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Śivasūtravimarśinī (Shiva Sutra Vimarshini) Section III (aphorisms 23 to 33) - Non-dual Shaivism of Kashmir
Śivasūtravimarśinī continues: Kṣemarāja keeps commenting the aphorisms.
This is the third set of 11 aphorisms out of 45 aphorisms of which the third Section (dealing with Āṇavopāya) consists. As you know, the entire work is composed of 77 aphorisms of the Śivasūtra-s plus their respective commentaries.
Of course, I will also insert the Śiva's aphorisms on which Kṣemarāja is commenting. Even though I will not comment on either the original sūtra-s or the Kṣemarāja's commentary, I will write some notes to make a particular point clear when necessary. If you want a detailed explanation of the hidden meanings in this scripture, go to "Scriptures (study)/Śivasūtravimarśinī" in the Trika section.
Kṣemarāja's Sanskrit will be in dark green color while the original Śiva's aphorisms will be shown in dark red color. In turn, within the transliteration, the original aphorisms will be in brown color, while the Kṣemarāja's comments will be shown in black. Also, within the translation, the original aphorisms by Śiva, i.e. the Śivasūtra-s, will be in green and black colors, while the commentary by Kṣemarāja will contain words in both black and red colors.
Read Śivasūtravimarśinī and experience Supreme Delight, dear Śiva.
Important: All that is in brackets and italicized within the translation has been added by me in order to complete the sense of a particular phrase or sentence. In turn, all that is between double hyphen (--...--) constitutes clarifying further information also added by me.
यदा त्वन्तर्मुखतुर्यावधानावष्टम्भप्रकर्षलभ्यं तुर्यातीतपदमेवमयं न समाविशत्यपि तु पूर्वापरकोटिसंवेद्यतुर्यचमत्कारमात्र एव सन्तुष्यन्नास्ते तदास्य—
पूर्वापरकोट्योस्तुर्यरसमास्वादयतो मध्ये मध्यदशायामवरोऽश्रेष्ठः प्रसवो व्युत्थानात्मा कुत्सितः सर्गो जायते। न तु विद्यासंहारे तदुत्थस्वप्नदर्शनम् (२-१०) इत्युक्तसूत्रार्थनीत्या सदा व्यामुह्यतीत्यर्थः। उक्तं श्रीमालिनीविजये
वासनामात्रलाभेऽपि योऽप्रमत्तो न जायते।
तमनित्येषु भोगेषु योजयन्ति विनायकाः॥
तस्मान्न तेषु संसक्तिं कुर्वीतोत्तमवाञ्छया।
इति प्रागपि संवादितम्॥२३॥
Yadā tvantarmukhaturyāvadhānāvaṣṭambhaprakarṣalabhyaṁ turyātītapadamevamayaṁ na samāviśatyapi tu pūrvāparakoṭisaṁvedyaturyacamatkāramātra eva santuṣyannāste tadāsya—
Pūrvāparakoṭyosturyarasamāsvādayato madhye madhyadaśāyāmavaro'śreṣṭhaḥ prasavo vyutthānātmā kutsitaḥ sargo jāyate| Na tu vidyāsaṁhāre tadutthasvapnadarśanam (2-10) ityuktasūtrārthanītyā sadā vyāmuhyatītyarthaḥ| Uktaṁ śrīmālinīvijaye
Vāsanāmātralābhe'pi yo'pramatto na jāyate|
Tamanityeṣu bhogeṣu yojayanti vināyakāḥ||
Tasmānna teṣu saṁsaktiṁ kurvītottamavāñchayā|
iti prāgapi saṁvāditam||23||
However (tu), when (yadā) this (Yogī) (ayam) does not (na) thus (evam) enter (samāviśati) the state (padam) beyond (atīta) Turya or Fourth State (turya) --viz. Turyātīta, also called Turīyātīta, the Highest State--, which is attainable (labhyam) through the intensity (yogī) of the firm grip (avaṣṭambha) of (his) attention (avadhāna) to the inner (antarmukha) Turya (turya), but (does) rather (api tu) continue (āste) feeling quite contented (santuṣyan) merely (mātraḥ eva) with the camatkāra --delight full of astonishment-- (camatkāra) of Turya (turya) perceived (saṁvedya) at the initial (pūrva) (and) the final (apara) points (koṭi) (of wakefulness, dreaming and deep sleep), then (tadā), in his case (asya)—
In the intervening stage, (that is, neither at the initial nor at the final stage of waking, dreaming and dream sleep) (madhye), there is generation (prasavaḥ) of inferior (mental states) (avara)||23||
In the case of the Yogī who has enjoyed (āsvādayataḥ) the elixir (rasam) of Turya (turya) at the initial (pūrva) (and) the final (apara) points (koṭyoḥ) (of the three ordinary states of consciousness), in madhya (madhye) —in the intervening state or stage (madhya-daśāyām)— does arise (jāyate) avaraprasava --lit. inferior generation-- (avaraḥ... prasavaḥ), viz. a contemptible (kutsitaḥ) manifestation (sargaḥ) (of) inferior (mental states) (aśreṣṭhaḥ) which is characteristic of vyutthāna --any state but Samādhi, i.e. vyutthāna is the ordinary condition most people experience-- (vyutthāna-ātmā)|
"On the submergence (saṁhāre) of the (Pure) Knowledge (vidyā), there is appearance (darśanam) of mental modifications (like in a dream) (svapna) arising (uttha) because of it (tad), (that is, 'arising because of the previous submergence of the Pure Knowledge'). (II, 10) (of the current scripture) (2-10 iti)". As pointed out by the meaning (artha-nītyā) of the said (ukta) aphorism (sūtra), he does not get confused (na tu... vyāmuhyati) perpetually (sadā). This is the purport (iti arthaḥ)|
(In this connection, it has been) expressed (uktam) in venerable Mālinīvijayatantra (śrī-mālinīvijaye):
"(However,) to the one who (yaḥ... tam) does not (na) stay (jāyate) attentive (apramattaḥ) even when (api) he achieves --lit. on the achievement-- (lābhe) merely (mātra) latent impressions (generating limited supernatural powers) (vāsanā), the Vināyaka-s --a certain kind of demons-- (vināyakāḥ) urge and impel (yojayanti) to transient (anityeṣu) enjoyments (bhogeṣu). Therefore (tasmāt), by means of (his) desire (vāñchayā) for (reaching) the Highest Reality (uttama), (such a Yogī) should not get in close contact (na... saṁsaktim kurvīta) with those (transient enjoyments) (teṣu... iti)"|
(This was) quoted (saṁvāditam) previously (prāk) as well (api) --in the commentary on II, 10--1 ||23||
1 The stanza was quoted when Kṣemarāja commented on the 10th aphorism of the second Section. The stanza there appears in a fragmented way, two lines first and then the remaining third line was quoted isolatedly closer to the end of his commentary. I specified all that in my translation of II, 10.
एवमेव प्रसवेऽपि प्रवृत्ते यदि तुर्यरसावष्टम्भेन मध्यपदं सिञ्चति पुनरपि तदा—
मात्रास्वप्रत्ययसन्धाने नष्टस्य पुनरुत्थानम्॥२४॥
मात्रासु पदार्थेषु स्वप्रत्ययसन्धानम्।
चक्षुषा यश्च दृश्येत वाचा वा यश्च गोचरः।
मनश्चिन्तयते यानि बुद्धिर्यानि व्यवस्यति॥
अहङ्कृतानि यान्येव यच्च वेद्यतया स्थितम्।
यश्च नास्ति स तत्रैव त्वन्वेष्टव्यः प्रयत्नतः॥
इति श्रीस्वच्छन्दनिरूपितनीत्या विश्वमिदमहमिति चिद्घनात्मरूपतां सर्वत्रानुसन्दधतः पूर्वोक्तावरप्रसवान्नष्टस्यापहारिततुर्यैकघनचमत्कारमयस्वभावस्य पुनरुत्थानमुन्मज्जनं तदैक्यसम्पत्सम्पूर्णत्वं योगिनो भवतीत्यर्थः। तदुक्तं श्रीस्वच्छन्दे
प्रसह्य चञ्चलीत्येव योगिनामपि यन्मनः।
यस्य ज्ञेयमयो भावः स्थिरः पूर्णः समन्ततः।
मनो न चलते तस्य सर्वावस्थागतस्य तु॥
यत्र यत्र मनो याति ज्ञेयं तत्रैव चिन्तयेत्।
चलित्वा यास्यते कुत्र सर्वं शिवमयं यतः॥
विषयेषु च सर्वेषु इन्द्रियार्थेषु च स्थितः।
यत्र यत्र निरूप्येत नाशिवं विद्यते क्वचित्॥
Evameva prasave'pi pravṛtte yadi turyarasāvaṣṭambhena madhyapadaṁ siñcati punarapi tadā—
Mātrāsvapratyayasandhāne naṣṭasya punarutthānam||24||
Mātrāsu padārtheṣu svapratyayasandhānam|
Cakṣuṣā yaśca dṛśyeta vācā vā yaśca gocaraḥ|
Manaścintayate yāni buddhiryāni vyavasyati||
Ahaṅkṛtāni yānyeva yacca vedyatayā sthitam|
Yaśca nāsti sa tatraiva tvanveṣṭavyaḥ prayatnataḥ||
iti śrīsvacchandanirūpitanītyā viśvamidamahamiti cidghanātmarūpatāṁ sarvatrānusandadhataḥ pūrvoktāvaraprasavānnaṣṭasyāpahāritaturyaikaghanacamatkāramayasvabhāvasya punarutthānamunmajjanaṁ tadaikyasampatsampūrṇatvaṁ yogino bhavatītyarthaḥ| Taduktaṁ śrīsvacchande
Prasahya cañcalītyeva yogināmapi yanmanaḥ|
Yasya jñeyamayo bhāvaḥ sthiraḥ pūrṇaḥ samantataḥ|
Mano na calate tasya sarvāvasthāgatasya tu||
Yatra yatra mano yāti jñeyaṁ tatraiva cintayet|
Calitvā yāsyate kutra sarvaṁ śivamayaṁ yataḥ||
Viṣayeṣu ca sarveṣu indriyārtheṣu ca sthitaḥ|
Yatra yatra nirūpyeta nāśivaṁ vidyate kvacit||
Thus (evam eva), even (api) when the generation (of inferior mental states) occurs (prasave... pravṛtte), if (yadi) (the Yogī) also (punar api) sprinkles (siñcati) the intervening state or stage (madhya-padam) with a firm grip (avaṣṭambhena) of the elixir (rasa) of Turya --the Fourth State-- (turya), then (tadā)—
When there is union (sandhāne) between the real I-consciousness (svapratyaya) and the objects (mātrā), (there is also) reappearance (punar utthānam) (of the Bliss of that fourth state of consciousness which had) disappeared (naṣṭasya) (due to the arising of the aforesaid inferior states of mind --see aphorism 23--)||24||
Union (sandhānam) of the real I-consciousness (svapratyaya) with mātrā-s (mātrāsu) (or) objects (padārtheṣu)|
"Whatever (yaḥ ca) one perceives (dṛśyeta) through the eye(s) (cakṣuṣā) or (vā) whatever (yaḥ ca) (becomes) an object (gocaraḥ) through the speech (vācā); whatever (yāni) the mind (manas) thinks of (cintayate), whatever (yāni) the intellect (buddhiḥ) ascertains (vyavasyati); whatever (yāni eva) is appropriated by the ego (ahaṅkṛtāni), whatever (yaḥ ca) exists (sthitam) as a knowable (vedyatayā); and (even) (ca) what (yaḥ) does not (na) exist (asti), He --i.e. Paramaśiva, who is a compact mass made out of the Light of Consciousness-- (saḥ) must be investigated (anveṣṭavyaḥ) zealously and carefully (prayatnataḥ) in those (tatra) indeed (eva tu... iti)1 "||
(See XII, 163-164 in Svacchandatantra)
In accordance with the precept(s) (nītyā) defined (nirūpita) by venerable (śrī) Svacchandatantra (svacchanda), in the case of (the Yogī) who, everywhere and at all times, repeatedly and intensely becomes aware (sarvatra anusandadhataḥ) of his own nature (ātma-rūpatām) as being a compact mass (ghana) of Consciousness (cit) (by realizing that) "I (aham) (am) this (idam) universe (viśvam... iti)", (there is) reappearance (punar utthānam) (or) emergence (unmajjanam) of one's own essential nature (sva-bhāvasya) full of (maya) the Bliss (camatkāra) of the (apparently) removed (apahārita) Turya (turya) —an only compact mass (of Consciousness) (eka-ghana)— --because the Yogī was not attentive enough, Turya or the Fourth State concealed Itself from him--, which --i.e. one's own essential nature-- had disappeared (naṣṭasya) due to the aforesaid generation (pūrva-ukta... prasavāt) of inferior (mental states) (avara). (In short,) full attainment or accomplishment (sampad-sampūrṇatvam) of (his) unity (aikya) with that --with Turya-- (tad) happens (bhavati) to the Yogī (yoginaḥ). This is the meaning (iti arthaḥ)|
