāntī) by association with limitations (avaccheda-yogāt) (is) Nabhas or Ether (nabhas). After that (tatas), because of (Its) Absolute Freedom (svātantryāt), (Consciousness,) with the strong desire to appropriate (svīkāra-autsukyena) the knowable or object (meye), falls (nipatantī) (and) becomes predominantly Power of Action (kriyā-śakti-pradhānā). (Next, Consciousness), acquiring the form of Prāṇanā (prāṇanā-rūpā), becomes the essential nature of life-- (jīva-sva-bhāvā). On which account (yatas), (Consciousness as Prāṇanā) fills the body up (deham... pūrayati) with five forms --i.e. the main five vital energies: "prāṇa, apāna, samāna, udāna and vyāna"-- (pañcabhiḥ rūpaiḥ). Afterward (tatas), that (Consciousness) (asau) shines forth (bhāti) as (iva) a cetana or conscious being (cetanaḥ)|

The path of Time (kāla-adhvā) (dwells) there, in the former portion of the Power of Action (tatra kriyā-śaktau... prācya-bhāge), but (tu) the path of Space (deśa-adhvā) —containing a variety of forms (mūrti-vaicitrya-rūpaḥ)(dwells) in the latter (portion of the Power of Action) (uttare). There (tatra), (there is) an abiding (sthitiḥ) of the course(s) of varṇa, mantra and pada (varṇa-mantra-pada-adhvanaḥ) in the path of Time (kāla-adhvani) as they are the supreme, subtle and gross forms (para-sūkṣma-sthūla-rūpatvāt)|

However (tu), the abiding in the path of Space (deśa-adhva-sthitiḥ) on the part of tattva, bhuvana --or "pura"-- and kalā (tattva-pura-kalā-ātmanā iti) will be (discussed) (bhaviṣyati) on another occasion --lit. on a natural occasion-- (sva-avasare)|

In that context (tatra), even if (yadi api) the vital energy (prāṇaḥ) is interwoven (otaprota-rūpaḥ) internally and externally (sabāhya-ābhyantaram) in the body (dehe), even so (tathā api) it --i.e. the vital energy-- (asau) makes a clearly perceptible effort --i.e. the vibration of the vital energy-- (prasphuṭa-saṁvedya-prayatnaḥ) "from the heart (hṛdayāt prabhṛti iti)". On that account (tatas eva), this (vital energy) (ayam) is going to be investigated (nirūpaṇīyaḥ)|

In that case (tatra), the triad (tritayam) (composed of) "Power of the Lord (prabhu-śaktiḥ), power of the limited individual --viz. the limited knower-- (ātma-śaktiḥ) (and) effort (yatnaḥ iti)" (is) the cause (hetuḥ) of the movement of the vital energy (prāṇa-īraṇe). (How?) According to the order of importance of (their) qualities --i.e. the Power of the Lord is more important, the power of the limited individual is less important and finally the effort is the least important-- (guṇa-mukhya-bhāvāt)|

Under those circumstances (tatra), the movement of the vital energy (prāṇa-cāraḥ) —in exhalation (nirgame) and (ca) in inhalation (praveśe), and from heart (hṛdayāt) up to dvādaśānta (dvādaśānta-antam)(is) thirty-six fingers' breadth (ṣaṭtriṁśat-aṅgulaḥ) in all (the living beings) --i.e. from Brahmā down to a worm-- (sarvasya), in proportion to the size of their own fingers (sva-aṅgulaiḥ). (Why?) Because all (the living beings) have body, effort and strength suitable to themselves (svocita-bala-yatna-dehatvāt sarvasya)|

"A period of twenty-four minutes (ghaṭikā), a lunar day (tithiḥ), a month (māsaḥ), a year (varṣam) and (ca) a collection of years (varṣa-samūha-ātmā) (are) there --viz. in the movement of the vital energy-- (tatra... iti)". (In other words,) the totality of Time (samastaḥ kālaḥ) is contained (parisamāpyate) (in the movement of the vital energy)|

Then (tatra), one "caṣaka" --24 seconds-- (caṣakaḥ iti) (amounts to) one finger and a fifth (sa-pañca-aṁśe aṅgule). Based on (that) (sthityā), a "ghaṭikā" --24 minutes-- arises (ghaṭikā-udayaḥ). (Thus,) one ghaṭikā (ghaṭikā hi) (is) sixty caṣaka-s --60 x 24 seconds = 24 minutes-- (ṣaṣṭyā caṣakaiḥ). Therefore (tasmāt), (one ghaṭikā) is (bhavati) seventy-two fingers' breadth (dvāsaptati-aṅgulāḥ)|


Now (atha) the emergence of "tithi" or lunar day (tithi-udayaḥ)|

One "tuṭi" (tuṭiḥ) is said to be (ucyate) two fingers and a quarter (sapādam-aṅgula-dvayam). In four (tuṭi-s) (tāsu catasṛṣu) (there is) one "prahara" --3 hours-- (praharaḥ). There (tatra), "sandhyā" --consisting of two junctures of day and night, at dawn and at twilight-- (sandhyā) (lasts) half a tuṭi each (tuṭi-ardham tuṭi-ardham). Thus (evam), in the exhalation (nirgame) (there is) one day (dinam) (and) in the inhalation (praveśe) (there is) one night (rātriḥ). This is the emergence of tithi or lunar day (iti tithi-udayaḥ)|


