Sanskrit & Trika Shaivism (Magyar-Főoldal)

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 Foghangokkal kezdődő szavak - Nem-duális kashmiri Shaivizmus


Ta Da Dha Na Back to Trika's Glossary



*Sanskrit terms occurring in the definitions have generally their own definition in the Glossary as well.

1. तत्त्व Tattva This term literally means "that-ness". In Trika it is used to designate each of the 36 principles of universal manifestation. It is one of the three constituents of Deśādhvā or the Vācya side of Ṣaḍadhvā. It also means something that is real, reality, category, the Supreme Principle, etc.
2. तत्त्वत्रय Tattvatraya The three tattva-s or principles: Nara (man), Śakti (Supreme Power) and Śiva (Supreme Being), or else Ātmā (Self), Vidyā (Spontaneous Knowledge) and Śiva (Supreme Being).
3. तत्पुरुष Tatpuruṣa The Original and Supreme Being. One of the five aspects of Śiva. This is one of the five aspects of Supreme Lord. The remaining four are Īśāna, Sadyojāta, Vāmadeva and Aghora. These five aspects form the Pañcamantra.
4. तन्त्र Tantra Scripture in general. A religious treatise. A series of books that are not based on the Veda-s. They are usually in the form of a dialogue between Śiva and Śakti. These revealed works deal with creation and dissolution of the universe, worship of gods and goddesses, achievement of the six powers and the four ways of union with the Supreme Self.
5. तन्मात्र Tanmātra This word literally means "Only that". There are five Tanmātra-s. They constitute the five subtle elements or patterns from which Mahābhūta-s (Gross Elements) are evolved. Their names are: Śabda (pattern sound), Sparśa (pattern touch), Rūpa (pattern color), Rasa (pattern taste) and Gandha (pattern odor).
6. तमस् Tamas One of the three Guṇa-s or qualities of Prakṛti. It is the principle of inertia, delusion and darkness.
7. तर्कशास्त्र Tarkaśāstra Logic and dialectics.
8. तान्त्रिक Tāntrika Tantric, that is, pertaining to Tantra. A follower of Tantra is also named like that.
9. तिरोधान Tirodhāna Idem Tirodhānakṛtya.
10. तिरोधानकृत्य Tirodhānakṛtya It is one of the Pañcakṛtya-s. The Śiva's act of Self-veiling. In other terms, by means of this act or kṛtya, Śiva produces obscuration or concealment of His own essential nature. It is also called Vilayakṛtya or simply Vilaya. Another name for it is Pidhānakṛtya or Pidhāna as well as Bījāvasthāpana (the act of sowing the seed).
11. तिरोधानशक्ति Tirodhānaśakti The power which veils the real nature of Śiva. Śiva Himself conceals His own divine nature so that the entire universal manifestation may shine forth.
12. तुरीय or तुर्य Turīya or Turya The fourth state of consciousness which strings together all the states. The other three remaining states are jāgrat (wakefulness), svapna (sleep) and suṣupti (deep sleep). Turya or Turīya is simply the witnessing state of Śiva.
13. तुरीयातीत or तुर्यातीत Turīyātīta or Turyātīta It literally means: "Beyond Turīya or Turya". In Turīya or Turya, you still are conscious of the other three states of consciousness (i.e. the states of waking, dream and deep sleep), but in Turīyātīta or Turyātīta, you do not any longer perceive them. All appears as a Divine Mass of Consciousness and no difference is seen there.
14. त्याग Tyāga Lit. "Renunciation". It is the sixth stage in Karaṇa (a practice of Āṇavopāya), in which you renounce all your efforts to attain the spiritual goal. By renouncing that, the stage of Ākṣepa (the final one) appears by itself.
15. त्रिक Trika Lit. "Triple or threefold". It is a short name for Non-dual Shaivism of Kashmir, the philosophical system of the triad formed from: Nara (man), Śakti (Supreme Power) and Śiva (Supreme Being). Or else, this triad might be considered to be composed of Para (the Highest Unity), Parāpara (Unity in difference, a mixture) and Apara (difference or duality, that is, the awareness of unity is completely lost).