That (very teaching) (tad) has been said (uktam) in venerable Svacchandatantra (śrīsvacchande), beginning with (upakramya):
"Since (yad) even (api) the mind (manas) of the Yogī-s (yoginām) forcibly (prasahya) moves to and fro (cañcalīti eva... iti)2 "||
(See final portion of IV, 311 in Svacchandatantra)
"Whose (yasya) mind --as the seat of feelings and thoughts-- (bhāvaḥ) is full (mayaḥ) of the Highest Principle --as being his only object of knowledge-- (jñeya), steady (sthiraḥ) (and) wholly (samantatas) desireless (pūrṇaḥ). His (tasya) mind (manas) does not (na) move (calate), --i.e. it does not deviate from the Highest Principle--, even when (tu) he falls into (gatasya) all (sarva) the states (avasthā) --viz. though he undergoes all sorts of circumstances--. Wherever (yatra yatra) (his) mind (manas) goes (yāti), (the Yogī) should think (cintayet) of the Highest Principle (jñeyam) right there (tatra eva). As (yatas) everything (sarvam) is full of (mayam) Śiva (śiva), where (kutra) will (his mind) go (yāsyate) after moving (calitvā... iti)?3 "||
(See IV, 312-13 in Svacchandatantra)
and (ca) (ending with):
"In all the objects (viṣayeṣu... sarveṣu) and (ca... ca) in all the purposes/aims (sarveṣu... artheṣu) of the senses (indriya) --viz. enjoyment of objects-- —; (the best of the Yogī-s) who may be involved (sthitaḥ) (with those realities), wherever (yatra yatra) he may investigate (nirūpyeta), there is not (na... vidyate) absence of Śiva (aśivam) anywhere (kvacid... iti) --there is no place where Śiva does not exist--4 "||
(See IV, 314 in Svacchandatantra)
1 Let us make some points very clear now.... well, so clear as possible (lol!):
(1) "vācā vā yaśca gocaraḥ" - "or whatever (becomes) an object through the speech": There are four speech levels, viz. Parāvāk, Paśyantī, Madhyamā and Vaikharī. On one hand, Parāvāk (lit. supreme speech) is the stage in which the sound (vācaka) and the object (vācya) that is denoted (manifested) by such a sound are in absolute unity. On the other hand, Vaikharī is the stage in which vācaka and vācya are completely separated. Vaikharī is the gross speech, i.e. the one expressed by the physical tongue. In Vaikharī both sound and object are different and completely separate. In the middle there are two intervening stages, namely, Paśyantī and Madhyamā. In the former, the sound and the object denoted by it are different from each other but they are not separate; and in the latter, the sound and the object are different and separate, but they are separate from one another "only" on a mental level. The "gocara" or object mentioned in the Svacchandatantra's stanza is vācya or object. In turn, by the word "vācā" or "through the speech" it is meant to say "through Paśyantī, Madhyamā and Vaikharī", because in Parāvāk there is no object at all. So simple! Oh yeah! Hahaha! This is just hilarious really. So many hidden meanings in such a short phrase! Before you faint to the ground from the frustration, please, take a look at the meaning of Parāvāk in the Trika glossary.
(2) "Manaścintayate yāni" - "whatever the mind thinks of": That "yāni" or "whatever" is in plural (neuter gender). It refers to sukha (pleasure), etc.
(3) "Ahaṅkṛtāni yānyeva" - "whatever is appropriated by the ego": Here again "yāni" is in plural (neuter gender). Ego is the tattva or category 15 in the scheme of universal manifestation according to Trika. Ego is constantly appropriating things, attributes, moods and so on. For example: "This is mine" (ego takes possession of a thing) or "I am so smart" (now it is the turn of an attribute) or "I am sad" (now the guy appropriates a mood, i.e. being sad), etc. If you need more examples, just realize what ego does inside yourself right now. But in spite of the intense activity of appropriating performed by this nice tireless ego, "I" remains in solitude and is never touched by any thing, attribute, mood, etc.
(4) "yacca vedyatayā sthitam" - "whatever exists as a knowable": A knowable is simply an object. It is called "knowable" because it can be known by the Subject (the Supreme Lord). Anything that can be known by the Subject is a knowable. This was simple, right?
(5) "Yaśca nāsti" - "and (even) what does not exist": In other words, "and even what is not perceivable as a manifested reality".
(6) "sa..." - "He --i.e. Paramaśiva, who is a compact mass made out of the Light of Consciousness--...": This is not my invention but something that the very sage Kṣemarāja comments on this stanza in his Svacchandoddyota: "स इति चित्प्रकाशघनः परमशिवो..." - "Sa iti citprakāśaghanaḥ paramaśivo..." - "(The term) 'He' (means) Paramaśiva, who is a compact mass made out of the Light of Consciousness". The original word for "He" is "saḥ", but "ḥ" (Visarga) is to be dropped before a consonant ("t" in "tatraiva" in the above stanza) by the 10th Rule of Visarga Sandhi.
In a nutshell, the Supreme Being must be zealously and carefully investigated in all those abovementioned realities.
2 First, a message intended for Sanskrit students: Before you fill my inbox, hehe, with questions and/or complaints about that weird conjugation "cañcalīti", let me explain the following step by step: "cañcalīti" is a Frequentative (also called Intensive) of the root "cal" (to move) conjugated in 3rd P singular, Present Tense. As you know, Frequentative intensifies the action of the verb, e.g. "calati" means "he/she/it moves" but "cañcalīti" means "he/she/it moves intensely, hither and thither, to and fro, etc.". You could say, "NO, it should be cañcalyate then", but the topic is not so simple. There are two kinds of Frequentative, one is Ātmanepadī and the other is Parasmaipadī. The specimen "cañcalyate" is an Ātmanepadī one while "cañcalīti" is a Parasmaipadī one. The former is very usual in classic Sanskrit while the latter occurs "generally" in the Veda-s. So, you are very likely not to find any explanation about the Parasmaipadī Frequentative in an elementary Sanskrit grammar. You need an advanced one for that. But watch it too, because the root "cal" (to move) forms its Parasmaipadī Frequentative in an irregular manner. And if somebody happens to have the brilliant idea that "cañcalīti" is "cañcalī + iti", this is not possible at all. Why? Because even if you consider "cañcalī" to be the feminine gender of "cañcala" (moving to and fro), though "cañcalā" would be more correct, "manas" (mind) is neuter in gender. Consequently, the structure of the sentence gets utterly broken. So, believe it or not, here you have it, a Parasmaipadī Frequentative occurring in a Tantra, when in general they occur in the Veda-s. OK, it is enough. With this brief explanation I prevented my poor inbox from being flooded, cool!
Now, for all the people reading this document, Kṣemarāja specifies in his Svacchandoddyota: "कुटिलं चलति भोगाभिलाषेण व्युत्थानमेव धावति नाभिष्टं पदमवष्टभ्नाति यदिति यस्मादेवम्॥३११॥" - "Kuṭilaṁ calati bhogābhilāṣeṇa vyutthānameva dhāvati nābhiṣṭaṁ padamavaṣṭabhnāti yaditi yasmādevam||311||" - "(The term) 'yad' (in the stanza means) 'since (even the mind of the Yogī-s) is like this'. (So, because such a mind) does not grab hold of the desired State --viz. Nirvyutthānasamādhi or a Samādhi devoid of any ordinary state of consciousness--, it moves and runs after the crooked vyutthāna --the ordinary state of consciousness-- due to desire for enjoyment".
I added the word Nirvyutthānasamādhi because the sage introduced it while commenting the first portion of this stanza (which was not quoted in the present scripture). In this context, Samādhi is to be understood as the Supreme State where a Yogī remains penetrating everything. Summarizing it, Samādhi is here the attainment of unity with all the things. Very good!
3 The translation is tricky, as usual with Svacchandatantra. Therefore, I need to quote the Svacchandoddyota again for you to understand everything as you should. The first two lines belong to the stanza IV, 312. Kṣemarāja comments the following in his excellent Svacchandoddyota: "ज्ञेयं च यथा व्याख्यातं परतत्त्वं भाव आशयः स्थिरो निश्चलः पूर्णो निराकाङ्क्षः समन्ततः सर्वंसर्विकया तुरप्यर्थे॥३१२॥" - "Jñeyaṁ ca yathā vyākhyātaṁ paratattvaṁ bhāva āśayaḥ sthiro niścalaḥ pūrṇo nirākāṅkṣaḥ samantataḥ sarvaṁsarvikayā turapyarthe||312||" - "As has been explained, 'jñeya' --lit. knowable-- is the Highest Principle --i.e. the Supreme Being as the only object of knowledge, as it were, to such a great Yogī--. (The term) 'bhāva' (means) the mind as the seat of feelings and thoughts. 'Sthira' (is) steady, motionless. (The meaning of the word) 'pūrṇa' (is) desireless, wishing nothing. 'Samantatas' (means) 'completely, wholly'. (And) 'tu' (is to be interpreted) in the sense of 'even when'".
The third and fourth lines belong to the stanza IV, 313. The sage comments as follows: "मन एव परतत्त्वैक्यभावनावासितं कर्तृ यथोक्तं ज्ञेयं सर्वत्र चिन्तयत्येव।" - "Mana eva paratattvaikyabhāvanāvāsitaṁ kartṛ yathoktaṁ jñeyaṁ sarvatra cintayatyeva|" - "Manas --the mind--, the doer, being influenced by the contemplation on the unity with the Highest Principle, thinks at all times only of the abovementioned jñeya --the Supreme Being as the sole object of knowledge of the Yogī--".