Now (atha) the emergence of "māsa" or month (māsa-udayaḥ)|

In it --in a month-- (tatra), a day (dinam) (is) the dark fortnight (kṛṣṇa-pakṣaḥ). The night (rātriḥ) (is) the bright fortnight (śuklaḥ). There (tatra), the first (pūrvam) half a tuṭi (tuṭi-ardham) and (ca) the last (antyam) half a tuṭi (tuṭi-ardham) (are) a repose (viśrāntiḥ) which cannot be measured by time (a-kāla-kalitā). However (tu), the intermediate (madhyāḥ) fifteen (pañcadaśa) tuṭi-s (tuṭayaḥ eva) (last fifteen) tithi-s or lunar days --i.e. a fortnight-- (tithayaḥ). There --in each of those tuṭi-s which are tithi-s-- (tatra), day and night (ete eva dina-niśe) (are) "Light --viz. day-- (prakāśaḥ) and (ca) Repose --viz. night-- (viśrāntiḥ... iti)"|

In that case (tatra), day (dinam) (is) the manifestation of the knowable or object (vedya-mayatā-prakāśaḥ), (while) night (rātriḥ) (is) the dissolution (layaḥ) of that knowable or object (vedyasya) in the knower --lit. in the one who ponders or reflects-- (vicārayitari). They both (te ca), Light and Repose --day and night-- (prakāśa-viśrāntī), have infinite divisions (ananta-bhede) due to the variety of "long" --i.e. lasting a long time-- and "instantaneous" --i.e. lasting a short time-- (cira-acira-vaicitryāt). But (tu) the equinox (viṣuvat) (takes place) when they attain equilibrium (tad-sāmye)|

There (tatra), in the dark fortnight (kṛṣṇa-pakṣe), the moon of apāna (apāna-candraḥ), (situated) in the sun of prāṇa (prāṇa-arke), offers (arpayati), one by one (ekām ekām), waxing (āpyāyikām) lunar phases (kalām) till (yāvat), in the fifteen tuṭi (pañcadaśyām tuṭau) —which is near dvādaśānta --i.e. bahirdvādaśānta or external dvādaśānta-- (dvādaśānta-samīpe)—, the moon (candramāḥ) —whose flow of different phases is waning (kṣīṇa-pṛthagbhūta-kalā-prasaraḥ)— is dissolved (līyate) in the sun of prāṇa (prāṇa-arke eva)|

Immediately after that (tad-anantaram), the half of tuṭi (tuṭi-ardham) that (follows) (yad) (is) the conjunction of the fortnights --the bright and the dark ones-- (saḥ pakṣa-sandhiḥ)|

And (ca) the first (prācyam) half (ardham) of that half a tuṭi (tasya... tuṭi-ardhasya) (is) the night of the new moon (āmāvasyam), (while) the second (half) (dvitīyam) (is) the first day of the lunar fortnight (prātipadam)|

Over there (tatra), when (yadā) the portion (called) "night of the new moon" (saḥ āmāvasyaḥ bhāgaḥ) enters (viśati) into this portion (called) "first day of the lunar fortnight" (prātipade tasmin bhāge) because of an interruption of one tithi (of duration) (tithi-chedāt) done by cough, effort, attention, etc. (kāsa-prayatna-avadhāna-ādi-kṛtāt), then (tadā) (there is) in that point (tatra) an eclipse (grahaṇam). Then (tatra ca), Rāhu, the Māyāpramātā (māyā-pramātṛ-rāhuḥ), which is connected with the moon that is the knowable or object (vedya-rūpa-soma-sahabhūta) (and) which is naturally unable to dissolve (svabhāvatayā vilāpana-aśaktaḥ) —viz. which is only able to merely hide (kevalam ācchādana-mātra-samarthaḥ)—, "drinks" (pibati) the nectar (amṛtam) of the moon (cāndram) that remains in the sun (sūrya-gatam)|

Due to the indivisible formation of the triad (constituted by) knower, knowledge and knowable (pramātṛ-pramāṇa-prameya-tritaya-avibhāga-kāritvāt), that (saḥ) time (kālaḥ) (is) propitious (puṇyaḥ) (and) bestows fruits which are relating to the next world (pāralaukika-phala-pradaḥ)|

Subsequently (tatas), when the vital energy enters --i.e. during inhalation-- (praviśati prāṇe), the sun of Consciousness (cit-arkaḥ) fills up (āpūrayati) the moon of apāna (apāna-candram) with (its) kalā(-s) --viz. phases-- (shining with Consciousness) (kalayā), one by one (ekaikayā). (For how long?) Until (yāvat) the full moon (pūrṇimā) —containing fifteen tuṭi-s (pañcadaśī tuṭiḥ)(develops). Immediately after that (tad-anantaram), the conjuction/juncture of the fortnights (pakṣa-sandhiḥ) and (ca) the eclipse (grahaṇam) (take place) as before (prāk-vat). Nonetheless (tu), this (etad) bestows fruits which are relating to this world (aihika-phala-pradam). This is the emergence of the month (iti māsa-udayaḥ)|


