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 मालिनीविजयोत्तरतन्त्र (Malini Vijaya uttara Tantra): अधिकार ४ - कश्मीरी अद्वैत शैवदर्शन

सामान्य अनुवाद


photo 3 - monksMālinīvijayottaratantra continues. This fourth chapter consists of 41 stanzas. I am adding my explanation under every stanza or group of stanzas. Most of the time my explanation is based on glorious Tantrāloka composed by the eminent Abhinavagupta (the Greatest Trika Master). I may also include now and then quotes from other important scriptures in order to shed more light on a certain subject. Additionally, every time I can I am trying to include didactic charts to make the things much more understandable. To understand long enumerations is always difficult from mere text. So, I take the trouble, after assimilating all the teachings Śiva displays by text, to exhibit the same teachings but in a chart format. All in all, my work explaining these cryptic stanzas is always a heavy one. I need to read many scriptures at the same time (not only Tantrāloka) and explore the viewpoints of numerous scholars as well. To translate a scripture in Sanskrit is always something more artistic than scholarly.

There are three sources of Śiva's Grace: (1) Śiva Himself, (2) His scriptures (e.g. Mālinīvijayottaratantra) and (3) the human Guru. So, consider the present scripture to be a quite a powerhouse of Grace. Even mere reading without understanding much will prove a source of wonders for you. This is like this because He revealed all these teachings only for the elevation of the humankind.

I offer my efforts to the unfathomable Śiva who brought to light this exquisite Mālinīvijayottaratantra, the greatest Tantra in the Trika Shaivism's tradition according to venerable Abhinavagupta. Read Mālinīvijayottaratantra and experience Supreme Delight, dear Śiva.

Important: All that is in brackets and italicized within the translation has been added by me in order to complete the sense of a particular phrase or sentence. In turn, all that is between double hyphen (--...--) constitutes clarifying further information also added by me.


 Chapter 4

अथ चतुर्थोऽधिकारः।
Atha Caturtho'dhikāraḥ|

And now (atha) the fourth (caturthaḥ) chapter (adhikāraḥ)|

अथैतदुपसंश्रुत्य मुनयो मुदितेक्षणाः।
प्रणम्य क्रौञ्चहन्तारं पुनरूचुरिदं वचः॥१॥

Athaitadupasaṁśrutya munayo muditekṣaṇāḥ|
Praṇamya krauñcahantāraṁ punarūcuridaṁ vacaḥ||1||

Then (atha), having listened (upasaṁśrutya) to this (dissertation) (etad), the sages (munayaḥ) —looking pleased (mudita-īkṣaṇāḥ)—, after bowing (praṇamya) to the annihilator of the Krauñca mountain --i.e. to Kārttikeya-- (krauñca-hantāram), said (ūcuḥ) nonetheless (punar) these words (idaṁ vacaḥ)||1||

All the great seers there listening to Kārttikeya, i.e. Sanatkumāra, Sanaka, Sanātana, Sanandana, Nārada, Agastya, Saṁvarta, Vasiṣṭha, etc., were very pleased with his exposition. Anyway, they had a question.

योगमार्गविधिं देव्या पृष्टेन परमेष्ठिना।
तत्प्रतिज्ञावताप्युक्तं किमर्थं मन्त्रलक्षणम्॥२॥

Yogamārgavidhiṁ devyā pṛṣṭena parameṣṭhinā|
Tatpratijñāvatāpyuktaṁ kimarthaṁ mantralakṣaṇam||2||

Why (kimartham) has it been said (uktam) by the Highest One --Śiva-- (parameṣṭhinā) —by the One who has declared those (teachings in previous chapters) (tad-pratijñāvatā api)—, when asked by the Goddess (devyā pṛṣṭena), that the method of Yoga's path (yoga-mārga-vidhim) is characterized by Mantra (mantra-lakṣaṇam)?||2||

Śiva gave to understand before that the method of Yoga's path is characterized by Mantra. Well, they just want to know now why He affirmed that.

एवमुक्तः स तैः सम्यक्कार्तिकेयो महामतिः।
इदमाह वचस्तेषां सन्देहविनिवृत्तये॥३॥

Evamuktaḥ sa taiḥ samyakkārtikeyo mahāmatiḥ|
Idamāha vacasteṣāṁ sandehavinivṛttaye||3||

The great-minded --i.e. possessing a great understanding-- (mahā-matiḥ) Kārttikeya (saḥ... kārtikeyaḥ), having been appropriately asked in this way --lit. having been appropriately said in this way-- (evam uktaḥ... samyak) by them --by the sages-- (taiḥ), said (āha) these words (idam... vacaḥ) to them (teṣām) in order to remove (their) doubts (sandeha-vinivṛttaye)||3||

And now Kārttikeya, as he was appropriately addressed by the sages, is ready to answer, with great delight, to their question.

योगमेकत्वमिच्छन्ति वस्तुनोऽन्येन वस्तुना।
यद्वस्तु ज्ञेयमित्युक्तं हेयत्वादिप्रसिद्धये॥४॥

Yogamekatvamicchanti vastuno'nyena vastunā|
Yadvastu jñeyamityuktaṁ heyatvādiprasiddhaye||4||

(The sages) maintain (icchanti) that Yoga (yogam) is unity (ekatvam) of a thing (vastunaḥ) with another thing (anyena vastunā). (Yoga) is said to be (iti uktam) a reality (vastu) which (yad) is to be known (jñeyam) in order for (a person) to be successful (prasiddhaye) (in achieving) avoidance, etc. --i.e. in being able to avoid what is to be avoided, etc.-- (heyatva-ādi)||4||

In Trika Shaivism, Yoga is predominantly 'Union with Paramaśiva'. When the spiritual seeker finally attains the realization that 'he is Paramaśiva', this is real Union or Yoga. Anyway, in the second part of the aphorism, the word Yoga is used as 'the path to such Union'. With this meaning, it is obvious that without knowing Yoga is practically impossible to realize what must be accepted and what must be avoided. This question about acceptance and avoidance is only relevant till the moment of Union with Paramaśiva. After this realization, it is no longer important.

द्विरूपमपि तज्ज्ञानं विना ज्ञातुं न शक्यते।
तत्प्रसिद्ध्यै शिवेनोक्तं ज्ञानं यदुपवर्णितम्॥५॥

Dvirūpamapi tajjñānaṁ vinā jñātuṁ na śakyate|
Tatprasiddhyai śivenoktaṁ jñānaṁ yadupavarṇitam||5||

The double (reality) --i.e. upādeya (what is acceptable) and heya (what is rejectable)-- (dvi-rūpam api) cannot be perceived (jñātum na śakyate) without (vinā) knowledge (jñānam) about that --about Yoga-- (tad). For (a person) to succeed in that --in perceiving that double reality-- (tad-prasiddhyai), (such) knowledge (about Yoga) (jñānam) declared (uktam) by Śiva (śivena) was described minutely (yad upavarṇitam)||5||

As I said in my explanation of the previous stanza, it is completely obvious that without knowing Yoga is practically impossible to realize what is to be accepted and what is to be avoided. It is for this reason that Śiva put every effort into the task of describing such knowledge about Yoga so the people could succeed in perceiving that double reality.

सबीजयोगसंसिद्ध्यै मन्त्रलक्षणमप्यलम्।
न चाधिकारिता दीक्षां विना योगेऽस्ति शाङ्करे॥६॥

Sabījayogasaṁsiddhyai mantralakṣaṇamapyalam|
Na cādhikāritā dīkṣāṁ vinā yoge'sti śāṅkare||6||

For the complete attainment (saṁsiddhyai) of the Yoga (yoga) with seed (sa-bīja), (to know) about the characteristic(s) of the Mantra-s (mantra-lakṣaṇam) (is) enough (api alam). (Nonetheless,) without (vinā) initiation (dīkṣām) there is no (na ca... asti) qualification (adhikāritā) in the Yoga of Śaṅkara (yoge... śāṅkare)||6||

Śiva does not exactly specify what he meant by 'Yoga with seed', but this expression could have the same meaning as the one given in Pātañjalayogasūtra-s (Section I):

ता एव सवीजः समाधिः॥४६॥
Tā eva savījaḥ samādhiḥ||46||

Only (eva) those (four varieties of Samāpatti or Engrossment --Savitarkā, Nirvitarkā, Savicārā and Nirvicārā--) (tāḥ) (constitute) Savījasamādhi (savījaḥ samādhiḥ) (or the perfect concentration in which one uses a gross/subtle object or "vīja" as a support for his mind to become one-pointed)||46||

It is to be noted that 'bīja' is a more modern version of 'vīja'. The meaning is anyway the same. In his commentary on Pātañjalayogasūtra-s, Vyāsa specifies as follows (full comment): 'भाष्यम् — ताश्चतस्रः समापत्तयो वहिर्वस्तुवीजा इति समाधिरपि सवीजस्तत्र स्थूलेऽर्थे सवितर्को निर्वितर्कः सूक्ष्मेऽर्थे सविचारो निर्विचार इति चतुर्धोपसङ्ख्यातः समाधिरिति॥४६॥' - 'Bhāṣyam — Tāścatasraḥ samāpattayo vahirvastuvījā iti samādhirapi savījastatra sthūle'rthe savitarko nirvitarkaḥ sūkṣme'rthe savicāro nirvicāra iti caturdhopasaṅkhyātaḥ samādhiriti||46||' - 'Commentary (bhāṣyam) — Those (tāḥ) four (catasraḥ) absorptions (samāpattayaḥ) --i.e. Savitarkā, Nirvitarkā, Savicārā and Nirvicārā-- have external matter as their objects (vahis-vastu-vījāḥ). Thus (iti), though (api) (they are) 'samādhi-s' --perfect concentrations-- (samādhiḥ), they are with 'vīja' or 'seed' --viz. with gross and subtle objects as a support for concentration-- (sa-vījaḥ). With respect to that (tatra), 'samādhi' --perfect concentration-- (samādhiḥ iti), due to an additional enumeration (upasaṅkhyātaḥ) (occurring) in four ways (caturdhā), (appears as:) 'Savitarka (and) Nirvitarka (savitarkaḥ nirvitarkaḥ) —in relation to a gross object (sthūle arthe)—, (along with) Savicāra (and) Nirvicāra (savicāraḥ nirvicāraḥ iti)'||46||'.