4 Now, the entire commentary of Kṣemarāja on this stanza in his Svacchandoddyota:
"इन्द्रियाणि चार्थश्चैन्द्रियकं प्रयोजनं विषयोपभोगस्तेषु स्थितो योगिवरो यो निरूप्येत विचार्येत यत्र कुत्रापि नास्याशिवमस्ति सर्वस्यास्य प्रकाशमानतया प्रकाशघनशिवैकात्म्यात्॥३१४॥" - "Indriyāṇi cārthaścaindriyakaṁ prayojanaṁ viṣayopabhogasteṣu sthito yogivaro yo nirūpyeta vicāryeta yatra kutrāpi nāsyāśivamasti sarvasyāsya prakāśamānatayā prakāśaghanaśivaikātmyāt||314||" - "Senses and 'artha' or 'purpose/aim of the senses', viz. enjoyment of objects—; the best of the Yogī-s who may be involved with those (realities), wherever he may investigate or examine, there is no state devoid of Śiva to him. Everything appears as the Light of Consciousness in his case, because of (his) identification with Śiva who is a compact mass of Light||314||".
Hopefully I was skillful enough and I interpreted the meanings in a proper way. Now, you can understand my way of translating the stanza IV, 314 of Svacchandatantra.
तुर्यपरिशीलनप्रकर्षात्प्राप्ततुर्यातीतपदः परिपूर्णस्वच्छस्वच्छन्दचिदानन्दघनेन शिवेन भगवता तुल्यो देहकलाया अविगलनात्तत्समो जायते। तद्विगलनेन साक्षाच्छिव एवासावित्यर्थः। तथा च श्रीकालिकाक्रमे
तस्मान्नित्यमसन्दिग्धं बुद्ध्वा योगं गुरोर्मुखात्।
अविकल्पेन भावेन भावयेत्तन्मयत्वतः॥
यावत्तत्समतां याति भगवान्भैरवोऽब्रवीत्।
Turyapariśīlanaprakarṣātprāptaturyātītapadaḥ paripūrṇasvacchasvacchandacidānandaghanena śivena bhagavatā tulyo dehakalāyā avigalanāttatsamo jāyate| Tadvigalanena sākṣācchiva evāsāvityarthaḥ| Tathā ca śrīkālikākrame
Tasmānnityamasandigdhaṁ buddhvā yogaṁ gurormukhāt|
Avikalpena bhāvena bhāvayettanmayatvataḥ||
Yāvattatsamatāṁ yāti bhagavānbhairavo'bravīt|
Thus (ittham), the Yogī (yogī) who has obtained (āsādita) pre-eminence and excellence (prakarṣaḥ)—
(That superb Yogī who has attained to the fourth state) becomes (jāyate) equal (tulyaḥ) to Śiva (śiva)||25||
Through the intensity (prakarṣāt) of the contact (pariśīlana) with Turya or the Fourth State (turya), he attains the state (prāpta... padaḥ) of Turyātīta --lit. which is beyond Turya-- (turya-atīta) (and) becomes (jāyate) equal (tulyaḥ) to the divine and adorable (bhagavatā) Śiva (śivena) who is a perfectly (paripūrṇa) transparent (svaccha) (and) free (svacchanda) mass (ghanena) of Consciousness (cit) (and) Bliss (ānanda); (and) while the bodily aspect (deha-kalāyā) does not vanish (avigalanāt) --while he is still alive--, (such a Yogī) is (jāyate) like (samaḥ) Him (tad)|
With the disappearance (vigalanena) of that --of the body after death-- (tad), that (Yogī) (asau) (is) Śiva Himself (śivaḥ eva) in person (sākṣāt)|
(It was) so (tathā ca) (said) in venerable Kālikākrama (śrī-kālikākrame) (too):
"The glorious (bhagavān) Bhairava --i.e. the Supreme Lord-- (bhairavaḥ) said (abravīt): 'Therefore (tasmāt), having understood (buddhvā) always (nityam) (and) without any doubt (asandigdham) from the mouth (mukhāt) of the guru --spiritual teacher-- (guroḥ) the means of union (with Śiva) (yogam), one should contemplate (on Śiva) (bhāvayet), devoid of thoughts (avikalpena), with emotion --with feeling-- (bhāvena)1 (and) with a sense of identification (mayatvataḥ) with Him (tad), till (yāvat) he achieves (yāti) sameness or identity (samatām) with Him (tad... iti)'"|
1 "Avikalpena bhāvena" may be optionally translated as "with a state devoid of thoughts", because the word "bhāva", apart from "feeling, emotion" and other huge pile of possible meanings, means "state, condition". OK, I just wanted to make this point clear.
एवमपि च येनेदं तद्धि भोगत इत्याद्युक्तरीत्या उपनतभोगातिवाहनमात्रप्रयोजनाद्देहस्थितिरस्य नातिक्रमणीयेत्याह—
प्रोक्तदृशा शिवतुल्यस्य योगिनः शिवाहम्भावेन वर्तमानस्य शरीरे वृत्तिर्वर्तनं यत् तदेव व्रतं स्वस्वरूपविमर्शात्मकनित्योदितपरपूजातत्परस्य नियमेनानुष्ठेयमस्य। तथा च श्रीस्वच्छन्दे
सुप्रदीप्ते यथा वह्नौ शिखा दृश्येत चाम्बरे।
देहप्राणस्थितो ह्यात्मा तद्वल्लीयेत तत्पदे॥
इत्युक्त्या देहप्राणाद्यवस्थितस्यैव शिवसमाविष्टत्वमुक्तम्। न पुनस्तस्य देहस्थितिव्यतिरिक्तं व्रतमुपयुक्तम्। यदुक्तं श्रीत्रिकसारे
देहोत्थिताभिर्मुद्राभिर्यः सदा मुद्रितो बुधः।
स तु मुद्राधरः प्रोक्तः शेषा वा अस्थिधारकाः॥
अव्यक्तलिङ्गिनं दृष्ट्वा सम्भाषन्ते मरीचयः।
लिङ्गिनं नोपसर्पन्त्यतिगुप्ततरा यतः॥
Evamapi ca yenedaṁ taddhi bhogata ityādyuktarītyā upanatabhogātivāhanamātraprayojanāddehasthitirasya nātikramaṇīyetyāha—
Proktadṛśā śivatulyasya yoginaḥ śivāhambhāvena vartamānasya śarīre vṛttirvartanaṁ yat tadeva vrataṁ svasvarūpavimarśātmakanityoditaparapūjātatparasya niyamenānuṣṭheyamasya| Tathā ca śrīsvacchande
Supradīpte yathā vahnau śikhā dṛśyeta cāmbare|
Dehaprāṇasthito hyātmā tadvallīyeta tatpade||
ityuktyā dehaprāṇādyavasthitasyaiva śivasamāviṣṭatvamuktam| Na punastasya dehasthitivyatiriktaṁ vratamupayuktam| Yaduktaṁ śrītrikasāre
Dehotthitābhirmudrābhiryaḥ sadā mudrito budhaḥ|
Sa tu mudrādharaḥ proktaḥ śeṣā vā asthidhārakāḥ||
Avyaktaliṅginaṁ dṛṣṭvā sambhāṣante marīcayaḥ|
Liṅginaṁ nopasarpantyatiguptatarā yataḥ||
And (ca) even (api) in this way (evam) --i.e. even when he has attained full identification with the Supreme Lord--, according to the method (rītyā) described (ukta) (in the scriptures), viz. "Because (yena) (there is) this (body) (idam), therefore (tad hi) through bhoga or object of enjoyment (bhogataḥ), etc. (iti ādi)", since, (while the body lives,) the purpose (prayojanāt) is merely (mātra) letting the objects of enjoyment fallen to one's share pass (upanata-bhoga-ativāhana)1 , the continuance (sthitiḥ) of the body (deha) of this (Yogī) (asya) is not (na) to be neglected (atikramaṇīyā). (Śiva) said (āha) so (iti) (in the following aphorism)—
Remaining (vṛttiḥ) in the body (śarīra) (is his) vow (vratam), (that is to say, he retains a physical form on account of his enormous compassion to humankind; it is really a pious act on his part)||26||
In accordance with the viewpoint (dṛśā) mentioned (previously) (prokta), with reference to the Yogī (yoginaḥ) who is like (tulyasya) Śiva (śiva) (and) who lives (vartamānasya) with the state (bhāvena) (of) "I (aham) (am) Śiva (śiva)", what (is called) (yad) remaining (vṛttiḥ) (or) existing (vartanam) in the body (śarīre) (is) certainly (tad eva) (his) vow (vratam). (So,) in the (particular) case of this (Yogī) (asya) who is totally devoted (tatparasya) to the worship (pūjā) of the ever-present (nitya-udita) Supreme (Self) (para) in the form of (ātmaka) the awareness (vimarśa) of his own (sva) essential nature (sva-rūpa), (such a vow) is observed (anuṣṭheyam) as an act of piety (niyamena)|
(It has been) so (tathā ca) (declared) in venerable Svacchandatantra (śrī-svacchande) (as well):
"Just as (yathā) in a well-kindled fire (su-pradīpte... vahnau), the flame (śikhā) is seen (dṛśyeta ca) in the sky (ambare), so (tad-vat) the Self (ātmā), (though) undoubtedly (hi) existing (sthitaḥ) in body and vital energy (deha-prāṇa), is merged (līyeta) in His State (tad-pade... iti) --in the state of Śiva--2 "||
(See IV, 398 in Svacchandatantra)
In accordance with what was expressed (in the stanza of Svacchandatantra) (uktyā), it is declared that (uktam) there is a condition of being full of (samāviṣṭatvam) Śiva (bhavati) in the (Yogī) who (still) exists (avasthitasya eva) in body (deha), vital energy (prāṇa), etc. (ādi) --though he is still retaining his body, vital energy, etc., he is fully merged in God!--|
No (na punar) vow (vratam) other than (vyatiriktam) the maintenance (sthiti) of the body (deha) is appropriate (upayuktam) for him (tasya)|
That (yad) (has been) said (uktam) in venerable Trikasāra (śrī-trikasāre):
"He who (yaḥ) is wise (budhaḥ) is always marked (sadā mudritaḥ) with Mudrā-s --Seals-- (mudrābhiḥ)3 arising (utthitābhiḥ) from the body (deha). He alone (saḥ tu) is said to be (proktaḥ) a holder (dharaḥ) of Mudrā-s (mudrā). The rest of people (śeṣāḥ) (are) certainly (vai) holders (dhārakāḥ) of bones (asthi... iti)"||
In venerable Kulapañcāśikā (śrī-kulapañcāśikāyām) also (api), (it has been stated that):
"Having seen (dṛṣṭvā) somebody who does not have any perceptible (religious) mark (a-vyakta-liṅginam), the Marīci-s --the Supreme Powers-- (marīcayaḥ) converse (sambhāṣante) (with him). They do not meet with (na upasarpanti) the one who has (religious) marks (liṅginam) because (yatas) (such Supreme Powers) are very occult and mysterious (atiguptatarāḥ... iti)"||
1 Let me be more specific regarding this: "úpanata" means "fallen to one's share", "bhoga" is "object of enjoyment" and "ativāhana" is "letting pass". In short, "letting the objects of enjoyment fallen to one's share pass", in the sense of "enjoying those objects as they naturally arrive and then letting them go". There is neither attachment nor aversion in the process. The sage is speaking about a great Yogī who has attained final Liberation while living, of course. The vast majority of people just long for more objects than those fallen to their lot "naturally". On top of that, they develop attachment and aversion in the process. All that ignorant behavior brings them nothing but immense trouble and pain. Well, you surely know this story, hehe.