Now (atha) the emergence of "varṣa" or year (varṣa-udayaḥ)|

There (tatra), in the dark fortnight (kṛṣṇa-pakṣe eva), the summer solstice --i.e. the period of the sun's progress to the north of the equator-- (uttarāyaṇam) (is) the passage (of the sun of prāṇa) (saṅkrāntiḥ)(moving) every six fingers (ṣaṭsu ṣaṭsu aṅguleṣu)— from Capricorn (makarāt) to Gemini (mithuna-antām)|

In that --in the year-- (tatra), (there is), 'every finger' (prati-aṅgulam), (a succesion of) five (pañca) lunar days (tithayaḥ). Right there --in the five lunar days-- (tatra api), (there is) a division of day and night (dina-rātri-vibhāgaḥ). Thus (evam), during inhalation (praveśe) (there is) the winter solstice --i.e. the period of the sun's progress to the south of the equator-- (dakṣiṇāyanam). In the constellations of Capricorn, etc. (makara-ādiṣu iti) (there are) in due order (kramāt): (1) The state of being an embryo (garbhatvam), (2) the desire to be born (udbhava-icchā), (3) the state of being prone to be born (udbubhūṣutā), (4) the state of being about to be born (udbhaviṣyatvam), (5) the beginning of the birth (udbhava-ārambhaḥ), (6) the state of the birth --viz. an orientation toward birth-- (udbhavattā), together with --lit. "and"-- (ca) a group of six changes (known as) birth, etc. --i.e. birth, existence, transformation, growth, decrease and destruction-- (janma-ādi-vikāra-ṣaṭkam... iti)|

So (tathā eva), worship (upāsā) here --viz. in these constellations-- (atra) produces (karoti) suitable (samucitam) fruit(s) (phalam)|

Here (atra ca), the Rudra-s (rudrāḥ) and (ca) (their) śakti-s or powers (śaktayaḥ) —from Dakṣa (dakṣa-ādyāḥ) up to Pitāmaha (pitāmaha-antāḥ)(are) the twelve presiding deities (dvādaśa-adhipatayaḥ). This is the emergence of "varṣa" or year (varṣa-udayaḥ)|


(Assigning) sixty lunar days (ṣaṣṭiḥ tithayaḥ) to each of the fingers (prati-aṅgulam iti) in due order (krameṇa), (there is) one year (varṣam) in a passage (of the sun from one zodiacal sign to the other) (saṅkrāntau); thus (iti), by means of this method (of calculation) (anena krameṇa), (there is) the emergence of twelve years (dvādaśa-abda-udayaḥ) in inhalation and exhalation (praveśa-nirgamayoḥ). (But when) three hundred (śata-trayam) lunar days (tithīnām) (are attributed) to each finger (prati-aṅgulam), (then there is) one year (varṣam) in a finger and a fifth --i.e. in one caṣaka-- (sa-pañca-aṁśe aṅgule). On which case (yatra), considering that (iti gaṇanayā) what was said to be (uktam) one caṣaka (caṣakam) previously (prāk) (measures a finger and a fifth, then there are) five years (pañca varṣāṇi) in the passage (of the sun from one zodiacal sign to the other) (saṅkrāntau). In this way (iti), through this method (anayā paripāṭyā), in one round --lit. in one time-- of exhalation and inhalation of the vital energy (ekasmin prāṇa-nirgama-praveśa-kāle) (there is) the emergence of sixty years (ṣaṣṭi-abda-dayaḥ). Here (atra), the number (saṅkhyā) of lunar days (tithīnām) (is) "21,600" (ekaviṁśati-sahasrāṇi ṣaṭ śatāni iti)|

The number of inhalations and exhalations --lit. breathings-- (prāṇa-saṅkhyā) in one day and one night (ahorātre) (is) the same (as 21,600) (tāvatī). Thus (iti), more (adhikam) than the emergence of sixty years (ṣaṣṭi-abda-udayāt) is not examined (na... parīkṣyate) because it is infinity --i.e. the result is infinite-- (ānantyāt)|

There (tatra), one human year (mānuṣam varṣam) (amounts to) one lunar day (tithiḥ) of the gods (devānām). By this method (anena krameṇa), 12,000 divine years (divyāni dvādaśa-varṣa-sahasrāṇi) (amount to) four (catur) yuga-s or ages (yugam)|

