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 Learning Sanskrit - Declension - 1

Declension: Terminations


 Introduction

Hi, Gabriel Pradīpaka once again. This document is merely a compilation of sets of endings or terminations for regular nouns and adjectives ending in vowel and consonant. The main purpose of it is to help you during your study of the Sanskrit declension. Take this document as a useful tool and a complement to those documents dealing with Sanskrit declension. It is also a useful document if you are studying Sanskrit translation and do not remember a particular termination.

Keep in mind that these are the terminations to be used with regular nouns and adjectives, but they will also very often have to undergo a series of changes according to the Rules of Sandhi. There are several specific rules to be followed too. This kind of changes cannot be explained here, of course, but you will have to resort to the subsection Declension within the Sanskrit section for that information. Also, the general case terminations to be used with nouns and adjectives ending in k, kh, g, gh.... ś, ṣ and h are exactly like that, i.e. "general". There will to make be some changes in the real world, you know. For example, "s" (Nominative termination, singular number and masculine/feminine in gender) is for the most part dropped. There some other changes too. So, be on your toes when using those terminations, please, unless you are quite a Sanskrit scholar and exactly know what you are doing.

I will put "all" terminations in this document, that is, those taught by me to date and those that I have not taught you yet. I am doing so because I do not want you to think that I do not know the rest of terminations. I did the same thing as to verbs here for the same reason! Yes, I know them, be sure, hehe. Joking apart, please, calm down and do not start counting the terminations or you will go mad shortly. Yes, there are an insane number of them. Hey, smile and be happy, God loves you, haha.

Important:

1) The terminations I am showing here are meant to replace the final vowel (a, ā, i, u, etc.) or "at, an, in, vas (ivas) and yas (īyas)" and then "maybe" you will have to make some changes according to Sandhi Rules [e.g. as regards a neuter noun ending in "i" such as "vāri" --water--, its Instrumental case (sing.) is formed by replacing the final "i" with "inā": "vārinā", but by the 18th Rule of Consonant Sandhi, "n" is to be changed to "ṇ". Thus, the final result is: "vāriṇā"... be careful then when applying terminations to the nouns and adjectives as those endings are in their "crude" form, that is, without any Sandhi Rules being considered].

2) The only exceptions to this rule are "General case terminations if the nouns and adjectives end in k, kh, g, gh.... ś, and h" and "Nouns and adjectives ending in the consonant: s". In these particular cases, you have to add the termination to the noun or adjective ending in any of those consonants without removing them (i.e. without removing k, kh, g, gh.... ś, ṣ, h or s), and then make the respective changes according to the Sandhi Rules and some other rules too that I cannot teach you in this document. Any other specification or exception will be given in the tables themselves below, do not worry. Keep this in mind, please.

3) Also, not all types of nouns and adjectives support the three genders (masculine, feminine and neuter). For example, the "normal" nouns ending in "ū" are only feminine, but if derived from roots (root nouns), they may also be masculine. Regarding root nouns there are other possible endings too. Besides, there are other nouns that when belong to the neuter gender, change their last vowel [e.g. "se" (one who serves) is changed to "si" and declined like if it were a neuter noun ending in "i". Strange, isn't it?]. Therefore, do not e-mail me to warn me about some "missing" gender or termination except you know what you are saying, please (of course, I accept e-mails informing on typos, because the amount of terminations is really insane and I might have made some mistakes of that kind as I almost had a heart attack in the process, hehe). Thus, I am only specifying the "usual" terminations, and not all genders are supported sometimes. If you are doubtful with reference to a termination, consult the Declension documents (Sanskrit/Declension in the main menu), because it is there where I go into details about declension. On the other hand, there are several nouns and adjectives that do not follow any established set of terminations or rules... that is why I wrote in the above index "Regular nouns and adjectives".

4) Finally, once again remember that this document is only exhibiting the sets of terminations. How these terminations are added to the noun or adjective and so on, is explained in the respective Declension documents.

The terminations now.