2 The entire Kṣemarāja's commentary on this stanza in his Svacchandoddyota reads:
"देहमन्त्रप्राणात्मशिवपदानामौचित्यात् काष्ठारणिवह्नितच्छिखाम्बराणि दृष्टान्तः। तेनारणिमन्थनयुक्त्या सुप्रदीप्ते प्रज्वलिते वह्नौ सति यथा शिखा ज्वाला दाह्यं दग्ध्वाम्बरे दृश्यते तत्र लयात् तदात्मभावं प्राप्तावलोक्यते तद्वद्दिव्यकरणमन्त्रारणिसमुत्तेजनेन देहे यः प्राणस्तस्मिन् सुप्रदीप्ते मध्योर्ध्ववाह्युदानाग्नितामायाति देहे स्थितो य आत्मा प्रोक्त शुद्धविज्ञानकेवलरूपो वह्निशिखातुल्यः समनान्तं समस्तं देहदारुं दघ्द्वा तस्मिन्पदे लीयते निरुपाधिपरमशिवैकात्म्यमेत्येवेत्यर्थः॥३९८॥" - "Dehamantraprāṇātmaśivapadānāmaucityāt kāṣṭhāraṇivahnitacchikhāmbarāṇi dṛṣṭāntaḥ| Tenāraṇimanthanayuktyā supradīpte prajvalite vahnau sati yathā śikhā jvālā dāhyaṁ dagdhvāmbare dṛśyate tatra layāt tadātmabhāvaṁ prāptāvalokyate tadvaddivyakaraṇamantrāraṇisamuttejanena dehe yaḥ prāṇastasmin supradīpte madhyordhvavāhyudānāgnitāmāyāti dehe sthito ya ātmā prokta śuddhavijñānakevalarūpo vahniśikhātulyaḥ samanāntaṁ samastaṁ dehadāruṁ daghdvā tasminpade līyate nirupādhiparamaśivaikātmyametyevetyarthaḥ||398||" - "For the sake of convenience, a comparison (has been made) between wood, (two) pieces of wood used for kindling fire by friction, fire, its flame --i.e. the flame of the fire-- and sky and the states of body, mantra, vital energy, Self and Śiva (respectively) --in short, the analogy is like this: 'wood - body', '(two) pieces of wood for kindling fire by friction - mantra', 'fire - vital energy', 'flame - Self' and 'sky - Śiva'--. Therefore, just as when there is a well-kindled or lighted fire, the śikhā or flame burning the fuel is seen in the sky, viz. (such a flame) is seen reaching its true nature by merging itself into that --into the sky--, so the vital energy which is in the body, being greatly inflamed by the (two) pieces of wood in the form of mantra or divine sound, becomes the fire of udāna flowing upward through the middle passage --i.e. through Suṣumnā-- when it is well-kindled. The Self, whose nature is only pure Consciousness, is said to reside in the body (too). He is like the flame of a fire. By burning all the wood known as body, which ends in Samanā, (this Self) merges into that State, i.e. He certainly attains oneness with Nirupādhiparamaśiva or Paramaśiva without attributes. This is the meaning."
Very good! Now, with this didactic explanation of the sage Kṣemarāja, the meaning of the stanza is very clear indeed. For more information about Samanā, etc., read Meditation 6 and stanza/commentary III, 5 of the present scripture.
3 In this particular context the term Mudrā refers to Seals performed by parts of the body (e.g. hands) or even the entire body. If you hear many people who speak (and even write) about Yoga, the meaning of Mudrā is Seal because it apparently closes/seals the circuit in one's system so the energy will not go out and it will be thus preserved inside. Anyway, this is a good example of why I always opine that only Yoga experts and scholars can say something which is worth being heard. In the first place, the energy cannot go out because there is neither "outside" nor "inside" in the case of Śakti. This is very hard to grasp for ordinary people who are convinced that there is a universe out there different from themselves and whose pursuits are mostly mundane, but any aspirant with enough experience in Yoga can understand me perfectly. If somebody practicing Yoga still cannot understand me, well, he or she is not enough mature from a spiritual viewpoint.
So, there must be no fear of "losing" energy because the circuit is "open". In fact, the concept of "energy" is also tricky, because in reality it is "power" (Śakti). Śakti is always the possession of Śiva (You!) and cannot ever be lost by any means. It is just one's Māyā or Ignorance who forces oneself to believe that Śakti could escape from the system if the circuit is open. Oh good God, I have been hearing that erroneous concept of "Mudrā-s which prevent Śakti from escaping one's system" for years, hehe, yes, my own Māyā indeed!
Therefore, in order to remove this mayic concept, I can say the following: The real purpose of Mudrā is to make the mind become united with the Self. This is why it is termed "Seal". There are other meanings derived from various roots, but the one I gave you is the main meaning in the vast majority of contexts. And, as a matter of fact, nobody can perform "genuine" Mudrā-s at will but these arise spontaneously due to the Grace of the Lord. Hence the stanza states that only a great Yogī is a holder of Mudrā-s while the rest of people performing those Seals just hold bones.
अहमेव परो हंसः शिवः परमकारणम्।
इति श्रीस्वच्छन्दनिरूपितनीत्या नित्यमेव पराहंभावनामयत्वात्।
तस्य देवातिदेवस्य परबोधस्वरूपिणः।
विमर्शः परमा शक्तिः सर्वज्ञा ज्ञानशालिनी॥
इति श्रीकालिकाक्रमनिरूपितनीत्या महामन्त्रात्मकाकृतकाहंविमर्शारूढस्य यद्यदालापादि तत्तदस्य स्वात्मदेवताविमर्शानवरतावर्तनात्मा जपो जायते। यदुक्तं श्रीविज्ञानभैरवे
भूयो भूयः परे भावे भावना भाव्यते हि या।
जपः सोऽत्र स्वयं नादो मन्त्रात्मा जप्य ईदृशः॥
सकारेण बहिर्याति हकारेण विशेत्पुनः।
हंसहंसेत्यमुं मन्त्रं जीवो जपति नित्यशः॥
षट्शतानि दिवारात्रौ सहस्राण्येकविंशतिः।
जपो देव्या विनिर्दिष्टः सुलभो दुर्लभो जडैः॥
Ahameva paro haṁsaḥ śivaḥ paramakāraṇam|
iti śrīsvacchandanirūpitanītyā nityameva parāhaṁbhāvanāmayatvāt|
Tasya devātidevasya parabodhasvarūpiṇaḥ|
Vimarśaḥ paramā śaktiḥ sarvajñā jñānaśālinī||
iti śrīkālikākramanirūpitanītyā mahāmantrātmakākṛtakāhaṁvimarśārūḍhasya yadyadālāpādi tattadasya svātmadevatāvimarśānavaratāvartanātmā japo jāyate| Yaduktaṁ śrīvijñānabhairave
Bhūyo bhūyaḥ pare bhāve bhāvanā bhāvyate hi yā|
Japaḥ so'tra svayaṁ nādo mantrātmā japya īdṛśaḥ||
Sakāreṇa bahiryāti hakāreṇa viśetpunaḥ|
Haṁsahaṁsetyamuṁ mantraṁ jīvo japati nityaśaḥ||
Ṣaṭśatāni divārātrau sahasrāṇyekaviṁśatiḥ|
Japo devyā vinirdiṣṭaḥ sulabho durlabho jaḍaiḥ||
Of this kind (of Yogī) (evaṁvidhasya asya)—
(His) conversation (kathā) (is) the muttering (of a Mantra or prayer) (japaḥ)||27||
"I (aham) (am) certainly (eva) the Highest (paraḥ) Self or Spirit (haṁsaḥ), (I am) Śiva (śivaḥ), the Supreme (parama) Cause (kāraṇam... iti)"||
(See final portion of IV, 399 in Svacchandatantra)
As defined (nirūpita-nītyā) in venerable (śrī) Svacchandatantra (svacchanda), (his conversation is the muttering of a Mantra or prayer) since (such a Yogī) is constantly full of (nityam eva... mayatvāt) the highest (para) contemplation (bhāvanā) on I-(consciousness) (aham)|
"(I)-consciousness (vimarśaḥ) (or) the Supreme (paramā) Power (śaktiḥ) who is omniscient (sarvajñā), i.e. replete (śālinī) with knowledge (jñāna), belongs to the One (tasya) who is the greatest God (atidevasya) among the gods (deva) (and) whose nature (sva-rūpiṇaḥ) is the Highest (para) Consciousness (bodha... iti)"||
As defined (nirūpita-nītyā) in venerable (śrī) Kālikākrama (kālikākrama), whatever (yad yad) conversation (ālāpa), etc. (ādi) of the (Yogī) who has attained (ārūḍhasya) the uncreated (akṛtaka) I-consciousness (ahaṁ-vimarśa) consisting of (ātma) the great (mahā) Mantra (mantra), all that (tad tad) amounts to (jāyate) his (asya) japa --muttering of a Mantra or prayer-- (japaḥ) whose essence (ātmā) is the incessant (avarata) repetition (āvartana) of the awareness (vimarśa) of the deity (of the great Mantra) (devatā) who is one's own (sva) Self (ātma)1 |
That (very teaching) (yad) has been expressed (uktam) in venerable Vijñānabhairavatantra (śrī-vijñānabhairave):
"That (yā) contemplation (bhāvanā) which is performed (bhāvyate hi) over and over again (bhūyas bhūyas) on the Highest (pare) State (bhāve) (is) japa (japaḥ saḥ) in this (context) (atra). Such (īdṛśaḥ) a spontaneous --i.e. sounding by itself-- (svayam) sound (nādaḥ) whose nature (ātmā) is a Mantra (mantra) (constitutes) the object of japa (japyaḥ... iti) --i.e. such a spontaneous sound is to be contemplated on again and again--2 "||
So also (tathā), (it is declared in the same scripture):
"(The subtle mantra) 'Haṁsa, Haṁsa' (haṁsahaṁsa iti) goes out (bahis yāti) with the sound (kāreṇa) 'Sa' (sa) and goes in (viśet) again (punar) with the sound (kāreṇa) 'Ha' (ha). (For this reason), the living being (jīvaḥ) constantly (nityaśaḥ) mutters (japati) that (amum) mantra (mantram). Day and night (divārātrau) (this living being mutters it) 21,600 (times) (ṣaṭśatāni... sahasrāṇi ekaviṁśatiḥ). The muttering (japaḥ) of the Goddess (devyāḥ) has been indicated (vinirdiṣṭaḥ) to be easy (sulabhaḥ) (for the wise, but) difficult (durlabhaḥ) for the unwise (jaḍaiḥ... iti)3 "||
1 The deity of the great Mantra is Śiva (one's own Self). This Śiva is inseparable from His Śakti or divine Power appearing as "I-consciousness". Therefore, the great Mantra is being repeated automatically and incessantly in the form of "Aham" or "I". Without "I" nothing could ever become manifest. So, as this sublime Yogī is constantly aware of "Aham", all his conversations are like his japa.
2 As hinted at in the previous note, japa in the case of this great Yogī is not even a muttering of a mantra as usually understood but simply contemplation on the Highest State (the State of Śiva). Aham or I is the sound which continues to sound by itself incessantly. Therefore, contemplation of Aham or I (the Highest State) is what constitutes japa for this high-souled one. Now, everything is clear, right?