"4 (catvāri), 3 (trīṇi), 2 (dve) (and) 1 (ekam iti)" --i.e. 4,000, 3,000, 2,000 and 1,000 divine years, and the remaining 2,000 divine years go to the sandhyā-s or junctions such as explained soon below--, starting from Kṛta(yuga, also called Satyayuga) --the other three yuga-s are Tretāyuga, Dvāparayuga and Kaliyuga-- (kṛtāt prabhṛti). (In turn, there are) 8 (aṣṭau) junctions (sandhyāḥ) with the same quantities --viz. 4, 3, 2, and 1-- but in hundreds --i.e. 400, 300, 200 and 100-- (tāvadbhiḥ śataiḥ) --the arrangement is like this: In the junction between Kṛtayuga and Tretāyuga there are 400 + 300 = 700 divine years (400 divine years from Kṛtayuga and 300 divine years from Tretāyuga). In the junction between Tretāyuga and Dvāparayuga there are 300 + 200 = 500 divine years (300 from Tretāyuga and 200 from Dvāparayuga). In the junction between Dvāparayuga and Kaliyuga there are 200 + 100 = 300 divine years (200 from Dvāparayuga and 100 from Kaliyuga). Finally, in the junction between Kaliyuga and Kṛtayuga there are 100 + 400 = 500 divine years (100 from Kaliyuga and 400 from Kṛtayuga). So, 700 + 500 + 300 + 500 = 2000 divine years assigned to the sandhyā-s or junctions as established before--|

In 71 (eka-saptatyā) (mahā)yuga-s (catur-yugānām) (there is) 1 manvantara --the period of time in which a Manu presides-- (manvantaram). In 14 manvantara-s (manvantaraiḥ caturdaśabhiḥ) (there is) one day (dinam) of Brahmā (brāhmam). (And) at the end of a day of Brahmā (brahma-dina-ante), when the three worlds --beginning with the hells and ending in earth, atmosphere and sky-- are burnt up by Kālagni (kālāgni-dagdhe loka-traye), and (ca) when other three worlds are sent to sleep by the smoke --i.e. Maharloka, Janaloka and Tapoloka-- (anyatra ca loka-traye dhūma-prasvāpite), all (sarve) the living beings (janāḥ) are impelled (upward) by the impetuous fire (vegavat-agni-preritāḥ). After becoming Pralayākala-s (pralayākalī-bhūya), they stay (tiṣṭhanti) in Janaloka (janaloke)|

However (tu), well-awakened (prabuddhāḥ) Kūṣmāṇḍa, Hāṭakeśa, etc. (kūṣmāṇḍa-hāṭakeśa-ādyāḥ) play (krīḍanti) in Maholoka --also called Maharloka-- (maholoke)|

After that (tatas), at the end of the night --it refers to the night of Brahmā-- (niśā-samāptau) (there is) the manifestation (sṛṣṭiḥ) of Brahmā (brāhmī)|

By means of this rule to measure (anena mānena), 100 hundred years --of Brahmā-- (varṣa-śatam) (totals) the (entire) life of Brahmā (brahma-āyus)|

That --viz. 100 years of Brahmā-- (tad) (is) one day (dinam) of Viṣṇu (viṣṇoḥ), and (ca) the same (tāvatī) for the night (rātriī). Also (api), 100 (years) (śatam) of his --of Viṣṇu-- (tasya) (is his entire) life (āyus)|

That --i.e. 100 years of Viṣṇu-- (tad) (is) one day (dinam) of Rudra (rudrasya), of the lord of the Rudra world (rudra-loka-prabhoḥ) which is above it --which is above the world of Viṣṇu-- (tad-ūrdhve). The same (tāvatī) for the night (rātriḥ). The year (varṣam) (is) like before (prāk-vat). Moreover (api ca), 100 years --lit. 100 of that-- (of Rudra) (tad-śatam) (is) the furthest limit (of his life) (avadhiḥ)|

There (tatra), at the end of that --at the end of Rudra's life-- (tad-avasitau), Rudra moves to the State of Śiva (rudrasya... śivatva-gatiḥ). The furthest limit in the aforesaid government (ukta-adhikāra-avadhiḥ... tad) of Rudra (rudrasya) --i.e. the period of time in which Rudra presides-- (is) one day (dinam) of the one hundred Rudra-s (śata-rudrāṇām) —who are the ones holding the egg of Brahmā (brahma-aṇḍa-dhārakāṇām). The same (tāvatī) for the night (niśā). Moreover (api ca), their (teṣām) life (āyus) (lasts) 100 (years of the one hundred Rudra-s) (śatam)|

When the one hundred Rudra-s are destroyed (śata-rudra-kṣaye), (there is also) the annihilation of the egg of Brahmā (brahma-aṇḍa-vināśaḥ)|

Thus (evam), the life (etad eva... āyus) of the Rudra-s (rudrāṇām), from the water category --category 35-- (jala-tattvāt) up to the unmanifest --up to Prakṛti or category 13-- (avyakta-antam) follows a sequence (of 100) (krameṇa)|

The life (āyus) of the one who is previously --viz. lower-- (pūrvasya) (amounts to) one day (dinam) of the one who is higher (uttarasya... iti) --e.g. 100 years of someone living in the water category represent one day of someone living in the fire category, which is one level higher than the water category--|

After that (tatas ca), Brahmā --residing in the intellect or category 14-- (brahmā) and (ca) the Rudra-s (rudrāḥ), who are presiding over water, etc. (aba-ādi-adhikāriṇaḥ), remain (tiṣṭhantīti) in the unmanifest --in Prakṛti or category 13-- (avyakte... iti)|

