Ṣaṭtriṁśattattvasandoha (Shattrimshattattvasandoha) - Non-dual Shaivism of Kashmir
The mass or totality of thirty-six categories
Hi, Gabriel Pradīpaka --wrongly-written Pradipaka-- again. "Ṣaṭtriṁśattattvasandoha" --wrongly-written Shattrimshattattvasandoha-- literally means "The mass or totality (sandoha) of thirty-six (ṣaṭtriṁśat) categories (tattva)". The thirty-six tattva-s are the principles or categories of which this universal Manifestation consists. This text was composed by the sage Amṛtānandanātha in the 12th century A.D. In turn, the commentary I am presenting was written by Rājānakānanda in the 17th century, according to my knowledge. These authors are not so well-known as Abhinavagupta, Kṣemarāja --wrongly-written Kshemaraja or Ksemaraja--, Vasugupta, etc., hence my doubts regarding the dates. Besides, I never pay too much attention to it as you surely know, because, in my opinion, time is irrelevant always.
The present scripture consists of twenty-one stanzas (maroon color). The commentary is written in simple prose (green color). There are other scriptures dealing with tattva-s, such as the celebrated Parāprāveśikā by Kṣemarāja (mal escrito: Kshemaraja o Ksemaraja).
Even though there will be plenty of explanatory notes, I specially recommend you consult the Tattvic Chart while reading this scripture, in order to have a summarized knowledge of the tattva-s. Obviously, the subsection "Overview" [Trika 1 (English), Trika 2 (English), etc.] within the Trika section is "a must" to have knowledge in depth about them.
Finally, as Rājānakānanda expresses at the end of his commentary: "Iti śivam" - "May there be welfare (for all)!".
Important: All that is in parentheses and italicized within the translation has been added by me in order to complete the sense of a particular phrase or sentence. In turn, all that is between double hyphen (--...--) constitutes clarifying further information also added by me. Note that I have a Sanskrit-only version of Ṣaṭtriṁśattattvasandoha, i.e. no previous translation, transliteration, etc. Thus, I will have to trust in the Grace of Śiva --wrongly-written Shiva or Siva-- and my own scanty knowledge of Sanskrit and Trika. However, if you are a Sanskrit scholar proficient in the Trika system and find some possible errors or misinterpretations, please let me know via a simple email. Thanks in advance!
पस्पन्दे स स्पन्दः प्रथमः शिवतत्त्वमुच्यते तज्ज्ञैः॥१॥
ईह हि स्वतन्त्रशिवाद्वयदर्शने परमेश्वरः स्वतन्त्रश्चिद्घनसंवित्स्वभावः स्वया स्वातन्त्र्याख्यया शक्त्या सततं शिवादिधरण्यन्ततत्तद्भुवनभूततत्त्वात्मना क्रीडनादिशीलत्वात्कृत्यपञ्चकविधायी वस्तुतः क्रमराहित्येऽपि विश्वसृष्टावाभासनमात्रसारेण पारमार्थिककार्यकारणभावेन क्रममप्युद्भावयननाख्यत्वेऽपि स्वेच्छयैव स्वात्मभित्तौ तत्तच्छिवादितत्त्वाभिख्यामवभासयति। तथात्वेऽपि षट्त्रिंशत्तत्त्वमयकुलस्वरूपपरामर्शनादाखण्ड्येन विश्वभरितां स्वचमत्कारविमर्शसारामनुत्तरानन्दघनावस्थां नोज्झतीति वास्तवाशयावबोधनाय कश्चिन्महामाहेश्वरः परमेशशक्तिपातानुगृहीतः तत्त्वक्रमप्रक्रियामार्याभिरेकविंशत्या समुपनिबबन्ध — यदयमित्यादिना। अनुत्तरमूर्तेर्भगवतः परमेश्वरस्य प्रकाशघनस्वात्मैकात्म्येनावस्थितं विश्वं सिसृक्षोः दर्पणनगरवत्स्वेच्छयैव स्वात्मन्याद्या प्रोन्मिमीलयिषावस्था शिवतत्त्वव्यपदेश्या पञ्चशक्तिनिर्भरत्वात्स्वातन्त्र्याच्चिदादिप्राधान्येन क्रमशः शुद्धाध्वनि तत्त्वसृष्ट्यवभासनं मायाविद्यादेः संवित्प्रकाशघनपरमशिवाद्व्यतिरेकानतिरेकविकल्पैरुपहतत्त्वात्स्वातन्त्र्यमेव केवलं विश्वोत्पत्तिसंहरणादौ मूर्धाभिषिक्तम् — तत्तदनन्तशक्तिनिचयानां क्रोडीकारित्वाद्वक्ष्यमाणेऽपि तत्तद्रूपोपग्रहणे स्वातन्त्र्यामुक्तत्वान्न प्राच्यस्वभावापायः॥१॥
Paspande sa spandaḥ prathamaḥ śivatattvamucyate tajjñaiḥ||1||
Iha hi svatantraśivādvayadarśane parameśvaraḥ svatantraścidghanasaṁvitsvabhāvaḥ svayā svātantryākhyayā śaktyā satataṁ śivādidharaṇyantatattadbhuvanabhūtatattvātmanā krīḍanādiśīlatvātkṛtyapañcakavidhāyī vastutaḥ kramarāhitye'pi viśvasṛṣṭāvābhāsanamātrasāreṇa pāramārthikakāryakāraṇabhāvena kramamapyudbhāvayananākhyatve'pi svecchayaiva svātmabhittau tattacchivāditattvābhikhyāmavabhāsayati| Tathātve'pi ṣaṭtriṁśattattvamayakulasvarūpaparāmarśanādākhaṇḍyena viśvabharitāṁ svacamatkāravimarśasārāmanuttarānandaghanāvasthāṁ nojjhatīti vāstavāśayāvabodhanāya kaścinmahāmāheśvaraḥ parameśaśaktipātānugṛhītaḥ tattvakramaprakriyāmāryābhirekaviṁśatyā samupanibabandha - Yadayamityādinā| Anuttaramūrterbhagavataḥ parameśvarasya prakāśaghanasvātmaikātmyenāvasthitaṁ viśvaṁ sisṛkṣoḥ darpaṇanagaravatsvecchayaiva svātmanyādyā pronmimīlayiṣāvasthā śivatattvavyapadeśyā pañcaśaktinirbharatvātsvātantryāccidādiprādhānyena kramaśaḥ śuddhādhvani tattvasṛṣṭyavabhāsanaṁ māyāvidyādeḥ saṁvitprakāśaghanaparamaśivādvyatirekānatirekavikalpairupahatattvātsvātantryameva kevalaṁ viśvotpattisaṁharaṇādau mūrdhābhiṣiktam - Tattadanantaśaktinicayānāṁ kroḍīkāritvādvakṣyamāṇe'pi tattadrūpopagrahaṇe svātantryāmuktatvānna prācyasvabhāvāpāyaḥ||1||
This very (yad ayam) Anuttaramūrti --lit. That whose form is the Highest Reality-- (anuttara-mūrtiḥ)1 , according to His own desire (nija-icchayā) to manifest (sraṣṭum) this (idam) entire (akhilam) world (jagat), vibrated (paspande)2 . That (saḥ) first (prathamaḥ) Vibration (spandaḥ) is said to be (ucyate) the Śiva-tattva --lit. the category called Śiva-- (śiva-tattvam) by the ones who know (jñaiḥ) that (Anuttaramūrti) (tad)||1||
Here (iha), undoubtedly (hi), from a non-dual (advaya) viewpoint (darśane) (as regards) the independent (svatantra) Śiva (śiva), (this) free (svatantraḥ) Supreme (parama) Lord (īśvaraḥ) whose essential nature (sva-bhāvaḥ) is Saṁvid (saṁvid), viz. a compact mass (ghana) of Consciousness (cit), performs (vidhāyī) a group of five (pañcaka) acts (kṛtya) through His own (svayā) Power (śaktyā) known as (ākhyayā) Svātantrya or Absolute Freedom (svātantrya), which perpetually (satatam) consists (ātmanā) of various (tad tad) worlds (bhuvana), living beings (bhūta) (and) tattva-s or principles (tattva), beginning with (ādi) Śiva --the first category-- (śiva) (and) ending in (anta) Dharaṇī or Earth --the last category-- (dharaṇī). (He does so, i.e. He performs such a five-fold act,) because He is in the habit (śīlatvāt) of playing (krīḍana), etc. (ādi)3 . As a matter of fact (vastutas), even though (api) there is no (rāhitye) succession (krama) in the universal Manifestation (sṛṣṭau), He does make a succession arise (kramam api udbhāvayan) by a true (pāramārthika) relation (bhāvena) of cause (kāraṇa) (and) effect (kārya) whose essence (sāreṇa) is merely (mātra) an illuminating flash (ābhāsana)4 . Although (api) there is no name or aspect (in Him) (anākhyatve), He manifests (avabhāsayati), according to His own (sva) will or desire (icchayā eva), name and beauty (abhikhyām) in the different (tad tad) tattva-s or categories (tattva) (such as) Śiva (śiva), etc. (ādi), (which appear) on the background --lit. "on the wall"-- (bhittau) of His (sva) Self (ātma)5 |
(However,) even (api) in such a condition (tathātve) --i.e. even after having displayed this universe--, by completely taking hold of (parāmarśanāt ākhaṇḍyena) the nature (sva-rūpa) of the group (kula) composed (maya) of thirty-six (ṣaṭtriṁśat) principles or categories (tattva), He does not (ever) (na) abandon (ujjhita) the state (avasthām) (of being) a compact mass (ghana) of the Highest (anuttara) Joy (ānanda). (He never abandons) His (sva) essence (sārām) as Vimarśa (vimarśa), viz. Camatkāra or Bliss of the Supreme I-consciousness (camatkāra), which is full (bharitām) of all (viśva)6 . Thus (iti), in order to teach (avabodhanāya) the genuine (vāstava) meanings (āśaya), someone --i.e. Amṛtānandanātha, the author of this Ṣaṭtriṁśattattvasandoha-- (kaścid) (who was) a great (mahā) devotee of the Great Lord --i.e. Maheśvara or Śiva-- (māheśvaraḥ) (and had been) favored (anugṛhītaḥ) with the descent (pāta) of Śakti or Power (śakti) (bestowed by) the Supreme (parama) Lord (īśa), composed (samupanibabandha) a work (prakriyām) (dealing with) the succession (krama) of tattva-s or categories (tattva) in the form of twenty-one (stanzas) (ekaviṁśatyā) in Āryā meter (āryābhiḥ), beginning with (ityādinā) (the words) "This very" (yad ayam)7 |
The universe (viśvam), (arisen) from the One who desires to manifest (it) (sisṛkṣoḥ) in His own (sva) Self (ātmani) (and) according to His own (sva) will or wish (icchayā eva) like (vat) a city (nagara) (reflected) on a mirror (darpaṇa), abides (avasthitam) in unity or identity (aikyātmyena) with His (sva) Essence (ātma), i.e. with the compact mass (ghana) of Light (prakāśa) of the Supreme (parama) Lord (īśvarasya), (also called) Bhagavān --the Fortunate One- (bhagavataḥ) or Anuttaramūrti --That whose form is the Highest Reality-- (anūttara-mūrteḥ). The first (ādyā) state (avasthā) (He) desires to manifest (pronmimīlayiṣa) is known as (vyapadeśyā) the Śiva-tattva or the category called Śiva (śiva-tattva)8 . Since (He) is full (nirbharatvāt) of the five (pañca) śakti-s or powers (śakti), by means of (His) Absolute Freedom (svātantryāt), the emission (sṛṣṭi) of tattva-s or categories (tattva) in the pure (śuddha) course (adhvani) becomes manifest (avabhāsanam) in a gradual manner (kramaśas) mainly (prādhānyena) as Cit (cit), etc. (ādi)9 . (Then,) because It --i.e. Svātantrya-- is afflicted or impeded (upahatatvāt) by thoughts (vikalpaiḥ) of deficiency (anatireka) (and) separation (vyatireka) from Paramaśiva --the Supreme Śiva-- (parama-śivāt) or the compact mass (ghana) of Light (prakāśa) (and) Consciousness (saṁvid), due to Māyā --the sixth tattva or category-- (māyā), Vidyā --the eight tattva-- (vidyā), etc. (ādeḥ), only (kevalam) Svātantrya --Absolute Freedom of the Lord, i.e. His divine Śakti-- (svātantryam) indeed (eva) (deserves to be) enthroned (abhiṣiktam) as the Highest (Power) (mūrdha) in the manifestation (utpatti) (and) dissolution (saṁharaṇa) of the universe (viśva), etc. (iha). (In other words, Svātantrya or Absolute Freedom of the Lord deserves such a position) since It is the Master (kroḍī-kāritvāt) of the various (tad tad) (and) innumerable (ananta) multitudes (nicayānām) of śakti-s or powers (śakti)10 . Inasmuch as (He) is clad (āmuktatvāt) in Svātantrya or Absolute Freedom (iha), (poetically speaking,) there is no (na) departure (apāyaḥ) of (His) prior (prācya) essential nature (sva-bhāvaḥ) even (api) in (His) act of assuming (upagrahaṇe) different (tad tad) forms (rūpa), which --i.e. His act of assuming all those forms-- will be described subsequently (vakṣyamāṇe)11 ||1||
1 "Anuttaramūrti" or "That whose form (mūrti) is the Highest Reality (Anuttara)" is an epithet of Paramaśiva, the Supreme Śiva or Absolute. Since "Anuttara" is also the technical name of the vowel "a", another alternative translation might be: "That whose form (mūrti) is the vowel "a" (anuttara)" .
2 "Paspande" is the 3rd Person singular, Reduplicative Perfect Tense, of the root "spand" (vibrate, throb, etc.). Perfect Tense indicates remote past, i.e. "That vibrated a long time ago". This is interesting .
3 The word "tántra", it means "dependant upon" when it is at the end of a compound. In turn, "sva" means "one's own, etc.". Thus, "svatantra" means "one who depends upon himself". Hence I wrote "independent" and "free" in the translation. So, this Lord (You!), who is independent and whose essential nature is Saṁvid or a compact mass of Cit or Consciousness, performs the five-fold act, i.e.: manifestation (sṛṣṭi), maintenance (sthiti) and withdrawal (saṁhāra) of the universe, as well as concealment of one's own nature (tirodhāna) and bestowal of divine Grace (anugraha).
The three first acts are related to the universe or "idam" (This), which is an object as it can be perceived. In turn, He displays the last two acts of tirodhāna and anugraha in order to bring about ignorance and revelation in an individual. Although the individual is the Supreme Lord Himself, he ignores this due to His act called tirodhāna. Then, through anugraha or divine Grace, he recognizes both his essential nature and his inherent unity with the Lord. When this happens, he becomes an emancipated soul.
Śiva or the Lord performs those five acts by His own Power called Svātantrya or Absolute Freedom. Svātantrya is an epithet of Śakti, the Highest Power, and it can be "technically" defined as "the capacity to know and do everything". This Śakti consists of manifold worlds, beings and tattva-s (principles or categories), from Śiva down to the Earth. By "Earth" (dharaṇī), the author is referring to the thirty-sixth category (also called "Pṛthivī"), of course. Read the Tattvic Chart for more information. Besides, in my page about Ṣaḍadhvā or the six courses, you will find a lot of information about bhuvana-s or worlds.
And why is He (You!) doing all that? Because He is playful. The word "ādi" (etc.) in "krīḍanādiśīlatvāt" (because He is in the habit of playing, etc.) means "and so on" in this context. In other words, He performs the fivefold act since He is playful and so on. The phrase "and so on" would indicate that He is also addicted to play jokes and similar things linked to "krīḍā-s" or "plays". Do you not believe me? Look at this world, look at your life! Good joke!, hehe. He plays many jokes while performing the five acts, but one's own ego is the best one in my humble opinion. What is the reason? Simple: The Supreme Self being reduced to a ridiculous human being who is a slave to his mind, body, etc. is really a "holy" joke, haha. I always liked this funny vision of the Lord. You know the sad story of the poor individual fettered by ignorance, etc., etc., but according to Trika, that individual is just the Highest Self playing that sad role out of sheer fun. This viewpoint is shocking indeed when fully understood! Keep reading, please .
4 Rājānakānanda means that though the universal Manifestation is devoid of succession, i.e. "everything is His own cosmic Body, which is niṣkala or without parts", He makes a succession of thirty-six tattva-s or categories emerge by means of a real relation of cause and effect, viz. each of these tattva-s brings about the following one. The essence or nature of this relation of cause and effect manifested by the Lord is solely an illuminating flash of Consciousness. The universe is then the result of creative flashes emanating from the Great Lord.
