|Download and install the indispensable font(s) to view Sanskrit in its full glory |
Read Transliterating (2) (English) to fully understand the transliteration system
Yoga of renunciation
Arjuna's doubts still continue as he wants to know now if renunciation is superior to Yoga of action (Karmayoga) or vice versa. Lord Kṛṣṇa makes this point clear to him in order to dissipate his doubts once and for all. Listen to His words...
Important: All that is in brackets and italicized within the translation has been added by me in order to complete the sense of a particular phrase or sentence. In turn, all that is between double hyphen (--...--) constitutes clarifying further information also added by me. Besides, although I have not written any commentary on each stanza, I have added my own notes when a more detailed explanation is needed. In addition, note that I will use inverted commas to delimit text only when the person speaking is not Sañjaya himself (the narrator). Therefore, the words spoken by Sañjaya will not be delimited by inverted commas or quotation marks.
सन्न्यासं कर्मणां कृष्ण पुनर्योगं च शंससि।
यच्छ्रेय एतयोरेकं तन्मे ब्रूहि सुनिश्चितम्॥१॥
Sannyāsaṁ karmaṇāṁ kṛṣṇa punaryogaṁ ca śaṁsasi|
Yacchreya etayorekaṁ tanme brūhi suniścitam||1||
Arjuna (arjunaḥ) said (uvāca):
"Oh Kṛṣṇa (kṛṣṇa), You praise (śaṁsasi) renunciation (sannyāsam) of actions (karmanām), and (ca) again (punar) Yoga (yogam). Tell (brūhi) me (me) definitely (suniścitam) the one (ekam tad) which (yad) (is) better (śreyas) among these two (etayoḥ)"||1||
सन्न्यासः कर्मयोगश्च निःश्रेयसकरावुभौ।
तयोस्तु कर्मसन्न्यासात्कर्मयोगो विशिष्यते॥२॥
Sannyāsaḥ karmayogaśca niḥśreyasakarāvubhau|
Tayostu karmasannyāsātkarmayogo viśiṣyate||2||
Venerable (śrī) Bhagavān (bhagavān)1 said (uvāca):
"Both (ubhau) renunciation (sannyāsaḥ) and (ca) Yoga (yogaḥ) of action (karma) confer final Emancipation (niḥśreyasa-karau). However (tu), of those two (tayoḥ), Yoga (yogaḥ) of action (karma) is better (viśiṣyate) than renouncing (sannyāsāt) the actions (karma)"||2||
1 Lit. "The Divine or Adorable One", or also "The Fortunate One", i.e. Lord Kṛṣṇa.
ज्ञेयः स नित्यसन्न्यासी यो न द्वेष्टि न काङ्क्षति।
निर्द्वन्द्वो हि महाबाहो सुखं बन्धात्प्रमुच्यते॥३॥
Jñeyaḥ sa nityasannyāsī yo na dveṣṭi na kāṅkṣati|
Nirdvandvo hi mahābāho sukhaṁ bandhātpramucyate||3||
"He (saḥ) who (yaḥ) neither (na) shows hatred or aversion (dveṣṭi) nor does (na) desire (kāṅkṣati) is to be known (jñeyaḥ) as a person of constant renunciation (nitya-sannyāsī), because (hi) the one who is free from the pairs of opposites (nirdvandvaḥ), oh big-armed one (mahā-bāho)1, becomes liberated (pramucyate) from bondage (bandhāt) easily (sukham)"||3||