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 Normal Nouns and adjectives ending in "a"

MASCULINE

CASES Singular Dual Plural
Nominative अः आः
aḥ au āḥ
Vocative आः
a au āḥ
Accusative अम् आन्
am au ān
Instrumental एन आभ्याम् ऐः
ena ābhyām aiḥ
Dative आय आभ्याम् एभ्यः
āya ābhyām ebhyaḥ
Ablative आत् आभ्याम् एभ्यः
āt ābhyām ebhyaḥ
Genitive अस्य अयोः आनाम्
asya ayoḥ ānām
Locative अयोः एषु
e ayoḥ eṣu

NEUTER

CASES Singular Dual Plural
Nominative अम् आनि
am e āni
Vocative आनि
a e āni
  Accusative   अम् आनि
am e āni
The rest is like the masculine ones

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 Normal Nouns and adjectives ending in "Ā"

MASCULINE

CASES Singular Dual Plural
Nominative आः आः
āḥ au āḥ
Vocative आः आः
āḥ au āḥ
Accusative आम् अः
ām au aḥ
Instrumental आभ्याम् आभिः
ā ābhyām ābhiḥ
Dative आभ्याम् आभ्यः
e ābhyām ābhyaḥ
Ablative अः आभ्याम् आभ्यः
aḥ ābhyām ābhyaḥ
Genitive अः ओः आम्
aḥ oḥ ām
Locative ओः आसु
i oḥ āsu

FEMININE

CASES Singular Dual Plural
Nominative आः
ā e āḥ
Vocative आः
e e āḥ
Accusative आम् आः
ām e āḥ
Instrumental अया आभ्याम् आभिः
ayā ābhyām ābhiḥ
Dative आयै आभ्याम् आभ्यः
āyai ābhyām ābhyaḥ
Ablative आयाः आभ्याम् आभ्यः
āyāḥ ābhyām ābhyaḥ
Genitive आयाः अयोः आनाम्
āyāḥ ayoḥ ānām
Locative आयाम् अयोः आसु
āyām ayoḥ āsu

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 Normal Nouns and adjectives ending in "i"

MASCULINE

CASES Singular Dual Plural
Nominative इः अयः
iḥ ī ayaḥ
Vocative अयः
e ī ayaḥ
Accusative इम् ईन्
im ī īn
Instrumental इना इभ्याम् इभिः
inā ibhyām ibhiḥ
Dative अये इभ्याम् इभ्यः
aye ibhyām ibhyaḥ
Ablative एः इभ्याम् इभ्यः
eḥ ibhyām ibhyaḥ
Genitive एः योः ईनाम्
eḥ yoḥ īnām
Locative योः इषु
au yoḥ iṣu

FEMININE

CASES Singular Dual Plural
Nominative इः अयः
iḥ ī ayaḥ
Vocative अयः
e ī ayaḥ
Accusative इम् ईः
im ī īḥ
Instrumental या इभ्याम् इभिः
ibhyām ibhiḥ
Dative अये or यै इभ्याम् इभ्यः
aye or yai ibhyām ibhyaḥ
Ablative एः or याः इभ्याम् इभ्यः
eḥ or yāḥ ibhyām ibhyaḥ
Genitive एः or याः योः ईनाम्
eḥ or yāḥ yoḥ īnām
Locative or याम् योः इषु
au or yām yoḥ iṣu

NEUTER

CASES Singular Dual Plural
Nominative इनी ईनि
i inī īni
Vocative or इनी ईनि
e or i inī īni
Accusative इनी ईनि
i inī īni
Instrumental इना इभ्याम् इभिः
inā ibhyām ibhiḥ
Dative इने इभ्याम् इभ्यः
ine ibhyām ibhyaḥ
Ablative इनः इभ्याम् इभ्यः
inaḥ ibhyām ibhyaḥ
Genitive इनः इनोः ईनाम्
inaḥ inoḥ īnām
Locative इनिः इनोः इषु
iniḥ inoḥ iṣu

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 Normal Nouns and adjectives ending in "u"

MASCULINE

CASES Singular Dual Plural
Nominative उः अवः
uḥ ū avaḥ
Vocative अवः
o ū avaḥ
Accusative उम् ऊन्
um ū ūn
Instrumental उना उभ्याम् उभिः
unā ubhyām ubhiḥ
Dative अवे उभ्याम् उभ्यः
ave ubhyām ubhyaḥ
Ablative ओः उभ्याम् उभ्यः
oḥ ubhyām ubhyaḥ
Genitive ओः वोः ऊनाम्
oḥ voḥ ūnām
Locative वोः उषु
au voḥ uṣu