1. दर्शन Darśana It literally means "seeing, looking, etc.". However, it is generally used in two senses: (1) Audience, visit, meeting (e.g. "to have the darśana of a saint" is simply "to visit him, to be able to personally see him"); (2) Philosophical system, in the sense that it is a particular view or viewpoint of Reality.
2. दार्ढ्य Dārḍhya Mental firmness or stability during concentration.
3. दिक् Dik Idem Diś.
4. दिक्चरी Dikcarī It is a group of śakti-s or powers derived from Vāmeśvarī. As its name clearly indicates, they are related to "dik" or "directions". Since Bahiṣkaraṇa (outer senses) is closely connected with the directions, this group of śakti-s is closely related to the senses of perception.
5. दिव्यमुद्रा Divyamudrā Lit. "Divine Mudrā". An epithet of Khecarīmudrā.
6. दिश् Diś Direction. Note that this is the prātipadika or crude form (i.e. the noun in its uninflected state) of "dik" (the properly inflected or declined noun).
7. दीक्षा Dīkṣā There two meanings for this term: (1) Initiation, that is, the act through which a disciple is initiated by his guru into the mysteries of spiritual science; and (2) The gift of divine wisdom that a guru gives to his beloved disciple.
8. दृढ Dṛḍha Firm or stable during concentration.
9. दृष्टि Dṛṣṭi View, vision or viewpoint. In Trika, "Śivadṛṣṭi" or the viewpoint of Śiva is recommended, that is, "to consider all to be Śiva Himself". Śivadṛṣṭi directly leads to Para or the Highest Unity.
10. देश Deśa Space.
11. देशाध्व Deśādhvā This is a technical term in Trika. It refers to the Vācya side in Ṣaḍadhvā, that is to say, Kalā, Tattva and Bhuvana. In sum, Deśādhvā stands for Kalā, Tattva and Bhuvana.
12. द्वादशान्त Dvādaśānta It is the distance and also the point at the end of 12 fingers. It is a point of void through which one can enter Supreme Reality. There are several Dvādaśānta-s indeed: (1) Bāhyadvādaśānta or Outer Dvādaśānta: it is the distance as well as the point at the end of 12 fingers from the tip of the nose into the outer space following the course of exhalation. (2) Āntaradvādaśānta or Inner Dvādaśānta: it is the distance as well as the point at the end of 12 fingers from the Bāhyadvādaśānta toward one's own heart (hṛdaya) (i.e. the point in which the inhalation ends). (3) There is also a Dvādaśānta from Āntaradvādaśānta (placed in hṛdaya or heart) up to the throat or kaṇṭha. (4) There is another Dvādaśānta from the throat up to the space between the eyebrows. (5) And there is also a Dvādaśānta called Ūrdhvadvādaśānta from this space between the eyebrows up to Brahmarandhra.



1. धारणा Dhāraṇā It has mainly two meanings: (1) Concentration, in the sense of one-pointedness only lasting for a short period of time; and (2) The Semivowels "ya, ra, la, va", because "they support (dhāraṇāt) the universe (viśva) by holding (dhāraṇena) the stage (bhūmi) of 'limited knower or experient' (pramātṛ)", according to the sage Kṣemarāja in his Śivasūtravimarśinī. In other words, these four letters no only make Supreme Śiva a limited knower or experient, but they also hold Him in that condition. These letters are related to Kañcuka-s.
2. ध्यान Dhyāna Meditation, that is, Dhāraṇā or concentration but now lasting for a relatively long period of time.
3. ध्यानयोग Dhyānayoga Apart from the obvious meaning of "Yoga based on Dhyāna or Meditation", in Trika it also means the highest Dhāraṇā pertaining to Āṇavopāya. Through this Dhāraṇā, you realize that perceiver (pramātā), perception and means of perceiving (pramāṇa) as well as the perceived object (prameya) are only Paramaśiva or the Supreme Self.
4. ध्यानी Dhyānī Meditator, that is, someone practicing meditation.
5. ध्रुव Dhruva Literally "Pole Star". In Trika stands for the letter "a"
--Śiva-- (technically called Anuttara), in the sense that it is as fixed or stationary as the Pole Star. Śiva, the Witness, is completely fixed despite His Power (Śakti) is all the time manifesting innumerable universes.
6. ध्वनियोग Dhvaniyoga Aside from the obvious meaning of "Yoga based on Dhvani or Sound", in Trika it also means a Dhāraṇā pertaining to Āṇavopāya. You practice this Dhāraṇā by concentrating your attention on Anāhatanāda or the unstruck sound that arises right in the point where inhalation submerges and from which exhalation emerges. This kind of practice is also known as Varṇa.