1 Epithet for Arjuna.
साङ्ख्ययोगौ पृथग्बालाः प्रवदन्ति न पण्डिताः।
एकमप्यास्थितः सम्यगुभयोर्विन्दते फलम्॥४॥
Sāṅkhyayogau pṛthagbālāḥ pravadanti na paṇḍitāḥ|
Ekamapyāsthitaḥ samyagubhayorvindate phalam||4||
"The foolish ignorant (bālāḥ), not (na) the learned ones (paṇḍitāḥ), speak (pravadanti) separately (prithak) about Sāṅkhya --discriminative knowledge-- and Yoga (sāṅkhya-yogau). Even (api) somebody who has properly undertaken (āsthitaḥ samyak) one (of them) (ekam), obtains (vindate) the fruit (phalam) of both (ubhayoḥ)"||4||
यत्साङ्ख्यैः प्राप्यते स्थानं तद्योगैरपि गम्यते।
एकं साङ्ख्यं च योगं च यः पश्यति स पश्यति॥५॥
Yatsāṅkhyaiḥ prāpyate sthānaṁ tadyogairapi gamyate|
Ekaṁ sāṅkhyaṁ ca yogaṁ ca yaḥ paśyati sa paśyati||5||
"That (tad) state --viz. mokṣa or liberation-- (sthānam) which (yad) is attained (prāpyate) by the followers of Sāṅkhya or discriminative knowledge (sāṅkhyaiḥ) is also obtained (api gamyate) by the ones who follow Yoga --i.e. Karmayoga-- (yogaiḥ). He (saḥ) (truly) sees (paśyati) who (yaḥ) sees (paśyati) Sāṅkhya (sāṅkhyam) and (ca... ca) Yoga --Karmayoga-- (yogam) as one (ekam)"||5||
सन्न्यासस्तु महाबाहो दुःखमाप्तुमयोगतः।
योगयुक्तो मुनिर्ब्रह्म न चिरेणाधिगच्छति॥६॥
Sannyāsastu mahābāho duḥkhamāptumayogataḥ|
Yogayukto munirbrahma na cireṇādhigacchati||6||
"Nevertheless (tu), oh big-armed one (mahā-bāho)1, with no Yoga --i.e. Karmayoga-- (ayogataḥ), renunciation (sannyāsaḥ) is difficult (duḥkham) to be attained (āptum). The sage (muniḥ) who is engaged (yuktaḥ) in Yoga --Karmayoga-- (yoga) attains (adhigacchati) Brahma (brahma)2 soon (na cireṇa)"||6||
1 Epithet for Arjuna.
2 The impersonal aspect of God.
योगयुक्तो विशुद्धात्मा विजितात्मा जितेन्द्रियः।
सर्वभूतात्मभूतात्मा कुर्वन्नपि न लिप्यते॥७॥
Yogayukto viśuddhātmā vijitātmā jitendriyaḥ|
Sarvabhūtātmabhūtātmā kurvannapi na lipyate||7||
"Immersed (yuktaḥ) in Yoga (yoga), of a pure (viśuddha) nature (ātmā)1, having subdued his ātmā (vijita-ātmā)2, having conquered his indriya-s --Powers of perception and action-- (jita-indriyaḥ)3, (and) having become (bhūta-ātmā) the Self (ātma) of all (sarva) beings (bhūta)... (such a person) is not polluted (na lipyate) though (api) he performs (actions) (kurvan)"||7||
1 According to Śrīdhara, "ātmā" is "mind", but it is something different for other commentators. Anyway, in this case I preferred to translate it as "nature".
2 Śrīdhara considers "ātmā" here as "body". Thus, "vijitātmā" is "one who has conquered his body". Nonetheless, the opinions of other authors differ from that of Śrīdhara. Therefore, I left the term "ātmā" untranslated.
3 Jñānendriya-s (Jñāna-indriya-s) are the five Powers of perception, viz. Śrotra (power of hearing), Tvak (power of feeling by touch), Cakṣus (power of seeing), Jihvā (power of tasting) and Ghrāṇa (power of smelling). In turn, Karmendriya-s (Karma-indriya-s) are the five Powers of action, viz. Vāk (power of speaking), Pāṇi (power of handling), Pāda (power of locomotion), Pāyu (power of excreting) and Upastha (power of sexual activity and restfulness).
इन्द्रियाणीन्द्रियार्थेषु वर्तन्त इति धारयन्॥९॥
Naiva kiñcitkaromīti yukto manyeta tattvavit|
Indriyāṇīndriyārtheṣu vartanta iti dhārayan||9||
"The one who is engaged (in Karmayoga) (yuktaḥ)1 (and gradually becoming) a knower (vit) of the Supreme Principle (tattva), thinks (manyeta) 'I do (karomi) nothing (na... kiñcid) indeed (eva... iti)', while seeing (paśyan), hearing (śṛṇvan), touching (spṛśan), smelling (jighran), eating (aśnan), moving (gacchan), sleeping (svapan), breathing (śvasan), talking (pralapan), emitting (visṛjan)2, grasping (gṛhṇan)3, opening the eyes (unmiṣan) (and) even (api) closing (them) (nimiṣan)... (the whole time) remembering and pondering (dhārayan) (like this): 'The indriya-s --Powers of perception and action-- (indriyāṇi) are occupied (vartante) with the objects (artheṣu) of (those very) indriya-s (indriya... iti)'"||8-9||
1 I follow the Śrīdhara's viewpoint here.
2 The Lord refers to the Karmendriya-s (Powers of action): "Pāyu" and "Upastha". See the third note under the 7th stanza.