3 For more information about this topic, check Varṇa in Meditation 5.
प्रोक्तचैतन्यरूपस्यात्मनो यज्ज्ञानं साक्षात्कारस्तदस्य दानं दीयते परिपूर्णं स्वरूपं दीयते खण्ड्यते विश्वभेदो दायते शोध्यते मायास्वरूपं दीयते रक्ष्यते लब्धः शिवात्मा स्वभावश्चानेनेति कृत्वा।
अथ च दीयत इति दानमात्मज्ञानमेवानेनान्तेवासिभ्यो दीयते। तदुक्तम्
तारयिष्यन्ति योगीन्द्राः कुलाचारप्रतिष्ठिताः॥
Proktacaitanyarūpasyātmano yajjñānaṁ sākṣātkārastadasya dānaṁ dīyate paripūrṇaṁ svarūpaṁ dīyate khaṇḍyate viśvabhedo dāyate śodhyate māyāsvarūpaṁ dīyate rakṣyate labdhaḥ śivātmā svabhāvaścāneneti kṛtvā|
Atha ca dīyata iti dānamātmajñānamevānenāntevāsibhyo dīyate| Taduktam
Tārayiṣyanti yogīndrāḥ kulācārapratiṣṭhitāḥ||
(Through the following aphorism, Śiva) spoke (āha) about the conduct or behavior (caryām) of this (Yogī) (asya) who practices such japa and vrata --See the previous two aphorisms-- (īdṛk-japavratavataḥ)—
Knowledge (jñānam) of the Self (ātma) (is his) gift (dānam) (for us all)||28||
That (yad) knowledge (jñānam) of the Self (ātmanaḥ), who is (rūpasya) the aforesaid --See I, 1-- (prokta) Absolute Consciousness (caitanya), consists in realizing (this Self) (sākṣātkāraḥ). That (knowledge) (tad) (is) his (asya) gift (dānam). And considering (the roots from which the term dāna or gift is derived) (iti kṛtvā): "The perfect (paripūrṇa) essential nature (sva-rūpam) is given (as a gift) (dīyate). (By this gift,) the difference (bhedaḥ) (between Śiva and) the universe (viśva) is cut (dīyate) (or) divided (khaṇḍyate) --i.e. duality ceases--; the essence (sva-rūpam) of Māyā (māyā) is cleansed (dāyate) (or) purified (śodhyate), and (ca) the innate state (sva-bhāvaḥ) —whose nature (ātmā) is Śiva (śiva)— which has been acquired (labdhaḥ) by this (great Yogī) (anena) is preserved (dīyate) (or) protected (rakṣyate)1 "|
However --i.e. despite the possible meanings of the term dāna or gift according to the different roots-- (atha ca), knowledge (jñānam eva) of the Self (ātma) (is) a gift (dānam) because it is given (dīyate iti) (or) imparted (dīyate) by him (anena) to the pupils who dwell near or in his house (antevāsibhyaḥ)2 --the main meaning is the one derived from the root "dā" or "to give" then--|
That (very teaching) (tad) has been (clearly) expressed (uktam) (by the following stanza):
"The best Yogī-s (yogi-indrāḥ), well-established (pratiṣṭhitāḥ) in Kulācāra --the unity of Śiva (the Lord), Śakti (His Power) and nara (the individual soul)-- (kula-ācāra), will rescue (tārayiṣyanti) (limited beings) from the vast (vitatāt) ocean of transmigratory existence (bhava-sāgarāt) by (their mere) presence (darśanāt) or (vā api) touch (sparśanāt... iti)3 "||
1 Succinctly, for Sanskrit students, the roots are as follows: dā (to give, house or class 3), do (to cut, house or class 2), dai (to cleanse, house or class 1) and dī (to preserve, house or class 2).
2 The word "antevāsibhyaḥ" is the Dative (plural, masculine) of "antevāsin". The Nominative case (singular, masculine) is "antevāsī" or "a pupil who dwells near or in the house of his teacher". It is very interesting what the sage Kṣemarāja wrote, because one would have expected "śiṣyebhyaḥ" or "to the śiṣya-s or pupils", in a general way, whether they dwell near or far from their teacher. I could have overlooked this and translated "to the pupils", but it would not have been accurate. According to the stanza being quoted next, the sage is giving more importance to Grace being imparted by sight or touch. Hence the necessity of having the pupils within reach, from a physical viewpoint.
3 Here the stanza teaches that the main ones among the Yogī-s will set conditioned beings free by their mere presence (i.e. by sight), and also by their touch. Another name for "knowledge of the Self" is "Grace", i.e. "divine Grace" or "anugraha". According to my tradition, Grace can "additionally" be bestowed upon pupils through a mantra or by mere saṅkalpa or volition, i.e. at will. Evidently, these two additional methods are mostly used with those pupils who are not antevāsī-s, viz. who do not dwell near or in the house of their guru (e.g. myself!). As Kṣemarāja is speaking about the antevāsī-s in this context, the methods to initiate disciples by sight (dṛk) and touch (sparśa) are the only ones being mentioned.
यथोक्तनीत्या शिवतुल्यतया नित्यमेवं व्रतजपचर्यानिष्ठत्वान्निजशक्तिचक्रारूढः स एव तत्त्वत उपदेश्यानां प्रतिबोधक इत्याह—
अवीन् पशून् पातीत्यविपं कवर्गादिषु माहेश्वर्याद्याः पशुमातरः (३-१९) इत्यभिहितदृशा माहेश्वर्यादिशक्तिचक्रं तत्र तिष्ठति विदितस्वमाहात्म्यत्वात्प्रभुत्वेन यः प्रतपति स ज्ञाहेतुर्जानातीति ज्ञा ज्ञानशक्तिस्तस्या हेतुरुपदेश्यान् ज्ञानशक्त्या प्रतिबोधयितुं क्षमः। अन्यस्तु शक्तिचक्रपरतन्त्रीकृतत्वात्स्वात्मन्यप्रभविष्णुः कथमन्यान्प्रबोधयेत्। यच्छब्दापेक्षया सूत्रेऽत्र तच्छब्दोऽध्याहार्यः। च शब्दो ह्यर्थे। योऽयमविपस्थः स यस्माज्ज्ञानप्रबोधनहेतुस्तस्माद्युक्तमुक्तं दानमात्मज्ञानम् (३-२८) इति।
अन्ये तु अक्षरसारूप्यात्प्रब्रूयादिति निरुक्तस्थित्या यो इति योगीन्द्रो वि इति विज्ञानं प इति पदं स्थ इति पदस्थ इत्यस्यान्त्यमक्षरम्। ज्ञ इति ज्ञाता हे इति हेयस्तु इति तुच्छता विसर्जनीयेन विसर्गशक्तिश्चकारेणानुक्तसमुच्चयार्थेन कर्ता परामृश्यत इत्याश्रित्य यो योगीन्द्रो विमर्शशक्त्या स्वरूपात्मविज्ञानपदस्थः स ज्ञाता कर्ता चावगन्तव्यस्तदा चास्य हेयतां तुच्छतां निःसारतां न तूपादेयतामासादयतीति व्याचक्षते। एतच्च न नः प्रतिभाति पदार्थसङ्गतेर्नातिचारुत्वात्प्रतिसूत्रं चेदृशव्याख्याक्रमस्य सहस्रशो दर्शयितुं शक्यत्वात्॥२९॥
Yathoktanītyā śivatulyatayā nityamevaṁ vratajapacaryāniṣṭhatvānnijaśakticakrārūḍhaḥ sa eva tattvata upadeśyānāṁ pratibodhaka ityāha—
Avīn paśūn pātītyavipaṁ kavargādiṣu māheśvaryādyāḥ paśumātaraḥ (3-19) ityabhihitadṛśā māheśvaryādiśakticakraṁ tatra tiṣṭhati viditasvamāhātmyatvātprabhutvena yaḥ pratapati sa jñāheturjānātīti jñā jñānaśaktistasyā heturupadeśyān jñānaśaktyā pratibodhayituṁ kṣamaḥ| Anyastu śakticakraparatantrīkṛtatvātsvātmanyaprabhaviṣṇuḥ kathamanyānprabodhayet| Yacchabdāpekṣayā sūtre'tra tacchabdo'dhyāhāryaḥ| Ca śabdo hyarthe| Yo'yamavipasthaḥ sa yasmājjñānaprabodhanahetustasmādyuktamuktaṁ dānamātmajñānam (3-28) iti|
Anye tu akṣarasārūpyātprabrūyāditi niruktasthityā yo iti yogīndro vi iti vijñānaṁ pa iti padaṁ stha iti padastha ityasyāntyamakṣaram| Jña iti jñātā he iti heyastu iti tucchatā visarjanīyena visargaśaktiścakāreṇānuktasamuccayārthena kartā parāmṛśyata ityāśritya yo yogīndro vimarśaśaktyā svarūpātmavijñānapadasthaḥ sa jñātā kartā cāvagantavyastadā cāsya heyatāṁ tucchatāṁ niḥsāratāṁ na tūpādeyatāmāsādayatīti vyācakṣate| Etacca na naḥ pratibhāti padārthasaṅgaternāticārutvātpratisūtraṁ cedṛśavyākhyākramasya sahasraśo darśayituṁ śakyatvāt||29||
According to what has been stated (yathā-ukta-nītyā), he is always equal (tulyatayā nityam) to Śiva (śiva). (Therefore,) he alone (saḥ eva) (can) really (be) (tattvatas) the teacher --someone who makes oneself recognize his own essential nature-- (pratibodhakaḥ) of pupils (upadeśyānām), because, being devoted (niṣṭhatvāt) to vrata, japa and caryā or religious practices (vrata-japa-caryā) in this way (evam), he has achieved (mastery over) (ārūḍhaḥ) his own (nija) group (cakra) of powers (śakti). (Śiva) said (āha) so (iti) (in the following aphorism)—
He who (yaḥ) (is) established (in the group of powers or Śakticakra) (avipasthaḥ) (is) indeed (ca) a means (hetuḥ) of wisdom (jñā)||29||
[The term "avipasthaḥ" --established (in the group of powers or Śakticakra)-- is to be interpreted in the following manner:] avipa (avipam) (means) "one who protects (pāti) the avi-s (avīn) (or) animals --the limited beings-- (paśūn)", (that is,) the group (cakram) of powers (śakti) (composed of) Māheśvarī (māheśvarī), etc. (ādi) according to the viewpoint (dṛśā) declared (abhihita) (in) "Māheśvarī (māheśvarī) and other goddesses (ādyāḥ) (who have their sphere of influence) in 'ka' (ka) group (varga), etc. (ādiṣu), (and are) the mothers (mātaraḥ) of the limited beings (paśu), (become his presiding deities). (III, 19) (of the current scripture) (3-19 iti)". (The term "sthaḥ" in "avipasthaḥ" means that) that (great Yogī) (yaḥ) remains (tiṣṭhati) there --in that group of powers or Śakticakra-- (tatra) (and) shines (pratapati) as the lord (of such powers) (prabhutvena) since he knows his exalted state or position (vidita-sva-māhātmyatvāt) --lit. since his exalted state or position is known--. He (saḥ) (is) "jñāhetuḥ" (or) "a means of wisdom" (jñāhetuḥ) (on account of his being) the means or source (hetuḥ) of that (tasyā) "jñā" (jñā) —"that which knows (jānāti iti)"—, viz. Jñānaśakti or Power of Knowledge (jñāna-śaktiḥ). (For that reason,) he is fit (kṣamaḥ) for instructing and awakening (pratibodhayitu) (his) pupils (upadeśyān) by the Power of Knowledge --i.e. by his wisdom-- (jñānaśaktyā)|
Nonetheless (tu), another being (apart from that kind of Yogī) (anyaḥ), being subject (paratantrīkṛtatvāt) to the group (cakra) of powers (śakti), he is not a lord (aprabhaviṣṇuḥ) over himself (sva-ātmani). How (katham) would he awaken (prabodhayet) others (anyān) (then)?|
With regard to (apekṣayā) the word (śabda) "yaḥ" --who-- (yad) (occurring) in this (atra) aphorism (sūtre), the word (śabdaḥ) "saḥ" --he-- (tad) is to be supplied (to complete the sense) (adhyāhāryaḥ) --resulting in "he who"--|
The word (śabdaḥ) "ca" (ca) (has been used) in the sense of (arthe) "hi" --indeed, certainly, etc.-- (hi)|
Since (yasmāt) he (saḥ) —i.e. this (Yogī) (ayam) who is established (in the group of powers or Śakticakra) (avipasthaḥ)— (is) a means (hetuḥ) for awakening (prabodhana) knowledge (jñāna), therefore (tasmāt) it has been rightly said that (yuktam uktam): "Knowledge (jñānam) of the Self (ātma) (is his) gift (dānam) (for us all). (III, 28) (of the current scripture) (3-28 iti)"|