Some might think that there are some typos above because in the Patañjali's aphorism 46 and in the first portion of the Vyāsa's commentary I wrote 'Savitarkā, Nirvitarkā, Savicārā and Nirvicārā' (all in feminine gender denoted by that long 'a' at the end of each of those four terms), while in the final part of the commentary I wrote 'Savitarka, Nirvitarka, Savicāra and Nirvicāra' (all in masculine gender denoted by that short 'a' at the end of each of those four terms... though this could also denote neuter gender... but it is not the case here!). However, there is no typo at all. At first, all the words are in feminine gender because they are related to 'samāpatti' or 'engrossment', which is feminine in gender, while in the last part of the commentary Vyāsa is connecting the same four words with 'samādhi' (perfect concentration), which is masculine in gender instead. So, everything is OK.

I will summarize now the meaning of this extremely technical terms: (1) In Savitarkasamādhi you concentrate on gross objects such as 'the external objects', 'the powers of perception' (Jñānendriya-s) or on the 'limited knower" himself, which are all gross. Anyway, you use words like an aid to concentration. And because words appear in your concentration, there is space in your experience. (2) In Nirvitarkasamādhi you again concentrate on the same gross objects but this time you do not use words like a help. This prevents space from appearing and your experience of such concentration is completely pure. (3) In Savicārasamādhi you concentrate on subtle elements such as Tanmātra-s (subtle elements, tattva-s 27 to 31 in Trika Shaivism), ego, intellect or even in Prakṛti --tattva 13 in Trika Shaivism--, and at the same time you use words as an extra help. Anyway, you cannot concentrate on Prakṛti, on the origin of the whole material universe, without merging into her first. So, once you have returned from being merged into Prakṛti, you can practice Savicārasamādhi on her. But, I repeat, you can never do that before merging into her due to her being the origin of all the objects, subtle or gross. (4) In Nirvicārasamādhi you concentrate on the same subtle objects, but because there is no resorting to words, you enjoy pure space-less concentration on such subtle objects. For example, when you concentrate so on the Tanmātra-s, you do not experience space but only time. OK, enough of revealing what should be kept secret.

To attain proficiency regarding this Sabījayoga or Yoga with seed (with object), to know about the characteristics of the Mantra-s is more than enough. In other words, initiation is not required. But in the Yoga of our Lord Śiva that is not enough, i.e. initiation is required and no way to bypass this.

क्रियाज्ञनविभेदेन सा च द्वेधा निगद्यते।
द्विविधा सा प्रकर्तव्या तेन चैतदुदाहृतम्॥७॥

Kriyājñanavibhedena sā ca dvedhā nigadyate|
Dvividhā sā prakartavyā tena caitadudāhṛtam||7||

It --viz. initiation-- (sā ca) is said to be (nigadyate) twofold (dvedhā) according to the division of knowledge and action (kriyā-jñana-vibhedena). (And) it --initiation-- (sā), in its two forms (dvividhā), must be performed (prakartavyā). This (etad) is what He declares (tena ca... udāhṛtam)||7||

I will explain this stanza along with the next stanza.

न च योगाधिकारित्वमेकमेवानया भवेत्।
अपि मन्त्राधिकारित्वं मुक्तिश्च शिवदीक्षया॥८॥

Na ca yogādhikāritvamekamevānayā bhavet|
Api mantrādhikāritvaṁ muktiśca śivadīkṣayā||8||

Through this initiation by Śiva (anayā... śiva-dīkṣayā) appears (bhavet) not only (na ca... ekam eva) qualification for Yoga (yoga-adhikāritvam) but also (api) authority regarding the Mantra-s (mantra-adhikāritvam) and (ca) Liberation (muktiḥ)||8||

Abhinavagupta partially elucidates this topic from 16.291 to 16.301 in his Tantrāloka. I will make a slight effort now and I will translate these stanzas for you:

न चाधिकारिता दीक्षां विना योगेऽस्ति शाङ्करे।
क्रियाज्ञानविभेदेन सा च द्वेधा निगद्यते॥२९१॥
द्विविधा सा प्रकर्तव्या तेन चैतदुदाहृतम्।
न च योगाधिकारित्वमेकमेवानया भवेत्॥२९२॥
अपि मन्त्राधिकारित्वं मुक्तिश्च शिवदीक्षया।
अनेनैतदपि प्रोक्तं योगी तत्त्वैक्यसिद्धये॥२९३॥
मन्त्रमेवाश्रयेन्मूलं निर्विकल्पान्तमादृतः।
मन्त्राभ्यासेन भोगं वा मोक्षं वापि प्रसाधयन्॥२९४॥
तत्राधिकारितालब्ध्यै दीक्षां गृह्णीत दैशिकात्।
तेन मन्त्रज्ञानयोगबलाद्यद्यत्प्रसाधयेत्॥२९५॥
तत्स्यादस्यान्यतत्त्वेऽपि युक्तस्य गुरुणा शिशोः।
दीक्षा ह्यस्योपयुज्येत संस्क्रियायां स संस्कृतः॥२९६॥
स्वबलेनैव भोगं वा मोक्षं वा लभते बुधः।
तेन विज्ञानयोगादिबली प्राक्समयी भवन्॥२९७॥
पुत्रको वा न तावान्स्यादपितु स्वबलोचितः।
यस्तु विज्ञानयोगादिवन्ध्यः सोऽन्धो यथा पथि॥२९८॥
दैशिकायत्त एव स्याद्भोगे मुक्तौ च सर्वथा।
दीक्षा च केवला ज्ञानं विनापि निजमान्तरम्॥२९९॥
मोचिकैवेति कथितं युक्त्या चागमतः पुरा।
यस्तु दीक्षाकृतामेवापेक्ष्य योजनिकां शिशुः॥३००॥
स्फुटीभूत्यै तदुचितं ज्ञानं योगमथाश्रितः।
सोऽपि यत्रैव युक्तः स्यात्तन्मयत्वं प्रपद्यते॥३०१॥

Na cādhikāritā dīkṣāṁ vinā yoge'sti śāṅkare|
Kriyājñānavibhedena sā ca dvedhā nigadyate||291||
Dvividhā sā prakartavyā tena caitadudāhṛtam|
Na ca yogādhikāritvamekamevānayā bhavet||292||
Api mantrādhikāritvaṁ muktiśca śivadīkṣayā|
Anenaitadapi proktaṁ yogī tattvaikyasiddhaye||293||
Mantramevāśrayenmūlaṁ nirvikalpāntamādṛtaḥ|
Mantrābhyāsena bhogaṁ vā mokṣaṁ vāpi prasādhayan||294||
Tatrādhikāritālabdhyai dīkṣāṁ gṛhṇīta daiśikāt|
Tena mantrajñānayogabalādyadyatprasādhayet||295||
Tatsyādasyānyatattve'pi yuktasya guruṇā śiśoḥ|
Dīkṣā hyasyopayujyeta saṁskriyāyāṁ sa saṁskṛtaḥ||296||
Svabalenaiva bhogaṁ vā mokṣaṁ vā labhate budhaḥ|
Tena vijñānayogādibalī prāksamayī bhavan||297||
Putrako vā na tāvānsyādapitu svabalocitaḥ|
Yastu vijñānayogādivandhyaḥ so'ndho yathā pathi||298||
Daiśikāyatta eva syādbhoge muktau ca sarvathā|
Dīkṣā ca kevalā jñānaṁ vināpi nijamāntaram||299||
Mocikaiveti kathitaṁ yuktyā cāgamataḥ purā|
Yastu dīkṣākṛtāmevāpekṣya yojanikāṁ śiśuḥ||300||
Sphuṭībhūtyai taducitaṁ jñānaṁ yogamathāśritaḥ|
So'pi yatraiva yuktaḥ syāttanmayatvaṁ prapadyate||301||

Without (vinā) initiation (dīkṣām) there is no (na ca... asti) qualification (adhikāritā) in the Yoga of Śaṅkara (yoge... śāṅkare). It --viz. initiation-- (sā ca) is said to be (nigadyate) twofold (dvedhā) according to the division of knowledge and action (kriyā-jñana-vibhedena).

(And) it --initiation-- (sā), in its two forms (dvividhā), must be performed (prakartavyā). This (etad) is what He declares (tena ca... udāhṛtam). Through this initiation by Śiva (anayā... śiva-dīkṣayā) appears (bhavet) not only (na ca... ekam eva) qualification for Yoga (yoga-adhikāritvam) but also (api) authority regarding the Mantra-s (mantra-adhikāritvam) and (ca) Liberation (muktiḥ).

By means of that (statement) (anena), this was also (tad api) expressed (proktam): The diligent yogī (yogī... ādṛtaḥ), in order to attain unity with the (Supreme) Principle (tattva-aikya-siddhaye), should take refuge (āśrayet) in the Root-mantra (mantram... mūlam) till he gets to Nirvikalpasamādhi --the Highest State devoid of thoughts-- --lit. as far as Nirvikalpa-- (nirvikalpa-antam).

While practicing the Mantra (mantra-abhyāsena), the one promoting --i.e. the yogī-- (prasādhayan) either worldly enjoyment or Liberation (bhogam vā mokṣam vā api), should receive (gṛhṇīta) initiation (dīkṣām) from a spiritual teacher (daiśikāt) for getting qualification or authority (adhikāritā-labdhyai) regarding that --regarding the attainment of worldly enjoyment or regarding the attainment of Liberation-- (tatra).