FEMININE

CASES Singular Dual Plural
Nominative उः अवः
uḥ ū avaḥ
Vocative अवः
o ū avaḥ
Accusative उम् ऊः
um ū uḥ
Instrumental वा उभ्याम् उभिः
ubhyām ubhiḥ
Dative अवे or वै उभ्याम् उभ्यः
ave or vai ubhyām ubhyaḥ
Ablative ओः or वाः उभ्याम् उभ्यः
oḥ or vāḥ ubhyām ubhyaḥ
Genitive ओः or वाः वोः ऊनाम्
oḥ or vāḥ voḥ ūnām
Locative or वाम् वोः उषु
au or vām voḥ uṣu

NEUTER

CASES Singular Dual Plural
Nominative उनी ऊनि
u unī ūni
Vocative or उनी ऊनि
o or u unī ūni
Accusative उनी ऊनि
u unī ūni
Instrumental उना उभ्याम् उभिः
unā ubhyām ubhiḥ
Dative उने उभ्याम् उभ्यः
une ubhyām ubhyaḥ
Ablative उनः उभ्याम् उभ्यः
unaḥ ubhyām ubhyaḥ
Genitive उनः उनोः ऊनाम्
unaḥ unoḥ ūnām
Locative उनि उनोः उषु
uni unoḥ uṣu

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 Normal Nouns and adjectives ending in "Ī"

MASCULINE

CASES Singular Dual Plural
Nominative ईः यौ यः
īḥ yau yaḥ
Vocative ईः यौ यः
īḥ yau yaḥ
Accusative ईम् यौ ईन्
īm yau īn
Instrumental या ईभ्याम् ईभिः
ībhyām ībhiḥ
Dative ये ईभ्याम् ईभ्यः
ye ībhyām ībhyaḥ
Ablative यः ईभ्याम् ईभ्यः
yaḥ ībhyām ībhyaḥ
Genitive यः योः याम्
yaḥ yoḥ yām
Locative योः ईषु
ī yoḥ īṣu

FEMININE

CASES Singular Dual Plural
Nominative यौ यः
ī yau yaḥ
Vocative यौ यः
i yau yaḥ
Accusative ईम् यौ ईः
īm yau īḥ
Instrumental या ईभ्याम् ईभिः
ībhyām ībhiḥ
Dative यै ईभ्याम् ईभ्यः
yai ībhyām ībhyaḥ
Ablative याः ईभ्याम् ईभ्यः
yāḥ ībhyām ībhyaḥ
Genitive याः योः ईनाम्
yāḥ yoḥ īnām
Locative याम् योः ईषु
yām yoḥ īṣu

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 Normal Nouns and adjectives ending in "Ū"

FEMININE

CASES Singular Dual Plural
Nominative ऊः वौ वः
ūḥ vau vaḥ
Vocative वौ वः
u vau vaḥ
Accusative ऊम् वौ ऊः
ūm vau ūḥ
Instrumental वा ऊभ्याम् ऊभिः
ūbhyām ūbhiḥ
Dative वै ऊभ्याम् ऊभ्यः
vai ūbhyām ūbhyaḥ
Ablative वाः ऊभ्याम् ऊभ्यः
vāḥ ūbhyām ūbhyaḥ
Genitive वाः वोः ऊनाम्
vāḥ voḥ ūnām
Locative वाम् वोः ऊषु
vām voḥ ūṣu

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 Normal Nouns and adjectives ending in "Ṛ"

MASCULINE

CASES Singular Dual Plural
Nominative आरौ आरः
ā ārau āraḥ
Vocative अर् or अः आरौ आरः
ar or aḥ ārau āraḥ
Accusative आरम् आरौ ॠन्
āram ārau ṝn
Instrumental रा ऋभ्याम् ऋभिः
ṛbhyām ṛbhiḥ
Dative रे ऋभ्याम् ऋभ्यः
re ṛbhyām ṛbhyaḥ
Ablative उः ऋभ्याम् ऋभ्यः
uḥ ṛbhyām ṛbhyaḥ
Genitive उः रोः ॠणाम्
uḥ roḥ ṝṇām
Locative अरि रोः ऋषु
ari roḥ ṛṣu