Then (ca tadā) (does appear) lord Śrīkaṇṭha (śrīkaṇṭha-nāthaḥ), the one who produces dissolution (saṁhartā)|

This (eṣa) (is) the internal dissolution (āntara-pralayaḥ). Manifestation (sṛṣṭiḥ) (is said to happen) when that ends (tad-kṣaye)|

At that time (tatra), those who got liberation through other scriptures (śāstra-antara-muktāḥ) are also manifested (api sṛjyante)|

But (yad) what (yad... tad) (lasts) the life (svam āyus) of lord Śrīkaṇṭha (śrīkaṇṭha-nāthasya) (amounts to) one day (dinam) of the Rudra-s (rudrāṇām) who live in the Kañcuka-s --categories 7 to 11, or 6 to 11 if Māyā is considered to be a sixth Kañcuka-- (kañcuka-vāsinām). The same (tāvatī) for the night (rajanī). That (tad) which (yad) (constitute) their --of the Rudra-s who live in the Kañcuka-s-- (teṣām) life (āyus) (amounts to) one day of Gahaneśa --lit. "the lord of the Gahana-s", i.e. the one presiding over the embryo of Māyā-- (gahana-īśa-dinam). The same (tāvatī eva) for the night (kṣapā). And (ca) in it --i.e. in the night of Gahaneśa-- (tasyām), all (samastam) gets dissolved (vilīyate) in Māyā (māyāyām)|

(And when the night of that extent ends,) Gahaneśa (gahana-īśaḥ) emits (sṛjati) again (punar)|

Thus (evam), multiplying (guṇayitvā) the time that the unmanifest state (lasts) (yaḥ avyakta-kālaḥ tam) by ten parārdha-s --i.e. by 1,000,000,000,000,000,000-- (daśabhiḥ parārdhaiḥ) one is expressing (kathayet) (the length of) a day of Māyā (māyā-dinam). The night (rātriḥ) (is also) of that extent (tāvatī)|

That (saḥ) (is) certainly (eva) the dissolution (pralayaḥ)|

The time of Māyā (māyā-kālaḥ) multiplied (guṇitaḥ) by one hundred parārdha-s --i.e. by 10,000,000,000,000,000,000-- (parārdha-śatena) (is) one day (dinam) in the category of Īśvara --category 4-- (aiśvara-tattve)|

Here --in the category of Īśvara-- (atra), the vital energy (prāṇaḥ) emits (sṛjati) the universe (jagat). The night (rātriḥ) (is also) of that extent (tāvatī). In it --lit. "in which", i.e. in the aforesaid night-- (yatra) the vital energy becomes calm (prāṇa-praśamaḥ). And (ca) when the vital energy becomes calm (prāṇe... śānte) in the abode of Brahmarandhra (brahma-bila-dhāmni), (so does) consciousness (yā saṁvid) too (api). Even (api) there (tatra) a sequence (kramaḥ) exists (asti)|

The number (saṅkhyā tad) which (results) (yā) when the time of Īśvara is multipled by one hundred parārdha-s --10,000,000,000,000,000,000-- (aiśvare kāle parārdha-śata-guṇite) (amounts to) one day (dinam) of Sadāśiva (sādāśivam). The same (tāvatī) (goes) for the night (niśā). That --i.e. the night of Sadāśiva-- (saḥ eva) (is) a great dissolution (mahā-pralayaḥ)|

At the end of his time (sva-kāla-parikṣaye), Sadāśiva (sadāśivaḥ), after going through --lit. after ascending-- (ākramya) (the stages of) Bindu, Ardhacandra and Nirodhikā (bindu-ardhacandra-nirodhikāḥ), gets dissolved (līyate) in Nāda (nāde). (And) Nāda (nādaḥ), (through the mode of Nādānta, gets dissolved) in the Śakti category (śakti-tattve). That --the Śakti category-- (tad) (gets dissolved) in Vyāpinī (vyāpinyām), and (ca) it --i.e. Vyāpinī-- (sā) (gets dissolved) in Anāśritaśiva (anāśrite)|

The time of Śakti multiplied by ten million parārdha-s --ten million parārdha-s is 1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000-- (śakti-kālena parārdha-koṭi-guṇitena) (results in) one day of Anāśritaśiva (anāśrita-dinam)|

Anāśritaśiva (anāśritaḥ) (stays) in a universal state (known as 'Sāmya' or 'Samanā') (sāmanase pade). That (yad tad... tad) Samanā (or) Sāmya (sāmanasyam sāmyam) (is) Brahma (brahma)|

From this immeasurable time called Sāmya or Samanā (asmāt sāmanasyāt akalyāt kālāt), (there is), in merely the twinkling of an eye (nimeṣa-unmeṣa-mātratayā), an emergence (in the form of) the rotation of a wheel (containing) all the aforesaid times, expansions and disolutions (prokta-aśeṣa-kāla-prasara-pravilaya-cakra-bhrama-udayaḥ)|