1. नवात्मा Navātmā It literally means "consisting of 9 parts, forms or natures". In Trika indicates the nine forms of Mantra-s which constitute the nature of the Supreme Self: (1) h, (2) r, (3) kṣ, (4) m,
(5) l (not uppercase "i" but lowercase "l" consonant), (6) v, (7) y, (8) ṇ and (9) um̐.
In turn, from a purely tattvic viewpoint, Navātmā is composed of the following tattva-s according to Netratantra (a scripture): (1) Śiva, (2) Sadāśiva, (3) Īśvara, (4) Śuddhavidyā or Sadvidyā, (5) Māyā, (6) Kalā, (7) Niyati, (8) Puruṣa and (9) Prakṛti. However, according to others: (1) Śiva, (2) Śakti, (3) Sadāśiva, (4) Īśvara, (5) Śuddhavidyā or Sadvidyā, (6) Mahāmāyā, (7) Māyā, (8) Puruṣa and (9) Prakṛti.
2. नाडी Nāḍī A subtle channel in the subtle body (which is called in three ways: Sūkṣmaśarīra, Puryaṣṭaka or Liṅgaśarīra). The vital energy or Prāṇa flows through these channels. Though there are numerous subtle channels, three of them are the most important according to Yoga: Iḍā, Piṅgalā and Suṣumnā.
3. नाद Nāda It literally means"sound", but it is generally understood as "divine sound". Nonetheless, in Trika and Yoga, it has two technical meanings: a) The unstruck sound which emerges from the crown of the head and expands through Suṣumnā. There are twelve stages in the practice of Uccāra of the sacred Om̐, viz. (1) Navel, (2) Heart, (3) Mouth, (4) Bindu,
(5) Ardhacandra, (6) Nirodhinī or Nirodhikā, (7) Nāda, (8) Nādānta, (9) Śakti, (10) Vyāpinī or Vyāpikā, (11) Samanā and (12) Unmanā. As you can see, Nāda is the seventh stage. In this case, Nāda must be considered to be a synonymous with Anāhatanāda, which is experienced along the entire Suṣumnā, as I said previously. (b) In Trika, it also means "Sadāśiva" tattva (the third one within the 36 tattva-s scheme stated by Trika), in the sense that is the first stage in the manifestation of the universe.
4. नादबिन्दु Nādabindu The creative Nāda (divine sound) and Bindu (divine light). From a tattvic point of view, it stands for Sadāśiva and Īśvara tattva-s respectively. In turn, as Sadāśivatattva is predominantly Śiva-oriented and Īśvaratattva is predominantly Śakti-oriented, sometimes Nādabindu means Śiva and Śakti, or the compact mass of Consciousness giving rise to everything.
5. नादान्त Nādānta It literally means "the end of Nāda". It is the eight stage in the practice of Uccāra of Om̐. It is a subtle energy beyond Nāda which is experienced in Brahmarandhra.
6. निग्रहकृत्य Nigrahakṛtya The Śiva's act of Self-veiling. It is also known as Vilaya (or Vilayakṛtya) and Pidhāna (o Pidhānakṛtya).
7. निजानन्द Nijānanda In Uccāra (a practice of Āṇavopāya), you experience this kind of Ānanda or Bliss in the first stage at the moment you rest on the inner experient, that is, when you realize that you are the inner Self residing in a physical body.
8. निद्रा Nidrā Sleep, sleepiness, etc. A synonymous with Svapna.
9. निभालन Nibhālana Seeing, perception. It also means "mental practice".
10. निमीलनसमाधि Nimīlanasamādhi It is that state of Samādhi (full absorption) in which you get absorbed in your own Self. You realize that you are Him, but you still cannot perceive that "everything" is Him too.
11. निमेष Nimeṣa It literally means "closing of the eyes". From a philosophical point of view, it means involution, reabsorption of the world in its original source. When Śiva "closes" His eyes (i.e. when He leads His attention to Himself completely instead of the universe), the entire manifestation dissolves in Him, this is the sense.
12. नियति Niyati The fifth Kañcuka or Sheath of Māyā. It is related to spatial limitation. It also gives rise to the limitation of cause-effect relation (Karmic law).
13. निराधार Nirādhāra Without any kind of Supporting It is a synonymous with Nirālamba.
14. निरानन्द Nirānanda In Uccāra (a practice of Āṇavopāya), you experience this kind of Ānanda or Bliss in the second stage at the moment you fix your attention on Śūnya or Void.
15. निरालम्ब Nirālamba Without Supporting A synonymous with Nirādhāra. Paramaśiva or the Supreme Śiva is the support of all, but He is essentially Nirālamba or Nirālambana.
16. निरालम्बन Nirālambana Idem Nirālamba and Nirādhāra.
17. निराश्रय Nirāśraya Without any prop or base.
18. निरोधिका Nirodhikā It literally means "obstructor". It is the sixth stage in the practice of Uccāra of Om̐. It is a subtle energy experienced in the upper part of the forehead as a straight line.
19. निरोधिनी Nirodhinī Idem Nirodhikā. It also means "obstructor".
20. निर्वाण Nirvāṇa It literally means "extinguished". From a philosophical point of view it means dissolution in Śūnya or Void, and lastly Liberation.
21. निर्विकल्प Nirvikalpa Devoid of all type of thoughts or Vikalpa-s.
22. निर्विकल्पसमाधि Nirvikalpasamādhi Samādhi or Perfect Concentration in which all mental fluctuations have been completely stopped.
23. निर्वृति Nirvṛti A synonymous with Ānanda or Bliss.
24. निर्व्युत्थानसमाधि Nirvyutthānasamādhi Samādhi or Perfect Concentration which continues even though you are not formally meditating, that is, it continues throughout the entire day in a natural and spontaneous way. This is really a high state of consciousness.
25. निवेश or निवेशन Niveśa or Niveśana It is simply an entry into Paramaśiva or Highest Reality. It is also the fourth stage in Karaṇa (a practice of Āṇavopāya), in which you become fully established in Puruṣa (inner soul).
26. निष्कल Niṣkala Without parts; with no division. It is an epithet of Śiva, as He is beyond the manifested universe (which consists of parts).
27. निस्तरङ्ग Nistaraṅga Free from "taraṅga" (undulation or commotion).


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