However (tu), other (authors) (anye), from the standpoint (sthityā) of nirukta --a kind of explanation or interpretation of the words-- (nirukta) (based on the maxim) "according to similarity (sārūpyāt) of the syllables (akṣara) it would express (prabrūyāt)" --i.e. according to the similarity of syllables a particular term expresses a meaning which derives from words linked to its syllables--, (maintain that): "yo" (yo iti) (points out) yogīndra —a lord among the Yogī-s— (yogi-indraḥ), "vi" (vi iti) (indicates) vijñāna —special knowledge— (vijñānam), "pa" (pa iti) (suggests) pada —state— (padam), (and) "sthaḥ" --established-- (sthaḥ iti), which is the last (antyam) syllable (akṣaram) of this (expression) --viz. Yo'vipasthaḥ in the aphorism--, (forms, along with "pada", the term) "padasthaḥ" —established in a state— (padasthaḥ iti)|
"Jña" (jña iti) (points out) jñātā —knower— (jñātā), "he" (he iti) (indicates) heya —rejectable— (heyaḥ), "tu" (tu iti) (indicates) tucchatā —worthlessness— (turya), (and) by Visarga --"ḥ" at the end of hetuḥ in the aphorism-- (visarjanīyena) the creative power (visarga-śaktiḥ) (would be suggested). By the word (kāreṇa) "ca" (ca), not expressed (here) (anukta) in a conjunctive sense (samuccaya-arthena) --the particle "ca" is not to be understood here as usually, i.e. as the mere conjunction "and"--, an agent or doer (kartā) is referred to (parāmṛśyate). Having so employed (iti āśritya) (this method of interpretation, these other authors) explain (vyācakṣate) (the aphorism in the following way:)
"The one who (yaḥ) is a lord among the Yogī-s (yogi-indraḥ), through the power (śaktyā) of (I-)consciousness (vimarśa), is established (sthaḥ) in a state (pada) of special knowledge (vijñāna) about the nature (ātma) of his own essential Self (sva-rūpa). He (saḥ) must be considered to be (avagantavyaḥ) knower (jñātā) and (ca) doer (kartā). In that case (tadā ca), he rejects (heyatām... āsādayati) this (universe) (asya), by considering (it) worthless and unsubstantial (tucchatām niḥsāratām... āsādayati). (In a nutshell,) he does not (na tu) accept (the universe) (upādeyatām... āsādayati iti)1 "|
This (kind of interpretation) (etad ca) does not (na) please (pratibhāti) us (naḥ) because it is not very agreeable (na aticārutvāt) with the association or relation (saṅgateḥ) between the meanings (artha) of the words (pada), and (ca) because it is possible (śakyatvāt) to show (darśayitum), in every (prati) aphorism (sūtram), a succession (kramasya) of such (īdṛśa) explanations (vyākhyā) by thousands (sahasraśaḥ)||29||
1 This portion is very tricky as far as its translation is concerned. This is why, for the good of all Sanskrit students (and my own good too, hehe), I will make the process of translating clear by a note of explanation. According to my present knowledge, the right translation is the one I wrote, i.e. "In that case (tadā ca), he rejects (heyatām... āsādayati) this (universe) (asya), by considering (it) worthless and unsubstantial (tucchatām niḥsāratām... āsādayati). (In a nutshell,) he does not (na tu) accept (the universe) (upādeyatām... āsādayati iti)|". OK, that translation arose in order to meet the requirements of a modern western mind, but what about being more literal and starting to think like the ancient ones?: "In that case (tadā ca), he attains (āsādayati) the state of being rejectable (heyatām), worthlessness (tucchatām) (and) the state of being unsubstantial (niḥsāratām) of this (universe) (asya). (In a nutshell,) he does not (na tu) attains (āsādayati) (its) acceptability (upādeyatām... iti)|". Oh, that hurt!
Well, I suppose that the structure of the phrase in Sanskrit and my way of translating it is now clear for the students.
यतोऽयं शिवतुल्य उक्तस्ततो यथा
इत्याद्याम्नायदृष्त्या शिवस्य विश्वं स्वशक्तिमयं तथास्यापि स्वस्याः संविदात्मनः शक्तेः प्रचयः क्रियाशक्तिस्फुरणरूपो विकासो विश्वम्। यदुक्तं श्रीमृत्युजिति
यतो ज्ञानमयो देवो ज्ञानं च बहुधा स्थितम्।
नियन्त्रितानां बद्धानां त्राणं तन्नेत्रमुच्यते॥
तत्तद्रूपतया ज्ञानं बहिरन्तः प्रकाशते।
ज्ञानादृते नार्थसत्ता ज्ञानरूपं ततो जगत्॥
न हि ज्ञानादृते भावाः केनचिद्विषयीकृताः।
ज्ञानं तदात्मतां यातमेतस्मादवसीयते॥
ज्ञानात्मता ज्ञेयनिष्ठा भावानां भावनाबलात्॥
Yato'yaṁ śivatulya uktastato yathā
ityādyāmnāyadṛṣtyā śivasya viśvaṁ svaśaktimayaṁ tathāsyāpi svasyāḥ saṁvidātmanaḥ śakteḥ pracayaḥ kriyāśaktisphuraṇarūpo vikāso viśvam| Yaduktaṁ śrīmṛtyujiti
Yato jñānamayo devo jñānaṁ ca bahudhā sthitam|
Niyantritānāṁ baddhānāṁ trāṇaṁ tannetramucyate||
Tattadrūpatayā jñānaṁ bahirantaḥ prakāśate|
Jñānādṛte nārthasattā jñānarūpaṁ tato jagat||
Na hi jñānādṛte bhāvāḥ kenacidviṣayīkṛtāḥ|
Jñānaṁ tadātmatāṁ yātametasmādavasīyate||
Jñānātmatā jñeyaniṣṭhā bhāvānāṁ bhāvanābalāt||
And (ca) of this (Yogī) (asya)—
The universe (viśvam) (is) the expansion or unfoldment (pracayaḥ) of his own (sva... asya) Power (śakti)||30||
Since (yatas) he (ayam) has been said to be (uktaḥ) like (tulyaḥ) Śiva (śiva), therefore (tatas), just as (yathā) from the viewpoint (dṛṣtyā) of the sacred texts (āmnāya), the Śiva's (śivasya) universe (viśvam) is full of (mayam) His own (sva) Śakti or Power (śakti):
"His (asya) powers (śaktayaḥ) (are) the entire (kṛtsnam) world (jagat), etc. (iti-ādi)1 "|
so (tathā), the universe (viśvam) (is) an unfoldment (pracayaḥ) (or) expansion (vikāsaḥ) —a flashing (sphuraṇa-rūpaḥ) of the Power (śakti) of Action (kriyā) (which manifests the world)— of his own (asya api svasyāḥ) Śakti (śakteḥ) whose nature (ātmanaḥ) is Consciousness (saṁvid)|
That (yad) has (also) been declared (uktam) in venerable Mṛtyujit --Netratantra-- (śrī-mṛtyujiti):
"Because (yatas) God (devaḥ) is the Highest Reality as pure Consciousness (jñāna-mayaḥ) and (ca) Jñāna (or Consciousness) (jñānam) exists (sthitam) in many forms (bahudhā), (and since God becomes) the Protector (trāṇam) of the restrained or conditioned beings (niyantritānām) —of the ones living in bondage (baddhānām)—, therefore (tad) He is said to be (ucyate) Netra (netram... iti)2 "||
(See IX, 12 in Netratantra)
and also (api) in Kālikākrama (kālikākrame):
"Consciousness (jñāna) shines --becomes manifest-- (prakāśate) inside (antar) (and) outside (bahis) in various ways (tad-tad-rūpatayā) --e.g. inside like pleasure, outside like a pot, etc.--. There is no (na) existence (sattā) of objects (artha) without (ṛte) consciousness (jñānāt). Therefore (tatas), the world (jagat) (is) a form (rūpam) of consciousness (jñāna). Without (ṛte) consciousness (jñānāt), the objects (bhāvāḥ) are not (na hi) perceived (viṣayīkṛtāḥ) by anybody (kenacid). Consciousness (jñānam) has become (yātam) the nature (ātmatām) of those (objects) (tad), (and) through it (etasmāt) (each one of them) is ascertained and clearly distinguished (avasīyate). By the application (yogatas) of affirmation and negation (niṣedha-vidhi), there is division --lit. with/through the division-- (vibhāgena) of positive and negative bhāva-s or objects --viz. manifest and unmanifest-- (asti-na-asti). The objectivity --i.e. the state of being an object or jñeya-- (jñeya-niṣṭhā) of the objects (bhāvānām) (is perceived) as having consciousness for its essence (jñāna-ātmatā) by force of (balāt) bhāvanā or realization of one's nature (bhāvanā). In the case of knowledge and knowable (jñāna-jñeyayoḥ), they are the same thing --lit. (there is) an only form-- (eka-rūpatā) due to a simultaneous apprehension (yugapad-vedanāt... iti) --in short, knowledge and knowable are perceived at the same time because if one of them is not present there is no existence--"|
1 That "etc." stands for the suspension points.
2 Because this stanza contains very deep knowledge, I will quote the entire commentary that Kṣemarāja wrote on it in his Netroddyota. As a by-product, you will understand why I translated the stanza in the particular way I did: "देवः परमेश्वरो ज्ञानमयश्चिन्मात्रपरमार्थः। तच्च ज्ञानं बहुधेति स्वातन्त्र्यात्सङ्कोचमाभास्य नानात्वमाश्रित्य स्थितम्। अतश्च सङ्कोचाभासभाजो ये निगूहितस्वरूपतया नियन्त्रिता आभासिता देवेन तत एव बद्धास्तेषां नानादर्शनोपासाभिः स्वस्वरूपप्रथाहेतुतया यतो देवस्त्राणं तस्मान्निरुक्तदृशा नेत्रमुच्यते न तु चक्षुर्गोलकतया॥१२॥" - "Devaḥ parameśvaro jñānamayaścinmātraparamārthaḥ| Tacca jñānaṁ bahudheti svātantryātsaṅkocamābhāsya nānātvamāśritya sthitam| Ataśca saṅkocābhāsabhājo ye nigūhitasvarūpatayā niyantritā ābhāsitā devena tata eva baddhāsteṣāṁ nānādarśanopāsābhiḥ svasvarūpaprathāhetutayā yato devastrāṇaṁ tasmānniruktadṛśā netramucyate na tu cakṣurgolakatayā||12||" - "God, the Supreme Lord, is 'jñānamaya' --lit. full of knowledge--, viz. the Highest Reality in the form of pure Consciousness. That Jñāna (or Consciousness), having assumed manifoldness (and) manifested contraction through (Its) Absolute Freedom, exists 'in many forms'. Hence, those who participate in the manifestation of contraction, being their essential nature concealed (or veiled), are manifested by God as restrained (or conditioned) beings. And for that reason, they are in bondage. (Nonetheless,) through their worships and homages prescribed by various philosophical systems and doctrines, God (turns into) their 'Trāṇa' or Protector because He becomes the cause for the expansion of their own essential nature --i.e. the essential nature of those limited beings ceases to be concealed--. On that account, from a etymological viewpoint, He is said to be 'Netra' --in other words, the term Netra is the abbreviation of 'niyantritānāṁ trāṇam' or 'protector of the restrained/limited beings'--. (He) is not (called 'Netra') in the sense of 'eyeball' --since the usual meaning of the term "netra" is "eye"--||12||".
