Sanskrit & Trika Shaivism (Magyar-Főoldal)

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 Tanulj Szanszkritul - Kifejezések 2 (magyar)

Általános kifejezések - 2. Rész


Hi, Gabriel Pradīpaka again. This is my second document with usual phrases in Szanszkrit. Since this introduction is almost identical with that of the first document, if you already read it, you can skip this one.

Note that by "common phrases" I will also include mere "words", which are equally usual. I will order everything by using "sets" of twenty phrases. Maybe in the future, I will find a better way to order them in different categories, but for the time being, I prefer to do it so.

For the transliteration, I will use IAST (the International Alphabet of Szanszkrit Transliteration, which allows the proper accentuation to be clearly shown, if there is any, e.g. "sādhu" - "well done!") and ITRANS so that you can copy the phrase and then you paste it in the ITRANS windows of Itranslator99/2003 software in order to get a particular phrase in original Szanszkrit and international transliteration (IAST), if you wish so. There is an example on how to do it with Itranslator 99 regarding Szanszkrit names, but it is also valid "in general" for these common phrases and the other versions of Itranslator. Just copy the phrase in ITRANS and follow the same procedure as explained in that document. If there are any doubts, tell me.

Remember that Szanszkrit words generally undergo a process of metamorphosis when they form a phrase or sentence according to definite rules of Sandhi or combination. Anyway, my word-by-word translation will always tend to include their crude forms, i.e. without any mutation. Hence you will note that the words in the translation look mostly different when compared to those of the phrase.

A last thing: I will added clickable notes containing more explanatory information when necessary. Also, there will be often several ways to express something, as the Szanszkrit vocabulary is much larger than the English one, but I will have to "only" include the most common ones for the sake of convenience.

Important: All that is in brackets and italicized within the translation has been added by me in order to complete the sense of a particular phrase or sentence.

Let us get down to work!


 Set of common phrases

1 Devanāgarī वर्षन्ति मेघाः
वृष्टिर्मेघेभ्यः पतति
IAST Varṣanti meghāḥ
Vṛṣṭirmeghebhyaḥ patati
ITRANS varShanti meghAH
vR^iShTirmeghebhyaH patati
Meaning It rains
[lit. "The clouds (meghāḥ) rain (varṣanti)"]
It rains
[lit. "Rain (vṛṣṭiḥ or vṛṣṭiḥ) falls down (patati) from the clouds (meghebhyaḥ)"]
2 Devanāgarī अतिवर्षन्ति मेघाः
अतिवृष्टिं कुर्वन्ति मेघाः
IAST Ativarṣanti meghāḥ
Ativṛṣṭiṁ kurvanti meghāḥ
ITRANS ativarShanti meghAH
ativR^iShTiM kurvanti meghAH
Meaning It rains heavily - It rains cats and dogs
[lit. "The clouds (meghāḥ) rain heavily (ativarṣanti)"]
It rains heavily - It rains cats and dogs
[lit. "The clouds (meghāḥ) burst (kurvanti) with abundant rain (ativṛṣṭim)"]
3 Devanāgarī उष्णीभवति
IAST Uṣṇībhavati
ITRANS uShNIbhavati
Meaning It is hot (uṣṇī-bhavati)
4 Devanāgarī शीतलीभवति
IAST Śītalībhavati
ITRANS shItalIbhavati
Meaning It is cold (śītalī-bhavati)
5 Devanāgarī आदिपश्चात्
IAST Ādipaścāt
ITRANS AdipashcAt
Meaning Sooner or later (ādi-paścāt)
[lit. "In the beginning (ādi) (or) afterward (paścāt)"]
6 Devanāgarī वरं मौनं न च वचनमनृतम्
IAST Varaṁ maunaṁ na ca vacanamanṛtam
ITRANS varaM maunaM na ca vacanamanR^itam
Meaning Silence is better than speaking untruth
[lit. "Better (varam) silence (maunam) and (ca)
not (na) speaking (vacanam) untruth (anṛtam)"]1 
7 Devanāgarī वरमेको गुणी पुत्रो न च मूर्खशतैरपि
IAST Varameko guṇī putro na ca mūrkhaśatairapi
ITRANS varameko guNI putro na ca mUrkhashatairapi
Meaning Better (varam) one (ekaḥ) virtuous (guṇī) son (putraḥ)
than (na ca... api) hundreds (śataiḥ) of fools (mūrkha)2 
8 Devanāgarī वरं मृत्युर्न च दारिद्रम्
IAST Varaṁ mṛtyurna ca dāridram
ITRANS varaM mR^ityurna ca dAridram
Meaning Rather (varam) death (mṛtyuḥ) than (na ca) poverty (dāridram)
9 Devanāgarī अपमानात्प्राणत्यागो विशिष्यते
IAST Apamānātprāṇatyāgo viśiṣyate
ITRANS apamAnAtprANatyāgo vishiShyate
Meaning Rather (viśiṣyate) death (prāṇa-tyāgaḥ) than dishonor (apamānāt)3 
10 Devanāgarī रात्रिन्दिवम्
IAST Rātrindivam
ITRANS rAtrindivam
Meaning Night and day (rātrindivam)
Night and day (rātryahanī)4 
11 Devanāgarī वारं वारम्
काले काले
IAST Vāraṁ vāram
Kāle kāle
ITRANS vAraM vAram
kAle kAle
Meaning From time to time - Now and then (vāram vāram)
From time to time - Now and then (kāle kāle)
From time to time - Now and then (anuvelam)
12 Devanāgarī युगपत्
IAST Yugapat
ITRANS yugapat
Meaning At the same time (yugapat)
At the same time (ekapade)
13 Devanāgarī आपाततस्
IAST Āpātatas
Meaning For the time being (āpātatas)5 
14 Devanāgarī चिरम्
IAST Ciram
ITRANS ciram
Meaning For a long time (ciram)
For a long time (cira-kālam)
For a long time (cirāt)
15 Devanāgarī किञ्चित्कालम्
IAST Kiñcitkālam
ITRANS ki~ncitkAlam
Meaning For a short time (kiñcid-kālam)
For a short time (kiyat-kālam)
16 Devanāgarī इदानीम्
IAST Idānīm
Meaning Now (idānīm)
Now (adhunā)
17 Devanāgarī साम्प्रतकाले
IAST Sāmpratakāle
ITRANS sAmpratakAle
Meaning Nowadays (sāmprata-kāle)
[lit. "At the present time (sāmprāta-kāle)"]
Nowadays (adhunātana-kāle)
[lit. "At the present time (adhunātana-kāle)"]
Nowadays (vartamāna-kāle)
[lit. "At the present time (vartamāna-kāle)"]
Nowadays (adya)
18 Devanāgarī न कथञ्चन
IAST Na kathañcana
ITRANS na katha~ncana
Meaning No way (na katham cana)!6 
19 Devanāgarī दिष्ट्या
IAST Diṣṭyā
Meaning Good luck (diṣṭyā)!
20 Devanāgarī स्वस्ति
मङ्गलं भूयात्
शुभं भूयात्
IAST Svasti
Maṅgalaṁ bhūyāt
Śubhaṁ bhūyāt
ITRANS svasti
ma~NgalaM bhUyAt
shubhaM bhUyAt
Meaning God bless you (svasti)!
God bless you (maṅgalam bhūyāt)!7 
[lit. "May there be (bhūyāt) happiness and welfare (maṅgalam)!"]
God bless you (śubham bhūyāt)!
[lit. "May there be (bhūyāt) auspiciousness (śubham)!"]

