|Baixe e instale a(s) fonte(s) indispensável(is) para ver o sânscrito em toda a sua glória |
Leia Transliterando (2) (português) para entender completamente o sistema de transliteração.
This is the sixth and last set of 4 aphorisms out of 25 aphorisms constituting the first Section (dealing with Svarūpaspanda or Spanda as one's own nature). As you know, the entire work is composed of 53 aphorisms of Spandakārikā-s plus their respective commentaries.
Of course, I will also insert the original aphorisms on which Kṣemarāja is commenting. Even though I will not comment on either the original sūtra-s or the Kṣemarāja's commentary, I will write some notes to make a particular point clear when necessary. If you want a detailed explanation, go to "Scriptures (study)|Spandanirṇaya" in Trika section.
Kṣemarāja's Sanskrit will be in dark green color while the original Vasugupta's aphorisms will be shown in dark red color. In turn, within the transliteration, the original aphorisms will be in brown color, while the Kṣemarāja's comments will be shown in black. Also, within the translation, the original aphorisms by Vasugupta, i.e. the Spandakārikā-s, will be in green and black colors, while the commentary by Kṣemarāja will contain words in both black and red colors.
Read Spandanirṇaya and experience Supreme Ānanda or Divine Bliss, dear Śiva.
Important: All that is in brackets and italicized within the translation has been added by me in order to complete the sense of a particular phrase or sentence. In turn, all that is between double hyphen (--...--) constitutes clarifying further information also added by me.
यथास्योद्युक्तस्य बलवदालम्बनवशोदितानायासतदन्यसकलवृत्तिक्षयमयीषु नियतासु यास्ववस्थासु स्पन्दनिधानमुन्मुद्रितमभिमुखीभूतमास्ते ता एताः प्रथममुद्योगस्य विषया इत्युपदेष्टुमाह
अतिक्रुद्धः प्रहृष्टो वा किं करोमीति वा मृशन्।
धावन्वा यत्पदं गच्छेत्तत्र स्पन्दः प्रतिष्ठितः॥२२॥
सर्वत्र तावदुपयमार्गे समस्तेतरवृत्तिप्रशमपूर्वमेकाग्रीभवन्ति योगिन एतास्वतिक्रोधाद्यवस्थासु स्वरसत एव समस्तापरवृत्तिक्षयमयीषु यदि स्पन्दतत्त्वविविक्तये सततमुद्युक्ता झटित्यन्तर्मुखीभवन्ति योगिनस्तत्समीहितमचिरेणैव लभन्ते। अयोगिनस्त्वत्र मूढा एवेति तात्पर्यम्। तथाहि समनन्तरविहितदारुणोपघातशत्रुदर्शनान्मर्मस्पर्शितत्तद्वचनाकर्णनाद्वा प्रथममेवोन्मिषत्सञ्जिहीर्षादेवताबलादन्तर्मुखीभवद्रश्मिचक्रोऽतिक्रुद्धश्चिरप्रार्थितप्राणेशीवदनेन्दुदर्शनादेव तत्क्षणमेवोन्मज्जत्पूर्णाभिलाषदेवतावशविकासितानुधावत्समस्तकरणचक्रः प्रहृष्टो वा बलवदाततायिबलेन सर्वतो वलितत्वात्कान्दिशीकः किं करोमीति मृशन्विकल्पयन्संशयधाराधिरोहात्मनि पदेऽनुप्रविष्टः क्षीणसकलालम्बनविकसत्संशयसंविन्निरालम्बनीकृतवृत्तिप्रसरो वा मत्तवारणाद्यनुबध्यमानो धावञ्च्छरीरनिरपेक्षमेव स्वात्मप्रवणीकृतेतरवृत्तिप्रसरदुद्योगदेवीप्रेरणयातित्वरितपलायनक्रियाविष्टो वैवमन्यास्वप्येवम्प्रायासु सिंहाजगराद्यवलोकनजनितमहात्रासाद्यवस्थासु यद्वृत्तिक्षयात्मकं पदं गच्छेदधितिष्ठेत्स्पन्दतत्त्वविविक्तये सततमुद्युक्तो यो योगिजनस्तस्य तत्र वृत्तिक्षयात्मके पदेऽवस्थाविशेषे स्पन्दः प्रतिष्ठितः स्पन्दतत्त्वमभिमुखीभूतमेव तिष्ठति। तस्मादेतद्वृत्तिक्षयपदं सञ्चेत्य झटिति कूर्माङ्गसङ्कोचयुक्त्या क्रोधसंशयवृत्तीः प्रशमय्य महाविकासव्याप्तियुक्त्या वा प्रहर्षधावनवृत्तीर्विस्फार्याभिमुखीभूतनिजस्पन्दशक्तिविमर्शवता योगिना भाव्यम्। यथोक्तं श्रीविज्ञानभैरवे
बुद्धिं निस्तिमितां कृत्वा तत्तत्त्वमवशिष्यते॥
आनन्दे महति प्राप्ते दृष्टे वा बान्धवे चिरात्।