Very good! And remember, whether you are one whose essential nature is concealed or expanded (or a mixture), the Highest Reality is always your real Self. If you read this scripture and think that the author is speaking about "another" person who has attained such a high state of consciousness, you are thinking wrongly and only accumulating book learning. If you do not realize your essential nature while reading, tataḥ kim (what then?). So, the truth is that this scripture deals with You alone! The entire universe tells Your story, dear Lord!
न केवलं सृष्टिदशायां निजशक्तिविकासोऽस्य विश्वं यत्तत्पृष्ठपातिनौ—
स्वशक्तिप्रचय इत्यनुवर्तते। क्रियाशक्त्याभासितस्य विश्वस्य तत्तत्प्रमात्रपेक्षं कञ्चित्कालं बहिर्मुखत्वावभासनरूपा या स्थितिश्चिन्मयप्रमातृविश्रान्त्यात्मा च यो लयस्तावेतावेतस्य स्वशक्तिप्रचय एव तत्तद्वेद्यं ह्याभासमानं विलीयमानं च निजसंविच्छक्त्यात्मकमेवान्यथास्य संवेदनानुपपत्तेः। अत एव श्रीकालिकाक्रमे
इत्यादि स्थितिलयपरत्वेनोक्तम्। तथा
सर्वं शुद्धं निरालम्बं ज्ञानं स्वप्रत्ययात्मकम्।
यः पश्यति स मुक्तात्मा जीवन्नेव न संशयः॥
Na kevalaṁ sṛṣṭidaśāyāṁ nijaśaktivikāso'sya viśvaṁ yattatpṛṣṭhapātinau—
Svaśaktipracaya ityanuvartate| Kriyāśaktyābhāsitasya viśvasya tattatpramātrapekṣaṁ kañcitkālaṁ bahirmukhatvāvabhāsanarūpā yā sthitiścinmayapramātṛviśrāntyātmā ca yo layastāvetāvetasya svaśaktipracaya eva tattadvedyaṁ hyābhāsamānaṁ vilīyamānaṁ ca nijasaṁvicchaktyātmakamevānyathāsya saṁvedanānupapatteḥ| Ata eva śrīkālikākrame
ityādi sthitilayaparatvenoktam| Tathā
Sarvaṁ śuddhaṁ nirālambaṁ jñānaṁ svapratyayātmakam|
Yaḥ paśyati sa muktātmā jīvanneva na saṁśayaḥ||
Not (na) only (kevalam) (is) the universe (viśva) the expansion (or unfoldment) (vikāsaḥ) of his own (nija... asya) power (śakti) in the stage or state (daśāyām) of (its) manifestation (sṛṣṭi), (but also) with reference to (yad) the other two (states) following (pṛṣṭhapātinau) it (tad)—
Both the maintenance (of the universe) (sthiti) (and its) reabsorption (layau) (are also the unfoldment of his Power)||31||
(The phrase) "(are also) the unfoldment (pracayaḥ) of his (sva) Power (śakti... iti)" (should) follow (anuvartate) (the aphorism in order to complete the sense) --this is why it was already added in parentheses to the translation of the aphorism--|
Sthiti or maintenance (sthitiḥ) of the universe (viśvasya) manifested (ābhāsitasya) by the Power (śaktyā) of Action (kriyā), which --i.e. sthiti-- (yā) is (rūpā) an external (bahirmukhatva) appearance (avabhāsana) (lasting) for some (kañcid) time (kālam), with regard to (apekṣam) various (tad-tad) experients (pramātṛ)1 , and (ca) laya or reabsorption (layaḥ) which (yaḥ) is (ātmā) a repose (viśrānti) on the Experient --one's own Self-- (pramātṛ) who is pure Consciousness (cit-maya), these very two --sthiti and laya-- (tau etau)2 (are) only (eva) an expansion or unfoldment (pracayaḥ) of his own (etasya sva) Power (śakti) --of the Yogī's power who is equal to Śiva--. Undoubtedly (hi), the various (tad-tad) knowable(s) --objects-- (vedyam) which appear (ābhāsamānam) and (ca) disappear (vilīyamānam) --i.e. which become manifest and unmanifest-- consist only of (ātmakam eva) his own (nija) Conscious Power --i.e. the Power of Consciousness-- (saṁvid-śakti), since otherwise there would be impossibility (anyathā... anupapatteḥ) of apprehension or perception (saṁvedana) of this (universe) (asya) --being less literal but more explicit "since apprehension or perception of this universe would be impossible otherwise", i.e. if the objects appearing and disappearing were not only his own Power, the act of perceiving them would not be possible--|
For this very reason (atas eva), (when) in venerable Kālikākrama (śrī-kālikākrame) (it is declared that):
"There is division --lit. with/through the division-- (vibhāgena) of positive and negative bhāva-s or objects --viz. manifest and unmanifest--, etc. (asti-na-asti... ityādi)"||
(such a statement) was said (uktam) with respect to (paratvena) maintenance and reabsorption (of the universe) (sthiti-laya)|
"He (saḥ) who (yaḥ) perceives (paśyati) the entirely (sarvam) pure (śuddham) Consciousness (jñānam), which is devoid of support --viz. it does not depend on any object to exist-- (nis-ālambam) (and) whose nature (ātmakam) is one's own (sva) pratyaya or I-consciousness (pratyaya), (is) an emancipated soul (mukta-ātmā) while living (jīvan eva)3 ; there is no doubt (about it) (na saṁśayaḥ... iti)"||
1 For more information about the seven experients, read note 4 in III, 19 of the present scripture.
2 For Sanskrit students: "tau" is the Nominative dual (masculine) of "tad" and "etau" is the Nominative dual (masculine) of "etad". Usually "tad" means "that", while "this" is indicated by the word "etad". Anyway, "tad" can also mean "this" according to the context. In this case, to translate "tau" as "these two" is more appropriate than translating it as "those two". And of course, the expression includes "very", when "tad" and "etad" come together, e.g. tau etau (which, by the 6th Primary Rule of Vowel Sandhi, turn into "tāvetau"... but the author could have optionally written "tā etau" by the 7th Primary Rule of Vowel Sandhi): "those very two" or else, as in this case, "these very two". You can confirm what I said about "tad" also meaning "this" by simply consulting any decent Sanskrit dictionary.
3 For Sanskrit students again: When "n" is at the end of a word and preceded by a "short" vowel, it changes to "nn" if followed by a vowel according to the 2nd sub-rule of the 15th Rule of Consonant Sandhi. Hence the original expression "jīvan eva" turned into "jīvanneva" in the stanza. Evidently, the author knew this rule! (joking).
नन्वेवं सृष्टिस्थितिलयावस्थास्वन्योन्यभेदावभासमयीष्वस्य स्वरूपान्यथात्वमायातमित्याशङ्काशान्त्यर्थमाह—
तेषां सृष्ट्यादीनां प्रवृत्तावप्युन्मज्जनेऽपि नास्य योगिनः संवेत्तृभावात्तुर्यचमत्कारात्मकविमर्शमयादुपलब्धृत्वान्निरासश्चलनं तन्निरासे कस्यचिदप्यप्रकाशनात्। यदुक्तं तत्रैव
नाशेऽविद्याप्रपञ्चस्य स्वभावो न विनश्यति।
उत्पत्तिध्वंसविरहात्तस्मान्नाशो न वास्तवः॥
यत्स्वभावेन नष्टं न तन्नष्टं कथमुच्यते॥
इति। एतदेव स्पन्दे
अवस्थायुगलं चात्र कार्यकर्तृत्वशब्दितम्।
कार्यता क्षयिणी तत्र कर्तृत्वं पुनरक्षयम्॥
कार्योन्मुखः प्रयत्नो यः केवलं सोऽत्र लुप्यते।
तस्मिँल्लुप्ते विलुप्तोऽस्मीत्यबुधः प्रतिपद्यते॥
न तु योऽन्तर्मुखो भावः सर्वज्ञत्वगुणास्पदम्।
तस्य लोपः कदाचित्स्यादन्यस्यानुपलम्भनात्॥
Nanvevaṁ sṛṣṭisthitilayāvasthāsvanyonyabhedāvabhāsamayīṣvasya svarūpānyathātvamāyātamityāśaṅkāśāntyarthamāha—
Teṣāṁ sṛṣṭyādīnāṁ pravṛttāvapyunmajjane'pi nāsya yoginaḥ saṁvettṛbhāvātturyacamatkārātmakavimarśamayādupalabdhṛtvānnirāsaścalanaṁ tannirāse kasyacidapyaprakāśanāt| Yaduktaṁ tatraiva
Nāśe'vidyāprapañcasya svabhāvo na vinaśyati|
Utpattidhvaṁsavirahāttasmānnāśo na vāstavaḥ||
Yatsvabhāvena naṣṭaṁ na tannaṣṭaṁ kathamucyate||
iti| Etadeva spande
Avasthāyugalaṁ cātra kāryakartṛtvaśabditam|
Kāryatā kṣayiṇī tatra kartṛtvaṁ punarakṣayam||
Kāryonmukhaḥ prayatno yaḥ kevalaṁ so'tra lupyate|
Tasmim̐̐llupte vilupto'smītyabudhaḥ pratipadyate||
Na tu yo'ntarmukho bhāvaḥ sarvajñatvaguṇāspadam|
Tasya lopaḥ kadācitsyādanyasyānupalambhanāt||
A doubt (nanu)!: "Thus (evam), (in the case of a great Yogī oriented toward objects,) his (inner state) (asya) experiences anyathātva --lit. difference-- or a break in the awareness (anyathātvam āyātam) of his essential nature (sva-rūpa) during the states (avasthāsu) of manifestation, maintenance and reabsorption (of the universe) (sṛṣṭi-sthiti-laya), whose appearances (avabhāsa-mayīṣu) differ (bheda) from one another (anyonya... iti)" --in short, since manifestation, maintenance and reabsorption of the universe differ from each other regarding their appearance, the inner state of the great Yogī should change too every time he experiences those three, one after the other--. In order to (artham) extinguish (śānti) (that) doubt (āśaṅkā), (Śiva) said (āha)—
Even though (api) there may be occurrence (pravṛttau) of those (three previous processes, viz. manifestation, maintenance and reabsorption of the universe) (tad), there is no break (anirāsaḥ) (in the inner state of the great Yogī) because of (his) condition (bhāvāt) as the (Supreme) Knower (saṁvettṛ)||32||
Even though (api... api) there may be occurrence (pravṛttau) (or) emergence (unmajjane) of those (teṣām), i.e. of manifestation, etc. (sṛṣṭi-ādīnām), there is no (na) break (nirāsaḥ) (or) motion (calanam) (in the inner state) of this Yogī (asya yoginaḥ) because of (his) condition (bhāvāt) as the (Supreme) Knower (svapratyaya), (to wit,) since he is the Perceiver full of (mayāt upalabdhṛtvāt) the blissful (camatkāra-ātmaka) awareness (vimarśa) of Turya --the Fourth State-- (turya), (and) because there would not be manifestation (aprakāśanāt) of anything at all (kasyacidapi) in the case of a break (nirāse) in that --in his state as the Supreme Knower-- (tad)1 |
That (truth) (yad) was declared (uktam) in that (book) itself --in Kālikākrama-- (tatra eva):
"When there is disappearance (nāśe) of what has been manifested (prapañcasya) by Ignorance or Māyā (avidyā), one's essential nature --the essential nature of Consciousness-- (sva-bhāvaḥ) does not (na) disappear (vinaśyati). As there is absence (virahāt) of appearance --manifestation-- (utpatti) (and) disappearance (dhvaṁsa) (as far as Consciousness is concerned), therefore (tasmāt) there is no (na) real (vāstavaḥ) disappearance (nāśaḥ) (in Its case). Since (yatas) (even) Ignorance (avidyā) is figuratively mentioned (upacaryate) as appearing and disappearing (samutpatti-dhvaṁsābhyām), how then (katham) (can) It --i.e. Consciousness-- (tad) be said to (ucyate) have disappeared (naṣṭam), (when) that (Consciousness) (yad), by nature (sva-bhāvena), has not (ever) (na) disappeared (naṣṭam... iti)?"||
This (etad) was mentioned (uktam) by this (aphorism) (anena) in Spandakārikā-s (spande):
"It is said (śabditam) that (there are) two (yugalam) states (avasthā) in this (principle of Spanda) (ca atra), (viz.) the state of deed (kārya... tva) (and) the state of doer (kartṛtva). Of those (tatra), the state of deed (kāryatā) is perishable (kṣayiṇī), but (punar) the state of doer (kartṛtvam) (is) imperishable (akṣayam... iti)"||
(See Spandakārikā-s I, 14)
and also (tathā) (by these other two aphorisms):
"Only (kevalam) the effort (prayatnaḥ... saḥ) which (yaḥ) is directed (unmukhaḥ) to deed (kārya) disappears (lupyate) in this (state of Samādhi) (atra). When that (effort) has disappeared (tasmin lupte), (only) a fool (abudhaḥ) (would) think (pratipadyate) 'I have disappeared' (viluptaḥ asmi iti).