There is something you have to understand if you want to grasp the meaning of any scripture dealing with Trika: "You are the Lord". Thus, for example, all that is spoken by Amṛtānandanātha and Rājānakānanda is related to You! If you think that they are speaking of something or somebody different and separate from You, then, you have not understood properly. You might be even quite a Trika master, from an intellectual viewpoint, but if you do not realize that You are the Supreme Lord being spoken of in the Trika scriptures, you do not know Trika at all really. Your knowledge about Trika is barren unless you understand that You are Śiva, the Highest Self.
The phrase "kramamapyudbhāvayan" consists of three words: "kramam" - "a succession" (a noun declined in Accusative case); "udbhāvayan" - "one who makes arise" (a masculine present participle derived from the Causative of the root "udbhū" or "arise"); and "api", which generally means "also", "even", "even though", etc. Anyway, in this case, "api" is a mere expletive (a word adding something to a phrase but not being translated) that lays stress on "udbhāvayan" as though it were a kind of intensive. Hence I added "does" (He does make a succession arise) in the translation. Thus, the sense is that the Lord Himself is even able to produce a succession of tattva-s or categories where there is actually none. Got it?
5 The Lord is "essentially" nameless and has no form or aspect, according to the Trika system. In fact, even the Veda-s call Him "Tad" (That) for want of a better term to describe Him. Still, mysteriously, He displays name and beauty in the various tattva-s or categories from Śiva (tattva 1) down to Dharaṇī (tattva 36), which appear on the background or screen of His own Self, like a movie, as it were. He does so according to His own desire or will, i.e. of His own accord, because He is "svatantra" (absolutely free and independent) .
6 Though the Lord exhibits the entire universe as a succession of thirty-six tattva-s or categories, by completely taking hold of the nature of that group of tattva-s, i.e. by becoming conscious of their Core (Himself), He never abandons His state of compact mass of Supreme Joy. He never leaves His essence as Vimarśa or Śakti (the examining Power), which appears as Camatkāra or Delight in the Highest I-consciousness. This Vimarśa is full of all, viz. the entire universe is contained in It. The word "viśva" means both "universe" and "all". So, the innermost purport of what this portion of the commentary describes is that the Lord is always the Lord, and the universe is His effulgence of Light .
7 Here, Rājānakānanda (the one commenting) is speaking about the author of this scripture named Ṣaṭtriṁśattattvasandoha. He is revealing some crucial aspects of both the author and his work:
(1) Amṛtānandanātha was a great devotee of Śiva, i.e. according to this statement, he seems to belong to the line of Śaiva masters and therefore his words are authoritative.
(2) His work, viz. Ṣaṭtriṁśattattvasandoha, consists of twenty-one stanzas written in Āryā meter. There are two main kinds of meter in Sanskrit: a) Meters regulated by syllables (i.e. number and position of such syllables), b) Meters regulated by syllabic instants or mātrā-s (one mātrā is the period of time it takes to pronounce a short vowel). The Āryā meter belongs to the second sort, and as a result it is a meter regulated by syllabic instants. It is in fact the most common meter regulated by syllabic instants. Well, this topic is known as prosody and is extremely complex. You would have to know much more in order to understand how an Āryā meter is formed, e.g. the meaning of the five Mātrāgaṇa-s (ma, sa, ja, bha, na) and other really abstruse concepts. So, since if I begin to explain prosody to you here this explanatory note will be lengthier than the entire Ṣaṭtriṁśattattvasandoha and its commentary, please, believe in the Rājānakānanda's words for the time being: "in the form of twenty-one (stanzas) in Āryā meter", period, hehe.
(3) Amṛtānandanātha was favored by Śaktipāta or the descent of Power. In simple terms, he experienced the awakening of Kuṇḍalinī. Kuṇḍalinī is Śakti or Supreme Power remaining as a residue within the base cakra (Mūlādhāra)... well, another immense topic. Anyway, let me make these points clear: Although it is commonly said that Kuṇḍalinī "awakens" during the process of Śaktipāta, this is a shallow way to describe the process. As a matter of fact, Kuṇḍalinī is always awake, but one realizes Her presence during Śaktipāta. Sometimes, in order to describe Śaktipāta in a better manner, it is said that the mundane aspect of Kuṇḍalinī is awake while Her spiritual one is asleep in the vast majority of people. So, Śaktipāta would awaken the latter. Well, those are ways to explain a process which cannot be really described in words. Śaktipāta "formally" occurs when a genuine Guru decides to bestow that awakening on you by merely gazing at or touching you. Also, he may use a divine Mantra or even saṅkalpa (the mental desire that you experience such an awakening). However, there is a fifth way which is generally omitted: the simple contact with yogī-s and yoginī-s whose Kuṇḍalinī is already awake and active. Besides, there is also a sixth manner, even though it rarely happens: the Supreme Guru (the Cosmic Guru) gives Grace to you without any human intermediary.
(4) The term "samupanibabandha" (he composed) is truly significant. It is conjugated in Reduplicative Perfect Tense (remote Past) and the original root is "bandh" (to tie, etc.). Nevertheless, when the prefixes "upa" and "ni" are added to the root, it becomes "upanibandh" (to compose, etc.). The addition of the prefix "sam" does not alter the meaning. Thus, "samupanibandh" is the same thing as "upanibandh". And since Rājānakānanda used remote Past regarding Amṛtānandanātha, this is a clue that the original text in verse was written long before (centuries indeed!) the commentary. According to my present knowledge, Amṛtānandanātha composed this scripture in the middle of the 12th century while Rājānakānanda wrote his commentary in the late 17th century .
8 The universe arises from the Lord. This Lord desires to manifest it within Him and according to His own wish like a city reflected on a mirror, i.e. the universe is a reflection of Himself, as it were. This is just a way to describe something which is beyond the words, of course. In the example, there are three different realities: the real city, its reflection and the mirror itself, but in the case of Lord, everything is Himself, that is, He is the one being reflected, the reflection as well as the mirror. This is so because there is nobody else but the Great Lord right here. Therefore, this universe is in complete unity or identity with its Source, viz. with the compact mass of Prakāśa or Light of the Fortunate One (Bhagavān), who is named "Anuttaramūrti" (That whose form is the Highest Reality) by Amṛtānandanātha in the stanza.
Finally, the category known by the name of Śiva is the first state He desires manifest. According to my scanty knowledge of Sanskrit grammar, the term "pronmimīlayiṣa" derives from the Desiderative base (Passive Voice) "pronmimīlayiṣ". The verb is "pronmīl" (to manifest, unfold, etc., in Causative). In turn, "pronmīl" is really "pra-ud-mīl", being "pra" and "ud" two prefixes added to the original root "mīl" (to close the eyes, wink, etc.). Thus, in my opinion, this rare specimen "pronmimīlayiṣa" means something like this: "that which is desired to be unfolded or manifested". As I cannot put this literal meaning into the text in English because it would be difficult to understand, I was bound to arrange the translation in a proper way so that you can read it fluently: "(He) desires to manifest". In the end, the final purport is the same thing .
9 The Lord is full of five śakti-s or powers: (1) Cicchakti (Cit-śakti) or the Power of Consciousness; (2) Ānandaśakti or the Power of Bliss; (3) Icchāśakti or the Power of Will; (4) Jñānaśakti or the Power of Knowledge; and (5) Kriyāśakti or the Power of Action. Through His Svātantrya or Absolute Freedom, He makes possible the gradual manifestation of the first five tattva-s or categories, which constitute the "pure" course or Śuddhādhvā. By "pure", no moral connotation is alluded. Purity in this context is synonymous with "unity". The first five tattva-s are the pure course because in them there is complete unity. Even in the tattva-s 3 through 5, where "Idam" (This) or "universe" appears, there is always unity between "Aham" (I-ness) and "Idam". Anyway, from the sixth tattva called Māyā down to the thirty-sixth, there is no unity and thus the course (adhvā) is impure (aśuddha).
In turn, each of these first five tattva-s (Śiva, Śakti, Sadāśiva, Īśvara and Sadvidyā) are full of Cicchakti, Ānandaśakti, Icchāśakti, Jñānaśakti and Kriyāśakti, respectively. Therefore, the fragment "... as Cit, etc." in the text of the commentary means "as Cicchakti, Ānandaśakti, Icchāśakti, Jñānaśakti and Kriyāśakti". Do you need more information?... check the Tattvic Chart then .
10 Svātantrya (Absolute Freedom) is an epithet of Śakti or the divine Power of the Lord. Here Rājānakānanda states that Svātantrya alone deserves to be enthroned as the Highest Power because It is afflicted and impeded by thoughts of deficiency and separation from Her Lord. It might sound contradictory, but this is not the case. The hidden purport is that Śakti (Svātantrya) enjoys such a complete state of Freedom that She can even become somebody who is limited by thoughts of separation from the Lord. That is why Svātantrya (Śakti) is worthy of being considered as the Supreme Power and Master of all śakti-s or subordinate powers. So, this Śakti is able to go through both Śuddhādhvā (pure course - tattva-s 1 to 5, in which there is total unity) and Aśuddhādhvā (impure course - tattva-s 6 to 36, in which there is no unity), and, at the same time, retain Her greatness and fullness. What other power might do that? None. And You are that Śakti!
The word "etc." in: "... due to Māyā --the sixth tattva or category--, Vidyā --the eight tattva--, etc..." means the rest of Kañcuka-s or Sheaths of Ignorance: Kalā (tattva 7), Rāga (tattva 9), Kāla (tattva 10) and Niyati (tattva 11). The three mala-s or impurities may have been alluded too. See the Tattvic Chart for more information.
The word "etc." in: "... in the manifestation (and) dissolution of the universe, etc..." means the remaining three acts of the five-fold act (pañcakṛtya) carried out by the Lord, viz. "sthiti" (maintenance of the universe), "tirodhāna" (concealment of one's own essential nature) and "anugraha" (bestowal of divine Grace in order to reveal one's own essential nature).
A final note: the term "Svātantrya" is a neuter noun, hence I wrote "It" in the translation. In turn, "Śakti" is a female noun, and therefore I wrote "She" in this note. Anyway, both words are synonymous. This is corroborated by the Kṣemarāja's description of Vimarśa (a technical name of Śakti) in his Parāprāveśikā (in my translation, look for the text after the link to the eighth note) .
11 As the Supreme Lord is clad in the garments of Svātantrya or Absolute Freedom, poetically speaking, He never departs from His prior essential nature. The third stanza of the Spandakārikā-s, which is completely explained by the sage Kṣemarāja in His Spandanirṇaya is useful to fully understand why there is never departure of His own essential nature for the Lord. The word "prācya" or "prior" is used in the sense of "prior to the manifestation, maintenance, etc.". In other words, the Lord is always the Lord and never becomes anything else despite He assumes various forms. All these different forms constitute the "sandoha" or "totality" of tattva-s, kalā-s (powers), worlds and their progeny. Besides, Rājānakānanda (the commentator) states that His act of assuming all those multiple forms will be described later on, i.e. it will be subsequently analyzed to a certain extent by both Amṛtānandanātha (the author of the stanzas) and himself. This is the sense. .
इच्छा सैव स्वच्छा सन्ततसमवायिनी सती शक्तिः।
सचराचरस्य जगतो बीजं निखिलस्य निजनिलीनस्य॥२॥
तस्य स्वाभिन्ना स्वतन्त्रेच्छाशक्तिरेवोद्भविष्यतो विश्वस्य स्वान्तर्निलीनत्वाद्बीजभूता शक्तितत्त्वतां याति शक्तेः शक्तिमद्धर्मत्वेऽपि नान्यदर्शनाभिमतवत्तस्माद्व्यतिरेको नैष्कर्म्येणात्रेच्छायाः स्वच्छत्वाद्धृदयविमर्शसारोर्मिप्रभृतिभिः सञ्ज्ञाभिस्तत्तद्दर्शनेष्वभिधानम्। परमेश्वर एव हि स्वैश्वर्योच्छलत्तया पूर्णाहन्ताचमत्कारतारतम्येन शक्तिदशामधिशेत इत्यत्रानन्दशक्तिप्राधान्यम्॥२॥
Icchā saiva svacchā santatasamavāyinī sati śaktiḥ|
Sacarācarasya jagato bījaṁ nikhilasya nijanilīnasya||2||
Tasya svābhinnā svatantrecchāśaktirevodbhaviṣyato viśvasya svāntarnilīnatvādbījabhūtā śaktitattvatāṁ yāti śakteḥ śaktimaddharmatve'pi nānyadarśanābhimatavattasmādvyatireko naiṣkarmyeṇātrecchāyāḥ svacchatvāddhṛdayavimarśasārormiprabhṛtibhiḥ sañjñābhistattaddarśaneṣvabhidhānam| Parameśvara eva hi svaiśvaryocchalattayā pūrṇāhantācamatkāratāratamyena śaktidaśāmadhiśeta ityatrānandaśaktiprādhānyam||2||
Śakti --the second tattva-- (śaktiḥ) is (satī) just (eva) that (sā) very transparent (svacchā) Will (icchā) (that) is continuously (santata) multitudinous (samavāyinī). (She is) the Seed (bījam) of the entire (nikhilasya) world (jagataḥ) (which) comprehends (everything) moving (sacara) (and) motionless (acarasya) (and is) hidden (nilīnasya) in Herself (nija)||2||
His (tasya) independent (svatantra) Power (śaktiḥ) of Will (icchā), (which) is not different (abhinnā) from Himself --i.e. from Śiva-- (sva) indeed (eva), becomes the Śakti-tattva --the second category-- (śakti-tattvatām yāti). (This category known as Śakti) is (bhūtā) the Seed (bījam) of the universe (viśvasya) that will arise (from the third category on) (udbhaviṣyataḥ), because (such a universe) is hidden (nilīnatvāt) within (antar) Her (sva)1 . (And) even (api) in (His) inherent nature (dharmatve) as Śaktimat --i.e. Śiva-- (śaktimat) of Śakti (śakteḥ), since He has not desired (na... abhimatavat) to perceive (darśana) another (anya), there is no (na) separation (vyatirekaḥ) from Himself (tasmāt) --viz. Śiva and Śakti are in total unity--2 . In the different (tad tad) viewpoints or philosophies (darśaneṣu), (Her) name --i.e. the name of Śakti or the divine Power of the Lord-- (abhidhānam) appears in the form of (manifold) appellatives or epithets (sajñābhiḥ) beginning with (prabhṛtibhiḥ) (1) Hṛdaya or Heart (hṛdaya), (2) Vimarśa or Examination (vimarśa), (3) Sāra or Essence (sāra) (and) (4) Ūrmi or Wave (ūrmi), due to the excessive transparency (svacchatvāt) of (the Power of) Will (icchāyāḥ) here --in the Śakti-tattva-- (atra) (brought about) by inactivity (naiṣkarmyeṇa)3 |
Undoubtedly (hi), (it is) just (eva) the Supreme (parama) Lord (īśvaraḥ) (who,) by an emergence (ucchalattayā) of His (sva) Sovereignty and Supremacy (aiśvarya) (appearing) as different degrees (tāratamyena) of astonishment and delight (camatkāra) in the Perfect (pūrṇa) I-consciousness (ahantā), lies down (adhiśete) upon the state (daśām) of Śakti or Power (śakti)4 . Thus (iti), here --in the Śakti-tattva or second category-- (atra), (there is) predominance (prādhānyam) of the Power (śakti) of Bliss (ānanda)5 ||2||
1 The Icchāśakti (Power of Will) of the Lord is completely free and never different from Himself. It is this Icchāśakti which turns into the second tattva or category (Śakti). And Śakti is certainly the Seed of the universe that will sprout from the Sadāśiva-tattva (the third category) on, since the whole universe is concealed inside Herself. This is what Rājānakānanda meant .
2 The word "Śaktimat" is an epithet of Śiva (the first tattva). It literally means: "One who is possessed of Śakti or Power". Rājānakānanda is expressing, in somewhat confusing Sanskrit really (this is the first time I translate a Rājānakānanda's text), that even on the emergence of Śakti as a second tattva or category, He (viz. Śiva) did not desire to perceive "another", i.e. He did not want to consider His own Power or Śakti as separated from Himself. Hence, there is no separation between Śiva and Śakti. They are considered as "two" only for the sake of studying them in depth and not because they are two different realities. This is the sense .
3 The various "darśana-s" or viewpoints (i.e. philosophies) designate Śakti in different ways: Heart (inasmuch as She is the Core of all), Examination (since She makes Śiva conscious of both Himself and the universe), Essence (because the entire universe is essentially Herself) and Wave (as She vibrates in the form of a wave of Bliss). These philosophies can call Her that way because of Her excessive transparency in the stage of Śakti-tattva (the second category). Here, She is absolutely crystalline as there is no activity in Her. She is merely a Seed appearing as pure I-consciousness which is on the point of giving rise to the whole world (the universe begins in the third tattva known as Sadāśiva) .