"1 (ekam), 10 (daśa), 100 (śatam), 1,000 (sahasram), 10,000 (ayutam), 100,000 (lakṣam), 1,000,000 (niyutam), 10,000,000 (koṭiḥ), 100,000,000 (arbudam), 1,000,000,000 (vṛndam) 10,000,000,000 (kharvam), 100,000,000,000 (nikharvam), 1,000,000,000,000 (padmam), 10,000,000,000,000 (śaṅkuḥ), 100,000,000,000,000 (samudram), 1,000,000,000,000,000 (antyam), 10,000,000,000,000,000 (madhyam) (and) 100,000,000,000,000,000 (parārdham iti)", eighteen (numbers) (aṣṭādaśa) (which are gotten from) multiplying by ten (daśaguṇitāni) in due order (krameṇa). This is the rule for calculating (iti gaṇitavidhiḥ)|

Thus (evam), innumerable (asaṅkhyāḥ) manifestations and dissolutions (sṛṣṭi-pralayāḥ) (remain) in one breath whose form is the great manifestation (ekasmin mahā-sṛṣṭi-rūpe prāṇe). (In turn,) it --prāṇa or breath-- (saḥ api) (remains) in Consciousness (saṁvidi); (and) It --viz. Consciousness-- (sā) (remains) in upādhi or limiting attribute (upādhau); (and) it --viz. upādhi-- (saḥ) (remains) in Pure Consciousness (cit-mātre). This (ayam) Vibration (spandaḥ) of Pure Consciousness (cit-mātrasya eva) (is) what is called (yad ayam... nāma) the emergence of Time (kāla-udayaḥ)|

Therefore (tatas eva), the variety (vaicitryam) in dream, imagination, etc. (svapna-saṅkalpa-ādau) does not lead to a contradiction (na virodha-āvaham) with it --i.e. with Time-- (asya)|

In this way (evam), just as (yathā) (there is) an emergence of Time (kāla-udayaḥ) in prāṇa (prāṇe), so (tathā) (there is) also (an emergence of Time) (api) in apāna (apāne), from the heart (hṛdayāt) down to the root abode (mūla-pīṭha-paryantam)|

And (ca) just as (yathā) in heart, throat, palate, forehead, Brahmarandhra and dvādaśānta --dvādaśānta is here the place of emergence and repose of the śakti who has her mouth downward, i.e. of the Yoginī whose form is the sixth stream-- (hṛd-kaṇṭha-tālu-lalāṭa-randhra-dvādaśānteṣu) (there are) six causes (kāraṇa-ṣaṭkam) called Brahmā, Viṣṇu, Rudra, Īśvara, Sadāśiva and Anāśritaśiva (brahma-viṣṇu-rudra-īśa-sadāśiva-anāśrita-ākhyam), so (tathā eva) also (api) in apāna (apāne), (such deities stay) in heart, kanda, the organ of happiness --i.e. the sexual organ--, contraction, expansion and dvādaśānta (hṛd-kanda-ānanda-saṅkoca-vikāsa-dvādaśānteṣu). These (deities) (ete) (are) the regents of childhood, youth, old age, death, rebirth and Liberation (bālya-yauvana-vārddhaka-nidhana-punarbhava-mukti-adhipatayaḥ)|


Now (atha) the emergence of Time (kāla-udayaḥ) in samāna (samāne)|

Samāna (samānaḥ), moving (sañcaran) in the ten heart's subtle channels (hārdīṣu daśāsu nāḍīṣu), causes the fluids, etc. to flow (rasa-ādīn vāhayati) homogeneously (sāmyena) throughout the whole body (samaste dehe)|

Moving (sañcaran) there (tatra) in the eight directions (dik-aṣṭake) makes the (limited) knower imitate (pramātuḥ anukārayati) the activity/gesture of those lords of the directions (tad-dik-pati-ceṣṭām), as it were (iva)|

However (tu), while moving (sañcaran) upward and downward (ūrdhva-adhas), it --viz. samāna-- brings about (karoti) a reiterated motion (gata-agatam) in the three subtle channels --viz. in Iḍā, Piṅgalā and Suṣumnā-- (tisṛṣu nāḍīṣu)|

There (tatra), on an equinox day --i.e. when the sun is in Aries-- (viṣuvat-dine), externally at the time of dawn (bāhye prabhāta-kāle), (samāna) flows (vahati) in the middle path --in Suṣumnā-- (madhya-mārge) for one ghaṭikā and a quarter --i.e. 24 minutes + 6 minutes = 30 minutes-- (sa-pādām ghaṭikām)|

Then (tatas), considering that (iti gaṇanayā) (samāna performs) externally (bahis) nine hundred (nava-śatāni) movements of the breath --i.e. "breathing processes", viz. samāna flows in the form of nine hundred breathing processes-- (prāṇa-vikṣepāṇām) for two ghaṭikā-s and a half --i.e. 2 x 24 minutes + 12 minutes = 60 minutes = 1 hour-- (sa-ardha-ghaṭikā-dvayam), (there are) five (pañca) passages (saṅkrāntayaḥ) (from one zodiacal asterism to the other), viz. "to the left (vāme), to the right (dakṣiṇe), to the left (vāme), to the right (dakṣiṇe) (and) to the left (vāme iti)"|