There is (syāt) never (na tu... kadācid) cessation (lopaḥ) of that (tasya) inner (antarmukhaḥ) state or nature (bhāvaḥ) which (yaḥ) (is) the abode (āspadam) of the attribute (guṇa) of omniscience (sarvajñatva), on account of the nonperception (anupalambhanāt) of another (anyasya... iti)2 "||
(See Spandakārikā-s I, 15-16)
1 Changes are detected due to the presence of something which is immutable. If the Supreme Knower or Perceiver, i.e. Consciousness (You!), were ever to change, that is, if He experienced a break or motion in His essential nature, who would notice the other changes then? As these other changes are perceived the whole time as they happen (e.g. wakefulness, dreams, pleasure, pain, void, happiness, external things getting old, etc.), the Highest Reality (You!) never abandons Its own essential state. It is sadodita or nityodita (lit. always arisen), viz. ever-present. One cannot say the same thing about all that has been produced by Ignorance or Māyā, which is full of changing realities. Hence those who postulate that Consciousness changes or mutates are wrong from beginning to end.
2 Not only in this case, but every time you see a Spandakārikā-s' stanza being quoted, read the respective explanation written by the same sage Kṣemarāja in Spandanirṇaya (his scholarly commentary on Spandakārikā-s).
वेद्यस्पर्शजातयोः सुखदुःखयोर्बहिरिव नीलादिवदिदन्ताभासतया मननं संवेदनं न तु लौकिकवदहन्तास्पर्शनेनास्य हि स्वशक्तिप्रचयोऽस्य विश्वम् (३-३०) इत्युक्तसूत्रार्थनीत्या सर्वमहन्ताच्छादितत्वेन स्फुरति न तु नियतं सुखदुःखाद्येवेत्येवम्परमेतत्। योगी हि प्रशान्तपुर्यष्टकप्रमातृभावः कथं सुखदुःखाभ्यां स्पृश्यते। तथा च श्रीप्रत्यभिज्ञासूत्रविमर्शिन्याम्।
ग्राहकभूमिकोत्तीर्णानां वास्तवप्रमातृदशाप्रपन्नानां तत्तत्स्वहेतूपस्थापितसुखदुःखसाक्षात्कारेऽपि न तेषां सुखदुःखादि नोत्पद्यत एव वा सुखादि हेतुवैकल्यात्सहजानन्दाविर्भावस्तु तदा स्यात्॥
इत्युक्तम्। अत एव
न दुःखं न सुखं यत्र न ग्राह्यं ग्राहको न च।
न चास्ति मूढभावोऽपि तदस्ति परमार्थतः॥
इति स्पन्दे निरूपितम्॥३३॥
Vedyasparśajātayoḥ sukhaduḥkhayorbahiriva nīlādivadidantābhāsatayā mananaṁ saṁvedanaṁ na tu laukikavadahantāsparśanenāsya hi svaśaktipracayo'sya viśvam (3-30) ityuktasūtrārthanītyā sarvamahantācchāditatvena sphurati na tu niyataṁ sukhaduḥkhādyevetyevamparametat| Yogī hi praśāntapuryaṣṭakapramātṛbhāvaḥ kathaṁ sukhaduḥkhābhyāṁ spṛśyate| Tathā ca śrīpratyabhijñāsūtravimarśinyām|
Grāhakabhūmikottīrṇānāṁ vāstavapramātṛdaśāprapannānāṁ tattatsvahetūpasthāpitasukhaduḥkhasākṣātkāre'pi na teṣāṁ sukhaduḥkhādi notpadyata eva vā sukhādi hetuvaikalyātsahajānandāvirbhāvastu tadā syāt||
ityuktam| Ata eva
Na duḥkhaṁ na sukhaṁ yatra na grāhyaṁ grāhako na ca|
Na cāsti mūḍhabhāvo'pi tadasti paramārthataḥ||
iti spande nirūpitam||33||
Of this Yogī (asya yoginaḥ)—
(This sublime Yogī) considers (mananam) pleasure and pain (sukhaduḥkhayoḥ) as something external (bahis)||33||
(This great Yogī) considers --lit. consideration-- (mananam) (or) perceives --lit. perception-- (saṁvedanam) pleasure and pain (sukha-duḥkhayoḥ) born (jātayoḥ) of contact (sparśa) with objects (vedya) as a mere --lit. as being a mere appearance-- (ābhāsatayā) "This" --viz. as something being perceived by one's own essential nature which is "I" or "Subject"-- (idantā). (In a nutshell, he considers or perceives the two) as (iva) something external (bahis), (such) like (vat) blue (nīla), etc. (ādi), and not (na tu) like (vat) the common people (laukika) (consider them both, that is,) as something touching --coming into contact-- (sparśanena) with the "I" (ahantā). In his case (asya hi), as expressed (ukta... nītyā) by the meaning (artha) of the aphorism (sūtra) "The universe (viśvam) (is) the expansion or unfoldment (pracayaḥ) of his own (sva... asya) Power (śakti). (III, 30) (of the current scripture) (3-30 iti)", everything (sarvam) shines forth (sphurati) as clad --in the sense of "consisting of, full of"-- (ācchāditatvena) in (his) I-consciousness (ahantā), and not (na tu) (as if) pleasure, pain, etc. (sukha-duḥkha-ādi eva) were connected (with his I-consciousness) --as if these experiences were somehow affecting his "I" or essential nature-- (niyatam). Such is the explanation according to (iti evam) this (etad) previous (aphorism) (param)|
How (katham) (can) the Yogī (yogī hi), in whom the state (bhāvaḥ) (of regarding) the subtle body --composed of intellect, ego, mind and subtle elements-- (puryaṣṭaka) as the Experient or Knower --the Self-- (pramātṛ) has been extinguished (praśānta), be touched --i.e. be affected-- (spṛśyate) by pleasure and pain (sukha-duḥkhābhyām) (when these two are related to intellect, ego and mind)?|
The same thing has also been said (tathā ca... uktam) in venerable Pratyabhijñāsūtravimarśinī (śrī-pratyabhijñāsūtravimarśinyām):
"There is no (na) pleasure, pain, etc. (sukhaduḥkhādi) for those (teṣām) who have transcended (uttīrṇānām) the stage (bhūmikā) of (limited) experient --the one who is controlled by Māyā or Ignorance-- (grāhaka) (and) attained (prapannānām) the state (daśā) of the Real (vāstava) Experient --i.e. Śiva-- (pramātṛ) even when (api) there might be a clear perception (sākṣātkāre) of pleasure (sukha) (and) pain (duḥkha) presented (upasthāpita) by their (sva) various (tad-tad) causes (hetu)1 . Or else (vā), (due to a full immersion in the Light of Consciousness,) pleasure, etc. (sukha-ādi) are not produced --lit. is not produced-- (na utpadyate eva) because their causes are absent (hetu-vaikalyāt)2 . Then (tadā), (whether they are in Turya or Turyātīta), there is (only) (syāt) manifestation or presence (āvis-bhāvaḥ) of natural (sahaja) Bliss (ānanda) indeed (tu... iti)"||
Hence (atas eva), by this (aphorism) (anena), (the same truth) has been stated (nirūpitam) in Spandakārikā-s (spande):
"Wherein (yatra) (there is) neither (na) pain (duḥkham) nor (na) pleasure (sukham) nor (na) object (grāhyam) nor (na ca) subject (grāhakam); (wherein) the state (bhāvaḥ) of insentience (mūḍha) does not (na ca) even (api) exist (asti)... that (tad) is (asti), in the highest sense (paramārthatas... iti), (the principle of Spanda)"||
(See Spandakārikā-s I, 5)
1 Those great beings do not experience pleasure and pain even while going through wakefulness, dreaming and deep sleep, because they rest on Turya (the Fourth State), which is a witnessing state. In other words, they perceive the drama of the world process as a Witness and therefore they cannot experience pleasure and pain as something related to their real "I". They perceive them both as something external.
2 When the great Yogī-s attain Turyātīta, the state beyond the Fourth One (viz. when they attain pure Consciousness devoid of any universal manifestation), the causes of pleasure and pain are absolutely gone. Attachment (rāga) and aversion (dveṣa) are the respective causes for pleasure (sukha) and pain (duḥkha). If the causes are completely absent because a person is fully plunged into the Light of his own Self, the effects cannot arise at all. Simple!
This document was conceived by Gabriel Pradīpaka, one of the two founders of this site, and spiritual guru conversant with Sanskrit language and Trika philosophy.
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