NEUTER

CASES Singular Dual Plural
Nominative ऋणी ॠणि
ṛṇī ṝṇi
Vocative अर् or ऋणी ॠणि
ar or ṛṇī ṝṇi
Accusative ऋणी ॠणि
ṛṇī ṝṇi
Instrumental रा or ॠणा ऋभ्याम् ॠभिः
or ṛṇā ṛbhyām ṝbhiḥ
Dative रे or ऋणे ऋभ्याम् ऋभ्यः
re or ṛṇe ṛbhyām ṛbhyaḥ
Ablative उः or ऋणः ऋभ्याम् ऋभ्यः
uḥ or ṛṇaḥ ṛbhyām ṛbhyaḥ
Genitive उः or ऋणः रोः or ऋणो ॠणाम्
uḥ or ṛṇaḥ roḥ or ṛṇo ṝṇām
Locative अरि रोः or ऋणो ऋषु
ari roḥ or ṛṇo ṛṣu

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 Normal Nouns and adjectives ending in "e"

MASCULINE AND FEMININE

CASES Singular Dual Plural
Nominative एः अयौ अयः
eḥ ayau ayaḥ
Vocative अयौ अयः
e ayau ayaḥ
Accusative अयम् अयौ अयः
ayam ayau ayaḥ
Instrumental अया एभ्याम् एभिः
ayā ebhyām ebhiḥ
Dative अये एभ्याम् एभ्यः
aye ebhyām ebhyaḥ
Ablative एः एभ्याम् एभ्यः
eḥ ebhyām ebhyaḥ
Genitive एः अयोः अयाम्
eḥ ayoḥ ayām
Locative अयि अयोः एषु
ayi ayoḥ eṣu

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 Normal Nouns and adjectives ending in "ai"

MASCULINE AND FEMININE

CASES Singular Dual Plural
Nominative आः आयौ आयः
āḥ āyau āyaḥ
Vocative आः आयौ आयः
āḥ āyau āyaḥ
Accusative आयम् आयौ आयः
āyam āyau āyaḥ
Instrumental आया आभ्याम् आभिः
āyā ābhyām ābhiḥ
Dative आये आभ्याम् आभ्यः
āye ābhyām ābhyaḥ
Ablative आयः आभ्याम् आभ्यः
āyaḥ ābhyām ābhyaḥ
Genitive आयः आयोः आयाम्
āyaḥ āyoḥ āyām
Locative आयि आयोः आसु
āyi āyoḥ āsu

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 Normal Nouns and adjectives ending in "O"

MASCULINE AND FEMININE

CASES Singular Dual Plural
Nominative औः आवौ आवः
auḥ āvau āvaḥ
Vocative औः आवौ आवः
auḥ āvau āvaḥ
Accusative आम् आवौ आः
ām āvau āḥ
Instrumental अवा ओभ्याम् ओभिः
avā obhyām obhiḥ
Dative अवे ओभ्याम् ओभ्यः
ave obhyām obhyaḥ
Ablative ओः ओभ्याम् ओभ्यः
oḥ obhyām obhyaḥ
Genitive ओः अवोः अवाम्
oḥ avoḥ avām
Locative अवि अवोः ओषु
avi avoḥ oṣu

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 Normal Nouns and adjectives ending in "AU"

MASCULINE AND FEMININE

CASES Singular Dual Plural
Nominative औः आवौ आवः
auḥ āvau āvaḥ
Vocative औः आवौ आवः
auḥ āvau āvaḥ
Accusative आवम् आवौ आवः
āvam āvau āvaḥ
Instrumental आवा औभ्याम् औभिः
āvā aubhyām aubhiḥ
Dative आवे औभ्याम् औभ्यः
āve aubhyām aubhyaḥ
Ablative आवः औभ्याम् औभ्यः
āvaḥ aubhyām aubhyaḥ
Genitive आवः आवोः आवाम्
āvaḥ āvoḥ āvām
Locative आवि आवोः औषु
āvi āvoḥ auṣu

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 Nouns derived from roots ending in "Ī"

MASCULINE

CASES Singular Dual Plural
Nominative ईः यौ यः
īḥ yau yaḥ
Vocative ईः यौ यः
īḥ yau yaḥ
Accusative यम् यौ यः
yam yau yaḥ
Instrumental या ईभ्याम् ईभिः
ībhyām ībhiḥ
Dative ये ईभ्याम् ईभ्यः
ye ībhyām ībhyaḥ
Ablative यः ईभ्याम् ईभ्यः
yaḥ ībhyām ībhyaḥ
Genitive यः योः याम्
yaḥ yoḥ yām
Locative यि योः ईषु
yi yoḥ īṣu