Next (tatas), when five passages (from one zodiacal asterism to the other) have taken place (saṅkrānti-pañcake vṛtte), once fourteen ghaṭikā-s less one quarter --14 x 24 minutes - 6 minutes = 330 minutes or 5 hours and a half-- have passed (pāda-ūnāsu caturdaśasu ghaṭikāsu atikrāntāsu), at midday (madhya-āhne), (samāna flows in the form of) nine hundred breathing processes (nava prāṇa-śatāni) during the autumnal equinox (dakṣiṇam śāradam viṣuvat)|

After that (tatas api), (do happen) five passages --the zodiacal sign Scorpio, etc.-- (saṅkrānti-pañcakam) (from one zodial asterism to the other), viz. "to the right (dakṣiṇe), to the left (vāme), to the right (dakṣiṇe), to the left (vāme) (and) to the right (dakṣiṇe iti)". Each of which (pratyekam) (lasts) nine hundred (breathing processes) (nava-śatāni). (It is) in this way (iti evam) during the night (rātrau) as well (api iti)|

So (evam), on an equinox day (viṣuvat-divase) and also (ca) on its night (tad-rātrau) (there are) twelve passages in each (dvādaśa dvādaśa saṅkrāntayaḥ)|

Afterward (tatas), when the days increase and decrease (dina-vṛddhi-kṣayeṣu) the passages increase and decrease (too) (saṅkrānti-vṛddhi-kṣayaḥ)|

Thus (evam), in one (movement of the) vital air called samāna --and not in two as in the case of prāṇa and apāna-- (ekasmin samāna-maruti) (there are) a couple of years (varṣa-dvayam) as there is no union of inhalation and exhalation (śvāsa-praśvāsa-yoga-abhāvāt)|

Here also --in one motion-- (atra api) (there is) emergence of twelve years, etc. (dvādaśa-abda-udaya-ādi) like before (pūrva-vat)|

Nevertheless (tu), with reference to udāna (udāne), (its) movement (cāraḥ) reaches up to dvādaśānta --i.e. udāna moves from the heart toward the dvādaśānta located in the head-- (dvādaśānta-avadhiḥ); (and) the time (kālasya) is only Spanda or Vibration (spanda-mātra-ātmanaḥ)|

Here also (atra api) the rule (vidhiḥ) (is) like before (pūrva-vat)|

However (tu), with reference to vyāna (vyāne) —which is devoid of succession (akrame api)—, since it is (all-)pervading (vyāpakatvāt), the emergence of Time (kāla-udayaḥ) (happens) by means of a subtle bursting forth (sūkṣma-ucchalattā-yogena)|


Now (atha) the emergence of letters (varṇa-udayaḥ)|

There (tatra), (there is) a constant --i.e. always the same-- (samaḥ) emergence of groups --e.g. "ka" group, "ca" group, etc.-- (varga-udayaḥ) every one hour and a half (ardha-prahare ardha-prahare) in the equinox (viṣuvati). When there are 216 --this implies 216 x 4 seconds (per breathing process) = 864 seconds-- (dve śate ṣoḍaśa-adhike) breathing processes (prāṇānām) for each of the letters (varṇasya varṇasya), (there are) externally (bahis) an emergence of (udayaḥ) "36 (ṣaṭtriṁśat) caṣaka-s --i.e. 36 x 24 seconds = 864 seconds-- (caṣakāṇi iti)". This (ayam) (is) the emergence of letters (varṇa-udayaḥ) not born from effort (a-yatna-jaḥ)|

But (tu) the emergence of mantra (mantra-udayaḥ) born from effort --i.e. the emergence is born from effort, not the mantra-s-- (yatna-jaḥ) (implies that) someone attains identity/unity (tādātmyam eti) with the deity of a mantra (mantra-devatayā saha) by an exploration leading to unification --i.e. it has to do with an intense repetitive awareness which is finally conducive to unity-- (anusandadhat) (which is carried out) day and night (divāniśam). (Exploration into which?) An exploration into the manifold emergence of the mantra (citram mantra-udayam) by force of one constant thinking of --viz. by force of one constant meditation-- (eka-anusandhi-balāt) like the act of drawing (water) by the buckets of a water-wheel (araghaṭṭa-ghaṭīyantra-vāhana-vat)|