On that account (tena), in the case of this disciple endowed with Guru (asya... yuktasya guruṇā śiśoḥ), through the power of Yoga and knowledge of Mantra (mantra-jñāna-yoga-balāt), whatever (yad yad) he promotes (prasādhayet), that (tad) takes place (syāt). (And this is true) even (api) with reference to other realities --viz. regarding other things than worldly enjoyment and Liberation-- (anya-tattve).

Because (hi) initiation (dīkṣā) is useful (upayujyeta) in the preparation or formation (saṁskriyāyām) of this (disciple) (asya). (Nonetheless, when) he (saḥ) is (already) prepared or formed (saṁskṛtaḥ), (having transformed himself into a) wise person (budhaḥ), obtains (labhate) worldly enjoyment (bhogam) or (vā... vā) Liberation (mokṣam) by his own strength --i.e. by himself-- (sva-balena eva).

For that reason (tena), the one --i.e. the aforesaid disciple-- who was previously (prāk... bhavan) a follower of conventions (samayī) or (vā) a spiritual son (putrakaḥ), he is not like this (anymore) (na tāvān syāt) but (api tu) he is someone who delights in his own strength (sva-bala-ucitaḥ) (and) who is powerful due to the Yoga of Knowledge, etc. (vijñāna-yoga-ādi-balī).

But (tu) the one who (yaḥ) (is) destitute of the Yoga of Knowledge, etc. (vijñāna-yoga-ādi-vandhyaḥ), he (saḥ) (is) like (yathā) a blind person (andhaḥ) in the (spiritual) path (pathi). As regards (the attainment of) worldly enjoyment and Liberation (bhoge muktau ca), he is (syāt) dependent on the spiritual teacher (daiśika-āyattaḥ eva) in every way (sarvathā).

Isolated (ca kevalā) initiation (dīkṣā), even (api) without (vinā) innate (nijam) inner (āntaram) knowledge (jñānam), (is) 'giver of Liberation' (mocikā eva). This has already been spoken about --i.e. proved-- (iti kathitam) before (purā) by means of reasoning and revealed scripture (yuktyā ca āgamataḥ).

But (tu) with regard to (apekṣya) the process --lit. 'action' as well as 'aim'-- of initiation producing union (with the Supreme Principle) (dīkṣā-kṛtām eva... yojanikām), the disciple (śiśuḥ) who (yaḥ) clearly (sphuṭībhūtyai) now (atha) takes refuge in (āśritaḥ) (both) Yoga (yogam) (and) Knowledge (jñānam) proper to that --to the attainment of worldly enjoyment and/or Liberation-- (tad-ucitam), becomes absorbed (saḥ api... yuktaḥ syāt) in That, (in the Supreme Principle) --lit. in Which-- (yatra eva) (and) attains (prapadyate) identification with That (tad-mayatvam)||292-301||

The first two stanzas and a half here are the same as 6b (last half of the stanza 6), 7 and 8 in Mālinīvijayottaratantra. It is usual for Abhinavagupta to copy stanzas of Mālinīvijayottaratantra and then paste them into Tantrāloka in order to explain them in depth. Despite Jñāna and Yoga are spoken about as similarly important, in Trika Shaivism the emphasis is on Jñāna always. By Yoga it is meant practices in which kriyā or action is predominant. Yes, there is also some confusion here because there is a Yoga of Knowledge, but I suppose that the point is clear.

So, the final purport is that initiation is not only for being able to do spiritual practices properly (e.g. repetitions of mantra-s) but also for being able to study Śiva's scriptures such as the present. The Tantrāloka's stanzas here are so straightforward and simple that they do not require an explanation.

श्रुत्वा चैतत्पतेर्वाक्यं रोमाञ्चितशरीरिणी।
इदमाह पुनर्वाक्यमम्बा मुनिवरोत्तमाः॥९॥

Śrutvā caitatpatervākyaṁ romāñcitaśarīriṇī|
Idamāha punarvākyamambā munivarottamāḥ||9||

Oh you, the best of the sages (muni-vara-uttamāḥ), after listening to (śrutvā ca) this (etad) statement (vākyam) from the Lord (pateḥ), the Mother --i.e. the Great Goddess who is asking Śiva in this Tantra-- (ambā), (though) having the hair of the body erect (with Joy) (romāñcita-śarīriṇī), said (āha) notwithstanding (punar) these words (idam... vākyam)||9||

And now Śakti (the Power of Śiva) is ready to ask Him for something.

अभिन्नमालिनीकाये तत्त्वानि भुवनानि च।
कलाः पदानि मन्त्राश्च यथावदवधारिताः॥१०॥

Abhinnamālinīkāye tattvāni bhuvanāni ca|
Kalāḥ padāni mantrāśca yathāvadavadhāritāḥ||10||

In the undivided Body of Mālinī (abhinna-mālinī-kāye), tattva-s (tattvāni), bhuvana-s (bhuvanāni), kalā-s (kalāḥ), pada-s (padāni) and (ca... ca) mantra-s (mantrāḥ) are duly --exactly-- determined (yathāvat avadhāritāḥ)||10||

While the well-known Mātṛkā arrangement of the Sanskrit alphabet is based on separating vowels from consonants as shown in my explanation under the stanza 16 of the third chapter, i.e. like this:

a ā i ī u ū ṛ ṝ ḷ ḹ e ai o au aṁ aḥ
ka kha ga gha ṅa ca cha ja jha ña ṭa ṭha ḍa ḍha ṇa ta tha da dha na pa pha ba bha ma ya ra la va śa ṣa sa ha kṣa

the Mālinī arrangement joins vowels and consonants together, i.e. it mixes them like this:

na ṛ ṝ ḷ ḹ tha ca dha ī ṇa u ū ba ka kha ga gha ṅa i a va bha ya ḍa ḍha ṭha jha ña ja ra ṭa pa cha la ā sa aḥ ha ṣa kṣa ma śa aṁ ta e ai o au da pha

All the principles (tattva-s), worlds (bhuvana-s), primeval powers (kalā-s), words (pada-s) and mantra-s lie in a specific position in Mālinī like flowers in a garland. The way they are positioned in Mālinī will be explained in depth later.


 Stanzas 11 to 20

भिन्नयोनिस्तु या देव त्वयोक्ता मालिनी मम।
तस्या अङ्गे यथैतानि संस्थितानि तथा वद॥११॥

Bhinnayonistu yā deva tvayoktā mālinī mama|
Tasyā aṅge yathaitāni saṁsthitāni tathā vada||11||

Oh God (deva), You have (already) told me (tvayā uktā... mama) (about) Mālinī (mālinī), which (yā) contains consonants (and vowels) mixed (bhinna-yoniḥ tu). (Now,) tell (me) (vada) how (yathā... tathā) these (realities) --viz. tattva-s, bhuvana-s, etc.-- (etāni) are situated (saṁsthitāni) in Her Body --in the Body of Mālinī-- (tasyā aṅge)||11||

As I said under the previous stanza, all this will be explained in depth later.

एवमुक्तो महादेव्या भैरवो भूरिभोगदः।
उवाच मधुरां वाचमिमामक्लेशिताशयाम्॥१३॥

Evamukto mahādevyā bhairavo bhūribhogadaḥ|
Uvāca madhurāṁ vācamimāmakleśitāśayām||13||

Being thus addressed (evam uktaḥ) by the Great Goddess (mahā-devyā), Bhairava (bhairavaḥ) —the Giver of numerous enjoyments (bhūri-bhoga-daḥ), who illuminates other regions --or the space-- with the continuous flow (of rays) coming from the shining moon (of His Supreme State) (sphurat-himāṁśu-santāna-prakāśita-dik-antaraḥ) (and) whose instruction is desired by the series of most eminent gods and demons (sura-asura-śiras-mauli-mālā-lalita-śāsanaḥ)— said (uvāca) these sweet words (madhurām vācam imām) whose meaning is not difficult to understand --or, more literally, 'whose meaning is not related to kleśa-s or afflictions'-- (akleśitāśayām)||12-13||

Bhairava = Śiva. His sweet words have a meaning which is not related to kleśa-s or afflictions. These kleśa-s are five in number and Patañjali has mentioned and explained them by means of 7 aphorisms (from II.3 to II.9) of his Yogasūtra-s. Their names are: ignorance, egoism, attachment, aversion and fear of death. In other words, the sweet words of Lord Śiva are not ignorant, are not full of selfishness, they do not generate attachment or aversion, and they are immortal, i.e. beyond the clutches of death.

या मया कथिता देवि भिन्नयोनिस्तु मालिनी।
तदङ्गे सम्प्रवक्ष्यामि सर्वमेतद्यथा स्थितम्॥१४॥

Yā mayā kathitā devi bhinnayonistu mālinī|
Tadaṅge sampravakṣyāmi sarvametadyathā sthitam||14||

Oh Goddess (devi), I will explain (sampravakṣyāmi) how (yathā) all this --i.e. tattva-s, bhuvana-s, etc.-- (sarvam etad) remains (sthitam) in the body of Mālinī (mālinī... tad-aṅge), which --i.e. Mālinī-- (yā) has certainly been mentioned (kathitā... tu) by Me (mayā) as containing consonants (and vowels) mixed (bhinna-yoniḥ)||14||

Now, Śiva is about to explain the positioning of all this in the body of the goddess Mālinī. Listen up!

फे धरातत्त्वमुद्दिष्टं दादिझान्तेऽनुपूर्वशः।
त्रयोविंशत्यबादीनि प्रधानान्तानि लक्षयेत्॥१५॥

Phe dharātattvamuddiṣṭaṁ dādijhānte'nupūrvaśaḥ|
Trayoviṁśatyabādīni pradhānāntāni lakṣayet||15||

The earth category --viz. Pṛthivī-- (dharā-tattvam) is mentioned (uddiṣṭam) as (residing) in 'pha' (phe). (Next,) from 'da' (da-ādi) up to 'jha' (jha-ānte), one should mark (lakṣayet), in regular order (anupūrvaśas), twenty-three (categories) (trayas-viṁśati), beginning with (ādīni) the water element --category 35-- (aba) (and) ending in (antāni) Pradhāna --also called Prakṛti, the category 13-- (pradhāna)||15||

I will explain the relationship of letters and tattva-s when Śiva is finished with His exposition on this important topic.