FEMININE

CASES Singular Dual Plural
Nominative ईः इयौ इयः
īḥ iyau iyaḥ
Vocative ईः इयौ इयः
īḥ iyau iyaḥ
Accusative इयम् इयौ इयः
iyam iyau iyaḥ
Instrumental इया ईभ्याम् ईभिः
iyā ībhyām ībhiḥ
Dative इये or इयै ईभ्याम् ईभ्यः
iye or iyai ībhyām ībhyaḥ
Ablative इयः or इयाः ईभ्याम् ईभ्यः
iyaḥ or iyāḥ ībhyām ībhyaḥ
Genitive इयः or इयाः इयोः इयाम् or ईनाम्
iyaḥ or iyāḥ iyoḥ iyām or īnām
Locative इयि or इयाम् इयोः ईषु
iyi or iyām iyoḥ īṣu

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 Nouns derived from roots ending in"Ū"

MASCULINE

CASES Singular Dual Plural
Nominative ऊः वौ वः
ūḥ vau vaḥ
Vocative ऊः वौ वः
ūḥ vau vaḥ
Accusative वम् वौ वः
vam vau vaḥ
Instrumental वा ऊभ्याम् ऊभिः
ūbhyām ūbhiḥ
Dative वे ऊभ्याम् ऊभ्यः
ve ūbhyām ūbhyaḥ
Ablative वः ऊभ्याम् ऊभ्यः
vaḥ ūbhyām ūbhyaḥ
Genitive वः वोः वाम्
vaḥ voḥ vām
Locative वि वोः ऊषु
vi voḥ ūṣu

FEMININE

CASES Singular Dual Plural
Nominative ऊः उवौ उवः
ūḥ uvau uvaḥ
Vocative ऊः उवौ उवः
ūḥ uvau uvaḥ
Accusative उवम् उवौ उवः
uvam uvau uvaḥ
Instrumental उवा ऊभ्याम् ऊभिः
uvā ūbhyām ūbhiḥ
Dative उवे or उवै ऊभ्याम् ऊभ्यः
uve or uvai ūbhyām ūbhyaḥ
Ablative उवः or उवाः ऊभ्याम् ऊभ्यः
uvaḥ or uvāḥ ūbhyām ūbhyaḥ
Genitive उवः or उवाः उवोः उवाम् or ऊनाम्
uvaḥ or uvāḥ uvoḥ uvām or ūnām
Locative उवि or वाम् उवोः ऊषु
uvi or vām uvoḥ ūṣu

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 General case terminations if the nouns and adjectives end in K, Kh, G, Gh, C, Ch, J, Jh, Ṭ, Ṭh, Ḍ, Ḍh, Ṇ, T, Th, D, Dh, P, Ph, B, Bh, R, Ś, Ṣ and h

MASCULINE AND FEMININE

CASES Singular Dual Plural
Nominative स्  or : अस्  or अः
s or au as or aḥ
Vocative It sometimes coincides with the prātipadika or crude form of the noun, sometimes with the Nominative case, at others it differs from both of them. अस्  or अः
au as or aḥ
Accusative अम् अस्  or अः
am au as or aḥ
Instrumental भ्याम् भिस् or भिः
ā bhyām bhis or bhiḥ
Dative भ्याम् भ्यः
e bhyām bhyas or bhyaḥ
Ablative अस् or अः भ्याम् भ्यस् or भ्यः
as or aḥ bhyām bhyas or bhyaḥ
Genitive अस् or अः ओस् or ओः आम्
as or aḥ os or oḥ ām
Locative ओस् or ओः सु
i os or oḥ su

NEUTER

CASES Singular Dual Plural
Nominative म्
m ī i
Vocative It sometimes coincides with the prātipadika or crude form of the noun, sometimes with the Nominative case, at others it differs from both of them.
ī i
  Accusative   म्
m ī i
The rest is like the masculine and feminine ones

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 Nouns and adjectives ending in the consonant "S"