3 In this case, the Lord is speaking about the Karmendriya known as "Pāṇi". See the third note under the 7th stanza.
ब्रह्मण्याधाय कर्माणि सङ्गं त्यक्त्वा करोति यः।
लिप्यते न स पापेन पद्मपत्रमिवाम्भसा॥१०॥
Brahmaṇyādhāya karmāṇi saṅgaṁ tyaktvā karoti yaḥ|
Lipyate na sa pāpena padmapatramivāmbhasā||10||
"He (saḥ) who (yaḥ), having abandoned (tyaktvā) attachment (saṅgam), performs (karoti) actions (karmāṇi) by handing (them) (ādhāya) over Brahma --the Supreme Self-- (brahmaṇi), is not polluted (lipyate na) by sin (pāpena), just as (iva) a lotus-leaf (padma-patram) (is not touched) by water (ambhasā)"||10||
कायेन मनसा बुद्ध्या केवलैरिन्द्रियैरपि।
योगिनः कर्म कुर्वन्ति सङ्गं त्यक्त्वात्मशुद्धये॥११॥
Kāyena manasā buddhyā kevalairindriyairapi|
Yoginaḥ karma kurvanti saṅgaṁ tyaktvātmaśuddhaye||11||
"After giving up (tyaktvā) attachment (saṅgam), the yogī-s (yoginaḥ) perform (kurvanti) action(s) (karma) merely (kevalaiḥ) with (his) body (kāyena), mind (manasā), intellect (buddhyā), (and) even (api) indriya-s --Powers of perception and action-- (indriyaiḥ)1, for purifying (śuddhaye) themselves --i.e. for purifying the yogī-s themselves-- (ātma)2"||11||
1 See the third note under the stanza 7.
2 According to other authors, "ātma" here is synonymous with "citta" (mind), etc.
युक्तः कर्मफलं त्यक्त्वा शान्तिमाप्नोति नैष्ठिकीम्।
अयुक्तः कामकारेण फले सक्तो निबध्यते॥१२॥
Yuktaḥ karmaphalaṁ tyaktvā śāntimāpnoti naiṣṭhikīm|
Ayuktaḥ kāmakāreṇa phale sakto nibadhyate||12||
"One who is (solely) devoted (to the Supreme Lord) (yuktaḥ)1, having renounced (tyaktvā) the fruit (phalam) of actions (karma), obtains (āpnoti) continual (naiṣṭhikīm) peace (śāntim). (However,) one who is not (so) devoted (to the Supreme Lord) (ayuktaḥ), as he follows his own desires and inclinations (kāma-kareṇa) (and remains) attached (saktaḥ) to the fruit (of actions) (phale), is bound (nibadhyate)"||12||
1 I follow the Śrīdhara's viewpoint here.
सर्वकर्माणि मनसा सन्न्यस्यास्ते सुखं वशी।
नवद्वारे पुरे देही नैव कुर्वन्न कारयन्॥१३॥
Sarvakarmāṇi manasā sannyasyāste sukhaṁ vaśī|
Navadvāre pure dehī naiva kurvanna kārayan||13||
"After having renounced (sannyasya) all (sarva) actions (karmāṇi) mentally (manasā), one who has controlled (his mind) (vaśī) happily (sukham) continues to exist (āste) in the city (pure) of the nine (nava) doors or apertures (dvāre)1. (Such an) embodied soul (dehī) neither (na eva) does (kurvan) nor does (na) cause (anyone) to do (kārayan)"||13||
1 Epithet for the physical body.
न कर्तृत्वं न कर्माणि लोकस्य सृजति प्रभुः।
न कर्मफलसंयोगं स्वभावस्तु प्रवर्तते॥१४॥
Na kartṛtvaṁ na karmāṇi lokasya sṛjati prabhuḥ|
Na karmaphalasaṁyogaṁ svabhāvastu pravartate||14||
"The Lord (prabhuḥ) of the world (lokasya) neither (na) manifests (sṛjati) the state of being a doer (kartṛtvam), nor (na) the actions (karmāṇi), nor (na) the relationship or connection (saṁyogam) with the fruits (phala) of actions (karma), but (tu) (it is) nature (sva-bhāvaḥ)1 that acts or proceeds (pravartante)"||14||
1 Now, some opinions of four important Bhagavadgītā's commentators on the meaning of "svabhāva":
a) Śrīdhara: "... kintu jīvasya svabhāvo'vidyaiva kartṛtvādirūpeṇa pravartate|...", that is, "... but (it is) nature of the living being, viz. ignorance, which acts or proceeds in the form of the state of being a doer, etc...". In short, according to Śrīdhara, "svabhāva" is simply nature of the living being in the form of ignorance.