ठादौ च सप्तके सप्त पुरुषादीनि पूर्ववत्।
इङ्घेषु त्रयं विद्याद्विद्यातः सकलावधि॥१६॥

Ṭhādau ca saptake sapta puruṣādīni pūrvavat|
Iṅgheṣu trayaṁ vidyādvidyātaḥ sakalāvadhi||16||

Seven (categories) (sapta) —Puruṣa --category 12--, etc. (puruṣa-ādīni)—, as before --i.e. following the same reasoning-- (pūrva-vat), (reside) in the group of seven letters starting with 'ṭha' (ṭha-ādau ca saptake). (Afterward,) in 'i', 'ṅa' and 'gha' (i-ṅ-gheṣu) (dwelling in the categories) from Sadvidyā --category 5-- (vidyāt vidyātaḥ) up to the furthest limit known as Sakala or All --i.e. Sadāśiva, category 3-- (sakala-avadhi)||16||

I will explain the relationship of letters and tattva-s when Śiva is finished with His exposition on this important topic.

शिवतत्त्वे गकारादिनान्तान् षोडश लक्षयेत्।
कलाः पदानि मन्त्राश्च भुवनानि च सुन्दरि॥१७॥
पूर्ववद्वेदितव्यानि तत्सङ्ख्यार्णविभेदतः।
विद्यात्रयविभागेन यथेदानीं तथा शृणु॥१८॥

Śivatattve gakārādināntān ṣoḍaśa lakṣayet|
Kalāḥ padāni mantrāśca bhuvanāni ca sundari||17||
Pūrvavadveditavyāni tatsaṅkhyārṇavibhedataḥ|
Vidyātrayavibhāgena yathedānīṁ tathā śṛṇu||18||

The group of sixteen (letters) (ṣoḍaśa) starting with the letter 'ga' and ending in (the letter) 'na' (ga-kāra-ādi-na-antān) should be considered (lakṣayet) (to be residing) in the Śiva category --in the first one-- (śiva-tattve). Oh Beautiful One (sundari), kalā-s (kalāḥ), mantra-s (mantrāḥ) and (ca... ca) bhuvana-s (bhuvanāni) must be understood (veditavyāni) as before (pūrva-vat) according to the division of the letters whose number amounts to that (tad-saṅkhya-arṇa-vibhedataḥ). So (tathā), listen (śṛṇu) now (idānīm) (to my dissertation about this) according to the division of the three Vidyā-s (vidyā-traya-vibhāgena yathā)||17-18||

And now that Śiva has finished explaining the relationship of letters and tattva-s, I proceed to explain this topic by using two charts. In the chart 1 you have the positioning of the tattva-s in Mātṛkā, while in the chart 2 you have the positioning of the tattva-s in Mālinī:

Chart 1: The positioning of tattva-s or categories in Mātṛkā
Number Tattva
(category of universal manifestation - in IAST)
(category of universal manifestation - in devanāgarī)
(letter - in IAST)
(letter - in devanāgarī)

1 Śiva शिव a
2 Śakti शक्ति ā

3 Sadāśiva सदाशिव i

4 Īśvara ईश्वर u
aṁ अं

5 Sadvidyā सद्विद्या e
aḥ अः

6 Māyā माया va
7 Kalā कला va
8 Vidyā विद्या la
9 Rāga राग la
10 Kāla काल ra
11 Niyati नियति ya

12 Puruṣa पुरुष ma
13 Prakṛti प्रकृति bha

14 Buddhi बुद्धि ba
15 Ahaṅkāra अहङ्कार pha
16 Manas मनस् pa

17 Śrotra श्रोत्र na
18 Tvak त्वक् dha
19 Cakṣus चक्षुस् da
20 Jihvā जिह्वा tha
21 Ghrāṇa घ्राण ta

22 Vāk वाक् ṇa
23 Pāṇi पाणि ḍha
24 Pāda पाद ḍa
25 Pāyu पायु ṭha
26 Upastha उपस्थ ṭa

27 Śabda शब्द ña
28 Sparśa स्पर्श jha
29 Rūpa रूप ja
30 Rasa रस cha
31 Gandha गन्ध ca

32 Ākāśa आकाश ṅa
33 Vāyu वायु gha
34 Agni अग्नि ga
35 Āpas आपस् kha
36 Pṛthivī पृथिवी ka

You can read more information about this from the Kṣemarāja's commentary on II.7 in his Śivasūtravimarśinī. And there is a full explanation on his commentary in First Steps (4), First Steps (5) and First Steps - 1.

And now, a similar table but showing the positioning of tattva-s in Mālinī:

Chart 2: The positioning of tattva-s or categories in Mālinī
Number Tattva
(category of universal manifestation - in IAST)
(category of universal manifestation - in devanāgarī)
(letter - in IAST)
(letter - in devanāgarī)

1 Śiva शिव na ṛ ṝ ḷ ḹ tha ca dha ī ṇa u ū ba ka kha ga न ऋ ॠ ऌ ॡ थ च ध ई ण उ ऊ ब क ख ग
2 Śakti शक्ति

3 Sadāśiva सदाशिव gha

4 Īśvara ईश्वर ṅa

5 Sadvidyā सद्विद्या i

6 Māyā माया a
7 Kalā कला va
8 Vidyā विद्या bha
9 Rāga राग ya
10 Kāla काल ḍa
11 Niyati नियति ḍha

12 Puruṣa पुरुष ṭha
13 Prakṛti प्रकृति jha

14 Buddhi बुद्धि ña
15 Ahaṅkāra अहङ्कार ja
16 Manas मनस् ra

17 Śrotra श्रोत्र ṭa
18 Tvak त्वक् pa
19 Cakṣus चक्षुस् cha
20 Jihvā जिह्वा la
21 Ghrāṇa घ्राण ā

22 Vāk वाक् sa
23 Pāṇi पाणि aḥ अः
24 Pāda पाद ha
25 Pāyu पायु ṣa
26 Upastha उपस्थ kṣa क्ष

27 Śabda शब्द ma
28 Sparśa स्पर्श śa
29 Rūpa रूप aṁ अं
30 Rasa रस ta
31 Gandha गन्ध e

32 Ākāśa आकाश ai
33 Vāyu वायु o
34 Agni अग्नि au
35 Āpas आपस् da
36 Pṛthivī पृथिवी pha

And now Śiva is ready to describe the relationship between tattva-s/kalā-s and the pada-s (words) of the mantra-s of the three Vidyā-s (which were described in chapter 3). Just in case your memory is not strong enough, I will write these three mantra-s for you:

ॐ अघोरे ह्रीः परमघोरे हुं घोररूपे हः घोरमुखि भीम भीषणे वम पिब हे रुरु रर फट् हुं हः फट् - Oṁ aghore hrīḥ paramaghore huṁ ghorarūpe haḥ ghoramukhi bhīma bhīṣaṇe vama piba he ruru rara phaṭ huṁ haḥ phaṭ [Mantra of the Parāparāvidyā (Supreme - nonSupreme Level)]

ह्रीः हूं फट् - Hrīḥ hūṁ phaṭ [Mantra of the Aparāvidyā (nonSupreme Level)]

सौः - Sauḥ [Mantra of the Parāvidyā (Supreme Level)]

OK, it is enough with this.

निष्कले पदमेकार्णं त्र्यर्णैकार्णमिति द्वयम्।
सकले तु परिज्ञेयं पञ्चैकार्णद्वयं द्वये॥१९॥

Niṣkale padamekārṇaṁ tryarṇaikārṇamiti dvayam|
Sakale tu parijñeyaṁ pañcaikārṇadvayaṁ dvaye||19||

(At first, Śiva will use the Mantra of the Parāparāvidyā —'Oṁ aghore hrīḥ paramaghore huṁ ghorarūpe haḥ ghoramukhi bhīma bhīṣaṇe vama piba he ruru rara phaṭ huṁ haḥ phaṭ'— which was revealed by Himself in the last chapter:) The word (padam) composed of one letter --i.e. 'Oṁ'-- (eka-arṇam) (resides) in the One who is without parts --in the Śiva category, the first one-- (niṣkale), (while) the two (words) (dvayam) composed of three letters (tri-arṇa) (and) one letter (eka-arṇa) --i.e. 'aghore' and 'hrīḥ', respectively-- are to be understood (parijñeyam) (as dwelling) in Sakala --Sadāśiva, category 3-- (sakale) indeed (tu). (And) the two (words) composed of five letters and one letter --viz. 'paramaghore' and 'huṁ'-- (pañca-eka-arṇa-dvayam) (are residing) in the (other) two (divine categories) --Īśvara and Sadvidyā, categories 4 and 5-- (dvaye)||19||

I will explain all this under the aphorism 23.

चतुरेकाक्षरे द्वे च मायादित्रितये मते।
चतुरक्षरमेकं च कालादिद्वितये मतम्॥२०॥

Caturekākṣare dve ca māyāditritaye mate|
Caturakṣaramekaṁ ca kālādidvitaye matam||20||

Also (ca), the two (words) consisting of four letters and one letter --i.e. 'ghorarūpe' and 'haḥ'-- (catur-eka-akṣare dve) are to be considered (mate) (to be dwelling) in the triad which starts with Māyā --viz. Māyā, Kalā and Niyati, categories 6, 7 and 11, respectively-- (māyā-ādi-tritaye). The single (word) composed of four letters --i.e. 'ghoramukhi '-- (catur-akṣaram ekam ca) is to be considered (matam) (to be residing) in the couple (of categories) beginning with Kāla --viz. Kāla and Vidyā, categories 10 and 8-- (kāla-ādi-dvitaye)||20||

I will explain all this under the aphorism 23.