4 It is always Paramaśiva (the Supreme Śiva) who, in spite of the variety of names such as Śiva and Śakti, lies down upon the state of Śakti here (viz. in the stage of the Śakti-tattva), that is, He realizes His own existence through His own Power. It is easy to understand: You are the Supreme Śiva and, by means of Your own Śakti or Power, You are able to realize Your existence as "I am". The first verb is "to be", and the other three important verbs "to desire, know, do" come secondly. That is why Rājānakānanda says that You are lain down upon Śakti, because if You cannot realize Your existence ("I am"), the three subsequent verbs (to desire, know, do) are of no use.
He does so (i.e. He lies down upon the sate of Śakti) by causing His Aiśvarya (Sovereignty and Supremacy) to emerge and appear in the form of different degrees of Camatkāra (astonishment and delight) in the Perfect I-Consciousness (i.e. in Śakti Herself). Thus, it is just Your Aiśvarya emerging and appearing as various degrees of Bliss in the Full I-Consciousness which is responsible for your leaning on the Śakti-tattva (the second category). This is the meaning .
5 In my ninth explanatory note under the first stanza, I described in detail the five principal śakti-s or powers. On one hand, in the first tattva (viz. Śiva), Cicchakti (Cit-śakti) or the Power of Consciousness is predominant. On the other hand, in this second tattva (viz. Śakti), Ānandaśakti or the Power of Bliss prevails. Thus, Śiva-Śakti (the two first tattva-s) are a compact mass of Consciousness and Joy. This is Your essential nature, dear Supreme Lord .
स्वेच्छाशक्त्युद्गीर्णं जगदात्मतया समाच्छाद्य।
निवसन् स एव निखिलानुग्रहनिरतः सदाशिवोऽभिहितः॥३॥
तस्यैव परमेश्वरस्य स्वस्वातन्त्र्यद्भासितस्य विश्वस्य विशुद्धसंविन्मात्राधिकरण्येन स्वात्मन्येव समुल्लासनात्सदित्याख्यानात्सदाशिवतत्त्वावस्था तत्र प्रोन्मीलितमात्रचित्रकल्पतयेदमंशस्यास्फुटत्वादिच्छाप्राधान्यमतः स भाविनः समस्तभावराशेः सम्यग्बहिरवबिभासयिषालक्षणक्रीडारसिकत्वादनुग्रहनिरतस्तद्भूमिकां गृह्णातीत्यतो निवसन्नित्युक्तम्॥३॥
Svecchāśaktyudgīrṇaṁ jagadātmatayā samācchādya|
Nivasan sa eva nikhilānugrahanirataḥ sadāśivo'bhihitaḥ||3||
Tasyaiva parameśvarasya svasvātantryadbhāsitasya viśvasya viśuddhasaṁvinmātrādhikaraṇyena svātmanyeva samullāsanātsadityākhyānātsadāśivatattvāvasthā tatra pronmīlitamātracitrakalpatayedamaṁśasyāsphuṭatvādicchāprādhānyamataḥ sa bhāvinaḥ samastabhāvarāśeḥ samyagbahiravabibhāsayiṣālakṣaṇakrīḍārasikatvādanugrahaniratastadbhūmikāṁ gṛhṇātītyato nivasannityuktam||3||
Having totally covered (samāchādya) the world (jagat), (which was) emitted (udgīrṇam) by His own (sva) Icchāśakti --Power of Will-- (icchā-śakti), with the Self --i.e. after having covered it with the "Aham" or "I" portion-- (ātmatayā), He (saḥ eva) is known as (abhihitaḥ) Sadāśiva --the third tattva or category-- (sadāśivaḥ) who abides (nivasan) completely (nikhila) devoted (nirataḥ) to confer divine Grace (anugraha)||3||
The universe --viśva-- (viśvasya) comes forth (udbhāsitasya) from His (sva) Absolute Freedom (svātantrya), viz. (from Svātantrya or Absolute Freedom) of that (tasya) Supreme (parama) Lord (īśvarasya) indeed (eva). (This) state (avasthā) (called) Sadāśiva-tattva --the third category-- (sadāśiva-tattva) (is also) known by the name of (ākhyānāt) "Sat" or "Being" --in the sense of "Existence"-- (sat iti), because (it is the first) act of shining forth (samullāsanāt) (of such a universe) in His own (sva) Self (ātmani eva) by means of the Power (adhikaraṇyena) of That which is only (mātra) completely pure (viśuddha) Consciousness (saṁvid)1 . In it --i.e. Sadāśiva-- (tatra), (there is) predominance (prādhānyam) of Icchā or Will (icchā) on account of a state of indistinctness (asphuṭatvāt) in the portion (aṁśasya) "Idam" or "This" --the universe-- (idam), which appears like (kalpatayā) a bright wonder (citra) (made of) all that (mātra) has been unfolded (by Svātantrya or Absolute Freedom) (pronmīlita)2 . Therefore (atas), He --i.e. Sadāśiva-- (saḥ), (being) completely (samyak) devoted (nirataḥ) to bestow divine Grace (anugraha) upon the entire (samasta) multitude (rāśeḥ) of living beings (bhūta) which is about to come into existence (bhāvinaḥ) since He is fond (rasikatvāt) of the pastime (krīḍā) of beholding (ālakṣaṇa) what (He Himself) desired to manifest (avabibhāsayiṣa) outside (bahis), accepts (to play) (gṛhṇāti) that (tad) part or role (bhūmikām... iti) (of Savior). Hence (iti atas), it has been said (uktam) "who abides" (nivasan iti) (in the stanza)3 ||3||
1 I had to break the entire sentence into two so that you may understand the whole thing adequately. If I had written an only sentence, the meaning would have been extremely confusing. Every Sanskrit translator has to do this kind of adaptation or people would die while reading the translations, haha. Well, the universe arises from Svātantrya or Absolute Freedom of the Lord, i.e. from the Śakti-tattva (the second category). The first manifestation of the universe is known as the Sadāśiva-tattva (the third category). It is also called "Sat" or "Being" because is the stage when the universe comes into "being" or "existence". And this universe, as it was mentioned above, emerges from Svātantrya. Rājānakānanda calls this Svātantrya "the Power of That which is only completely pure Consciousness". This is Śakti or Svātantrya, no doubt about it. He makes the universe shine forth in His own Self, that is, on His own background or screen such as it was described before (see the fifth note under the first stanza) .
2 From Sadāśiva downward there are always two portions or "aṁśa-s": (1) The "Aham" or "I" portion, which is mentioned in this third stanza itself; (2) The "Idam" or "This" portion, viz. the universe. Icchā or Will (i.e. Icchāśakti or Power of Will) is mainly related to the "Aham" or "I" portion. Because there is predominance of Icchā in this tattva or category, the "Aham" portion prevails, which results in the "Idam" portion (i.e. the universe) being indistinct or foggy. The entire universe, though indistinct, appears in the Sadāśiva-tattva as a bright wonder composed of all that is displayed or manifested by Svātantrya or Absolute Freedom of the Supreme Lord. This is the sense. If you need more information to understand this topic in a better way, read Trika 3 (English) .
3 The word "avabibhāsayiṣa" is (just as "pronmimīlayiṣa, see the eighth note under the first stanza) derived from the Desiderative base (Passive Voice) "avabibhāsayiṣ". The verb is "avabhās" (to make manifest, illuminate, etc., in Causative). In turn, "avabhās" is truly "ava-bhās", being "ava" a prefix added to the original root "bhās" (to shine, appear, etc.). So, in my humble opinion, this strange specimen "avabibhāsayiṣa" means something like this: "that which is desired to be manifested or illuminated". As I cannot put this literal meaning into the text in English because it would be difficult to understand, I was bound to arrange the translation in a different manner so that you can read it fluently: "what (He Himself) desired to manifest". In the end, the meaning of the phrase remains the same.
Here, Rājānakānanda explains what was stated by the stanza itself, viz. that Sadāśiva is the tattva or category from which the divine Grace is bestowed upon the whole multitude of living beings. The word "bhāvinaḥ" or "of (the multitude of living beings) which is about to come into existence" points out the fact that in this tattva the universe is still indistinct, i.e. foggy. Divine Grace can only be given to "distinct" living beings, you know, hehe. Sadāśiva or the Lord as the One who reveals the true nature of all those beings, that is, the One who performs the fifth act ("anugraha" or bestowal of divine Grace) is constantly occupied in conferring His Favor upon everybody because He has a taste for the play or pastime of beholding what He Himself wished to manifest "outside", as it were. I added "as it were" because the word "bahis" or "outside" is a symbolic way to express that the entire universe emerged from Him and now He is a Witness of it. Anyway, all this universe is His own body and never can be separated from Him really. Yes, from tattva 6 downward, separation from the Lord will appear as far as the universe is concerned. However, this separation, though actually occurring, is temporary and not a genuine one indeed, but another joke played by the Lord. As He (You!) is alone, He is always trying to bring about separation in Himself so that He can have some fun. This funny vision of the Lord is doubtless interesting, isn't it?
As in a movie, where the hero ends up saving everyone, He accepts, at this stage (i.e. in the Sadāśiva-tattva), to play the role of Savior of all living beings who He will manifest later on. Hence, the author of the present scripture (viz. Amṛtānandanātha) said in this third stanza: "nivasan" or "one who abides". In other words, Sadāśiva is One who abides continuously engaged in bestowing divine Grace upon the "bhūta-s" or living beings .
विश्वं पश्चात्पश्यनिदन्तया निखिलमीश्वरो जातः।
सा भवति शुद्धविद्या येदन्ताहन्तयोरभेदमतिः॥४॥
एवं क्रमावभासनाद्विश्वस्य शुद्धसंविन्मात्राधिकरण एव स्फुटतया परामृश्यमानस्याहमंशेऽभिषेचनात्स एव परमेश्वर ईश्वरतत्त्वदशामधिश्रयत्यत्र वेद्यजातस्य स्फुटावभासनाज्ज्ञानशक्त्युद्रेकः। आन्तरदशाया उद्रिक्तत्वात्सदाशिवावस्था बहिर्भावपरतोद्रेकात्त्वीश्वरावस्थेत्यनयोर्विशेषः। प्ररूढभेदस्येदन्तांशस्य समधृततुलापुटन्यायेनाहमंशस्फुरणायां शुद्धविद्यातत्त्वम्। अत्र विश्वस्य स्फुटतरं परामर्शनात्क्रियाशक्तिः प्रधाना। इयति च शुद्धस्वातन्त्र्यमेव तत्तद्वैचित्र्येण प्रस्फुरतीति शुद्धोऽध्वा॥४॥
Viśvaṁ pañcātpaśyanidantayā nikhilamīśvaro jātaḥ|
Sā bhavati śuddhavidyā yedantāhantayorabhedamatiḥ||4||
Evaṁ kramāvabhāsanādviśvasya śuddhasaṁvinmātrādhikaraṇa eva sphuṭatayā parāmṛśyamānasyāhamaṁśe'bhiṣecanātsa eva parameśvara īśvaratattvadaśāmadhiśrayatyatra vedyajātasya sphuṭāvabhāsanājjñānaśaktyudrekaḥ| Āntaradaśāyā udriktatvātsadāśivāvasthā bahirbhāvaparatodrekāttvīśvarāvasthetyanayorviśeṣaḥ| Prarūḍhabhedasyedantāṁśasya samadhṛtatulāpuṭanyāyenāhamaṁśasphuraṇāyāṁ śuddhavidyātattvam| Atra viśvasya sphuṭataraṁ parāmarśanātkriyāśaktiḥ pradhānā| Iyati ca śuddhasvātantryameva tattadvaicitryeṇa prasphuratīti śuddho'dhvā||4||
Afterward (paścāt), when He --the Supreme Lord-- sees (paśyan) the whole (nikhilam) universe (viśvam) as "Idam" or "This" (idantayā) --i.e. when "Idam" predominates over "Aham" or "I"--, the Īśvara-tattva --the fourth category-- (īśvara) is born (jātaḥ). The Śuddhavidyā-tattva --the fifth category-- (śuddhavidyā) is (bhavati) that (sā) which (yā) (is characterized by) perception (matiḥ) of unity (abheda) between the states of Aham or I-ness (ahantayoḥ) (and) Idam or This --the universe-- (idantā)||4||
Thus (evam), from manifesting (avabhāsanāt) the succession (of tattva-s or categories) (krama), that (saḥ) very (eva) Supreme (parama) Lord (īśvaraḥ) rests (adhiśrayati) on the state (daśām) of the Īśvara-tattva --the fourth category-- (īśvara-tattva) by pouring (abhiṣecanāt) the universe --viśva-- (viśvasya), that is (here --in the category called Īśvara--) apprehended or perceived --lit. being mentally seized, considered, etc.-- (parāmṛśyamānasya) distinctly or sharply (sphuṭatayā), into the "Aham" or "I" (aham) portion (aṁśe), which (acts as) a receptacle (adhikaraṇe eva) merely consisting (mātra) of pure (śuddha) Consciousness (saṁvid)1 . In this (category) --i.e. in Īśvara-- (atra), (there is) predominance (udrekaḥ) of the Power (śakti) of Knowledge (jñāna) because of a distinct or sharp manifestation (sphuṭa-avabhāsanāt) of that which appears (jātasya) (in the form of) an object --i.e. the universe-- (vedya)2 |
Due to the prominence (udriktatvāt) of the internal (āntara) state (daśāyāḥ), the condition (avasthā) (known as) the Sadāśiva-tattva --the third category-- (sadāśiva-tattva) (emerges)3 . However (tu), the stage (avasthā) (called) the Īśvara-tattva --the fourth category-- (īśvara) (comes into existence) because of a predominance (udrekāt) of the external (bahis) state (bhāva) in (its) highest degree (paratā). This is the difference (iti... viśeṣaḥ) between these two (tattva-s or categories) (anayoḥ)4 |
The Śuddhavidyā-tattva (the fifth category) (śuddha-vidyā-tattva) (is made manifest) by duly equipoising the weights (samadhṛta... nyāyena) on the (two) cups (puṭa) of the balance (tulā), (metaphorically speaking), viz. (on one hand,) the "Idam" or "This" (idantā) portion (aṁśasya), which has become increasingly (prarūḍha) different (from the "Aham" or "I" portion by now) (bhedasya), (and on the other hand,) the glittering expansion --sphuraṇā-- (sphuraṇāyām) of the "Aham" or "I" (aham) portion (aṁśa)5 |
In this (fifth tattva or category) (atra), the Power (śaktiḥ) of Action (kriyā) is the main one (pradhānā) because there is a more distinct apprehension or perception (sphuṭataram parāmarśanāt) of the universe (viśvasya)6 |
And (ca) (since) pure (śuddha) Svātantrya --Absolute Freedom-- (svātantryam) alone (eva) throbs and flashes (prasphurati) within (the course) comprising (the first five tattva-s) (iyati) as a manifold (tad tad) diversity --vaicitrya-- (vaicitryeṇa), (such) a course (adhvā) (is) thus (iti) pure (śuddhaḥ)7 ||4||
1 From the manifestation of the succession of tattva-s or categories, the Great Lord rests on the state of Īśvara-tattva (the fourth category), i.e. He assumes the form of such a tattva--. He does so by pouring the entire universe, which is now perceived distinctly or sharply because the "Idam" or "This" portion (viz. the universe) predominates over the "Aham" or "I" portion, into the "Aham" portion that serves as a kind of receptacle made of completely pure Saṁvid or Consciousness alone. This affirmation, poetically expressed by Rājānakānanda, means that the entire universe sharply flashes into view by having the "Aham" portion (viz. I-ness) as its support. When that flashing occurs, the "Aham" portion is eclipsed by the "Idam" portion. Anyway, the former has to be here or the universe would be without any prop. Look at the distinct or sharp objects in front of you right now. They constitute the "Idam" portion and have its support in the "Aham" portion (You Yourself!). But, since they can be sharply perceived, the "Aham" portion remains eclipsed. In short, there is predominance of the "Idam" portion. This is the Īśvara-tattva.
Nevertheless, if you focus your attention on Yourself (the "Aham" portion), you will notice that these very objects (the "Idam" portion) begin to fade away, i.e. the "Aham" portion starts prevailing over the universe or "Idam". And this is a clear symptom that the Īśvara-tattva is reabsorbing into the Sadāśiva-tattva (the previous tattva or category) from which it came forth. Well, enough of revealing that which is most secret and mysterious... for now, at least .
2 Rājānakānanda states that Jñānaśakti or the Power of Knowledge prevails in the Īśvara-tattva because the universe appears distinctly as an object. In the Trika system, "Jñāna" or knowledge is always about the "object" and never about the "subject". Why? Because the subject is a knower and not a knowable or object. Regarding the "subject", Trika postulates "pratyabhijñā" or "recognition". To make this point as clear as possible, Trika specifies that you can "recognize" you are the subject or knower, but you can never know you as you are the knower himself! Thus, "knowledge" just pertains to the object, and here (in the Īśvara-tattva or fourth category), the "vedya" or "knowable" (viz. the object called universe) shines in its full glory. This is the sense .