1  The words "na ca" [lit. "and (ca) not (na)"] is sometimes used for expressing "than" in Szanszkrit, when you make a comparison.Return 

2  The word "than" in the comparison is given by "na ca", lit. "and (ca) not (na)" (being "api" a mere word giving emphasis to the expression) together with the Instrumental case (plural number) of "śata" (one hundred), i.e. "śataiḥ".Return 

3  On one hand, the compound "prāṇa-tyāgaḥ" literally means "abandonment (tyāgaḥ) of life (prāṇa)", i.e. suicide, death. Of course, I do not want you to commit suicide, either because of poverty or dishonor, hehe. They are just sayings. On the other hand, the word "apamānāt" means "than dishonor". In this case, the term "than" is indicated by the Ablative case, as "apamānāt" is the Ablative of "apamāna" (dishonor). This is commonly seen, i.e. the Ablative case is used to make comparisons, even though you can also use "na ca" as I mentioned above. In turn, "rather" is not here expressed by means of "varam", but the root "viśiṣ" (to be better), which is here conjugated in 3rd Person singular, Passive Voice: "it is better".Return 

4  "Rātrindivam" is a special neuter compound formed from "rātri" (night) and "diva" (day). Anyway, the first word appears in the form of "rātrim" ("to the night", Accusative case), which is turned into "rātriṁ" and then in "rātrin" by the 11th Rule of Consonant Sandhi. Again, "rātryahanī" is a common Dvandva compound (See Compounds) containing two words "rātri" and "ahan" (derived from "ahar"- "day"), the latter being declined in Nominative, dual number.Return 

5  Note that "āpātatas" also means "unexpectedly, suddenly, just now, etc.Return 

6  The expression "katham cana" changes to "kathañcana" by the 11th Rule of Consonant Sandhi.Return 

7  The word "bhūyāt" is the 3rd Person singular, Benedictive Mood, of the root "bhū" (to be, become). See Verbs documents for more information. Also note that any of the three expressions, being impersonal, may be addressed to "you, you both or you all", i.e. "you" in singular, dual or plural numbers.Return 


 Further Information

Gabriel Pradīpaka

Ezt a dokumentumot Gabriel Pradīpaka, a website egyik társalapítója készítette, aki spirituális guru és aki a Szanszkrit nyelv és a Trika filozófiai rendszerben jártas.

Szanszkrit, Yoga és indiai filozófiával kapcsolatosan, vagy ha csupán hozzászólni, kérdezni szeretnél, esetleg hibára felhívni a figyelmet, bátran lépj kapcsolatba velünk: Ez az e-mail címünk.