MASCULINE AND FEMININE

CASES Singular Dual Plural
Nominative Nothing is to be added. However, if the noun or adjective ends in "as", that "a" is changed to "ā" generally. अः
-- au aḥ
Vocative Nothing is to be added अः
-- au aḥ
Accusative अम् अः
am au aḥ
Instrumental भ्याम् भिः
ā bhyām bhiḥ
Dative भ्याम् भ्यः
e bhyām bhyaḥ
Ablative अः भ्याम् भ्यः
aḥ bhyām bhyaḥ
Genitive अः ओः आम्
aḥ oḥ ām
Locative ओः सु
i oḥ su

NEUTER

CASES Singular Dual Plural
Nominative Nothing is to be added
But generally the short vowel preceding "s" is protracted and Anusvāra (ṁ) is inserted in between. Thus:
"as" changes to "āṁsi";
"is" changes to "īṁsi";
"us" changes to "ūṁsi".
A typical example:
"manas" (mind) is turned into "manāṁsi".
-- ī i
Vocative Nothing is to be added
But generally the short vowel preceding "s" is protracted and Anusvāra (ṁ) is inserted in between. Thus:
"as" changes to "āṁsi";
"is" changes to "īṁsi";
"us" changes to "ūṁsi".
A typical example:
"manas" (mind) is turned into "manāṁsi".
-- ī i
Accusative Nothing is to be added
But generally the short vowel preceding "s" is protracted and Anusvāra (ṁ) is inserted in between. Thus:
"as" changes to "āṁsi";
"is" changes to "īṁsi";
"us" changes to "ūṁsi".
A typical example:
"manas" (mind) is turned into "manāṁsi".
-- ī i
The rest is like the masculine and feminine ones

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 Nouns and adjectives ending in "AT"

MASCULINE (NORMAL NOUNS AND ADJECTIVES)

CASES Singular Dual Plural
Nominative आन् अन्तौ अन्तः
आन्तौ
In the case of "mahat" (great)
आन्तः
In the case of "mahat" (great)
ān antau antaḥ
āntau āntaḥ
Vocative अन् अन्तौ अन्तः
आन्तौ
In the case of "mahat" (great)
आन्तः
In the case of "mahat" (great)
an antau antaḥ
āntau āntaḥ
Accusative अन्तम् अन्तौ अतः
आन्तम्
In the case of "mahat" (great)
आन्तौ
In the case of "mahat" (great)
antam antau ataḥ
āntam āntau
Instrumental अता अद्भ्याम् अद्भिः
atā adbhyām adbhiḥ
Dative अते अद्भ्याम् अद्भ्यः
ate adbhyām adbhyaḥ
Ablative अतः अद्भ्याम् अद्भ्यः
ataḥ adbhyām adbhyaḥ
Genitive अतः अतोः अताम्
ataḥ atoḥ atām
Locative अति अतोः अत्सु
ati atoḥ atsu

NEUTER (NORMAL NOUNS AND ADJECTIVES)

CASES Singular Dual Plural
Nominative अत् अती अन्ति
आन्ति
In the case of "mahat" (great)
at atī anti
ānti
Vocative अत् अती अन्ति
आन्ति
In the case of "mahat" (great)
at atī anti
ānti
  Accusative   अत् अती अन्ति
आन्ति
In the case of "mahat" (great)
at atī anti
ānti
The rest is like the masculine ones

MASCULINE (PARTICIPLES ENDING IN AT)

CASES Singular Dual Plural
Nominative अन् अन्तौ अन्तः
अत्
Present participles derived from roots belonging to House 3, along with those of the Frequentative (only Parasmaipada) and a few more participles I am not going to specify here.
अतौ
Present participles derived from roots belonging to House 3, along with those of the Frequentative (only Parasmaipada) and a few more participles I am not going to specify here.
अतः
Present participles derived from roots belonging to House 3, along with those of the Frequentative (only Parasmaipada) and a few more participles I am not going to specify here.
an antau antaḥ
at atau ataḥ
Vocative अन् अन्तौ अन्तः
अत्
Present participles derived from roots belonging to House 3, along with those of the Frequentative (only Parasmaipada) and a few more participles I am not going to specify here.
अतौ
Present participles derived from roots belonging to House 3, along with those of the Frequentative (only Parasmaipada) and a few more participles I am not going to specify here.
अतः
Present participles derived from roots belonging to House 3, along with those of the Frequentative (only Parasmaipada) and a few more participles I am not going to specify here.
an antau antaḥ
at atau ataḥ
Accusative अन्तम् अन्तौ अतः
अतम्
Present participles derived from roots belonging to House 3, along with those of the Frequentative (only Parasmaipada) and a few more participles I am not going to specify here.
अतौ
Present participles derived from roots belonging to House 3, along with those of the Frequentative (only Parasmaipada) and a few more participles I am not going to specify here.
antam antau ataḥ
atam atau
Instrumental अता अद्भ्याम् अद्भिः
atā adbhyām adbhiḥ
Dative अते अद्भ्याम् अद्भ्यः
ate adbhyām adbhyaḥ
Ablative अतः अद्भ्याम् अद्भ्यः
ataḥ adbhyām adbhyaḥ
Genitive अतः अतोः अताम्
ataḥ atoḥ atām
Locative अति अतोः अत्सु
ati atoḥ atsu