 Stanzas 21 to 30

रञ्जके द्व्यर्णमुद्दिष्टं प्रधाने त्र्यर्णमिष्यते।
बुद्धौ देवाष्टकव्याप्त्या पदं द्व्यक्षरमिष्यते॥२१॥

Rañjake dvyarṇamuddiṣṭaṁ pradhāne tryarṇamiṣyate|
Buddhau devāṣṭakavyāptyā padaṁ dvyakṣaramiṣyate||21||

(The word) composed of two letters --i.e. 'bhīma'-- (dvi-arṇam) is mentioned (uddiṣṭam) (as residing) in Rañjaka --viz. Rāga, the category 9-- (rañjake). (The word) consisting of three letters --i.e. 'bhīṣaṇe'-- (tri-arṇam) is regarded (iṣyate) as (dwelling) in Pradhāna --viz. in Prakṛti, category 13-- (pradhāne). By penetrating the group of eight gods (deva-aṣṭaka-vyāptyā), the word (padam) consisting of two letters --i.e. 'vama'-- (dvi-akṣaram) is regarded (iṣyate) as (residing) in Buddhi --viz. intellect, category 14-- (buddhau)||21||

I will explain all this under the aphorism 23.

ततः पञ्चाष्टकव्याप्त्या द्व्येकद्विद्व्यक्षराणि तु।
विद्यापदानि चत्वारि सार्धवर्णं तु पञ्चमम्॥२२॥

Tataḥ pañcāṣṭakavyāptyā dvyekadvidvyakṣarāṇi tu|
Vidyāpadāni catvāri sārdhavarṇaṁ tu pañcamam||22||

After that (tatas), by penetrating the eight groups five times (pañca-aṣṭaka-vyāptyā), (the next) four words of the (Parāparā)vidyā (vidyā-padāni catvāri) —composed of two, one, two and two letters --i.e. ''piba, 'he', 'ruru' and 'rara'-- (dvi-eka-dvi-dvi-akṣarāṇi) indeed (tu)(plus) the fifth (word) (pañcamam) consisting of one letter and a half --i.e. 'phaṭ '-- (sa-ardha-varṇam tu), (should be understood as residing in all the tattva-s from Ahaṅkāra --category 15-- down to Āpas --category 35--)||22||

I will explain all this under the aphorism 23.

एकैकसार्धवर्णानि त्रीणि तत्त्वे तु पार्थिवे।
पराङ्गे सर्वमन्यच्च वर्णमन्त्रकलादिकम्॥२३॥

Ekaikasārdhavarṇāni trīṇi tattve tu pārthive|
Parāṅge sarvamanyacca varṇamantrakalādikam||23||

The three (words) (trīṇi) composed of one, one and one and a half letters --i.e. 'huṁ', 'haḥ' and 'phaṭ'-- (eka-eka-sa-ardha-varṇāni) truly (reside) in the Pṛthivī category (tattve tu pārthive). All the other (sarvam anyat ca), viz. (all the remaining) varṇa-s, mantra-s, kalā-s, etc. (varṇa-mantra-kalā-ādikam) (dwell) in the body of Parā (parā-aṅge)||23||

And now a didactic chart showing the teachings of the aphorisms 19 to 23 in action:

Chart 3: Relationship between the pada-s or words of the Parāparāvidyā's mantra and the tattva-s or categories of universal manifestation
Number Tattva
(category of universal manifestation - in IAST)
(category of universal manifestation - in devanāgarī)
(word - in IAST)
(word - in devanāgarī)

1 Śiva शिव Oṁ
2 Śakti शक्ति aghore अघोरे

3 Sadāśiva सदाशिव hrīḥ ह्रीः

4 Īśvara ईश्वर paramaghore परमघोरे

5 Sadvidyā सद्विद्या huṁ हुं

6 Māyā माया ghorarūpe घोररूपे
7 Kalā कला
8 Vidyā विद्या ghoramukhi घोरमुखि
9 Rāga राग bhīma भीम
10 Kāla काल ghoramukhi घोरमुखि
11 Niyati नियति haḥ हः

12 Puruṣa पुरुष bhīma भीम
13 Prakṛti प्रकृति bhīṣaṇe भीषणे

14 Buddhi बुद्धि vama वम
15 Ahaṅkāra अहङ्कार piba he ruru rara phaṭ पिब हे रुरु रर फट्
16 Manas मनस्
17 Śrotra श्रोत्र
18 Tvak त्वक्
19 Cakṣus चक्षुस्
20 Jihvā जिह्वा
21 Ghrāṇa घ्राण
22 Vāk वाक्
23 Pāṇi पाणि
24 Pāda पाद
25 Pāyu पायु
26 Upastha उपस्थ
27 Śabda शब्द
28 Sparśa स्पर्श
29 Rūpa रूप
30 Rasa रस
31 Gandha गन्ध
32 Ākāśa आकाश
33 Vāyu वायु
34 Agni अग्नि
35 Āpas आपस्
36 Pṛthivī पृथिवी huṁ haḥ phaṭ हुं हः फट्

There are many things that look confusing here, but Abhinavagupta gives... more or less... a clarification about this topic starting in Tantrāloka 16.206. The Great Guru assigns all the realities of the universe on the body of his disciple in order to purify him from dualistic viewpoints. He does so by assigning the sounds connected with those realities on the body of the disciple. For example, there are eight realities called: water, fire, air, space/ether (four gross elements), Tanmātra-s, Indriya-s (Jñānendriya-s and Karmendriya-s —Powers of perception and action, respectively—), Manas (mind) and Ahaṅkāra (ego). These are in all 8 realities, while the sounds associated with all the tattva-s from water (tattva 35) up to ego (tattva 15) are 5 in number (viz. piba he ruru rara phaṭ). But because five sounds must be repeated five times on each of these 8 groups, so 8 x 5 = 40. That is why Śiva says in the aphorism 22 of this chapter: 'by penetrating the eight groups five times'. OK, all this is very complex then. In Tantrāloka, Abhinavagupta sheds more light, and you also have my explanation of his words.

Perhaps in my translation of the respective specification of the relation between the tattva-s 6 to 12, something could look weird with the numbering there. You could have been expecting Śiva to follow the sequence of numbers 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12 in the process of assigning the respective words of the Parāparāvidyā's mantra, but He mixes the things a little bit. Besides, He does not assign any word to the tattva 12 (Puruṣa). Also, I assigned 'aghore' to Śakti (category 2) while Śiva seems to assign 'aghore' to Sadāśiva (along with the word 'hrīḥ'). So, why did I assign the words like this? Maybe because I developed a rich imagination? No, because of Abhinavagupta:

Abhinavagupta assigns in his Tantrāloka the words of the Parāparāvidyā's mantra in a specific way. As always with Abhinavagupta, what should be simpler becomes more complicated. Why am I saying this here? Because apart from assigning the words in an order which breaks the logical sequence of numbers, he analyzes the relationship between the tattva-s and the mantra of Parāparāvidyā... but in the opposite direction, i.e. from the last word of such mantra up to the first one. This is because the Parāparāvidyā is the mirror where Consciousness reflects Itself projecting a reflection, if you will excuse my repetition, that appears as the universe. Parāparāvidyā resides in Sadāśiva, in the category 3. But, please, do not go mad about this now because it is another complex subject-matter I explain elsewhere. All these changes by Abhinavagupta make the things more complicated, obviously. Anyway, I suppose that you can understand this topic after all. I will translate for you those three aphorisms and a half (from 16.213 to 16.215 --plus the first half of 16.216-- in Tantrāloka) now in which the way of assigning words by Abhinavagupta is clear and show why I did it so in the above chart:

परापराया वैलोम्याद्धरायां स्यात्पदत्रयम्।
ततो जलादहङ्कारे पञ्चाष्टकसमाश्रयात्॥२१३॥
पदानि पञ्च धीमूलपुंरागाख्ये त्रये त्रयम्।
एकं त्वशुद्धवित्कालद्वये चैकं नियामके॥२१४॥
कलामायाद्वये चैकं पदमुक्तमिह क्रमात्।
विद्येश्वरसदाशक्तिशिवेषु पदपञ्चकम्॥२१५॥
एकोनविंशतिः सेयं पदानां स्यात्परापरा।

Parāparāyā vailomyāddharāyāṁ syātpadatrayam|
Tato jalādahaṅkāre pañcāṣṭakasamāśrayāt||213||
Padāni pañca dhīmūlapuṁrāgākhye traye trayam|
Ekaṁ tvaśuddhavitkāladvaye caikaṁ niyāmake||214||
Kalāmāyādvaye caikaṁ padamuktamiha kramāt|
Vidyeśvarasadāśaktiśiveṣu padapañcakam||215||
Ekonaviṁśatiḥ seyaṁ padānāṁ syātparāparā|

Due to reverseness (vailomyāt) of Parāparā --Supreme and nonSupreme-- (parāparāyāḥ), a group of three words --viz. 'phaṭ', 'haḥ' and 'huṁ'-- (pada-trayam) is to be found (syāt) in Dharā --i.e. in Pṛthivī —category 36—-- (dharāyām). After that (tatas), from Jala --i.e. Āpas, category 35-- (jalāt) up to Ahaṅkāra --category 15-- (ahaṅkāre) there is a connection (samāśrayāt) of five words (padāni pañca) with the eight groups five times --the eight groups are: 'water, fire, air, space/ether (four gross elements), Tanmātra-s, Indriya-s (Jñānendriya-s and Karmendriya-s —Powers of perception and action, respectively—), Manas (mind) and Ahaṅkāra (ego)'-- (pañca-aṣṭaka).

(Next,) the group of three (words) --viz. 'vama', 'bhīṣaṇe' and 'bhīma'-- (trayam) is (residing) three times (traye) in this which is called (the aggregate) of Buddhi, Prakṛti, Puruṣa and Rāga --categories 14, 13, 12 and 9-- (dhī-mūla-puṁ-rāga-ākhye). But (tu) one word --viz. 'ghoramukhi'-- (ekam) (dwells) in the group of two, i.e. in Kāla and Vidyā --lit. impure knower-- --categories 10 and 8-- (aśuddha-vit-kāla-dvaye) and (ca) in Niyati (niyāmake) one word --viz. 'haḥ'-- (ekam) (resides).

