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 Protoshaivism - Appendix

An introductory study: Time Line

Published: May 20, 2003

Author: Andrés Muni
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Appendix of the first article originally in Spanish and brought to you in English by Gabriel Pradīpaka

The following time line consists of four columns:

  1. The first column enlists the respective years.
  2. The second one contains relevant facts occurred in India.
  3. The third column relates to important events happening in Egypt and Middle East.
  4. The last column enlists crucial facts occurred in the Mediterranean world.
  5. When the fact comprehends the last three columns, it is implied a world-wide fact that did not occur necessarily in either India, Egypt and Middle East or the Mediterranean world. These facts appears in brown color.

30,000 Cro-Magnon - Development of complicated funeral rites
8,000 The rupestrian art appears - Man of Combe Chapelle also appears at this time
7,000   Anatolia: Çatal - Höyuk: Stone idols Cyprus: Mother Goddess

Homo sapiens is the dominant species in the planet
First cultivated fields in Persia, Mesopotamia and Egypt
Beginning of the Neolithic period - Pottery development
India: Codification of Shaivism

5,600     Cyprus: Stone idols
5,000   Predynastic Egypt - Cult of the bull  
4,500   Anatolia: Copper industry
Egypt: Phallic god called Min
Crete: Beginning of the Minoan period
4,000     China: Beginning of the Neolithic period
3,800 Development of the Indian civilizations   Malta: First megalithic monuments
3,500 Spreading of the megalithic monuments through Asia and Europe
  Sumer: Arrival of the Sumerian people proceeding from India
Prediluvian dynasties
Egypt: The egyptians occupy the valley of Nile - First written documents
Malta: Temple of Skorba
Cult of bull and phallus
3,200   Troy foundation Cyprus: Statues of gods
Crete: Copper industry
3,000   Sumer: Historic deluge
Egypt: A unified monarchy is consolidated - Beginning of the first dynastic period (first and second dynasties)
Malta: Temples of Ġgantija
2,800   Sumer: Postdiluvian dynasties - The first state-cities are founded Crete: Apogee of the Minoan art
2,700 Migration of Aryan tribes
Protoindian writing Troy: Sumptuous palaces
Egypt: Beginning of the Ancient Empire (third and sixth dynasties) - Great pyramids
Cyprus: Cult of the bull
2,600     Crete: Development of cities
2,500 Apogee of Mohenjo Daro Syria: Apogee of Ebla (semitic) England: Stonehenge
Malta: Total destruction of the Ġgantija civilization
2,400   Sumer: Reign of Sargon in Akkad Malta: Culture of Tarxien
2,300   The Aryans set Troy and the Anatolian cities on fire Cult of bull and phallus
2,100   Egypt: End of the Ancient Empire - Beginning of the first middle period (seventh to tenth dynasties), which gives way to the Middle Empire (eleventh and twelfth dynasties) Crete-Egypt relationship
China: Hia dynasty
2,000 Hymns of Ṛgveda Sumer: End of the Sumerian dynasty Greece: Arrival of the Achaeans
Crete: Palace of Knossos
Malta: End of the culture of Tarxien - Total destruction
1,890   Babylon: Suabum (Su-abu or Sumu-abum), first Semitic king  
1,800 The Metal Age begins - Societies are hierarchically structured
Big settlements arise - Agriculture is intensified
  Egypt: Commencement of the second middle period (thirteenth to seventeenth dynasties)
Abraham of Ur leaves Sumer bound for Canaan
Mesopotamia: First Assyrian and Babylonian dynasties

Greek Aryans settle down in the Balkans
Corsica: Faced phallic menhirs
Italy: Valcamonica -Val Camonica or Camonica Valley- (labyrinths)
China: Chang dynasty

1,700 Destruction of Mohenjo Daro by the Aryans Syria: Destruction of Ebla by the Hittites (Aryans)
Egypt: Invasion of the Asian Hyksos

Eruption of the volcano Santorini
The palace of Knossos gets burnt
Development of the Achaean culture


Departure of the Hebrews bound for Egypt
Babylon: Plundering by the Hittites (Aryans)
End of the Semitic dynasty