NEUTER (PARTICIPLES ENDING IN AT)

CASES Singular Dual Plural
Nominative अत् अती
Participles derived from roots belonging to Houses 2 (present participles formed from roots ending in "ā" here also accept "antī" optionally, see below), 3, 5, 7, 8 and 9. Also, those of the Frequentative (only Parasmaipada) and a few more participles I am not going to specify here.
अन्ति
अन्ती
Participles derived from roots belonging to Houses 1, 4 and 10 and their respective conjugations together with those of causal, desiderative and nominal verbs.
अती or अन्ती
Participles derived from roots belonging to House 6, future participles ending in "svat" or "ṣvat" and present participles derived from roots ending in "ā" that belong to House 2.
अन्ति or अति
Present participles derived from roots belonging to House 3, along with those of the Frequentative (only Parasmaipada) and a few more participles I am not going to specify here.
at atī anti
antī
atī or antī anti or ati
Vocative Idem Nominative
  Accusative   Idem Nominative
The rest is like the masculine ones

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 Nouns and adjectives ending in "AN"

MASCULINE ("AN" NOT BEING PRECEDED BY A CONJUNCT --AGGLUTINATE CONSONANTS--
ENDING IN "M" OR "V" --e.g. HM, TM, ETC.--)

CASES Singular Dual Plural
Nominative आनौ आनः
ā ānau ānaḥ
Vocative अन् आनौ आनः
an ānau ānaḥ
Accusative आनम् आनौ नः
ānam ānau naḥ
Instrumental ना अभ्याम् अभिः
abhyām abhiḥ
Dative ने अभ्याम् अभ्यः
ne abhyām abhyaḥ
Ablative नः अभ्याम् अभ्यः
naḥ abhyām abhyaḥ
Genitive नः नोः नाम्
naḥ noḥ nām
Locative नि or अनि नोः असु
ni or ani noḥ asu

NEUTER ("AN" NOT BEING PRECEDED BY A CONJUNCT --AGGLUTINATE CONSONANTS--
ENDING IN "M" OR "V" --e.g. HM, TM, ETC.--)

CASES Singular Dual Plural
Nominative नी or अनी आनि
a or anī āni
Vocative or अन् नी or अनी आनि
a or an or anī āni
  Accusative   नी or अनी आनि
a or anī āni
The rest is like the masculine ones

MASCULINE ("AN" BEING PRECEDED BY A CONJUNCT --AGGLUTINATE CONSONANTS--
ENDING IN "M" OR "V" --e.g. HM, TM, ETC.--)

CASES Singular Dual Plural
Nominative आनौ आनः
ā ānau ānaḥ
Vocative अन् आनौ आनः
an ānau ānaḥ
Accusative आनम् आनौ अनः
ānam ānau anaḥ
Instrumental अना अभ्याम् अभिः
anā abhyām abhiḥ
Dative अने अभ्याम् अभ्यः
ane abhyām abhyaḥ
Ablative अनः अभ्याम् अभ्यः
anaḥ abhyām abhyaḥ
Genitive अनः अनोः अनाम्
anaḥ anoḥ anām
Locative अनि अनोः असु
ani anoḥ asu

NEUTER ("AN" BEING PRECEDED BY A CONJUNCT --AGGLUTINATE CONSONANTS--
ENDING IN "M" OR "V" --e.g. HM, TM, ETC.--)