b) Baladeva: "... Anādipravṛttā pradhānavāsanātra svabhāvaśabdena...", the meaning is clear, "... With the word 'svabhāva' (it is indicated) here the tendency or inclination of Pradhāna --also known as Prakṛti or the origin of the entire material manifestation--. (This tendency or inclination) has gone on from beginningless (time)...". Therefore, according to Baladeva, "svabhāva" is the beginningless tendency of Pradhāna or Prakṛti, the source of all matter.
c) Madhusūdana: He says in the last part of his commentary... hence the number at the end, "... tatrāha svabhāvastviti| Ajñānātmikā daivī māyā prakṛtiḥ pravartate||14||", viz. "... there --in the stanza 14--, (the Lord) said 'svabhāvastu' --i.e. svabhāvaḥ tu--. (So, it is 'svabhāva' or) the divine Māyā --the power of Illusion--, whose nature is ignorance, which, (appearing in the form of) Prakṛti --the source of the whole material universe--, acts or proceeds||14||". As Madhusūdana follows the viewpoint of Advaitavedānta (non-dualistic Vedānta), I translated "Māyā" as Illusion.
d) Viśvanātha: "... kintu jīvasya svabhāvo'nādyavidyaiva pravartate|...", which means the following: "... but (it is) the 'svabhāva' or nature of the living being, viz. (his) beginningless ignorance, which acts or proceeds...". Well, it is enough, I think.
नादत्ते कस्यचित्पापं न चैव सुकृतं विभुः।
अज्ञानेनावृतं ज्ञानं तेन मुह्यन्ति जन्तवः॥१५॥
Nādatte kasyacitpāpaṁ na caiva sukṛtaṁ vibhuḥ|
Ajñānenāvṛtaṁ jñānaṁ tena muhyanti jantavaḥ||15||
"The Omnipresent (vibhuḥ) neither (na) takes or accepts (ādatte) anyone's (na... kasyacid) sin (pāpam) nor does (na ca eva) virtue (sukṛtam) (either). Knowledge (jñānam) (is) covered or hidden (āvṛtam) by ignorance (ajñānena). The creatures (jantavaḥ) are bewildered (muhyanti) because of that (tena)"||15||
ज्ञानेन तु तदज्ञानं येषां नाशितमात्मनः।
तेषामादित्यवज्ज्ञानं प्रकाशयति तत्परम्॥१६॥
Jñānena tu tadajñānaṁ yeṣāṁ nāśitamātmanaḥ|
Teṣāmādityavajjñānaṁ prakāśayati tatparam||16||
"But (tu), by knowledge (jñānena) of the Self (ātmanaḥ), that (tad) ignorance (ajñānam) of theirs --i.e. of the aforesaid creatures-- (yeṣam) is destroyed (nāśitam), (and) their (teṣam) knowledge (jñānam), like (vat) Āditya --viz. the Sun-- (āditya)1, reveals (prakāśayati) that (tad) Supreme (Reality) (param)"||16||
1 There are several Āditya-s, but in this case the Lord is speaking of the Sun.
"The ones whose intellects (buddhayaḥ) (and) 'ātmā-s' --generally, this term means 'minds' in this context-- (ātmānaḥ) (are fixed on) That --i.e. on the Highest Self-- (tad... tad), who are devoted (niṣṭhāḥ) to That (tad), (and) whose last refuge (parāyaṇāḥ) is That (tad), by having their dirt or sin (kalmaṣāḥ) removed (nirdhūta) through knowledge (jñāna), attain (gacchanti) that state from which there is no return --viz. Emancipation-- (apunar-āvṛttim)1"||17||
1 Śrīdhara corroborates this interpretation of "apunarāvṛttim" in the last part of his commentary on the 17th stanza: "... Te'punarāvṛttiṁ muktim yānti||17||", in other words, "They attain that state from which there is no return, i.e. 'Mukti' or 'Liberation'||17||".