3 The hidden purport here is that Sadāśiva comes into existence because the "Aham" or "I" portion --the internal state-- is prevalent, while the "external state", as it were, viz. the "Idam" or "This" portion (the universe), remains eclipsed and foggy .
4 Here the "external state" is the "Idam" or "This" portion. In short, it is the universe itself. The word "external" is symbolic, of course, as the universe in its entirety is within the "Aham" or "I" portion such as it was previously declared by Rājānakānanda in ".... that very Supreme Lord rests on the state of the Īśvara-tattva --the fourth category-- by pouring the universe --viśva--... into the 'Aham' or 'I' portion, which (acts as) a receptacle merely consisting of pure Consciousness...". The commentator specifies that the universe predominates in its highest degree here, in the fourth category (Īśvara-tattva). So, this is the difference between these two tattva-s: (1) In Sadāśiva, the "Aham" or "I" portion prevails, while (2) in Īśvara, the situation is turned round and the "Idam" or "This" portion is predominant. In the next tattva or category (viz. Śuddhavidyā or Sadvidyā), both sides (Aham and Idam) will come to a state of balance. Well, keep reading .
5 Now that the universe (the "Idam" portion) became clearly different from its Lord (the "Aham" portion) through the His own Māyāśakti (the Supreme Power or Svātantrya producing differences where there is none... do not mistake Māyāśakti for Māyātattva --the sixth category--), this very Māyāśakti brings about an equilibrium between both sides, viz. between "Aham" (I) and "Idam" (This). And when such a state of equipoise is perfected, that is the Śuddhavidyā-tattva (also known as Sadvidyā-tattva). Śuddhavidyā-tattva is the fifth category. This is the sense .
6 The experience of the universe is a more distinct or sharper one because both sides (Aham and Idam) are in perfect equilibrium. The process in the Śuddhavidyā-tattva is as follows: now I am conscious of Myself ("Aham" portion) and now I am conscious of the universe ("Idam" portion), and vice versa. As this oscillation occurs at a tremendous speed, the universe becomes sharper as well as Myself, and both of us seem to be still: "I am I and the universe is the universe". This is mere appearance because such a difference between Aham and Idam is produced by the will of Svātantrya (Absolute Freedom of the Lord) through Its Māyāśakti. Besides, such a fast oscillation results in a wave of energy, which is an activity. Hence, Kriyāśakti or Power of Action is predominant in this tattva.
The main difference between Jñānaśakti (Power of Knowledge) and Kriyāśakti (Power of Action) lies in that the former "plans" while the latter "carries out". So, the entire universe which was planned in the fourth category (Īśvara-tattva) is now fully carried out in the fifth one (Śuddhavidyā-tattva). Still, no matter how clear the descriptions and explanations may be, these superior realities are always beyond mere words. Remember that Amṛtānanda, Rājānakānanda and myself are using the Buddhi-tattva (the fourteenth category or intellect) for describing something which has been manifested prior to the intellect itself. For this reason, the words will always fall short to describe this kind of high principles or tattva-s, in my humble opinion .
7 The word "iyati" is the Locative case of "íyat" (so large, of such extent, etc.). As I could not literally write "within that which is so large or of such extent" because it would have been difficult to understand, I arranged the translation in this way: "within (the course) comprising (the first five tattva-s)". Very often the translator has to escape a literal translation for one which is more readable and understandable to everybody. Anyway, I always highlight my extra information by putting it in parentheses.
Rājānakānanda is therefore saying that the course comprehending the first five tattva-s (Śiva, Śakti, Sadāśiva, Īśvara and Śuddhavidyā) is "pure" (i.e. there is complete unity), because Svātantrya (Absolute Freedom, i.e. Śakti or divine Power), which makes manifest the entire variety of worlds, experients, etc. in this series of five categories, is also that pure! Well, the next stanza will speak of the sixth tattva or category known as Māyā. And Māyā-tattva is the beginning of the Aśuddhādhvā or Impure Course, as the inherent unity of the first five tattva-s gets broken .
माया विभेदबुद्धिर्निजांशजातेषु निखिलजीवेषु।
नित्यं तस्य निरङ्कुशविभवं वेलेव वारिधे रुन्धे॥५॥
अशुद्धे पुनरध्वनि परमेश्वर एव स्वात्मप्रच्छादनक्रीडयाघोरभट्टारकभूमिं मन्त्रमहेश्वररूपां गृहीत्वा दुर्घटसम्पादनसामर्थ्येन मायाशक्त्या स्वतोऽन्योन्यतश्च भिन्नमणूनां भोगसिद्धये कलादिक्षित्यन्तं जडाजडवर्गं क्रमतोऽक्रमतोऽप्यवभासयति तत्र भिन्नभिन्नप्रथात्मकमायीयमलेन स्वाङ्गकल्पेष्वपि जडवेद्यवर्गेषु विभिन्नतया बुद्धिरेव मायाख्यं तत्त्वं येन तस्य निरर्गलं स्वातन्त्र्यं प्रतिहन्यते वेलयेवाब्धितरङ्गाणां वैभवम्॥५॥
Māyā vibhedabuddhirnijāṁśajāteṣu nikhilajīveṣu|
Nityaṁ tasya niraṅkuśavibhavaṁ veleva vāridhe rundhe||5||
Aśuddhe punaradhvani parameśvara eva svātmapracchādanakrīḍayāghorabhaṭṭārakabhūmiṁ mantramaheśvararūpāṁ gṛhītvā durghaṭasampādanasāmarthyena māyāśaktyā svato'nyonyataśca bhinnamaṇūnāṁ bhogasiddhaye kalādikṣityantaṁ jaḍājaḍavargaṁ kramato'kramato'pyavabhāsayati tatra bhinnabhinnaprathātmakamāyīyamalena svāṅgakalpeṣvapi jaḍavedyavargeṣu vibhinnatayā buddhireva māyākhyaṁ tattvaṁ yena tasya nirargalaṁ svātantryaṁ pratihanyate velayevābdhitaraṅgāṇāṁ vaibhavam||5||
Māyā --viz. the Māyā-tattva or sixth category-- (māyā), whose intention (buddhiḥ) (is bringing about) separation (vibheda) in all (nikhila) living beings (jīveṣu) who are born (jāteṣu) as portions (aṁśa) of herself --that is, of Māyā-- (nija), always (nityam) restrains (rundhe) His (tasya) independent (niraṅkuśa) Power (vibhavam) --i.e. Svātantrya or Absolute Freedom of the Lord-- like (iva) the shore (velā) of an ocean (vāridheḥ)||5||
Nevertheless (punar), in the impure (aśuddhe) course (adhvani), the Supreme (parama) Lord (īśvaraḥ eva), by playing (krīḍayā) at concealing (pracchādana) His own (sva) Self (ātma) (and) by performing the role (bhumim... gṛhītvā) of a Great (mahā) Lord (īśvara-rūpām) of the Mantra (mantra) (known as) the venerable (bhaṭṭāraka) Aghora (aghora), manifests (avabhāsayati), in regular order --i.e. successively-- (kramataḥ) (and) even (api) in the opposite way --i.e. not in regular order-- (akramataḥ), the group (vargam) of inanimate and animate entities (jaḍa-ajaḍa) beginning with (ādi) Kalā --the seventh tattva or category-- (kalā) (and) ending in (antam) Kṣiti --earth, the last tattva or category-- (kṣiti), through (His) Māyāśakti (māyā-śaktyā) (or) capacity (sāmarthyena) to carry out (sampādana) what is hard to be accomplished (durghaṭa). (This group of inanimate and animate entities is) different and separate (bhinnam) from Himself (svataḥ) and (ca) from one another (anyonyataḥ). (The Supreme Lord does so, viz. He manifests all those entities,) in order to (siddhaye) delight (bhoga) the limited beings (aṇūnām)1 |
Then (tatra), the tattva or category (tattvam) called (ākhyam) Māyā (māyā) is the one whose intention (buddhiḥ) (has) only (eva) (to do) with splitting asunder (vibhinnatayā) the group (vargeṣu) of inanimate (jaḍa) objects (vedya), (which is) even (api)like (kalpeṣu) (one of) her --of Māyā-- own (sva) limbs (aṅga), by means of Māyīyamala (māyīya-malena). (This Māyīyamala) consists (ātmaka) of a varied (bhinna-bhinna) expansion or unfoldment (prathā)2 . Through that (Māyīyamala) (yena), His (tasya) unimpeded and irresistible (nirargalam) Svātantrya or Absolute Freedom (svātantryam) is (paradoxically) impeded and resisted (pratihanyate), just as (iva) the power (vaibhavam) of the ocean-waves (abdhi-taraṅgāṇām) (is impeded and resisted) by the coast (velayā)3 ||5||
1 In the first place, I had to divide the long Sanskrit sentence into three shorter ones so that you may understand the meaning in a better manner. I could have written the whole thing in the form of one very long sentence but there would have been too confusing.
The group of tattva-s from Māyā (the sixth category) down to Pṛthivī (the thirty-sixth category, that is, the last one) is known as Aśuddhādhvā or impure (aśuddha) course (adhvā) because there is difference and separation between "Aham" (I) and "Idam" (This, viz. the universe). Difference is not synonymous with separation. Something may be different from another thing but it may not be separate. For example: In the pure course (Śuddhādhvā), from the tattva 3 through 5, the "Idam" portion (the universe) is "different" from the "Aham" portion (I), but it "is not separate" from Aham. In other words, both portions are different but unity is still there. Anyway, in the impure course (Aśuddhādhvā), there are both difference and separation.
The commentator tacitly declares that there is no "wicked" Māyā veiling Śiva and bringing about difference and separation. On the contrary, it is the very Supreme Lord who is playing at hiding His own essential nature or Self by performing the part of a Mantramaheśvara, or Great Lord of the Mantra, called Aghora. The Trika system postulates a series of experients, viz. Mantramaheśvara (in Sadāśiva - tattva 3), Mantreśvara (in Īśvara - tattva 4) and Mantra... do not mistake this term for the well-known sound formulae in this context... (in Śuddhavidyā or Sadvidyā - tattva 5), etc. Well, the Mantramaheśvara-s are the experients of the third tattva (Sadāśiva). They are the Great Lords of the Mantra because they are fully conscious of "Aham" or "I". It is this "Aham" portion which is called Mantra here. In the third stanza, the Sadāśiva-tattva was said to be the abode from which the divine Grace is bestowed upon all living beings. There is an experient in Sadāśiva, whose name is Aghora (not terrible) or Aghoreśa (the lord --īśa-- that is not terrible --ághora--). This experient descends from the third tattva (Sadāśiva) down to the sixth tattva (Māyā) and puts the Aśuddhādhvā or impure course (from tattva 6 through 36) into motion.
By acting as Aghoreśa, He is able to display the entire Aśuddhādhvā (impure course) through His own Māyāśakti. As I explained in a previous note, Māyāśakti is not the same thing that Māyā-tattva (the sixth category you are studying in the present stanza) at all. Māyāśakti is the divine Power by means of which the Lord is able to produce difference and/or separation where there is none. His Māyāśakti operates in the tattva-s 3, 4 and 5 by making "Idam" (This or universe) different from "Aham" (I), but at the same time unity between both portions underlies. And now, at the stage of Māyā-tattva, His Māyāśakti gives rise to this tattva itself, and through it, i.e. through the Māyā-tattva, to the entire group of inanimate and animate entities from Kalā (the seventh category) down to Kṣiti or Pṛthivī (the last category). This Māyāśakti of His is defined by Rājānakānanda as His capacity to carry out what is hard to be accomplished. Good definition.
The commentator (viz. Rājānakānanda) expresses that He manifests that group of entities (tattva-s, worlds, experients, etc.) "in regular order" as well as "not in regular order". He said that because, for example, Jñānendriya-s (Powers of perception - tattva-s 17 through 21) arises from Manas (mind - tattva 16), but Karmendriya-s (Powers of action - tattva-s 22 through 26), Tanmātra-s (Subtle elements - tattva-s 27 through 31) and Mahābhūta-s (Gross elements - tattva-s 32 through 36) emerge directly from Ahaṅkāra (ego - tattva 15). Of course, as Manas sprouts from Ahaṅkāra too, everything below Ahaṅkāra has ego as the final source. Still, Jñānendriya-s do not emerge directly from Ahaṅkāra but through Manas, and Karmendriya-s do not arise from Jñānendriya-s despite the apparent succession: Jñānendriya-s (tattva-s 17 to 21) and Karmendriya-s (tattva-s 22 to 26). Thus, the Lord, acting as Aghoreśa, manifests all those entities in regular order and vice versa.
The group of inanimate and animate entities is different and separate (i.e. no unity here) from the Lord and from one another. The purport in this phrase is that the aforesaid "varga" or group is not only different and separate from its divine Source (the Supreme Self), but its constituents (i.e. the entities themselves) are different and separate from each other. Obviously, from a non-dualistic viewpoint, "everything is the Lord and nothing is different or separate from Him", but by His Māyāśakti He makes possible what it seems to be, at first glance, impossible. Duality is impossible in Him as the Lord (You!) is the only inhabitant here!, but He is so free that He can manifest duality through His overwhelming Māyāśakti.
And why is He doing all this? According to Rājānakānanda, from a dualistic viewpoint, He manifests all those entities for delighting the conditioned beings or aṇu-s (lit. atoms). These limited beings may be divided into two categories of experients: (1) "Pralayākala-s" or experients of Pralaya or Dissolution of the universe; they are powerless (akala-s) and rest in the profound void of the Māyā-tattva. They are as if in deep sleep. (2) "Sakala-s" or experients with (sa) some power (kala); they are the experients who are dreaming or else moving in wakefulness. There is a third category of "aṇu", but it should not be considered as such really, as they are on a highest position than Pralayākala-s and Sakala-s. I am speaking of the Vijñānākala-s [the experients situated between the tattva-s 5 and 6. Read Trika 4 (English)]. Of course, You are all the experients as there is one Lord here forever, but He is in the habit of playing and become "many", you know. And, even though You, while playing the role of one of these aṇu-s or conditioned beings, seem to suffer so much, as a matter of fact, You are not suffering at all. It is just Your divine Play or Pastime, which, in spite of its apparent shadows and pains, it is always bright and joyful. This is the sense, in my opinion .
2 According to Rājānakānanda, Māyā-tattva (the sixth category) intends to split asunder the group of inanimate objects in order to bring about the notion of separated things among the "jīva-s" or living beings. The group of "jaḍa-s" or inanimate entities constitutes one of her (of Māyā) limbs indeed, being the other limb the one composed of the animate entities. Māyā accomplishes her purpose through Māyīyamala or mayic impurity. There are three mala-s or impurities: Āṇavamala (the impurity related to the aṇu or limited being), Māyīyamala (the impurity related to Māyā) and Kārmamala (the impurity related to karma or action). The former restrains His (of the Lord) Power of Will (Icchāśakti), the second one limits His Power of Knowledge (Jñānaśakti) and the latter contracts His Power of Action (Kriyāśakti).
In addition, the commentator specifies that Māyīyamala consists of a "prathā" (expansion, unfoldment, display, mode of appearance, etc.) which is varied (bhinna-bhinna). The term "bhinna-bhinna" may be alternatively translated as "different fragments". Thus, the phrase would express that Māyīyamala is a "prathā" of different fragments or portions. People are in the habit of looking for Māyīyamala somewhere else but themselves. Do not do that! Look around... do you see all those inanimate entities or objects?... well, they are the products of Māyīyamala working on you yourself right now! No need to go to a remote region in search of any mala-s or impurities. They are the whole time with you!
3 Māyīyamala or mayic impurity is the outcome of His (of the Supreme Lord) Māyāśakti or Power to bring about difference and/or separation, no doubt about it. That is why such a Māyīyamala can do that which is apparently impossible: "It impedes and resists (i.e. obstructs) His unimpeded and irresistible Svātantrya or Absolute Freedom (i.e. Śakti or divine Power) just as the coast obstructs the power of the ocean-waves (poetically speaking)".
This which is apparently impossible to be accomplished, does occurs due to that very Svātantrya of the Divine. Everything is just His Play. Remember this always, and do not ever consider that Māyā and Māyīyamala are wicked powers acting on their own. His Svātantrya can never be impeded or resisted except He (You!) wants it to be so. Got it? If you fail to understand this point and start thinking of "another" impeding and obstructing His Svātantrya, you will never understand Trika. Still, even your failing to understand this teaching is "also" His Play, no doubt about it, hehe. Read Trika 4 for more information .