And (ca) here (iha) one word --viz. 'ghorarūpe'-- (ekam padam) is said (to reside) (uktam) in the couple of Māyā and Kalā --categories 6 and 7-- (kalā-māyā-dvaye). (Next,) a group of five (words) --viz. 'huṁ', 'paramaghore', 'hrīḥ', 'aghore' and 'Oṁ'-- (pada-pañcakam) (dwell) in succession (kramāt) in Sadvidyā, Īśvara, Sadāśiva, Śakti and Śiva --categories 5, 4, 3, 2 and 1-- (vidyā-īśvara-sadā-śakti-śiveṣu). Parāparā(vidyā's mantra) (parāparā) is (then) (syāt) this which consists of nineteen (ekonaviṁśatiḥ sā iyam) words (padānām)||213-216a||

OK, the topic about Parāparāvidyā and the tattva-s has been explained to a certain extent then. It is enough for now!

सार्धेनाण्डद्वयं व्याप्तमेकैकेन पृथग्द्वयम्।
अपरायाः समाख्याता व्याप्तिरेषा विलोमतः॥२४॥

Sārdhenāṇḍadvayaṁ vyāptamekaikena pṛthagdvayam|
Aparāyāḥ samākhyātā vyāptireṣā vilomataḥ||24||

Two eggs --i.e. Pṛthivī and Prakṛti eggs-- (aṇḍa-dvayam) are pervaded (vyāptam) by one and a half (letters) --i.e. by 'Phaṭ'-- (sa-ardhena), (while) the (other) two (remaining eggs) --i.e. Māyā and Śakti eggs-- (dvayam) (are pervaded) separately (pṛthak) by (two sounds) consisting of one letter each --viz. 'Hūṁ' and 'Hrīḥ'-- (eka-ekena). This (eṣā) pervasion (vyāptiḥ) of Aparā(vidyā) (aparāyāḥ) has been proclaimed (samākhyātā) in the reverse order (vilomataḥ) --because the right order for this mantra is 'Hrīḥ hūṁ phaṭ'--||24||

And the relationship between the words of the Aparāvidyā's mantra --viz. 'Hrīḥ hūṁ phaṭ'-- and the tattva-s is ready to be exhibited in the chart 4:

Chart 4: Relationship between the pada-s or words of the Aparāvidyā's mantra and the tattva-s (categories of universal manifestation) along with the eggs containing such tattva-s
Number Kalā
(primeval powers)
(associated with a particular Kalā)
(category of universal manifestation - in IAST)
(category of universal manifestation - in devanāgarī)
(word - in IAST)
(word - in devanāgarī)

1 Śāntyatītā Śiva शिव
2 Śakti शक्ति

3 Śānti Śakti Sadāśiva सदाशिव Hrīḥ ह्रीः
4 Īśvara ईश्वर
5 Sadvidyā सद्विद्या

6 Vidyā Māyā Māyā माया hūṁ हुं
7 Kalā कला
8 Vidyā विद्या
9 Rāga राग
10 Kāla काल
11 Niyati नियति
12 Puruṣa पुरुष

13 Pratiṣṭhā Prakṛti Prakṛti प्रकृति Phaṭ फट्
14 Buddhi बुद्धि
15 Ahaṅkāra अहङ्कार
16 Manas मनस्
17 Śrotra श्रोत्र
18 Tvak त्वक्
19 Cakṣus चक्षुस्
20 Jihvā जिह्वा
21 Ghrāṇa घ्राण
22 Vāk वाक्
23 Pāṇi पाणि
24 Pāda पाद
25 Pāyu पायु
26 Upastha उपस्थ
27 Śabda शब्द
28 Sparśa स्पर्श
29 Rūpa रूप
30 Rasa रस
31 Gandha गन्ध
32 Ākāśa आकाश
33 Vāyu वायु
34 Agni अग्नि
35 Āpas आपस्

36 Nivṛtti Pṛthivī Pṛthivī पृथिवी


सार्णेनाण्डत्रयं व्याप्तं त्रिशूलेन चतुर्थकम्।
सर्वातीतं विसर्गेण पराया व्याप्तिरिष्यते॥२५॥

Sārṇenāṇḍatrayaṁ vyāptaṁ triśūlena caturthakam|
Sarvātītaṁ visargeṇa parāyā vyāptiriṣyate||25||

The penetration (vyāptiḥ) is impelled (iṣyate) by Parā (parāyā) (as follows:) (1) The group of three eggs --viz. Pṛthivī, Prakṛti and Māyā, covering the tattva-s or categories 6 to 36-- (aṇḍa-trayam) (is) penetrated (vyāptam) by the letter "Sa" (sa-arṇena); (2) The fourth (egg called "Śakti") (caturthakam) is penetrated (vyāptam) by the trident --the vowel "au"-- (triśūlena); (3) That which is beyond all (sarva-atītam) (is penetrated) by Visarga (visargeṇa) --which results in 'Sauḥ', the mantra of the Parāvidyā--||25||

And finally now a chart showing the penetration by Parāvidyā:

Chart 5: Relationship between the pada-s or words of the Parāvidyā's mantra and the tattva-s (categories of universal manifestation) along with the eggs containing such tattva-s
Number Kalā
(primeval powers)
(associated with a particular Kalā)
(category of universal manifestation - in IAST)
(category of universal manifestation - in devanāgarī)
(word - in IAST)
(word - in devanāgarī)

1 Śāntyatītā Śiva शिव aḥ
(it is only 'ḥ' but 'a' is added so it can be pronounced)
2 Śakti शक्ति

3 Śānti Śakti Sadāśiva सदाशिव au
4 Īśvara ईश्वर
5 Sadvidyā सद्विद्या

6 Vidyā Māyā Māyā माया Sa
7 Kalā कला
8 Vidyā विद्या
9 Rāga राग
10 Kāla काल
11 Niyati नियति
12 Puruṣa पुरुष
13 Pratiṣṭhā Prakṛti Prakṛti प्रकृति
14 Buddhi बुद्धि
15 Ahaṅkāra अहङ्कार
16 Manas मनस्
17 Śrotra श्रोत्र
18 Tvak त्वक्
19 Cakṣus चक्षुस्
20 Jihvā जिह्वा
21 Ghrāṇa घ्राण
22 Vāk वाक्
23 Pāṇi पाणि
24 Pāda पाद
25 Pāyu पायु
26 Upastha उपस्थ
27 Śabda शब्द
28 Sparśa स्पर्श
29 Rūpa रूप
30 Rasa रस
31 Gandha गन्ध
32 Ākāśa आकाश
33 Vāyu वायु
34 Agni अग्नि
35 Āpas आपस्

36 Nivṛtti Pṛthivī Pṛthivī पृथिवी

In this way, I have shown in a very clear way the penetration of the three Vidyā-s such as taught by venerable Śiva.

एतत्सर्वं परिज्ञेयं योगिना हितमिच्छता।
आत्मनो वा परेषां वा नान्यथा तदवाप्यते॥२६॥

Etatsarvaṁ parijñeyaṁ yoginā hitamicchatā|
Ātmano vā pareṣāṁ vā nānyathā tadavāpyate||26||

All this (which has been mentioned) (etad sarvam) should be recognized and ascertained (parijñeyam) by the yogī who desires his own welfare or that of others (yoginā hitam icchatā ātmanaḥ vā pareṣām vā). Otherwise (anyathā), that (welfare) (tad) is not obtained (na... avāpyate)||26||

By putting all these pada-s or words on different parts of the body of the disciple, the Guru dissolves every trace of duality in him --in the disciple--. This is certainly for the welfare of the disciple and of the entire world.

द्वावेव मोक्षदौ ज्ञेयौ ज्ञानी योगी च शाङ्करि।
पृथक्त्वात्तत्र बोद्धव्यं फलकाङ्क्षिभिः॥२७॥

Dvāveva mokṣadau jñeyau jñānī yogī ca śāṅkari|
Pṛthaktvāttatra boddhavyaṁ phalakāṅkṣibhiḥ||27||

Oh Consort of Śaṅkara (śāṅkari), both (the state of) jñānī and (the state of) yogī (dvau eva... jñānī yogī ca) are known (jñeyau) as givers of Liberation (mokṣa-dau). (However,) under those circumstances (tatra), (this topic about jñānī and yogī) must be understood (boddhavyam) separately (pṛthaktvāt) by the ones who are desirous of fruits (phala-kāṅkṣibhiḥ)||27||

As I said before, both paths are equally important but in Trika Shaivism the path of Jñāna is emphasized. So, now Śiva is about to explain this topic by separating those two paths to Liberation.

ज्ञानं तत्त्रिविधं प्रोक्तं तत्राद्यं श्रुतमिष्यते।
चिन्तामयमथान्यच्च भावनामयमेव च॥२८॥

Jñānaṁ tattrividhaṁ proktaṁ tatrādyaṁ śrutamiṣyate|
Cintāmayamathānyacca bhāvanāmayameva ca||28||

Knowledge (jñānam tad) is said to be (proktam) threefold (trividham). There (tatra), the first (kind of knowledge) (ādyam) is regarded as (iṣyate) 'śruta' or 'heard' (śrutam). Then the other (atha anyat ca) (kind of knowledge is called) 'cintāmaya' or 'consisting of thoughts' (cintā-mayam); and (finally the third kind of knowledge is known as) (ca) 'bhāvanāmaya' or 'consisting of contemplation' (bhāvanā-mayam eva)||28||

I will explain this under the stanza 31.