आनन्दमुद्गतं ध्यात्वा तल्लयस्तन्मना भवेत्॥
क्षुदाद्यन्ते भये शोके गह्वरे वारणद्रुते।
कुतूहले क्षुधाद्यन्ते ब्रह्मसत्ता समीपगा॥
Yathāsyodyuktasya balavadālambanavaśoditānāyāsatadanyasakalavṛttikṣayamayīṣu niyatāsu yāsvavasthāsu spandanidhānamunmudritamabhimukhībhūtamāste tā etāḥ prathamamudyogasya viṣayā ityupadeṣṭumāha
Atikruddhaḥ prahṛṣṭo vā kiṁ karomīti vā mṛśan|
Dhāvanvā yatpadaṁ gacchettatra spandaḥ pratiṣṭhitaḥ||22||
Sarvatra tāvadupayamārge samastetaravṛttipraśamapūrvamekāgrībhavanti yogina etāsvatikrodhādyavasthāsu svarasata eva samastāparavṛttikṣayamayīṣu yadi spandatattvaviviktaye satatamudyuktā jhaṭityantarmukhībhavanti yoginastatsamīhitamacireṇaiva labhante| Ayoginastvatra mūḍhā eveti tātparyam| Tathāhi samanantaravihitadāruṇopaghātaśatrudarśanānmarmasparśitattadvacanākarṇanādvā prathamamevonmiṣatsañjihīrṣādevatābalādantarmukhībhavadraśmicakro'tikruddhaściraprārthitaprāṇeśīvadanendudarśanādeva tatkṣaṇamevonmajjatpūrṇābhilāṣadevatāvaśavikāsitānudhāvatsamastakaraṇacakraḥ prahṛṣṭo vā balavadātatāyibalena sarvato valitatvātkāndiśīkaḥ kiṁ karomīti mṛśanvikalpayansaṁśayadhārādhirohātmani pade'nupraviṣṭaḥ kṣīṇasakalālambanavikasatsaṁśayasaṁvinnirālambanīkṛtavṛttiprasaro vā mattavāraṇādyanubadhyamāno dhāvañccharīranirapekṣameva svātmapravaṇīkṛtetaravṛttiprasaradudyogadevīpreraṇayātitvaritapalāyanakriyāviṣṭo vaivamanyāsvapyevamprāyāsu siṁhājagarādyavalokanajanitamahātrāsādyavasthāsu yadvṛttikṣayātmakaṁ padaṁ gacchedadhitiṣṭhetspandatattvaviviktaye satatamudyukto yo yogijanastasya tatra vṛttikṣayātmake pade'vasthāviśeṣe spandaḥ pratiṣṭhitaḥ spandatattvamabhimukhībhūtameva tiṣṭhati| Tasmādetadvṛttikṣayapadaṁ sañcetya jhaṭiti kūrmāṅgasaṅkocayuktyā krodhasaṁśayavṛttīḥ praśamayya mahāvikāsavyāptiyuktyā vā praharṣadhāvanavṛttīrvisphāryābhimukhībhūtanijaspandaśaktivimarśavatā yoginā bhāvyam| Yathoktaṁ śrīvijñānabhairave
Buddhiṁ nistimitāṁ kṛtvā tattattvamavaśiṣyate||
Ānande mahati prāpte dṛṣṭe vā bāndhave cirāt|
Ānandamudgataṁ dhyātvā tallayastanmanā bhavet||
Kṣudādyante bhaye śoke gahvare vāraṇadrute|
Kutūhale kṣudhādyante brahmasattā samīpagā||
As (yathā) the treasure (nidhānam) of Spanda (spanda) remains (āste) unsealed (unmudritam) (and) favorable (abhimukhī-bhūtam) in the states (avasthāsu), limited in number (niyatāsu), in which (yāsu) there is dissolution (kṣaya-mayīṣu) of all (sakala) the mental fluctuations (vṛtti) —(of course, dissolution of all mental fluctuations) other than the one (related to the perception of Spanda) (tad-anya), which has emerged (udita) without difficulty (anāyāsa) due to (vaśa) a powerful (balavat) hold or grip (ālambana) (by the yogī who is attentive on the Spanda)—, (the author, i.e. Vasugupta,) in order to teach (upadeṣṭum) that, in the case of the one prepared for discerning the principle of Spanda (asya udyuktasya), those various (states) (tāḥ etāḥ) (constitute) at first (prathamam) the sphere (viṣayāḥ) of effort or practice (udyogasya... iti) (of such a yogī), said (āha)1 :
Spanda (spandaḥ) is firmly established (pratiṣṭhitaḥ) in that (tatra) state or condition (padam) into which (yad) (a person) enters (gacchet) (when he is) excessively angry (atikruddhaḥ), exceedingly pleased or delighted (prahṛṣṭaḥ), reflecting (mṛśan) "what (kim) do I do (karomi iti)?", or (vā.. vā... vā) running (for his life) (dhāvan)||22||