स तया परिमितमूर्तिः सङ्कुचितसमस्तशक्तिरेष पुमान्।
रविरिव सन्ध्यारक्तः संहृतशक्तिः स्वभासनेऽप्यपटुः॥६॥
अविकार्यस्यापि तस्य चिदात्मनः स्वशक्तीनां सङ्कोचनपुरःसरं शक्तिदारिद्र्यमापन्नस्याण्वपरपर्याया पुरुषसञ्ज्ञा संहृतशक्तित्वेन परिमितात्मा स स्वात्मैश्वर्यमपि प्रत्यभिज्ञातुमपदुः सञ्चरति विचित्रयोनिषु। यदा पुनः शक्तिपाततारतम्याद्विद्याभिज्ञापितैश्वर्यः स्वाङ्गकल्पमेव विश्वं प्रत्यभिजानीयात्तदा जीवच्छिवभावं प्रत्यापद्यते॥६॥
Sa tayā parimitamūrtiḥ saṅkucitasamastaśaktireṣa pumān|
Raviriva sandhyāraktaḥ saṁhṛtaśaktiḥ svabhāsane'pyapaṭuḥ||6||
Avikāryasyāpi tasya cidātmanaḥ svaśaktīnāṁ saṅkocanapuraḥsaraṁ śaktidāridryamāpannasyāṇvaparaparyāyā puruṣasañjñā saṁhṛtaśaktitvena parimitātmā sa svātmaiśvaryamapi pratyabhijñātumapaduḥ sañcarati vicitrayoniṣu| Yadā punaḥ śaktipātatāratamyādvidyābhijñāpitaiśvaryaḥ svāṅgakalpameva viśvaṁ pratyabhijānīyāttadā jīvacchivabhāvaṁ pratyāpadyate||6||
This very (saḥ... eṣaḥ) man --in the sense of human being-- (pumān), whose form (mūrtiḥ) is mensurable --viz. limited-- (parimita), has all (samasta) his power (śaktiḥ) contracted (saṅkucita) on account of that (Māyā) (tayā). Just as (iva) the sun (raviḥ), reddish (āraktaḥ) during twilight (sandhyā) (and) with its power (śaktiḥ) restrained (saṁhṛta), is not capable (of giving the same light as before) (apaṭuḥ) (at that time,) though (api) it is self-effulgent (sva-bhāsane)||6||
The name (sañjñā) Puruṣa (puruṣa), which is another (apara) synonymous (paryāyā) with Aṇu --a limited being-- (aṇu), (is given) to one who becomes destitute (dāridryam āpannasya) of Śakti or Power (śakti) after (puraḥsaram) the contraction (saṅkocana) of His own (sva) powers (śaktīnām), i.e. (after the contraction of the powers) of that One (tasya) who is Cit or Consciousness (cit-ātmanaḥ) (and) invariable (avikāryasya) though (api) --in other words, He remains immutable in spite of such a contraction--1 . He --i.e. Puruṣa-- (saḥ), being limited (parimita-ātmā) because (his) power (śaktitvena) (has been) restrained (saṁhṛta), is not even capable (api... apaṭuḥ) of recognizing (pratyabhijñātum) Sovereignty and Supremacy (aiśvaryam) of his own (sva) Self (ātma) (and) wanders around --or goes in-- (sañcarati) various (vicitra) wombs (yoniṣu)2 |
However (punar), when (yadā) (that limited being) has (his) Sovereignty and Supremacy (aiśvaryaḥ) made known (abhijñāpita) by Vidyā or divine Knowledge (vidyā) through different degrees (tāratamyāt) of descent (pāta) of Power (śakti), (and as a result,) he recognizes (pratyabhijānīyāt) the universe (viśvam) as (kalpam eva) his own (sva) body (aṅga); then (tadā)he regains (pratyāpadyate) the state (bhāvam) of Śiva (śiva) while living (jīvat)3 ||6||
1 Aṇu or a limited being is also called "Puruṣa". He is called in several other ways indeed (e.g. "Paśu"), hence, the commentator said "another synonymous". This Puruṣa is the twelfth tattva or category and the outcome of the work of Mala-s (impurities), Māyā (tattva 6) and her Kañcuka-s [Sheaths of ignorance: Kalā (tattva 7), Vidyā (tattva 8), Rāga (tattva 9), Kāla (tattva 10) and Niyati (tattva 11)]. Even though Puruṣa is destitute of real Power or Śakti, he "is not either different or separate from the Supreme Lord" at all. It is the Lord Himself after having assumed contraction according to His own Will. If He did not assume contraction, how might He become a limited being and thus enjoy a world, a life, etc. Anyway, everything, viz. limited being, world, life and so on, are always Himself. He (You!) is all, no doubt about it!
Despite the contraction of His powers or śakti-s, He is eternally "avikārya" or "invariable". So, He may become Puruṣa and the entire world, but always retains His immutable state as the Highest Consciousness. This is the sense .
2 This limited being or Puruṣa, having his power contracted, is unable to recognize his Aiśvarya, viz. his inherent Sovereignty and Supremacy. The word Aiśvarya also means "Power" and "the state of being a Lord". In short, the conditioned being cannot recognize he is the Supreme Lord and thus wanders around (or goes in, as the word "sañcarati" is derived from the verb "sañcar" - to wander around, go in, etc.) manifold wombs, i.e. he reincarnates.
Now, regarding reincarnation I would like to make this point very clear: The traditional viewpoint states that a soul enters into another womb after dying, but this is not exactly so. No doubt that, from a fully dualistic point of view, the notion of a soul moving from womb to womb seems to be real. Nonetheless, from a viewpont tending to non-dualism, such a fact is not occurring at all, as the soul, being inherently the Lord, is not affected by time or space. Thus, where can he go? So, what occurs after the soul "leaves" (as it were) a body during death, is simply the generation of "another" body without moving in space or time at all. The generation of a new body is accompanied by the manifestation of a new universe around, which gives the soul the notion that it moved on to a different place and time. It is really a self-deception on the part of the soul, as he is always the Great Lord.
Therefore, the soul is not moving anywhere else because he is the Lord. His apparent movement is simply the outcome of the generation of a new body and the respective universe around it. Of course, all this process is carried out by the soul itself too, since he is the Highest Self essentially. And obviously, from a fully non-dualistic viewpoint, there is no soul, because such a soul is not perceived at all. In other words, Puruṣa has not been manifested and consequently the Lord remains in His own Self, with His Śakti completely uncontracted. This is the meaning .
3 "Śaktipāta" is descent of Power (i.e. bestowal of Grace upon an individual, see the seventh note under the first stanza). Vidyā is here divine Knowledge and not the seventh tattva or category (also called Vidyā), which produces limitation in knowledge. When such a person becomes conscious of his Sovereignty and Supremacy due to that Vidyā, he recognizes the fact that the whole universe is his own cosmic body. In sum, he sees all as himself (complete unity). This high state of consciousness is known as "Śivavyāpti" (lit. penetration into Śiva). Although Śivavyāpti seems to be the fruit of meditation and similar practices, it is really the gift of the divine Self. For that reason, success in attaining the goal of life is, according to Trika, completely dependant on His Anugraha or Grace. Even personal effort is doubtless also due to His Favor.
There is firstly "Ātmavyāpti" (lit. penetration into the Self), i.e. an individual fully realizes that he is essentially the inner Self (the Witness of all his thoughts). But he cannot see his own Self in everthing yet. Then, when he is finally able to see his Self (viz. himself) in all around, he is said to have attained Śivavyāpti. And this Śivavyāpti is, according to Trika, Paramārtha or the Supreme Goal. Once an individual attains Śivavyāpti, he regains or retrieves his condition as Śiva while living. As I said previously, according to the Trika system, this is the highest state a living being can attain indeed. Afterward, when he leaves his body in due course, he remains as the venerable Lord (this is confirmed by the sage Kṣemarāja in his Parāprāveśikā). In fact, life and death mean nothing to such a "mahātmā" or high-souled one .
सम्पूर्णकर्तृताद्या बह्व्यः सन्त्यस्य शक्तयस्तस्य।
सङ्कोचात्सङ्कुचिताः कलादिरूपेण रूढयन्त्येवम्॥७॥
शक्त्यन्तरक्रोडीकारिण्या स्वातन्त्र्यशक्त्या वियुक्तत्वादेव परमेश्वरस्य बहुशक्तित्वं सङ्कोचग्रहणादेव सर्वास्तच्छक्तयः सङ्कुचितीभूय कलादितत्त्वपञ्चकेन प्ररोहमुपगच्छन्ति। ता यथा सर्वकर्तृता सर्वज्ञता तृप्तिर्नित्यता स्वातन्त्र्यमित्येतत्पञ्चकं शुद्धाशुद्धभेदेन द्विधा — परमेशविषयतया शुद्धं संसारविषयतया त्वशुद्धम्॥७॥
Sampūrṇakartṛtādyā bahvyaḥ santyasya śaktayastasya|
Saṅkocātsaṅkucitāḥ kalādirūpeṇa rūḍhayantyevam||7||
Śaktyantarakroḍīkāriṇyā svātantryaśaktyā viyuktatvādeva parameśvarasya bahuśaktitvaṁ saṅkocagrahaṇādeva sarvāstacchaktayaḥ saṅkucitībhūya kalāditattvapañcakena prarohamupagacchanti| Tā yathā sarvakartṛtā sarvajñatā tṛptirnityatā svātantryamityetatpañcakaṁ śuddhāśuddhabhedena dvidhā - Parameśaviṣayatayā śuddhaṁ saṁsāraviṣayatayā tvaśuddham||7||
The many (bahvyaḥ) powers (śaktayaḥ) of that (tasya) Bountiful and Benevolent One (santyasya), viz. omnipotence (sampūrṇa-kartṛtā), etc. (ādyāḥ), being shrunk (saṅkucitāḥ) because of saṅkoca or contraction (saṅkocāt), are thus developed (rūḍhayanti evam) into the form (rūpeṇa) of Kalā --the seventh tattva or category-- (kalā), etc. (ādi)||7||
There are many śakti-s or powers (bahuśaktitvam) of the Supreme (parama) Lord (īśvarasya) due to a state of separation (viyuktatvāt eva) from Svātantryaśakti --the Power of Absolute Freedom-- (svātantrya-śaktyā), (who) is the Mistress (kroḍī-kāriṇyā) inside (antara) (all those) śakti-s or powers (śakti)1 . From the act of assuming (grahaṇāt eva) contraction (saṅkoca) (performed by the Lord), all (sarvāḥ) those (tad) śakti-s or powers (śaktayaḥ), being (also) contracted (saṅkucitībhūya), shoot forth (praroham upagacchanti) as a group of five (pañcakena) tattva-s or categories (tattva) beginning with (ādi) Kalā --the seventh category-- (kalā)2 |
Those (śakti-s) (tāḥ) (are) as follows (yathā): "Omnipotence --Kriyāśakti- (sarvakartṛtā), Omniscience --Jñānaśakti-- (sarvajñatā), Satisfaction --Icchāśakti-- (triptiḥ), Eternity --Ānandaśakti-- (nityatā) (and) Absolute Freedom --Cicchakti-- (svātantryam iti)"3 . This (etad) group of five (tattva-s) --viz. the five Kañcuka-s-- (pañcakam) is twofold (dvidhā) in accordance with the division (bhedena) into pure (śuddha) (and) impure (aśuddha)4 . (Such a group is) pure (śuddham) when has the Supreme Lord for its object (parama-īśa-viṣayatayā), but (tu) (it is) impure (aśuddham) when has Saṁsāra --Transmigration-- for its object (saṁsāra-viṣayatayā)5 ||7||
1 The proliferation of many śakti-s or powers of the Supreme Lord has its roots at "Svātantryaśaktyā viyuktatvam", i.e. at "a condition of separation (viyuktatvam) from Svātantryaśakti --the Power of Absolute Freedom-- (svātantrya-śaktyā)". Anyway, each of those śakti-s or powers (in this context, the five main ones: Cit, Ānanda, Icchā, Jñāna and Kriyā) has essentially Svātantryaśakti (the Power of Absolute Freedom, viz. the divine Power of the Supreme Lord) within as her Mistress. Thus, there is always one Śakti despite the apparent differences. It is that simple!
2 As the Lord contracts Himself, all His powers follow the same course of action as Him. Thus, His main five śakti-s, viz. Cicchakti (Cit-śakti), Ānandaśakti, Icchāśakti, Jñānaśakti and Kriyāśakti, become, in the Aśuddhādhvā or impure course, the five Kañcuka-s or Sheaths of ignorance respectively: Kalā (tattva 7), Vidyā (tattva 8), Rāga (tattva 9), Kāla (tattva 10) and Niyati (tattva 11). For more information, read Trika 4 (English) .
3 Here Rājānakānanda enumerates the five abovementioned powers in a different way: (1) Cicchakti (Power of Consciousness) is Svātantrya or Absolute Freedom because She is completely free to know and do everything anywhere, at any time, in any way, etc. (2) Ānandaśakti (Power of Bliss) is Nityatā or Eternity because time ceases when Joy is predominant in its highest degree. (3) Icchāśakti (Power of Will) is Tṛpti or Satisfaction because the "Aham" portion prevails, i.e. the Lord rests in His own Self as the universe is still an indistinct experience. (4) Jñānaśakti (Power of Knowledge) is Omniscience because the entire universe flashes into view in the form of a distinct mass of Consciousness called Bindu (Dot). (5) Kriyāśakti (Power of Action) is Omnipotence due to a state of dynamical equipoise between the Aham (I) and Idam (This or universe) portions, i.e. the Lord is conscious of both Himself and the universe evenly, and therefore His capacity to exert power is complete. In Icchāśakti, Omnipotence fades away as the universe is foggy. The same thing is true in Jñānaśakti, since the universe is too sharp and predominant over the "Aham" (I) portion. But in Kriyāśakti, because of the equipoise between Aham and Idam, Omnipotence is at its height.
These five śakti-s (viz. Cicchakti, Ānandaśakti, Icchāśakti, Jñānaśakti and Kriyāśakti) predominate in the tattva-s or categories: Śiva, Śakti, Sadāśiva, Īśvara and Sadvidyā (also called "Śuddhavidyā"), respectively .
4 The commentator refers to Śuddhādhvā (pure course) and Aśuddhādhvā (impure course). The former consists of the first five tattva-s or categories, while the latter is composed of the remaining ones. Read the seventh note under the fourth stanza and the first note under the fifth stanza if you need more information .
5 In other words, when such a group of five śakti-s or powers are uncontracted and remains in the form of Cicchakti, Ānandaśakti, Icchāśakti, Jñānaśakti and Kriyāśakti in the first tattva-s or categories, viz. Śiva, Śakti, Sadāśiva, Īśvara and Sadvidyā, it has the Divine for its object or purpose; i.e. these five powers lead to the highest state of consciousness. Anyway, when this very group of five powers assumes contraction, it is transformed or developed into the five Kañcuka-s or Sheaths of ignorance, viz. Kalā, Vidyā, Rāga, Kāla and Niyati, and these powers thus lead to Saṁsāra or Transmigration.
Saṁsāra is not only to wander around different wombs in the constant cycle of birth and death, but also the perpetual mutation of all that is within and without oneself. Watch your mind: it is always changing. Watch your body: it is always mutating. Well, all this is Saṁsāra too, in short, bondage. The Highest Reality is essentially immutable and, consequently, beyond all bondage .