शास्त्रार्थस्य परिज्ञानं विक्षिप्तस्य श्रुतं मतम्।
इदमत्रेदमत्रेति इदमत्रोपयुज्यते॥२९॥
सर्वमालोच्य शास्त्रार्थमानुपूर्व्या व्यवस्थितम्।
तद्वच्चिन्तामयं ज्ञानं द्विरूपमुपदिश्यते॥३०॥

Śāstrārthasya parijñānaṁ vikṣiptasya śrutaṁ matam|
Idamatredamatreti idamatropayujyate||29||
Sarvamālocya śāstrārthamānupūrvyā vyavasthitam|
Tadvaccintāmayaṁ jñānaṁ dvirūpamupadiśyate||30||

'Śruta' (knowledge) (śrutam) is considered to be (matam) knowledge (parijñānam) about the dispersed meaning of the scriptures (śāstra-arthasya... vikṣiptasya). (For example,) 'this (idam) here (atra), this (idam) there --lit. here-- (atra iti)', (and also,) 'this (idam) is useful (upayujyate) here (atra)'. Likewise (tad-vat), after having systematically studied (ālocya... ānupūrvyā vyavasthitam) all the meaning(s) of the scriptures (sarvam... śāstra-artham), the (type of) knowledge (jñāna) —which is indicated (upadiśyate) as having a double form (dvirūpam)(is called) 'cintāmaya' (cintāmayam)||29-30||

I will explain this under the stanza 31.


 Stanzas 31 to 41

मन्दस्वभ्यस्तभेदेन तत्र स्वभ्यस्तमुच्यते।
सुनिष्पन्ने ततस्तस्मिञ्जायते भावनामयम्॥३१॥

Mandasvabhyastabhedena tatra svabhyastamucyate|
Suniṣpanne tatastasmiñjāyate bhāvanāmayam||31||

In that ('cintāmaya' knowledge) (tatra) —which is divided into 'manda' --lit. slow-- and 'svabhyasta' --lit. which has been practiced a lot-- (manda-su-abhyasta-bhedena)(such knowledge) is called (ucyate) 'svabhyasta' (svabhyastam) (when it has been internally elaborated for long). Afterward (tatas), when that ('svabhyasta' knowledge) has been fully accomplished (su-niṣpanne... tasmin), arises (jāyate) (the third kind of knowledge known as) 'bhāvanāmaya' (bhāvanāmayam)||31||

All these kinds of knowledge have been explained to a certain extent by Abhinavagupta in the chapter 13 of his Tantrāloka. He is not entering into a great detail anyway, according to my reading and understanding of the last portion of chapter 13. But nothing is better than a didactic chart to understand these things that are always complicated. The topic is even more complex, this chart being only a massive simplification for you to understand:

Chart 6: The path of Jñāna or Knowledge
-in IAST-
-in devanāgarī-
-in IAST-
-in devanāgarī-
-lit. 'heard'-
श्रुत It is knowledge about the dispersed meaning of the scriptures. For example: 'this here, this there, this is useful here'. The one receiving knowledge is constantly occupied in hearing scriptures of Śiva and collecting many data to be found there. If the same person is engaged in other scriptures at the same time, he will not get anything of either Trika scriptures or non-Trika scriptures, such as Abhinavagupta establishes in the last half of the stanza 317 and the first half of the stanza 318, in the chapter 13.
-lit. 'consisting of thoughts'-
चिन्तामय Manda
-lit. slow-
मन्द After hearing scriptures for long, he starts to develop some serious thoughts about the different meanings to be found in such treatises. The process is anyway starting very slowly.
-lit. which has been practiced a lot-
स्वभ्यस्त Now, this is the knowledge possessed by a scholar, who has not only heard for long but he has also studied for long with the help of his strong intellect. If he develops Yoga too, he will become Sadāśiva and attain mastery over the tattva-s.
-lit. consisting of contemplation-
भावनामय This is the knowledge by a Great Jñānī or 'Knower of the Highest Reality' who has not only intellectual knowledge but also a direct experience of identification with the Supreme Lord who is even beyond Sadāśiva.

OK, it is enough.

यतो योगं समासाद्य योगी योगफलं लभेत्।
एवं विज्ञानभेदेन ज्ञानी प्रोक्तश्चतुर्विधः॥३२॥
सम्प्राप्तो घटमानश्च सिद्धः सिद्धतमोऽन्यथा।
योगी चतुर्विधो देवि यथावत्प्रतिपद्यते॥३३॥

Yato yogaṁ samāsādya yogī yogaphalaṁ labhet|
Evaṁ vijñānabhedena jñānī proktaścaturvidhaḥ||32||
Samprāpto ghaṭamānaśca siddhaḥ siddhatamo'nyathā|
Yogī caturvidho devi yathāvatpratipadyate||33||

(Finally,) having attained (samāsādya) 'union' (yogam) from which --i.e. from 'bhāvanāmaya'-- (yatas), the yogī (yogī) gets (labhet) the fruit of Yoga (yoga-phalam). (And) in this way (evam), according to the divisions of knowledge (vijñāna-bhedena), (the classification of) jñānī (jñānī) is said to be (proktaḥ) fourfold (caturvidhaḥ): (1) 'samprāpta' --lit. gotten-- (samprāptaḥ), (2) 'ghaṭamāna' --lit. taking place-- (ghaṭamānaḥ ca), (3) 'siddha' --lit. accomplished-- (siddhaḥ), or else (anyathā) (4) 'siddhatama' --lit. the most accomplished-- (siddhatamaḥ). Oh Goddess (devi), the yogī (yogī) (treading the path of the jñānī) is (then) duly considered to be (yathāvat pratipadyate) fourfold (caturvidhaḥ)||32-33||

With another chart plus my explanation, the topic will be very clear:

Chart 7: Types of jñānī-s or knowers
-in IAST-
-in devanāgarī-
-lit. 'gotten'-
सम्प्राप्त He has received initiation from a genuine Guru belonging to a genuine lineage of previous Guru-s (pāramparya).
-lit. 'taking place'-
घटमान He is trying to concentrate his mind on the Highest Reality over and over again.
-lit. 'accomplished'-
सिद्ध He finally succeeded in concentrating his mind, in a permanent way, on the Highest Reality.
-lit. 'the most accomplished'-
सिद्धतम He became completely identified with the Great Lord after losing his limited individuality.

This classification is very simple to understand.

समावेशोक्तिवद्योगस्त्रिविधः समुदाहृतः।
तत्र प्राप्तोपदेशस्तु पारम्पर्यक्रमेण यः॥३४॥
प्राप्तयोगः स विज्ञेयस्त्रिविधोऽपि मनीषिभिः।
चेतसो घटनं तत्त्वाच्चलितस्य पुनः पुनः॥३५॥
यः करोति तमिच्छन्ति घटमानं मनीषिणः।
तदेव चेतसा नान्यद्द्वितीयमवलम्बते॥३६॥
सिद्धयोगस्तदा ज्ञेयो योगो योगफलार्थिभिः।
यः पुनर्यत्र तत्रैव संस्थितोऽपि यथा तथा॥३७॥
भुञ्जानस्तत्फलं तेन हीयते न कथञ्चन।
सुसिद्धः स तु बोद्धव्यः सदाशिवसमः प्रिये॥३८॥

Samāveśoktivadyogastrividhaḥ samudāhṛtaḥ|
Tatra prāptopadeśastu pāramparyakrameṇa yaḥ||34||
Prāptayogaḥ sa vijñeyastrividho'pi manīṣibhiḥ|
Cetaso ghaṭanaṁ tattvāccalitasya punaḥ punaḥ||35||
Yaḥ karoti tamicchanti ghaṭamānaṁ manīṣiṇaḥ|
Tadeva cetasā nānyaddvitīyamavalambate||36||
Siddhayogastadā jñeyo yogo yogaphalārthibhiḥ|
Yaḥ punaryatra tatraiva saṁsthito'pi yathā tathā||37||
Bhuñjānastatphalaṁ tena hīyate na kathañcana|
Susiddhaḥ sa tu boddhavyaḥ sadāśivasamaḥ priye||38||

Yoga (yogaḥ) is said to be (samudāhṛtaḥ) threefold (trividhaḥ) like the word 'samāveśa' (samāveśa-ukti-vat). In it --in Yoga-- (tatra), (1) (the subdivision of) Yoga (called) 'prāpta' --lit. (Yoga) which has been obtained-- (prāpta-yogaḥ) is the one in which the teachings have been obtained (prāpta-upadeśaḥ tu... yaḥ) by means of the uninterrupted succession of Guru-s and disciples (in a tradition) (pāramparya-krameṇa) —it --this first type of Yoga-- (saḥ) is also considered (vijñeyaḥ... api) by the sages (manīṣibhiḥ) to be threefold (trividhaḥ)—. (2) (The second subdivision of Yoga is the one) which (yaḥ) causes (karoti) (the appearance of) an mental effort (cetasaḥ ghaṭanam) (even if) the mind is moving away (calitasya) from the (Supreme) Principle (tattvāt) over and over again (punar punar). The sages (manīṣiṇaḥ) think that that is (tam icchanti) 'ghaṭamāna' --lit. (Yoga) which is taking place-- (ghaṭamānam). (3) (When the yogī) clings with (his) mind to (cetasā... avalambate) That --i.e. to the Supreme Principle-- only (tad eva) (and) to no other second (support) (na anyat dvitīyam), then (tadā) (this third subdivision of) Yoga (yogaḥ) is known as (jñeyaḥ) a Yoga which is 'siddha' or 'accomplished' (siddha-yogaḥ) by the ones who desire the fruits of Yoga (yoga-phala-arthibhiḥ). The one who (yaḥ), in whatever place and whatever condition (yatra tatra eva... yathā tathā), keeps enjoying (saṁsthitaḥ api... bhuñjānaḥ) again and again (punar) the fruit of that (Yoga called 'siddha') --i.e. the fruit is nothing but the Supreme Principle-- (tad-phalam), is in no way abandoned by It --by the Supreme Principle-- (tena hīyate na kathañcana). He (saḥ) is certainly to be understood (tu boddhavyaḥ) as being a 'Susiddha' --lit. Very accomplished-- (su-siddhaḥ). Oh dear One (priye), he is just like Sadāśiva (sadāśiva-samaḥ)||34-38||

Now, the path of Yoga is classified in three ways. But regarding why the word 'samāveśa' is triple... in my opinion because it consists of two prefixes plus the original noun, like this: 'sam + ā + veśa'. Veśa means 'entrance', but with the addition of those two prefixes the final meaning is 'absorption'.