विद्याविनयसम्पन्ने ब्राह्मणे गवि हस्तिनि।
शुनि चैव श्वपाके च पण्डिताः समदर्शिनः॥१८॥
Vidyāvinayasampanne brāhmaṇe gavi hastini|
Śuni caiva śvapāke ca paṇḍitāḥ samadarśinaḥ||18||
"The learned ones (paṇḍitāḥ) look impartially --viz. they see with equal vision-- (sama-darśinaḥ) on a brāhmaṇa (brāhmaṇe)1 endowed (sampanne) with knowledge (vidyā) (and) modesty (vinaya)2, a cow (gavi), an elephant (hastini), a dog (suni) and (ca eva... ca) one who cooks (pāke) dogs (śva)3"||18||
1 A member of the highest caste. He is generally a priest.
2 Madhusūdana, the great commentator of the Gītā states: "... Vinayo nirahaṅkāratvamanauddhatyamiti yāvat|...", that is, "'Vinaya' (means) 'absence of egotism (and) freedom from haughtiness'. Such is the explanation".
3 "Śvapāka" or "one who cooks dogs" is an epithet of a member of the lowest caste. It is a ugly epithet... oh well, a long story.
इहैव तैर्जितः सर्गो येषां साम्ये स्थितं मनः।
निर्दोषं हि समं ब्रह्म तस्माद् ब्रह्मणि ते स्थिताः॥१९॥
Ihaiva tairjitaḥ sargo yeṣāṁ sāmye sthitaṁ manaḥ|
Nirdoṣaṁ hi samaṁ brahma tasmād brahmaṇi te sthitāḥ||19||
"Right here --in this world and the next-- (iha eva), Sarga --lit. "creation", but in this context "Saṁsāra"-- (sargaḥ)1 (is) conquered (jitaḥ) by those (taiḥ) whose (yeṣām) mind(s) (manas) remain (sthitam) in equanimity (sāmye). Since (hi) Brahma (brahma)2 (is) faultless (nirdoṣam) (and) the same --i.e. impartial-- (samam), therefore (tasmāt), they (te) are established (sthitāḥ) in Brahma (brahmaṇi)"||19||
1 This special meaning of "sarga" is corroborated by most of the commentators. For instance, Śrīdhara affirms: "... Sṛjyate iti sargaḥ saṁsāraḥ", or "Sarga is that which is manifested, viz. Saṁsāra". And of course, Saṁsāra literally means Transmigration, i.e. the eternal wheel in which one is born to die and dies to be reborn. In short, Saṁsāra is misery! Hence, it is to be conquered in order to attain perpetual Peace, also known as Liberation.
2 The impersonal aspect of God.
न प्रहृष्येत्प्रियं प्राप्य नोद्विजेत्प्राप्य चाप्रियम्।
स्थिरबुद्धिरसम्मूढो ब्रह्मविद्ब्रह्मणि स्थितः॥२०॥
Na prahṛṣyetpriyaṁ prāpya nodvijetprāpya cāpriyam|
Sthirabuddhirasammūḍho brahmavidbrahmaṇi sthitaḥ||20||
"A knower (vit) of Brahma (brahma)1 is one who is established (sthitaḥ) in Brahma (brahmaṇi). (Such a person) neither (na) rejoices (prahṛṣyet) on getting (prāpya) what is pleasant (priyam) nor does (na... ca) get dejected (udvijet) on obtaining (prāpya) what is unpleasant (apriyam), (because) he has a firm (sthira) intellect (buddhiḥ) (and) is not bewildered (asammūḍhaḥ)"||20||
1 The impersonal aspect of God.
बाह्यस्पर्शेष्वसक्तात्मा विन्दत्यात्मनि यत्सुखम्।
स ब्रह्मयोगयुक्तात्मा सुखमक्षयमश्नुते॥२१॥
Bāhyasparśeṣvasaktātmā vindatyātmani yatsukham|
Sa brahmayogayuktātmā sukhamakṣayamaśnute||21||
"The one whose mind is not attached (asakta-ātmā) to the external (bāhya) sparśa-s or objects --lit. "contacts"-- (sparśeṣu)1 obtains (vindati) the joy (sukham) which (yad) (is) in the self (ātmani) --i.e. tranquility of mind--2. (And after getting that kind of joy in his self,) he (saḥ), being absorbed (yukta-ātmā) in Samādhi or Perfect Concentration (yoga)3 on Brahma (brahma), obtains (aśnute) undecaying (akṣayam) Joy (sukham) --viz. supreme Bliss--4"||21||
1 Śrīdhara explains why "sparśa" (lit. touch, contact) is to be interpreted as "object" here: "... Indriyaiḥ spṛṣyanta iti sparśā viṣayāḥ|...", in sum, "The 'sparśa-s' are those who are touched by the indriya-s or senses, (i.e. the 'sparśa-s' are) the objects".