तत्सर्वकर्तृता सा सङ्कुचिता कतिपयार्थमात्रपरा।
किञ्चित्कर्तारममुं कलयन्ती कीर्त्यते कला नाम॥८॥
गोपितस्वरूपत्वान्निरुद्धशक्तेः परमेश्वरस्य सर्वकर्तृताशक्तिः प्राणादिपरिमितप्रमातृभावे किञ्चित्कर्तृतोद्बलनात्मना कलनेनाधःप्रक्षेपात्कलातत्त्वात्मतां याति यद्वशात्किञ्चिदेव कर्तुमुत्सहतेऽणुः न सर्वत्र कर्तृत्वमिति॥८॥
Tatsarvakartṛtā sā saṅkucitā katipayārthamātraparā|
Kiñcitkartāramamuṁ kalayantī kīrtyate kalā nāma||8||
Gopitasvarūpatvānniruddhaśakteḥ parameśvarasya sarvakartṛtāśaktiḥ prāṇādiparimitapramātṛbhāve kiñcitkartṛtodbalanātmanā kalanenādhaḥprakṣepātkalātattvātmatāṁ yāti yadvaśātkiñcideva kartumutsahate'ṇu na sarvatra kartṛtvamiti||8||
That (sā) Omnipotence (sarvakartṛtā) of His (tad), being contracted (saṅkucitā), is merely occupied (mātra-parā) in some (katipaya) objects (artha) --i.e. it does not look like opulent--. (Such a contracted Omnipotence) is mentioned (kīrtyate) by the name (nāma) of Kalā (kalā) (because) it impels (kalayantī) that (amum) limited (kiñcid) doer (kartāram)||8||
As the Śakti or Power (śakteḥ) of the Supreme (parama) Lord (īśvarasya) is restrained (niruddha) because (His) essential nature (sva-rūpatvāt) is kept secret --i.e. concealed-- (gopita), Omnipotence (sarvakartṛtā-śaktiḥ) (is) limited (kiñcid) agency (kartṛtā) in the condition (bhāve) of limited (parimita) experient (pramātṛ) consisting of vital energy (prāṇa), etc. (ādi). (And) since (this conditioned agency) throws (prakṣepāt) (an individual or Aṇu) downward (adhas) by means of a powerful (udbalana-ātmanā) shaking (kalanena), becomes (yāti) the tattva or category (tattva-ātmatām) (known as) Kalā (kalā)1 . On account of (vaśāt) which --i.e. due to Kalā-- (yad), a limited being (aṇuḥ) is able (utsahate) to do (kartum) just (eva) a little (kiñcid) (and) not (na) everywhere (sarvatra) --i.e. he is conditioned regarding actions--; (this is "limited) agency" (kartṛtvam iti)2 ||8||
1 When the Lord, according to His own Will or Desire, decides to conceal (to keep secret) His essential nature, this is known as the fourth act, viz. "tirodhāna" (See the third note under the first stanza for more information about the fivefold act performed by the Highest Self). At the moment that the Supreme Lord seeks to conceal His essential nature, His Śakti or Power is restrained, obviously. When this happens, the five main śakti-s (Cit, Ānanda, Icchā, Jñāna and Kriyā) are also contracted. Kriyāśakti or Power of Action is synonymous with "Sarvakartṛtā" or "Sarvakartṛtva" (i.e. Omnipotence). So, to say that Omnipotence becomes limited is the same thing as saying that Kriyāśakti does so. The result of all that process of contraction is limited agency, viz. a conditioned state of being the agent or doer.
The author of the stanza (i.e. Amṛtānandanātha) declares that Omnipotence is, when contracted, known as Kalā (the first Kañcuka or Sheath of ignorance) because it impels. The commentator's interpretation says that, by "it impels" Amṛtānandanātha meant that Kalā throws an individual or limited being (Aṇu or Puruṣa) downward through a powerful shaking. This statement implies that: (1) Kalā pushes an Aṇu toward a state even more limited by force, (2) Kalā is not complete absence of Power of Action, but limited one.
It is interesting the sequence followed by Rājānakānanda: (1) Sarvakartṛtā or Omnipotence becomes "kiñcidkartṛtā" or "limited agency" due to the contraction of the divine Śakti or Power; (2) This "limited agency" becomes Kalā because throws an individual (who consists of vital energy, mind, ego, body, etc.) downward by means of a powerful shaking. Thus "contracted Omnipotence", "limited agency" and "Kalā" are as good as synonymous in the long run.
Kalā (the seventh tattva or category) is also what gives rise to Prakṛti (tattva 13)... but this is another long story, hehe .
2 Due to Kalā (the first Kañcuka or Sheath of ignorance), a conditioned being (Puruṣa or Aṇu) cannot do much, and that which is done by him occurs somewhere but not everywhere as in the case of what is performed by Omnipotence of the Lord. And this is what limited agency means. Anyway, do not ever forget that the individual (the limited being) is essentially the Lord always. Everything is His joyful Play and nothing else. If you fail to remember this, you will not understand the Trika teachings in an adequate manner .
सर्वज्ञतास्य शक्तिः परिमिततनुरल्पवेद्यमात्रपरा।
ज्ञानमुत्पादयन्ती विद्येति निगद्यते बुधैराद्यैः॥९॥
एवं तस्यैव सर्वज्ञताशक्तिः सङ्कोचं गृहीतवती किञ्चिज्ज्ञेयमात्रपरत्वेन ज्ञानोत्पादनाद्विद्यातत्त्वं विद्ययैव बुद्धिदर्पणे प्रतिफलिता भावा विविच्यन्ते — गुणसङ्कीर्णतया तस्या विवेक्तुमक्षमत्वात्तस्माद्विद्ययैवार्थविवेकः॥९॥
Sarvajñatāsya śaktiḥ parimitatanuralpavedyamātraparā|
Jñānamutpādayantī vidyeti nigadyate budhairādyaiḥ||9||
Evaṁ tasyaiva sarvajñatāśaktiḥ saṅkocaṁ gṛhītavatī kiñcijjñeyamātraparatvena jñānotpādanādvidyātattvaṁ vidyayaiva buddhidarpaṇe pratiphalitā bhāvā vivicyante - Guṇasaṅkīrṇatayā tasyā vivektumakṣamatvāttasmādvidyayaivārthavivekaḥ||9||
His (asya) Omniscience (sarvajñatā... śaktiḥ), having a limited (parimita) form (tanuḥ), is merely occupied (mātra-parā) with a few and little (alpa) knowables --i.e. objects-- (vedya). (Such a contracted Omniscience) is called (nigadyate) "Vidyā" (vidyā iti) by the first (ādyaiḥ) sages (budhaiḥ), (because) it brings about (utpādayantī) knowledge (jñānam)||9||
Thus (evam), His (tasya) Omniscience (sarvajñatā-śaktiḥ), having assumed (gṛhītavatī) contraction (saṅkocam), (is) the tattva or category (tattvam) (known as) Vidyā (vidyā) since it produces (utpādanāt) knowledge (jñāna) in merely being occupied (mātra-paratvena) with little and insignificant (kiñcid) knowables --objects-- (jñeya)1 . Through Vidyā (vidyayā eva), (a number of) states (bhāvāḥ), reflected (pratiphalitāḥ) on the mirror (darpaṇe) of Buddhi or intellect --tattva or category 14-- (buddhi), are separated (vivicyante). (However,) due to incompetence or inability (akṣamatvāt) to distinguish (them) (vivektum) from her --i.e. from Vidyā-- (tasyāḥ), (such states appear in the form of) a combination or mixture (saṅkīrṇatayā) of properties (guṇa)2 . Therefore (tasmāt), by means of Vidyā (vidyayā eva) (there is) the faculty of distinguishing and classifying (vivekaḥ) things (artha) (according to their real properties)3 ||9||
1 Vidyā (the second Kañcuka --sheath of ignorance-- and, at the same time, the eight tattva or category) is really the Power of Knowledge --Jñānaśakti-- of the Lord, viz. His Omniscience, which is predominant in the fourth tattva (Īśvara), but having gone through a process of contraction. When this divine Omniscience who knows all everywhere is contracted, it becomes Vidyā and remains engaged in knowing a few little objects. Vidyā is not complete absence of knowledge, but limitation regarding it. Tha same thing is true in respect to the other four Kañcuka-s (e.g. Kalā --the first Kañcuka-- is not complete absence of Power of Action or Omnipotence, but limitation as regards actions).
In short, the five main śakti-s or powers of the Lord get contracted or restrained by His Will, and they are transformed into the respective Kañcuka-s (Kalā, Vidyā, Rāga, Kāla and Niyati), such as I explained in the first note under the eight stanza. Of course, the contraction is so immense, that the immensurable Powers of the Lord (e.g. His Jñānaśakti or Power of Knowledge) get reduced to something really miserable. So, in the case of Vidyā, His Supreme Omniscience gets involved in little objects. The words "álpa" and "kiñcid" are significant here. They mean: "a few", "little", "insignificant", and so on, that is, a few little and insignificant objects are the goal of His Omniscience now. And despite such an enormous limitation, it still produces knowledge about those little knowables or objects. No doubt that this knowledge is also limited and miserable in comparison with His primordial Omniscient state, but the conditioned individual considers that stupid, irrelevant knowledge as his most divine treasure. Such is his misery! Shame on him!, hehe. Oh, do not ever forget that the individual is the Lord playing that role, friend .
2 When the Light of contracted Omniscience (viz. Vidyā or tattva 8) is reflected on the mirror of Buddhi or intellect (tattva or category 14), a great deal states are separated as a result. However, because one is unable to distinguish those states from Vidyā herself, they shine forth as a combination or mixture of properties. These properties pertain to the respective objects. For instance, "this object is white, round, big, etc.". But at the stage of Vidyā there are no objects yet, as they were not manifested by the Lord at all. Nonetheless, Kalā (tattva 7), the first Kañcuka, is the source of Prakṛti (tattva 13), and Prakṛti is the source of all objects to be manifested later on. Thus, Vidyā, in the form of a kind of light being reflected on Buddhi or intellect, appears as a group of properties associated to those objects because the limited individual is not able to notice the presence of Vidyā in the backstage.
If the aforesaid limited being might see the original Vidyā as the source of all those states, he would stop seeing them as properties consequently, and his world would also be changed dramatically. Imagine to see a world of objects but without any property associated to them. It would be a strange world, wouldn't it? That is why it is said that "the world is as you see it". The universe you perceive right now is completely dependant upon your current state of consciousness. Change the latter and you will change the former. There is no "solid" universe out there, be sure. That which you name "universe" (people, animals, things, etc.) is simply the Play of Māyā and her Kañcuka-s (Kalā, Vidyā, Rāga, Kāla and Niyati). If you can grasp the purport of what I said, your viewpoint will be modified drastically, and this change of viewpoint is the first stage toward the attainment of Final Emancipation, according to Trika .
3 Consistently with what I said in the previous note, the lack of ability to perceive all those states reflected on Buddhi as Vidyā herself forces an individual to consider them to be properties or guṇa-s (do not mistake these guṇa-s or properties for the celebrated three Guṇa-s or qualities of Prakṛti, viz. Sattva, Rajas and Tamas, please). Therefore, the capacity to distinguish and classify (viveka) things according to their real properties (guṇa-s) is firmly established by Vidyā.
It would be useless to have a world without viveka. So, Śakti (the divine Power of the Lord), appearing as Māyā and her five Kañcuka-s, provides an individual (also manifested by themselves) with all that he needs to enjoy a world. It is quite an invent, but it seems to be so real and solid, doesn't it?, hehe. It is real indeed, because it came forth from the Lord who is Real. Anyway, it is an ephemeral invent though. Look around: all that you can see is the invent of your own Śakti, dear Supreme Lord!
नित्यपरिपूर्णतृप्तिः शक्तिस्तस्यैव परिमिता तु सती।
भोगेषु रञ्जयन्ती सततममुं रागतत्त्वतां याता॥१०॥
परमेश्वरस्य नित्यपरिपूर्णतृप्तिर्नाम शक्तिः पारिमित्यं याता यत्र क्वचनोपादेयाद्यभिमते किञ्चिन्मे भूयादिति सामान्येनाभिष्वङ्गमात्रादापद्यते रागतत्त्वम्। विशेषाभिष्वङ्गस्त्वस्यैव पल्लवितप्राय इत्येतदेव कलाविद्ययोः प्रागुक्तयोः किञ्चिद्भागे निमित्तम्॥१०॥
Nityaparipūrṇatṛptiḥ śaktistasyaiva parimitā tu satī|
Bhogeṣu rañjayantī satatamamuṁ rāgatattvatāṁ yātā||10||
Parameśvarasya nityaparipūrṇatṛptirnāma śaktiḥ pārimityaṁ yātā yatra kvacanopādeyādyabhimate kiñcinme bhūyāditi sāmānyenābhiṣvaṅgamātrādāpadyate rāgatattvam| Viśeṣābhiṣvaṅgastvasyaiva pallavitaprāya ityetadeva kalāvidyayoḥ prāguktayoḥ kiñcidbhāge nimittam||10||
(Now,) His (tasya eva) Power (śaktiḥ) (called) "Satisfaction (tṛptiḥ) (which is) eternal (nitya) (and) perfect (paripūrṇa)" --i.e. Icchāśakti or Power of Will-- is (satī) certainly (tu) limited (parimitā). (This contracted Power of Will) becomes the tattva or category (tattvatām yātā) (known as) Rāga (rāga) (because it) constantly (satatam) causes that (limited being) to be attracted (rañjayantī... amum) by enjoyments (bhogeṣu)||10||
The Supreme (parama) Lord's (īśvarasya) Power (śaktiḥ) called (nāma) "eternal (nitya) (and) perfect (paripūrṇa) Satisfaction (tṛptiḥ)" --viz. Icchāśakti or Power of Will-- becomes limited (pārimityam yātā) wherever (yatra kvacana) (this) first (ādi) desire (abhimate) is accepted or admitted (upādeya): "May (this) small amount be (kiñcid... bhūyāt) mine (me... iti)!"; (and then, that Icchāśakti) is generally changed (sāmānyena... āpadyate) into the tattva or category (tattvam) (known as) Rāga (rāga) only due to (mātrāt) an intense attachment (abhiṣvaṅga) (to the abovementioned small amount)1 |
However (tu), (since) specially (viśeṣa) intense attachment (abhiṣvaṅgaḥ) (is) mostly (prāyaḥ) its --of Rāga-- (asya eva) young shoot, (as in a tree, metaphorically speaking) (pallavita), thus (iti), this (third Kañcuka known as Rāga) (etad eva) (is) the reason or motive (nimittam) of the aforesaid (prāk-uktayoḥ) Kalā --the first Kañcuka-- (kalā) (and) Vidyā --the second Kañcuka-- (vidyayoḥ) in the limited (kiñcid) portion or region (bhāge)2 ||10||
1 The Power of Will (Icchāśakti) of the Lord becomes limited when He has this first desire: "May this small amount be mine!". By "small amount" (kiñcid), Rājānakānanda means "a little portion of something bigger". When His Power of Will is totally uncontracted in Sadāśiva-tattva (the third category), the Lord feels complete Satisfaction in His own Self and experiences He is the Owner of the entire universe. But when He decides to contract His own Powers, He has that first desire and then, as limited individual, the Lord develops an intense attachment to that little portion (e.g. body, family, job, etc.). Thus, His Supreme Power of Will, which is perpetual and quite full Satisfaction becomes the ninth tattva or category called Rāga (the third Kañcuka or Sheath of ignorance).
The entire process results in full Satisfaction being transformed into pain, because all that one is attached to will bring about just pain sooner or later. Good joke, Lord!, haha. Therefore, Rāga (tattva 9) is the source of all attachments a conditioned being experiences in his life .
2 What the commentator means to say is simply that the motive or reason for the existence of Kalā and Vidyā is Rāga (the third Kañcuka or Sheath of ignorance). Why? Because Rāga is the source of intense attachment, which is like a young shoot, poetically speaking. In other words, before an individual may experience attachment, his agency (power of action) and knowledge must become limited. Afterward, attachment follows naturally in the limited portion or region, i.e. from the moment in which the Lord decided to contract His own Powers (viz. Āṇavamala or primordial impurity appearing in the form of "I am not perfect") downward, that is, from the region between the tattva-s 5 and 6 down to the thirty-sixth tattva. Read Trika 4 (English) if you need more information.
Kalā (the first Kañcuka) is the source of Prakṛti (tattva 13), which will produce the objects. In turn, Vidyā (the second Kañcuka), being reflected on the mirror of Buddhi (tattva 14) brings about innumerable states, which are transformed into the respective properties assigned to those objects due to one's own lack of ability to see that all those states are Vidyā herself. The next step is to force the individual to experience intense attachment to those objects, and thus Rāga appears. In fact, Rāga is indispensable and the cause of the previous two Kañcuka-s, because there might not be a "world process", i.e. an individual interacting with objects (e.g. egos, minds, bodies, things, etc.... yes, ego is an object too because it can be perceived and known... all that can be perceived and known is an object essentially) and feeling attachment to them. If he does not feel attachment, the world process is not possible then, at least not in the ordinary|mundane way. That is why, the path of dispassion or renunciation being recommended in many scriptures is a way to harm the chain of ignorance: objects + their properties + attachment to them.
Now that the individual has his powers of action, knowledge and will completely reduced to something insignificant, Śakti needs to lay the foundations of time and space to complete the first phase of Her divine Joke, hehe. The next stanza deals with the birth of time, another invent of the Supreme Power of the Lord. Oh well, this is the meaning of this stanza and the respective commentary, in my humble opinion .