Again, a didactic chart will be very useful in showing these three kinds of Yoga:

Chart 8: The path of Yoga
-in IAST-
-in devanāgarī-
-lit. 'gotten'-
प्राप्त In this kind of Yoga the teachings are gotten through an uninterrupted succession of Guru-s and disciples in a genuine lineage (pāramparya)
-lit. 'taking place'-
घटमान In the second sort of Yoga, a mental effort appears. Effort about what? About concentrating the mind on the Supreme Principle (the Highest Reality).
-lit. 'accomplished'-
सिद्ध In the third and last type of Yoga, there is a permanent focus on the Supreme Principle without the aid of any other support (e.g. without the repetition of a mantra, etc.). The person who attained this Yoga is called Siddha, and his state reaches only up to Sadāśiva. Consequently, he has attained mastery over all the tattva-s from Sadāśiva (tattva 3) down to the earth element (tattva 36).

It is enough, I suppose.

उत्तरोत्तरवैशिष्ट्यमेतेषां समुदाहृतम्।
ज्ञानिनां योगिनां चैव सिद्धो योगविदुत्तमः॥३९॥

Uttarottaravaiśiṣṭyameteṣāṁ samudāhṛtam|
Jñānināṁ yogināṁ caiva siddho yogaviduttamaḥ||39||

The importance (vaiśiṣṭyam) of these (stages in Jñāna and Yoga) (eteṣām) is said to go (samudāhṛtam) from lowest to highest (uttara-uttara). Among the jñānī-s and yogī-s (jñāninām yoginām ca eva), the (Su)siddha (siddhaḥ) (is) the highest knower of Yoga (yoga-vit-uttamaḥ)||39||

The Susiddha (lit. very accomplished) is the highest knower of Yoga. Though the topic is confusing in both Mālinīvijayottaratantra and Tantrāloka (read the last part of the chapter 13), in my opinion the Susiddha is the Siddhatama really (the highest jñānī)... and this is confirmed by Jayaratha in his commentary under the aphorism 331 (chapter 13 in Tantrāloka) --Jayaratha is the author of Viveka, the great commentary on Tantrāloka--. I am not quoting that portion here or the explanation will be long like a Bible. Remember that you can also call the path of Jñāna: 'the Yoga of Jñāna'. Because the Siddha, i.e. the yogī who reached the highest stage in Yoga only attained the state of Sadāśiva and the resulting mastery over all the tattva-s, as explained previously. Anyway, he is the Siddha and not the Susiddha. This is based on the constant teaching about the preeminence of Jñāna (the path where you use knowledge and not active practices) over Yoga (the path where you use action, i.e. active practices) in Trika Shaivism. As in the highest tattva-s (in Śiva and Śakti) Yoga cannot be practiced at all (because there is no universe but only Aham), Yoga is useless here. But Jñāna can effectively penetrate into this level, hence its superiority over Yoga. All in all, the attainment of Liberation is a matter of 'becoming spiritually intelligent' and not of 'practicing'. Abhinavagupta confirms this in an indirect way by 13.329-332 in his Tantrāloka:

योगी तु प्राप्ततत्तत्त्वसिद्धिरप्युत्तमे पदे।
सदाशिवाद्ये स्वभ्यस्तज्ञानित्वादेव योजकः॥३२९॥
अधरेषु च तत्त्वेषु या सिद्धिर्योगजास्य सा।
विमोचनायां नोपायः स्थितापि धनदारवत्॥३३०॥
यस्तूत्पन्नसमस्ताध्वसिद्धिः स हि सदाशिवः।
साक्षादेष कथं मर्त्यान्मोचयेद्गुरुतां व्रजन्॥३३१॥
तेनोक्तं मालिनीतन्त्रे विचार्य ज्ञानयोगिते।
यतश्च मोक्षदः प्रोक्तः स्वभ्यस्तज्ञानवान्बुधैः॥३३२॥

Yogī tu prāptatattattvasiddhirapyuttame pade|
Sadāśivādye svabhyastajñānitvādeva yojakaḥ||329||
Adhareṣu ca tattveṣu yā siddhiryogajāsya sā|
Vimocanāyāṁ nopāyaḥ sthitāpi dhanadāravat||330||
Yastūtpannasamastādhvasiddhiḥ sa hi sadāśivaḥ|
Sākṣādeṣa kathaṁ martyānmocayedgurutāṁ vrajan||331||
Tenoktaṁ mālinītantre vicārya jñānayogite|
Yataśca mokṣadaḥ proktaḥ svabhyastajñānavānbudhaiḥ||332||

The yogī (yogī tu) who has achieved accomplishment regarding those tattva-s or categories (prāpta-tad-tattva-siddhiḥ api) leads (other people) (yojakaḥ) —by means of his knowership which has been acquired after a lot of yogic practice— (su-abhyasta-jñānitvāt eva) toward the most elevated state of Sadāśiva, etc. (at the most) (uttame pade... sadāśiva-ādye).

Accomplishment (yā siddhiḥ... sā) produced by Yoga (yoga-jā) with respect to inferior tattva-s or categories (adhareṣu ca tattveṣu), though (api) being (sthitā) (a means to get such things) as money and wife (dhana-dāra-vat), is not (na) a means (upāyaḥ) for the Liberation (vimocanāyām) of this (yogī) (asya).

But (tu) (when) the one (saḥ) who (yaḥ) has acquired accomplishment from the entire course (of his path of Yoga) (utpanna-samasta-adhva-siddhiḥ) (becomes) undoubtedly (hi) Sadāśiva (sadāśivaḥ) in person (sākṣāt) (at the most, then) how (katham) (can) he (eṣaḥ), having achieved the state of Guru (gurutām vrajan), liberate (mocayet) mortals (martyān)?

For that reason (tena) it has been declared (uktam) in Mālinīvijayottaratantra --in 4.40-- (mālinī-tantre) by the sages (budhaiḥ), after pondering over (vicārya) Knowledge and Yoga --lit. Knowledge and State of a yogī-- (jñāna-yogite), that (yatas ca) the one --i.e. the great being-- who has Bhāvanāmayajñāna or Knowledge obtained from contemplation --lit. Knowledge who has been practiced a lot-- (su-abhyasta-jñānavān) is said to be (proktaḥ) bestower of Liberation (mokṣa-daḥ)||330-332||

Note that by 'svabhyastajñānavān' Abhinavagupta is not referring to the yogī who has merely svabhyasta knowledge, which belongs to the Cintāmaya class (see chart 6 above), which is not the highest class of knowledge. This yogī can only lead people to Sadāśiva at the most, as established in aphorism 331. So, Abhinavagupta is referring to the jñānī (jñānavān or knower) who has attained Bhāvanāmaya-Jñāna or direct knowledge gained through samādhi or trance. And because Abhinavagupta wrote 'svabhyastajñānavān' instead of 'bhāvanāmayajñānavān', all this confusion has emerged. These are the things that make Abhinavagupta both a source of Light and a source of confusion many times. Abhinavagupta's books are then not intended for tender rookies in Trika Shaivism but for advanced students endowed with monumental patience and perseverance.

यतोऽस्य ज्ञानमप्यस्ति पूर्वो योगफलोज्झितः।
यतश्च मोक्षदः प्रोक्तः स्वभ्यस्तज्ञानवान्बुधैः॥४०॥

Yato'sya jñānamapyasti pūrvo yogaphalojjhitaḥ|
Yataśca mokṣadaḥ proktaḥ svabhyastajñānavānbudhaiḥ||40||

(Why?) Because (yatas) his (asya) Knowledge (jñānam) is indeed (api asti) free from the fruits of the Yoga being practiced previously (pūrvaḥ yoga-phala-ujjhitaḥ); and (ca) because (yatas) he is giver of Liberation (mokṣa-daḥ), he is proclaimed (proktaḥ) by the wise (budhaiḥ) as one whose knowledge is extremely elaborated --lit. practiced a lot-- (su-abhyasta-jñānavān)||40||

The Abhinavagupta's commentary on this stanza in Tantrāloka is the one given above (in 13.332 quoted in my explanation about the last aphorism... look up!).

इत्येतत्कथितं सर्वं विज्ञेयं योगिपूजिते।
तन्त्रार्थमुपसंहृत्य समासाद्योगिनां हितम्॥४१॥

Ityetatkathitaṁ sarvaṁ vijñeyaṁ yogipūjite|
Tantrārthamupasaṁhṛtya samāsādyogināṁ hitam||41||

Thus (iti), Oh You who are worshiped by the Yogī-s (yogi-pūjite), all this (etad... sarvam) which has been spoken (by Me) (kathitam) (and) which is to be learned (vijñeyam), because it briefly summarizes (upasaṁhṛtya samāsāt) the meaning of the Tantra-s (tantra-artham), (is always) for the good (hitam) of the yogī-s (yoginām)||41||

इति श्रीमालिनीविजयोत्तरे तन्त्रे चतुर्थोऽधिकारः॥४॥
Iti śrīmālinīvijayottare tantre caturtho'dhikāraḥ||4||

Here ends (iti) the fourth chapter (caturthaḥ adhikāraḥ) in venerable Mālinīvijayottaratantra (śrī-mālinī-vijaya-uttare tantre)||4||

And no doubt that the teachings of the Supreme Lord are always for the welfare of the yogī-s. Who could raise doubts about that? OK, this chapter 4 is now finished.


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Gabriel Pradīpaka

This document was conceived by Gabriel Pradīpaka, one of the two founders of this site, and spiritual guru conversant with Sanskrit language and Trika philosophy.

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