2 Śrīdhara explains: "... Ātmani antaḥkaraṇe yadupaśamātmakaṁ sāttvikaṁ sukhaṁ tadvindati labhate|...", that is, "He gets or obtains that sattvic --pertaining to Sattva or the quality of goodness-- joy consisting of tranquility which is in the self, i.e. in the inner psychic organ --the aggregate of intellect, ego, mind and cít or consciousness-- (in this context)". Hence, I added "tranquility of mind".
3 Śrīdhara interprets "Yoga" as "Samādhi" in the last part of his commentary: "... brahmaṇi yogena samādhinā yuktas...", in sum, "... being absorbed in Yoga or Samādhi --Perfect Concentration-- on Brahma...". Other commentators follow his view too, for the most part.
4 Baladeva affirms that this Joy is undecaying because: "... mahadanubhavalakṣaṇam...", viz., "... it is characterized by the great Experience..." Hence, I added "supreme Bliss" to show that is superior to the mere joy in the self.
ये हि संस्पर्शजा भोगा दुःखयोनय एव ते।
आद्यन्तवन्तः कौन्तेय न तेषु रमते बुधः॥२२॥
Ye hi saṁsparśajā bhogā duḥkhayonaya eva te|
Ādyantavantaḥ kaunteya na teṣu ramate budhaḥ||22||
"Since (hi) those (te) enjoyments (bhogāḥ) born (jāḥ) of the contacts (with the objects) (saṁsparśa)1 (are) verily (eva) the sources (yonayaḥ) of pain (duḥkha) (and) have beginning and end (ādi-anta-vantaḥ), oh son of Kuntī (kaunteya)2, a wise one (budhaḥ) does not (na) delight (ramate) in them (teṣu)"||22||
1 According to Śrīdhara, the word "saṁsparśa" directly means "objects".
2 Epithet for Arjuna.
शक्नोतीहैव यः सोढुं प्राक्शरीरविमोक्षणात्।
कामक्रोधोद्भवं वेगं स युक्तः स सुखी नरः॥२३॥
Śaknotīhaiva yaḥ soḍhuṁ prākśarīravimokṣaṇāt|
Kāmakrodhodbhavaṁ vegaṁ sa yuktaḥ sa sukhī naraḥ||23||
"Right here (iha eva), that (saḥ... saḥ) man (naraḥ) who (yaḥ) is able (śaknoti) to resist (soḍhum), before (prāk) deliverance (vimokṣaṇāt) from body (śarīra)1, the impulse (vegam) arising (udbhavam) from desire (kāma) (and) wrath (krodha), has attained Yoga or Union (yuktaḥ)2 (and is) happy (sukhī)"||23||
1 Śrīdhara explains this with the following phrase: "... yāvaddehapātam...", i.e. "till the decay of the body". In simple terms, "before dying".
2 Śrīdhara states that "yukta", in this context, amounts to "samāhita", i.e. "one who has his mind concentrated in Samādhi (Perfect Absorption)".
स योगी ब्रह्मनिर्वाणं ब्रह्मभूतोऽधिगच्छति॥२४॥
Sa yogī brahmanirvāṇaṁ brahmabhūto'dhigacchati||24||
"That (saḥ) yogī (yogī) who (yaḥ) (is) happy (sukhaḥ) within (antar), who (yaḥ) delights (ārāmaḥ) within (antar), (and) likewise (tathā... eva), whose light (jyotis) (is) within (antar), becomes (bhūtaḥ) Brahma (brahma)1 (and) attains (adhigacchati) extinction or dissolution (nirvāṇam) in Brahma (brahma)"||24||
1 The impersonal aspect of God.
"The Seers (ṛṣayaḥ) whose sins (kalmaṣāḥ) have been annihilated (kṣīṇa), whose doubts (dvaidhāḥ) are dispelled (chinna), whose minds (ātmānaḥ) are under control (yata) (and) who are fond (ratāḥ) of benefiting (hite) all (sarva) beings (bhūta), attain (labhante) extinction or dissolution (nirvāṇam) in Brahma (brahma)1"||25||