1,500 Struggle between Aryans and Dravidian for power Babylon: Kassite domination
Egypt: End of the second middle period - New Empire (eighteenth to twentieth dynasties)
Malta: New settlements
Greece: The Achaeans occupy the Peloponnesus - The Mycenaean civilization begins
1,400 Aryan conquest of Northern India - War of Mahābhārata
Atharvaveda: Śaiva doctrines are incorporated to the Aryan religion
  Crete: End of the Minos' reign - Destruction of Knossos by the Achaeans - Minoan doctrines being assimilated to the Mycenaean religion (Aryan) - Mycenaean influence in Crete
1,300 Chāndogyopaniṣad Egypt: Eighteenth dynasty (Tutmosis the Second and the Third, Amenhotep the Fourth) - Temples of Luxor and Deir-el-Bahari - Nineteenth dynasty (Seti the First and Rameses the Second) - Temples of Karnak and Abu-Simbel - Apogee of the Akhenaton's Empire, an attempt to adopt monotheism
Babylon: The Assyrians (Semitic) take the city
War of Troy
The Hebrews are expelled from Egypt

Cyprus: Mycenaean colonization - Young gods
Malta: Mycenaean influence
Italy: Arrival of the Etruscans

1,200 Dorian invasion
Northern India is turned into Aryan Iran is turned into Aryan
Troy: Final destruction
The non-Aryan Phrygians arrives in Anatolia from Thrace
Writing disappears from Greece
The Dorians reach Southern Greece
Italy: Aeneas, coming from Troy, settles down in Palatine
Cyprus: Destruction on the part of the Dorians
1,100   Babylon: Nabuchodonosor the First (Semitic)
Israel: Samuel establishes nobility - Beginning of the Judah reign
Egypt: End of the New Empire
Mycenae: Destruction by the Dorians
Crete: Total destruction by the Dorians
Italy: The Latin (Aryan) tribes occupy Latium
1,000 The Aryans penetrate into Gujarat Israel: Reign of David - Reign of Salomon
Egypt: Commencement of the Low Empire
900 Brāhmī alphabet is adopted Anatolia: Reign of Urartu (Aryan) Greece: Homer - Reappearance of writing
Malta: Phoenician influence
800 Aryan domination in the valley of Ganges   Cyprus: Assyrian and then Egyptian conquests
Foundation of Carthage
Greece: First olympic games
753     Rome foundation
Greece: Hesiod
730     Greek settlers found Syracuse (Sicily)
710     Greece: Unification of the kingdoms of Attic
700     Italy: Beginning of the Etruscan art
680     Greece: Organization of Athens
Colonization of Asia Minor up to the Black Sea
Byzantium foundation
620   Mesopotamia: Destruction of Nineveh and Assyrian power  
600 Transition from the Vedic culture to Hinduism
Use of the Kharoṣṭhī alphabet
Babylon: Chaldean dynasty. Reign of Nabuchodonosor the Second
Babylonians and Scythians take Ninive
Jerusalem is captured by the Babylonians
End of the Judah kingdom
Captivity of the Jews in Babylon
562 Birth of Gautama Buddha    
550   Destruction of Urartu by the Medes and Scythians
Cyrus, Aryan king of Persia
Babylon is taken by the Persians
Invasion of Egypt
Reign of Darius the First
500 The Achaemenid Empire comprehends from India to Greece
The Persians annex India
Sanskrit grammar by Pāṇini
  Etruscan development in Northern Italy
Etruscan apogee
Rome is now an important city
483 Death of Buddha    
480     The Persians destroy Athens
460     Greece: Age of Pericles (Plato, Herodotus)
Athens is the center of the civilized world
429     Death of Pericles
396     Destruction of Veii (Etruscan) by the Romans (Aryan)
356     Alexander of Macedonia is born
350     End of the Etruscan Empire
330   Egypt: End of the Low Empire  
326 Expedition of Alexander and subjugation of Gandhara    
323     Death of Alexander in Babylon
321 Candragupta (Mauryan dynasty)    
300 Megasthenes in the court of Candragupta    
274 King Aśoka imposes Buddhism   Italy: End of the Etruscans
The Romans take Tarentum
218     Malta: Roman occupation
206 Antiochus' (king of Syria) expedition to India    
200 Sanskrit works by Patañjali    
146 Ajanta   Carthage and Corinth are destroyed by the Romans
135   The Scythians invade Bactria Greece is subjugated by Rome
26 Indian commission before Augustus    

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