There (tatra), in the constantly active (emergence) (sadā-udite), the number of emergences (of mantra) (udaya-saṅkhyā) (is) explained (vyākhyātā) by the number of movements of breathing processes --i.e. 21,600 times a day-- (prāṇa-cāra-saṅkhyayā eva). When it --i.e. the number of movements of breathing processes-- is doubled (tad-dviguṇite) that --viz. the number of emergences of mantra-- becomes half (tad-ardham) and so on (iti-ādi). By (this) method (krameṇa), regarding the wheel containing 108 (portions) (aṣṭa-uttara-śate cakre) (the number of) emergence(s) (of breathing processes) (udayaḥ) (is) 200 (dvi-śataḥ) --this is simple to understand if one realizes that 21,600 ÷ 108 = 200 breathing processes--. In this way (iti), by (following this) rule (krameṇa), to someone who rests (viśrāntasya) in the nature of the movement (of breathing processes) (cāra-svarūpe) —whether it is gross or subtle (sthūla-sūkṣme)— when the movement of breathing processes decreases (prāṇa-cāre kṣīṇe) (and) when time is consumed (kāla-grāse vṛtte), this (idam) unique --i.e. there is only one-- (ekam eva) perfectly Full (sampūrṇam) Consciousness (saṁvedanam) —bursting with variegated powers (citra-śakti-nirbharam)— shines forth (bhāsate)|

The difference in time (kāla-bhedaḥ eva)(and) not (na) the difference in the knowable --in the object-- (vedya-bhedaḥ)— produces a difference in knowledge (saṁvedana-bhedakaḥ). (What is it like?) Like the knowledge when one is on the summit of a mountain (śikhara-stha-jñāna-vat). The minimum time of existence (yāvān avasthiti-kālaḥ) of knowledge (jñānasya) --i.e. the minimum time in which knowledge exists-- (is) an instant (saḥ eva kṣaṇaḥ). And (ca) in one emergence of the breathing process (prāṇa-udaye ca ekasmin) (there is) only one (ekam eva) knowledge (jñānam). This (ca etad) (is) inevitable --i.e. it is necessarily so-- (avaśyam). Otherwise (anyathā), the unique (ekam) knowledge contained in a vikalpa --thought-- (vikalpa-jñānam) would be nothing (na kiñcid syāt). (Why?) Due to (its) gradual adhering to the words --or due to its being gradually adorned/perfumed by the words-- (kramika-śabda-ārūṣitatvāt) (and) because even the mātrā-s are gradual (mātrāyāḥ api kramikatvāt)|

As (Pāṇini) said (in his Aṣṭādhyāyī 1.2.32) (yad āha):

"At the beginning (āditas) of it --"of svarita or circumflex, which is a mixture of udātta and anudātta", from the previous aphorism 1.2.31-- (tasya) udātta --accute writen accent-- (udāttam) occupies half the measure of a short vowel --i.e. since a short vowel measures 1 mātrā, udātta occupies half of a mātrā at the beginning; e.g. if a short vowel, measuring 1 mātrā, is svarita, then the first half will be udātta (acute) while the second half will be anudātta (grave); and if it is a svarita long vowel measuring 2 mātrā-s, then the first half mātrā will be udātta while the remaining 1 mātrā and a half will be anudātta-- (ardha-hrasvam... iti)"|

Therefore (tasmāt), as long as (yāvat) another Vibration does not arise (spanda-antaram... na uditam), so long (tāvat) (there is) only (eva) one (ekam) knowledge (jñānam)|

For this very reason (atas eva), at the time of remembering the 81 pada-s (ekāśīti-pada-smaraṇa-samaye) by means of a penetration into manifold attributes (vividha-dharma-anupraveśa-mukhena), that (asau) vikalpa --in this context vikalpa is Śuddhavidyā or Pure Knowledge-- (vikalpaḥ), whose sphere is the Supreme Lord (parama-īśvara-viṣayaḥ), (is) only (eva) one (ekaḥ); (and) a condition free from vikalpa-s --thoughts-- (avikalpa-ātmā eva) occurs (sampadyate) due to the swallowing of Time (kāla-grāsena... iti)|

Thus (evam), seeing (paśyan) the whole (akhilam) course/path of Time (kāla-adhvānam) in the emergence of the vital energy (prāṇa-udaye eva), reckoning (ca... ākalayan) right there --in the emergece of the vital energy-- (tatra eva) manifold (vicitrān) (and) innumerable (niḥsaṅkhyān) manifestations and dissolutions (sṛṣṭi-saṁhārān), (and) recognizing (pratyabhijānan) one's own --or "of the Self"-- (ātmanaḥ eva) Supremacy (pārameśvaryam), one becomes (bhavati) liberated (muktaḥ eva... iti)|

"He attains the State of Bhairava (bhairavī-bhāvam eti) who is always intent on (nitya-udyuktaḥ) seeing (paśyan) the power of the vital energy (prāṇa-śaktim) of the Self (ātmanaḥ) —who is Consciousness --i.e. the Self or Oneself is Consciousness-- (saṁvid-rūpasya)— as well as (ca) the nature (rūpam) in it --viz. in the power of the vital energy-- (tatra-gam) which is beyond Time (atikālam), together with (sākam) the groups/wheels of manifestation, maintenance and dissolution (sṛṣṭi-sthema-saṁhāra-cakraiḥ) --i.e. he becomes Bhairava if he is ready to contemplate the power of the vital energy of the Self, of Consciousness, as well as the nature residing in it, which is timeless, along with all the processes of manifestation, maintenance and dissolution--||


TRANSLATION IS "COMPLETE" BUT NO POLISHING YET

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Gabriel Pradīpaka

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