सा नित्यतास्य शक्तिर्निकृष्य निधनोदयप्रदानेन।
नियतपरिच्छेदकरी कॢप्ता स्यात्कालतत्त्वरूपेण॥११॥
अकालकलितस्य चिदात्मनो नित्यत्वाख्या शक्तिर्न्यग्भावमाश्रित्य कार्यारूपितकर्तृत्वकलनयाणुं तुट्यादिक्रमाभासनात्मना कालेन संयोज्य कालतत्त्वव्यपदेश्या कल्प्यते येनायमणुर्भूतादिक्रियाक्रमकलितः कालवशतामापद्यते॥११॥
Sā nityatāsya śaktirnikṛṣya nidhanodayapradānena|
Niyataparicchedakarī kḷptā syātkālatattvarūpeṇa||11||
Akālakalitasya cidātmano nityatvākhyā śaktirnyagbhāvamāśritya kāryārūpitakartṛtvakalanayāṇuṁ tuṭyādikramābhāsanātmanā kālena saṁyojya kālatattvavyapadeśya kalpyate yenāyamaṇurbhūtādikriyākramakalitaḥ kālavaśatāmāpadyate||11||
That (sā) Eternity (nityatā... śaktiḥ) of His (asya), being dragged down (nikṛṣya) because of (His) act of giving (pradānena) rise (udaya) to destruction (nidhana), makes (karī) limited regular (niyata) divisions (pariccheda), (and thus such an Eternity) is (syāt) arranged and trimmed (kḷptā) in the form (rūpeṇa) of the tattva or category (tattva) (called) Kāla (kāla)||11||
Having assumed (āśritya) a low (nyak) state (bhāvam) --i.e. having been forced to come down by Lord's Will--, the Power (śaktiḥ) known as (ākhyā) Eternity (nityatva), which belongs to the One whose nature (ātmanaḥ) is Consciousness (cit) (and) is endowed (kalitasya) with absence of time (akāla) --i.e. the Lord Himself--, (this contracted Eternity, now) called (vyapadeśyā) Kāla-tattva --the tenth category-- (kāla-tattva), is produced (kalpyate) by causing (kalanayā) the agency (of an Aṇu or limited being) (kartṛtva) to be burdened (ārūpita) with the effect or result (kārya), (and then) by furnishing (saṁyojya) (such an) Aṇu (aṇum) with Kāla --Time-- (kālena), which makes apparent (ābhāsana-ātmanā) a succession (krama) that starts (ādi) with very minute spaces of time (tuṭi)1 . By means of that (process) (yena), this (ayam) Aṇu or limited individual (aṇuḥ) gets endowed (kalitaḥ) with a succession (krama) of activities (kriyā) (occurring) in the past (bhūta), etc. (ādi), (and therefore,) he is under control (vaśatām āpadyate) of Kāla or Time (kāla)2 ||11||
1 Eternity is Ānandaśakti (the Power of Bliss) in the tattva 2 (Śakti-tattva). And Eternity belongs to the Lord, who is Consciousness and with no Time at all. Anyway, through the process of contracting His own Power, His Śakti or divine Power brings Eternity down by giving rise to destruction (i.e. annihilation and death, which do not exist in Eternity really). Then, His Power transforms this contracted|limited Eternity into the Kāla-tattva (the fourth Kañcuka and tenth tattva or category) by making the agency (viz. the state of being the author or doer) of a limited being (Aṇu) be burdened with the effect or result. This means that such a limited being or Aṇu not only thinks he is the doer of actions, but also the one who will enjoy the results of his apparent acts. While he waits for the fruits of his actions, his inherent Supreme Joy (Ānandaśakti) appears in a contracted way as anxiety and the like. The more anxious the limited being is, the slower his sensation of Time is. When he is happy, he feels that Time moves quickly instead. Therefore, as Ānandaśakti (Power of Bliss) is basically Eternity, Time (i.e. contracted Eternity) is always connected with joy.
So, he is full of expectations about the fruits of his acts and experiences the sensation of an "invented" gap between the moment he does something and the moment he receives the result of his deed. After inoculating this notion into the limited being, this Aṇu gets endowed with Kāla or Time, which causes periods of time (from "tuṭi-s" or very minute spaces of time up to eons) to shine forth. Thus, Kāla-tattva or contracted Eternity deceives the poor Aṇu or conditioned individual. This is the sense, in my opinion .
2 The final outcome of all this "invent" is that the Aṇu (the individual), by experiencing a succession of past, present and future activities, is completely subdued by Kāla or Time. And who can say he is not under control of Time? I cannot.. can you? Another good joke, Lord! Everyone is the Supreme Self, but the heavy self-imposed limitation is overwhelming indeed .
यास्य स्वतन्त्रताख्या शक्तिः सङ्कोचशालिनी सैव।
कृत्याकृत्येष्ववशं नियतममुं नियमयन्त्यभून्नियतिः॥१२॥
स्वातन्त्र्यमेवास्य परप्रमातुः सङ्कुचद्नियतितत्त्वतामाभासयति यतः कार्याकार्येषु नियमाधानाद्विशिष्टे कार्ये विशिष्टं कारणमेवादध्यान्नानियतमिति। एतेन कलादिना कञ्चुकेनावृतोऽयं शक्तिदारिद्र्यमनुभूय कलादिमुखेनैव स्ववैभवात्प्रतिवितीर्णकिञ्चिदंशः पशुरित्युच्यते॥१२॥
Yāsya svatantratākhyā śaktiḥ saṅkocaśālinī saiva|
Kṛtyākṛtyeṣvavaśaṁ niyatamamuṁ niyamayantyabhūnniyatiḥ||12||
Svātantryamevāsya parapramātuḥ saṅkucanniyatitattvatāmābhāsayati yataḥ kāryākāryeṣu niyamādhānādviśiṣṭe kārye viśiṣṭaṁ kāraṇamevādadhyānnāniyatamiti| Etena kalādinā kañcukenāvṛto'yaṁ śaktidāridryamanubhūya kalādimukhenaiva svavaibhavātprativitīrṇakiñcidaṁśaḥ paśurityucyate||12||
(When) that (sā eva) Power (śaktiḥ) of His (asya), which (yā) is known as (ākhyā) Absolute Freedom (svatantratā) --viz. Cicchakti or the Power of Consciousness--, is full (śālinī) of contraction (saṅkoca), (then), by restraining (niyamayantī) that (limited individual) (amum) who is devoid of free will (avaśam) (and) restricted (niyatam) regarding what is to be done (kṛtya) (and) what is not to be done --akṛtya-- (akṛtyeṣu) --i.e. he depends on right and wrong actions--, (such a Power) became (abhūt) (the tattva or category called) Niyati (niyatiḥ)||12||
Absolute Freedom (svātantryam eva) of this (asya) Supreme (para) Experient (pramātuḥ) gets contracted (saṅkucat) (and) shines forth (ābhāsayati) as the Niyati-tattva --the eleventh tattva or category-- (niyati-tattvatām)1 . For which reason (yatas), by causing (ādhānāt) restriction (niyama) as regards what is to be done (kārya) (and) what is not to be done --akārya-- (akāryeṣu), a particular (viśiṣṭam) cause (kāraṇam eva) of a particular (viśiṣṭe) effect or result (kārye) produces (ādadhyāt) (the following notion:) "not (na) unrestricted (aniyatam iti)"2 |
Through this (etena) (group of five) Kañcuka-s or Sheaths (kañcukena), which begins (ādinā) with Kalā (kalā), this (individual) (ayam) (who is) covered (by such Sheaths) (āvṛtaḥ), experiencing (anubhūya)destitution (dāridryam) of Śakti or Power (śakti) by means (mukhena eva) of Kalā (kalā), etc. (ādi) due to His own (sva) Might and Glory (vaibhavāt), is said to be (ucyate) a "paśu" --a limited being-- (paśuḥ iti) viz. a portion (aṁśaḥ) to which a little (kiñcid) is given (prativitīrṇa)3 ||12||
1 Absolute Freedom is Svātantrya or Svatantratā (both words are synonymous). The Lord has Absolute Freedom to know and do all. When His Svātantrya assumes contraction, It appears as the Niyati-tattva, i.e. the fifth Kañcuka (Sheath of Ignorance), which is also the eleventh category or tattva in the series of thirty-six postulated by the Trika system. Svātantrya or Svatantratā is known as Cicchakti (Cit-śakti) as well, viz. the Power of Consciousness .
2 The limited individual (aṇu or paśu) is the Lord Himself, but due to the contraction of His Svātantrya or Cicchakti (Absolute Freedom), he experiences dependence upon right and wrong actions. The individual feels "this is what is to be done and this is what is not to be done". Thus, he classifies the actions as good and bad ones for himself, because the good ones produce good effects and the bad ones bring about bad results. However, even though this classification "sounds" normal and consistent in ordinary life, is absolutely limited and miserable if one keeps in mind that such a conditioned individual is the Free Lord in person.
That is why Rājānakānanda said that a particular cause (a good or bad action) of a particular effect or result (good or bad, respectively) produces or inoculates the notion that "not unrestricted" (i.e. "this is completely limited in the end!") into an individual, as he is affected by the results of his actions. In his life as a limited being, he has no freedom as regards cause and effect as the Lord has (though he is the Lord, paradoxically). Thus, Niyati, the fifth Kañcuka or Sheath of Ignorance, is the main reason by which an individual is thoroughly restrained regarding actions and its consequences (karmic law). This is the sense .
3 The final purpose of the five Kañcuka-s (Kalā, etc., i.e. Kalā, Vidyā, Rāga, Kāla and Niyati) is to cover and thus to veil the individual. Those Kañcuka-s are generated and put into motion by the Mighty and Glorious Lord in order to contract Himself and end up being a limited individual. The five Kañcuka-s "do not" remove the entire group of five Powers of the Supreme Self (You!), viz. Kriyāśakti, Jñānaśakti, Icchāśakti, Ānandaśakti and Cicchakti, but they give a little bit of the five powers to the paśu or limited being so that he can play his role in the world. That is why the word "contraction" (saṅkoca) is always used to describe these processes and not "removal". Hence, Rājānakānanda states that a "paśu" or conditioned individual is a portion to which a little is given. So, the individual is given a little of each of those five divine Powers of the Lord, and he is never completely without them according to the Trika system .
इच्छादित्रिसमष्टिः शक्तिः शान्तास्य सङ्कुचद्रूपा।
सङ्कलितेच्छाद्यात्मकसत्त्वादिकसाम्यरूपिणी तु सती॥१३॥
बुद्ध्यादिसामरस्यस्वरूपचित्तात्मिका मता प्रकृतिः।
अस्य शान्ताख्या शक्तिरक्षुब्धत्वादिच्छादीनां शक्तीनां गर्भीकरणात्समष्टिरूपा पारिमित्यग्रहणाच्च गुणानामविभागावस्था प्रकृतितत्त्वम्। गुणानामिच्छादिशक्तित्रिकेनान्वारब्धत्वात्त्रित्वं — यत्प्रक्षोभात्प्रकृतिकसर्गस्य प्रसरः। तत्र चित्तात्मके बुद्ध्यहङ्कृन्मनांसि साम्यावस्थामधिश्रयन्ति। अत्र तत्त्वक्रमप्रसरे शिवादिसकलान्तेषु प्रमातृवर्गेषु ज्ञानक्रियाशक्ती एव मुख्यमुपकरणं त एव सङ्कुचद्रूप ईश्वरशुद्धविद्ये सङ्कुचिते विद्याकलेऽत्यन्तं सङ्कुचिते बुद्धिकर्मेन्द्रियाणि क्रियायाः सङ्कोचसीम्नि भूतसूक्ष्मादीति विज्ञेयम्। अणोरजःपरिणामिणीच्छाशक्तिरहमित्यभिमानलक्षणाहङ्कृतिः॥१३-१४॥
Icchāditrisamaṣṭiḥ śaktiḥ śāntāsya saṅkucadrūpā|
Saṅkalitecchādyātmakasattvādikasāmyarūpiṇī tu satī||13||
Buddhyādisāmarasyasvarūpacittātmikā matā prakṛtiḥ|
Asya śāntākhyā śaktirakṣubdhatvādicchādīnāṁ śaktīnāṁ garbhīkaraṇātsamaṣṭirūpā pārimityagrahaṇācca guṇānāmavibhāgāvasthā prakṛtitattvam| Guṇānāmicchādiśaktitrikenānvārabdhatvāttritvam - Yatprakṣobhātprakṛtikasargasya prasaraḥ| Tatra cittātmake buddhyahaṅkṛnmanāṁsi sāmyāvasthāmadhiśrayanti| Atra tattvakramaprasare śivādisakalānteṣu pramātṛvargeṣu jñānakriyāśaktī eva mukhyamupakaraṇaṁ ta eva saṅkucadrūpa īśvaraśuddhavidye saṅkucite vidyākale'tyantaṁ saṅkucite buddhikarmendriyāṇi kriyāyāḥ saṅkocasīmni bhūtasūkṣmādīti vijñeyam| Aṇorajaḥpariṇāmiṇīcchāśaktirahamityabhimānalakṣaṇāhaṅkṛtiḥ||13-14||
His (asya) Pacific (śāntā) Power (śaktiḥ) whose nature (rūpā) is to contract (saṅkucat), (appears) as a triad (tri-samaṣṭiḥ) composed of Icchā or Will (icchā), etc. --viz. Knowledge and Action-- (saṅkucat). She --i.e. that Pacific Śakti or Power having become Prakṛti or the thirteenth tattva or category-- is (rūpiṇī... satī) certainly (tu) an equipoise (sāmya) of Sattva (sattva), etc. --viz. Rajas and Tamas-- (ādika), which consist (ātmaka) of Will (icchā), etc. (ādi) being heaped together (saṅkalita)||13||
Prakṛti (prakṛtiḥ) is considered (matā) as of the nature (ātmikā) of Citta or limited mind (citta) whose essence (sva-rūpa) is a homogeneity (sāmarasya) of Buddhi --intellect-- (buddhi), etc. --viz. Ahaṅkāra and Manas-- (ādi). His --i.e. of the Lord-- (asya) Will (icchā), in the form (rūpā) of Rajas (rajas), became (āsīt) the concept of individuality (ahaṅkṛtiḥ), which brings about (karī) I-sense --i.e. ego-- (aham-pratīti)||14||
His --i.e. of the Lord-- (asya) Power (śaktiḥ) known as (ākhyā) Śāntā or Pacific One (śāntā), as it is not agitated (akṣubdhatvāt), is of the nature (rūpā) of an aggregate (samaṣṭi) because such a Power produces an embryo (garbhī-karaṇāt) (made) of the Powers (śaktīnām) of Will (icchā), etc. --viz. Knowledge and Action-- (ādīnām)1 . And (ca) by assuming (grahaṇāt) (the aforesaid) limitation (pārimitya), (that Pacific Power is transformed into) the tattva or category (tattvam) (called) Prakṛti (prakṛti), which is a undivided (avibhāga) state (avasthā) (formed) of (three) Guṇa-s or qualities (guṇānām)2 |
Since (such a Pacific Power) is situated behind (anvārabdhatvāt) of the Guṇa-s or qualities (guṇānām), (as it were), in the form of a group of three (trikena) Powers (śakti) beginning with (ādi) Icchā or Will (icchā), (it is) a triad (tritvam). By agitating (prakṣobhāt) which --i.e. that Pacific Power taking the form of a triad-- (yad), (there is) appearance (prasaraḥ) of the manifestation (sargasya) related to Prakṛti --viz. the thirteenth tattva or category-- (prākṛtika) --i.e. the rest of tattva-s, from Buddhi (tattva 14) down to Pṛthivī (tattva 36)--3 |
In that (tatra) which consists (ātmake) of Citta or limited mind --i.e. in Prakṛti-- (citta), Buddhi --intellect, tattva 14-- (buddhi), Ahaṅkṛt --ego, tattva 15-- (ahaṅkṛt) (and) Manas --mind, tattva 16-- (manāṁsi) rest (adhiśriyanti) on a state (avasthām) of equipoise (sāmya)4 |
In this (atra) appearance (prasare) of a succession (krama) of tattva-s or categories (tattva), the two Powers (śaktī) of Knowledge (jñāna) (and) Action (kriyā) (are) indeed (eva) the main (mukhyam) instrument (upakaraṇam) within the groups (vargeṣu) of experients (pramātṛ) beginning (ādi) with Śiva (śiva) (and) ending (anteṣu) in Sakala --i.e. the most limited experient-- (sakala)5 . They --i.e. the Powers of Knowledge and Action-- (te) (are) just (eva) (the tattva-s) Īśvara (īśvara) (and) Śuddhavidyā (śuddhavidye) in a contractive (saṅkucat) form (rūpe)6 . When (such tattva-s) get contracted (saṅkucite), (both of them appear as) Vidyā --the second Kañcuka-- (vidyā) (and) Kalā --the first Kañcuka-- (kale)7 . (And) when they are contracted (saṅkucite) exceedingly (atyantam), (become) the Indriya-s (indriyāṇi) Buddhi --also known as Jñāna... do not mistake it for the intellect here-- (buddhi) (and) Karma (karma)8 . In the limit or frontier (sīmni) of the contraction (saṅkoca) of Kriyāśakti --i.e. Power of Action-- (kriyāyāḥ), (this Power) is known as (vijñeyam) "Bhūtá --i.e. Mahābhūta-s or Gross Elements-- (bhūta), Sūkṣma --i.e. Tanmātra-s or Subtle Elements-- (sūkṣma), etc. (ādi iti)"9 |
The Power (śaktiḥ) of Will (icchā), by being transformed (pariṇāmiṇī) into (the quality) Rajas (rajas) of the Aṇu or limited being (aṇoḥ), is characterized (lakṣaṇā) by the conception (abhimāna) of "I" (aham iti), (in other words, by) the concept of individuality (ahaṅkṛtiḥ)10 ||13-14||
1 Having contracted His own Powers by means of Māyā and the group of five Kañcuka-s, His Paramaśakti or Supreme Power is transformed into Śāntā or Pacific One, because it is still not agitated by objectivity i.e. the manifestation of objects. The objects with which the Aṇu or individual will be furnished later on, are now latent as this Śāntāśakti or Pacific Power. Śāntā is like clay without any form at all still given by the Potter (the Lord), metaphorically speaking. When agitated, Śāntā will be changed to an infinite variety of objects (tattva-s or categories, bhuvana-s or worlds, beings within those worlds, etc.). The nature of such a Power in that pacific state is a group or aggregate as it brings about an embryo made of the Powers of Will (Icchāśakti), Knowledge (Jñānaśakti) and Action (Kriyāśakti). From this kind of embryo, Prakṛti (tattva or category 13) will be the resulting "baby", as it were. Ah, today I am poetic, hehe, but getting serious, poetic descriptions are good to show the inner purport of some complex topics like the present one. Let us keep reading the commentary. For more information about Prakṛti, read Trika 5 (English) .