CASES Singular Dual Plural
Nominative अनी आनि
a anī āni
Vocative or अन् अनी आनि
a or an anī āni
  Accusative   अनी आनि
a anī āni
The rest is like the masculine ones

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 Nouns and adjectives ending in "IN"

MASCULINE

CASES Singular Dual Plural
Nominative इनौ इनः
ī inau inaḥ
Vocative इन् इनौ इनः
in inau inaḥ
Accusative इनम् इनौ इनः
inam inau inaḥ
Instrumental इना इभ्याम् इभिः
inā ibhyām ibhiḥ
Dative इने इभ्याम् इभ्यः
ine ibhyām ibhyaḥ
Ablative इनः इभ्याम् इभ्यः
inaḥ ibhyām ibhyaḥ
Genitive इनः इनोः ईनाम्
inaḥ inoḥ īnām
Locative इनि इनोः इषु
ini inoḥ iṣu

NEUTER

CASES Singular Dual Plural
Nominative इनी ईनि
i inī īni
Vocative or इन् इनी ईनि
i or in inī īni
  Accusative   इनी ईनि
i inī īni
The rest is like the masculine ones

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 Nouns and adjectives ending in "VAS (IVAS)"

MASCULINE ENDING IN VAS
(for those ending in "ivas", just replace "vas" with the terminations
below and leave "i" as such, i.e. no changes)

CASES Singular Dual Plural
Nominative वान् वांसौ वांसः
vān vāṁsau vāṁsaḥ
Vocative वन् वांसौ वांसः
van vāṁsau vāṁsaḥ
Accusative वांसम् वांसौ उषः
vāṁsam vāṁsau uṣaḥ
Instrumental उषा वद्भ्याम् वद्भिः
uṣā vadbhyām vadbhiḥ
Dative उषे वद्भ्याम् वद्भ्यः
uṣe vadbhyām vadbhyaḥ
Ablative उषः वद्भ्याम् वद्भ्यः
uṣaḥ vadbhyām vadbhyaḥ
Genitive उषः उषोः उषाम्
uṣaḥ uṣoḥ uṣām
Locative उषि उषोः वत्सु
uṣi uṣoḥ vatsu

NEUTER ENDING IN VAS
(for those ending in "ivas", just replace "vas" with the terminations
below and leave "i" as such, i.e. no changes)

CASES Singular Dual Plural
Nominative वत् उषी वांसि
vat uṣī vāṁsi
Vocative वत् उषी वांसि
vat uṣī vāṁsi
  Accusative   वत् उषी वांसि
vat uṣī vāṁsi
The rest is like the masculine ones

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 Nouns and adjectives ending in "YAS (ĪYAS) "

MASCULINE ENDING IN YAS
(for those ending in "īyas", just replace "yas" with the terminations
below and leave "ī" as such, i.e. no changes)

CASES Singular Dual Plural
Nominative यान् यांसौ यांसः
yān yāṁsau yāṁsaḥ
Vocative यन् यांसौ यांसः
yan yāṁsau yāṁsaḥ
Accusative यांसम् यांसौ यसः
yāṁsam yāṁsau yasaḥ
Instrumental यसा योभ्याम् योभिः
yasā yobhyām yobhiḥ
Dative यसे योभ्याम् योभ्यः
yase yobhyām yobhyaḥ
Ablative यसः योभ्याम् योभ्यः
yasaḥ yobhyām yobhyaḥ
Genitive यसः यसोः यसाम्
yasaḥ yasoḥ yasām
Locative यसि यसोः यःसु or यस्सु
yasi yasoḥ yaḥsu or yassu

NEUTER ENDING IN YAS
(for those ending in "īyas", just replace "yas" with the terminations
below and leave "ī" as such, i.e. no changes)

CASES Singular Dual Plural
Nominative यः यसी यांसि
yaḥ yasī yāṁsi
Vocative यः यसी यांसि
yaḥ yasī yāṁsi
  Accusative   यः यसी यांसि
yaḥ yasī yāṁsi
The rest is like the masculine ones

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 Further information

Gabriel Pradīpaka

This document was conceived by Gabriel Pradīpaka, one of the two founders of this site, and spiritual guru conversant with Sanskrit language and Trika philosophy.

For further information about Sanskrit, Yoga and Indian Philosophy; or if you simply want to comment, ask a question or correct a mistake, feel free to contact us: This is our e-mail address.