1 The impersonal aspect of God.
कामक्रोधवियुक्तानां यतीनां यतचेतसाम्।
अभितो ब्रह्मनिर्वाणं वर्तते विदितात्मनाम्॥२६॥
Kāmakrodhaviyuktānāṁ yatīnāṁ yatacetasām|
Abhito brahmanirvāṇaṁ vartate viditātmanām||26||
"To the yati-s or ascetics --i.e. the ones who practice sannyāsa or renunciation-- (yatīnām) who are delivered (viyuktānām) from desire (kāma) (and) wrath (krodha), whose minds (cetasām) are under control (yata) (and) who know the Self (vidita-ātmanām), there is (vartate) extinction or dissolution (nirvāṇam) in Brahma (brahma) in both cases --i.e. whether they are alive or dead-- (abhitaḥ)1"||26||
1 The eminent Śrīdhara comments: "... abhita ubhayato jīvatāṁ mṛtāṇām ca|...", or "the term 'abhitaḥ' (means) 'ubhayatas'" --in both cases--, i.e. (whether) they are alive or dead". Some yati-s are "Videhamukta-s" because they leave their bodies or deha-s when attaining Liberation or Mukti, while others are "Jīvanmukta-s" as they keep their bodies (i.e. they continue to live --jīvat--) even having attained Mukti or Emancipation. This is sense.
स्पर्शान्कृत्वा बहिर्बाह्यांश्चक्षुश्चैवान्तरे भ्रुवोः।
प्राणापानौ समौ कृत्वा नासाभ्यन्तरचारिणौ॥२७॥
विगतेच्छाभयक्रोधो यः सदा मुक्त एव सः॥२८॥
Sparśānkṛtvā bahirbāhyāṁścakṣuścaivāntare bhruvoḥ|
Prāṇāpānau samau kṛtvā nāsābhyantaracāriṇau||27||
Vigatecchābhayakrodho yaḥ sadā mukta eva saḥ||28||
"By keeping (kṛtvā) the external (bāhyān) objects --lit. "contacts"-- (sparśān)1 outside (bahis) and (ca eva) the eye(s) (cakṣus) (fixed) on the space between (antare) the eyebrows (bhruvoḥ), by balancing (samau kṛtvā) prāṇa --the vital energy contained in the outgoing breath-- and apāna --the vital energy contained in the ingoing breath-- (prāṇa-apānau), which --i.e. prāṇa and apāna-- move (cāriṇau) inside (abhyantara) of the nose (nāsā), that (saḥ) sage (muniḥ) who (yaḥ) has (his) indriya-s --Powers of perception and action-- (indriya)2, mind (manas) (and) intellect (buddhiḥ) under control (yata), whose final goal (parāyaṇaḥ) is Mokṣa or Liberation (mokṣa), (and) who is free (vigata) from desire (icchā), fear (bhaya) (and) wrath (krodhaḥ), (is) always (sadā) emancipated (muktaḥ) indeed (eva)"||27-28||
1 Read the first note under the 21st stanza.
2 Read the third note under the 7th stanza.
भोक्तारं यज्ञतपसां सर्वलोकमहेश्वरम्।
सुहृदं सर्वभूतानां ज्ञात्वा मां शान्तिमृच्छति॥२९॥
Bhoktāraṁ yajñatapasāṁ sarvalokamaheśvaram|
Suhṛdaṁ sarvabhūtānāṁ jñātvā māṁ śāntimṛcchati||29||
"By knowing (jñātvā) Me (mām) to be the enjoyer (bhoktāram) of sacrifices and austerities (yajña-tapasām), the great (mahā) Lord (īśvaram) of all (sarva) worlds (loka), (and) the friend (suhṛdam) of all beings (sarva-bhūtānām), (such a sage) attains (ṛcchati) Peace (śāntim)"||29||
This document was conceived by Gabriel Pradīpaka, one of the two founders of this site, and spiritual guru conversant with Sanskrit language and Trika philosophy.
For further information about Sanskrit, Yoga and Indian Philosophy; or if you simply want to comment, ask a question or correct a mistake, feel free to contact us: This is our e-mail address.
|Back to IV. Jñānayoga||Continue to read VI. Dhyānayoga|