2 As I said previously, that embryo is developed into a "baby" called Prakṛti, the thirteenth tattva, which is an undivided (i.e. with no separation at all inside) state formed of three Guṇa-s or qualities, viz. Sattva (contracted Jñānaśakti --Power of Knowledge--), Rajas (contracted Icchāśakti --Power of Will--) and Tamas (contracted Kriyāśakti --Power of Action--). Each of these Guṇa-s represents a quality of Prakṛti: Sattva has to do with goodness, purity, etc.; Rajas with activity, passion, etc.; and Tamas with darkness, dullness, etc. In Prakṛti, these three Guṇa-s are in a state of equilibrium, that is, none of them prevails .
3 Since Śāntā or the Pacific Power, whose nature is an aggregate of Will, Knowledge and Action, is behind the Guṇa-s or qualities of Prakṛti as their support, both Śāntā (the embryo) and the Guṇa-s constitute a triad. When that Pacific Power or Śāntā is agitated by the Lord, then there is appearance of the manifestation pertaining to Prakṛti, viz. all tattva-s from Buddhi or intellect (tattva 14) down to Pṛthivī or earth (tattva 36), which are all objects or knowables. Only the Aṇu (also known as Puruṣa or tattva 12), though limited, is the only Subject. The rest of tattva-s from the fourteenth one down to the latter are merely objects to Puruṣa. Before manifesting Prakṛti, Śāntā (the embryo) is not agitated by the manifestation of objects... and even in Prakṛti (the baby, hehe), such a Śāntā or Pacific Power remains in a state of equipoise. Anyway, when Prakṛti is agitated and one Guṇa begins predominating over the other two, the objects (from Buddhi through Pṛthivī) arise successively as a result .
4 Prakṛti is Citta or limited mind potentially. The Universal Mind or Superior Mind (the tattva-s 3 through 5, full of the Powers of Will, Knowledge and Action completely unfolded) has been turned into Śāntā (an embryo) which is composed of the same three Powers of Will, Knowledge and Action but in a contracted or conditioned way. Then, that embryo is developed into Prakṛti, which consists of Citta or limited mind in a latent manner. Hence, she is the source of the Antaḥkaraṇa or inner psychic organ formed of Buddhi (also known as Mahat) --intellect--, Ahaṅkṛt (also called Ahaṅkāra) --ego-- and Manas --mind--. Buddhi is predominantly sāttvikā (sattvic), in Ahankṛt Rajas prevails, and finally Manas is mainly tāmasa (tamasic). In other words, the Guṇa-s (qualities) Sattva, Rajas and Tamas are prevalent in intellect, ego and mind, respectively. These three rest on a state of equipoise within Prakṛti, but when they are brought into existence from her (i.e. from Prakṛti), they abandon such a balanced condition and one of the Guṇa-s or qualities prevails over the other two. For more information about Antaḥkaraṇa, read Trika 5 (English) .
5 Rājānakānanda states that Jñānaśakti (Power of Knowledge) and Kriyāśakti (Power of Action) are the main instrument in all experients from Śiva down to Sakala. As a matter of fact, there is "just" one Experient assuming more and more contraction. This must be understood clearly or you will never grasp the core of the teachings given by the Trika system. There are seven experients, or rather seven stages for one Experient:
(1) Śiva (his scope is the Śiva and Śakti tattva-s, the first two categories);
(2) Mantramaheśvara (his scope is the Sadāśiva-tattva, the third category);
(3) Mantreśvara (his scope is the Īśvara-tattva, the fourth category);
(4) Mantra (his scope is the Sadvidyā or Śuddhavidyā tattva, the fifth category);
(5) Vijñānākala (his scope lies between the Sadvidyā and Māyā tattva-s, i.e. between the fifth and sixth categories);
(6) Pralayākala (his scope is Māyā and her five Kañcuka-s, from the sixth through eleventh categories); and
(7) Sakala (his scope comprehends from Puruṣa --the twelfth category-- down to the last one).
The difference between the last three ones is the following: a) the Vijñānākala experient only retains Āṇavamala (the primordial impurity appearing as the notion that "I am not perfect"); b) the Pralayākala experient retains the three mala-s, viz. Āṇavamala, Māyīyamala and Kārmamala, but the last two (which appear as the notions of "difference and separation" and "I am the doer", respectively) are in a latent manner because in Māyā there is just a void with nothing objective to feel difference and separation from it, let alone to act or do something- that is why it is said that the Pralayākala experient sleeps deeply in the void of Māyā; c) the Sakala experient has the three mala-s or impurities completely up and running, and for this reason his sphere of action is the dream and waking states, where there are objects to experience difference, separation and do something with them all the whole time. Poor Sakala, hehe, guess who is he?... you, miserable limited being, haha! Oh well, it is easy to get confused with all these divisions and start thinking that there are Sakala-s, Pralayākala-s, etc. apart from the Only Experient (Śiva... You!). In reality, the apparent experients are merely stages with more or less contraction assumed by Śiva, and nothing else. Read Ṣaḍadhvā: The six courses for more information .
6 As the Powers of Knowledge and Action (i.e. Jñānaśakti and Kriyāśakti) are predominant in the tattva-s Īśvara and Śuddhavidyā (also known as Sadvidyā), the commentator declares that such Powers are just Īśvara and Śuddhavidyā in a contractive form, that is to say, in a form which brings about contraction. Therefore, the meaning is obvious .
7 The categories Īśvara and Śuddhavidyā, that is, Jñānaśakti and Kriyāśakti, become the Kañcuka-s or Sheaths of Ignorance called Vidyā and Kalā, respectively. The former limits knowledge in an individual, while the latter contracts his capacity of action .
8 Those two tattva-s of Īśvara and Śuddhavidyā go through other contractions (e.g. they become the Guṇa-s Sattva and Tamas). Anyway, when they become exceedingly contracted, take the form of the five Buddhīndriya-s (also known as Jñānendriya-s, tattva-s 17 through 21) and the five Karmendriya-s (tattva-s 22 through 26). The Buddhīndriya-s are the Powers of perception, and the Karmendriya-s constitute the five Powers of action. Read Trika 6 (English) if you want to go deep at this topic .
9 When the Power of Action (Kriyāśakti) gets to the limit of its contraction, i.e. its maximum possible contraction, it becomes the five Tanmātra-s or Subtle Elements (tattva-s 27 through 31) and the five Mahābhūta-s or Gross Elements (tattva-s 32 through 36). Read Trika 6 (English) for more information. The word "ādi" meaning "etc." in the commentary of Rājānakānanda is significant. He refers to the final residue of Power of Action already completely buried in the Pṛthivī-tattva (earth, tattva or category 36), which suddenly turns back to its own source (Paramaśiva, the Supreme Śiva). When such a Power of Action ascends in this way, all tattva-s are reabsorbed and the process of unmanifestation is so carried out. Therefore, the same Power of the Lord producing the manifestation of the entire succession of 36 tattva-s, is also the one bringing about the process of their unmanifestation.
This is the explanation given by the Trika system, but from the viewpoint of Kuṇḍalinīyoga, Kuṇḍalinī (or residual Śakti) deeply buried in Pṛthivī (earth), which is predominant in Mūlādhāra (the cakra situated at the base of the spinal column), climbs up to Sahasrāra (the cakra to be found in the crown of the head), and there She (i.e. Kuṇḍalinī) becomes united with Her Lord Śiva. In Her ascent She reabsorbs all tattva-s contained in the six main cakra-s, from Mūlādhāra up to Ājñā, and furtherly all those contained in the subtle channel running from the Ājñā up to Sahasrāra. To be technically exact, the main six cakra-s (from Ājñā down to Mūlādhāra) are the places where the tattva-s 14 through 36 are dissolved. Above the Ājñācakra, you find the subtle Prakṛti and the rest of tattva-s. Well, enough of speaking of what is most mysterious and complex .
10 The Power of Will (Icchāśakti) assumes the form of Rajas in Prakṛti (tattva or category 13), then, when the state of equipoise of the three Guṇa-s (Sattva, Rajas and Tamas) is disturbed by the stirring up carried out by the Power of the Lord, Sattva becomes prevalent and thus Buddhi or intellect (tattva 14) comes into existence. After that, Rajas is predominant and Ahaṅkāra or ego (tattva 15), whose core is "ahaṅkṛti" (the concept of individuality), is born. Afterward, the third Guṇa or quality prevails over the other two, and Manas or mind (tattva 16) emerges. The Buddhīndriya-s (also known as Jñānendriya-s) are predominantly sāttvika-s (sattvic) while the Karmendriya-s are mostly rājasa-s (rajasic). Finally, both Tanmātra-s and Mahābhūta-s are preponderantly tāmasa-s (tamasic) .
ज्ञानापि सत्त्वरूपा निर्णयबोधस्य कारणं बुद्धिः।
तस्य क्रिया तमोमयमूर्तिर्मन उच्यते विकल्पकरी॥१५॥
सत्त्वपरिणामिनी ज्ञानशक्तिरेवार्थाध्यवसायलक्षणा बुद्धिः। तमःपरिणामिनी क्रियाशक्तिः। विकल्पकरणलक्षणं मनस्तत्त्वमुच्यते॥१५॥
Jñānāpi sattvarūpā nirṇayabodhasya kāraṇaṁ buddhiḥ|
Tasya kriyā tamomayamūrtirmana ucyate vikalpakarī||15||
Sattvapariṇāminī jñānaśaktirevārthādhyavasāyalakṣaṇā buddhiḥ| Tamaḥpariṇāminī kriyāśaktiḥ| Vikalpakaraṇalakṣaṇaṁ manastattvamucyate||15||
No translation yet
वामादिपञ्चभेदः स एव सङ्कुचितविग्रहो देवः।
स एव क्रीडादिसतत्त्वो वामदेवादिपक्षमूर्तित्वात्सङ्कुचितो भूत्वा ज्ञानशक्त्युपरञ्जनप्रधानतया ज्ञानेन्द्रियतद्विपयशरीरतां क्रियाशक्त्युपाधिप्राधान्यात्कर्मेन्द्रियव्यापारवत्त्वं चोपादत्ते। शक्तिपञ्चकोपादानात्करणानां पञ्चधात्वं बोध्यम्॥१६॥
Vāmādipañcabhedaḥ sa eva saṅkucitavigraho devaḥ|
Sa eva krīḍādisatattvo vāmadevādipakṣamūrtitvātsaṅkucito bhūtvā jñānaśaktyuparañjanapradhānatayā jñānendriyatadvipayaśarīratāṁ kriyāśaktyupādhiprādhānyātkarmendriyavyāpāravattvaṁ copādatte| Śaktipañcakopādānātkaraṇānāṁ pañcadhātvaṁ bodhyam||16||
No translation yet
श्रोत्रं चक्षुः स्पर्शनजिह्वाघ्राणानि बोधकरणानि।
शब्दस्पर्शौ रूपं रसगन्धौ चेति भूतसूक्ष्माणि॥१७॥
श्रोत्रादीनि ज्ञानेन्द्रियाणि शब्दादीनि तन्मात्राणि॥१७॥
Śrotraṁ cakṣuḥ sparśanajihvāghrāṇāni bodhakaraṇāni|
Śabdasparśau rūpaṁ rasagandhau ceti bhūtasūkṣmāṇi||17||
Śrotrādīni jñānendriyāṇi śabdādīni tanmātrāṇi||17||
No translation yet
अयमेवातिनिकृष्टो जातो भूतात्मनापि भूतेशः।
गगनमनिलश्च तेजः सलिलं भूमिश्च पञ्चभूतानि॥१८॥
Ayamevātinikṛṣṭo jāto bhūtātmanāpi bhūteśaḥ|
Gaganamanilaśca tejaḥ salilaṁ bhūmiśca pañcabhūtāni||18||
No translation yet
श्रोत्रादिकरणवेद्याः शब्दाद्यास्तानि वेदकान्येषाम्।
वचनकरी वागासीत् पाणिः स्यात्करणभूत आदाने॥१९॥
शब्दादिज्ञानसाधनानि श्रोत्रादिकरणानि वचनादिक्रियासाधनानि वागादीनि कर्मेन्द्रियाणि॥१९॥
Śrotrādikaraṇavedyāḥ śabdādyāstāni vedakānyeṣām|
Vacanakarī vāgāsīt pāṇiḥ syātkaraṇabhūta ādāne||19||
Śabdādijñānasādhanāni śrotrādikaraṇāni vacanādikriyāsādhanāni vāgādīni karmendriyāṇi||19||
No translation yet
गमनविसर्गानन्दत्रितये पादादिकं करणम्।
गन्धवती भूमिः स्यादापः सांसिद्धिकद्रवास्तेजः॥२०॥
उष्णस्पर्शमरूपस्पर्शो वायुरम्बरं सशब्दम्।
षट्त्रिंशत्तत्त्वमयं वन्दे कौलं कुलातिगं शम्भुम्॥२१॥
आदिना पायुपस्थौ गृह्येते। गन्धवत्त्वं भूमेर्लक्षणं सांसिद्धिकद्रवत्वमब्लक्षणमुष्णस्पर्शेन तेजो लक्ष्यत अरूपस्पर्शो वायुलक्षणं शब्द आकाशस्येति प्रत्येकं मुख्यगुणनिर्देशः। तत्त्वानामुत्तरोत्तरं व्याप्यव्यापकभावेन भूमिर्व्याप्या जलादिशिवान्तं व्यापकानि पञ्चत्रिंशदेवं भूतसृष्टौ भूमौ व्योमादिगुणा व्यापकत्वेनानुगताः सन्ति। परमशिवतत्त्वस्य सर्वत्रानुगतत्वाद्विश्वमयतदुत्तिर्णयामलकौलस्वरूपमेव भक्तानां समावेशार्हमिति वन्दनोपसंहारोक्त्योपक्षिप्तमिति शिवम्॥
Gamanavisargānandatritaye pādādikaṁ karaṇam|
Gandhavatī bhūmiḥ syādāpaḥ sāṁsiddhikadravāstejaḥ||20||
Uṣṇasparśamarūpasparśo vāyurambaraṁ saśabdam|
Ṣaṭtriṁśattattvamayaṁ vande kaulaṁ kulātigaṁ śambhum||21||
Ādinā pāyupasthau gṛhyete| Gandhavattvaṁ bhūmerlakṣaṇaṁ sāṁsiddhikadravatvamablakṣaṇamuṣṇasparśena tejo lakṣyata arūpasparśo vāyulakṣaṇaṁ śabda ākāśasyeti pratyekaṁ mukhyaguṇanirdeśaḥ| Tattvānāmuttarottaraṁ vyāpyavyāpakabhāvena bhūmirvyāpyā jalādiśivāntaṁ vyāpakāni pañcatriṁśadevaṁ bhūtasṛṣṭau bhūmau vyomādiguṇā vyāpakatvenānugatāḥ santi| Paramaśivatattvasya sarvatrānugatatvādviśvamayataduttirṇayāmalakaulasvarūpameva bhaktānāṁ samāveśārhamiti vandanopasaṁhāroktyopakṣiptamiti śivam||
No translation yet
This document was conceived by Gabriel Pradīpaka, one of the two founders of this site, and spiritual guru conversant with Sanskrit language and Trika philosophy.
For further information about Sanskrit, Yoga and Indian Philosophy; or if you simply want to comment, ask a question or correct a mistake, feel free to contact us: This is our e-mail address.