In all the paths of approach (to one's own essential nature) (sarvatra... upaya-mārge) indeed (tāvat), the yogī-s (yoginaḥ) become concentrated on one point (ekāgrī-bhavanti), all of which is preceded by (pūrvam) the extinction (praśama) of all (samasta) the other (itara) mental fluctuations (vṛtti). (However,) if (yadi) during these states of extreme anger, etc. (etāsu atikrodha-ādi- avasthāsu) in which there is spontaneous dissolution (sva-rasatas eva... kṣaya-mayīṣu) of all (samasta) the other (apara) mental fluctuations (vṛtti), the yogī-s who are constantly prepared (satatam udyuktāḥ... yoginaḥ) for discerning (viviktaye) the principle (tattva) of Spanda (spanda), instantly (jhaṭiti) become introverted (antarmukhī-bhavanti), (then they) quickly (acireṇa eva) attain (labhante) what they desire --viz. merging into the principle of Spanda-- (tad-samīhitam)|
But (tu) in that very condition --i.e. in the states of extreme anger, etc.-- (atra), the non-yogī-s (ayoginaḥ) remain stupefied (mūḍhāḥ eva); this is the purport (iti tātparyam)2 |
Thus (tathāhi), (this Spanda principle is firmly established in that state or condition which is a manifested in a person when he is) 'excessively angry' (atikruddhaḥ), (which denotes) the group (cakraḥ) of powers --lit. beams, rays of light-- (raśmi) becoming introverted (antarmukhī-bhavat) by force of (balāt) the deity (devatā) (called) 'wish to completely destroy' (sañjihīrṣā) who appears (unmiṣat) at once --or in the first place-- (prathamam eva) after seeing (darśanāt) an enemy (śatru) who has inflicted a terrible wound (vihita-dāruṇa-upaghāta) shortly before (samanantara), or (vā) because of hearing (ākarṇanāt) various (tad-tad) very stinging (marma-sparśita) words (vacana) (of the same enemy). Or (vā) (when such a person is) 'exceedingly pleased or delighted' (prahṛṣṭaḥ), (which denotes,) after beholding (darśanāt eva) the moon-like face (vadana-indu) of the beloved woman (prāṇeśī) who was yearned for (prārthita) since long (cira), the whole (samasta) group (cakraḥ) of senses (karaṇa) being unfolded/expanded (vikāsita) (and) running after (her) (anudhāvat) due to (vaśa) the deity (devatā) (known as) 'full (pūrṇa) longing for (abhilāṣa)' who arises (unmajjat) at the same moment (tad-kṣaṇam eva). Or (vā) (when that very person is) reflecting upon (mṛśan) —considering (vikalpayan)— 'what (kim) do I do (karomi iti)?', terrified (kāndiśīkaḥ) as he is surrounded (valitatvāt) all round (sarvatas) by a force (balena) of strong (balavat) murderers (ātatāyi), absorbed (anupraviṣṭaḥ) in a state (pade) which rides (adhiroha) on a stream (dhārā) of uncertainty (saṁśaya), (and) with his torrent (prasaraḥ) of mental fluctuations (vṛtti) deprived of foundations (nirālambanī-kṛta) because a feeling (saṁvid) of doubt (saṁśaya) is expanding/increasing (inside) (vikasat) since all (possible) support/protection has been eliminated (kṣīṇa-sakala-ālambana). Or (vā) (when he is) 'running (for his life)' (dhāvan), (which means that) he is being chased (anubadhyamānaḥ) by a ruttish/furious elephant (matta-vāraṇa), etc. (ādi), completely indifferent to (nirapekṣam eva) the physical body (śarīra), engrossed in (āviṣṭaḥ) an activity (kriyā) with regard to hastily escaping (atitvarita-palāyana) by the impulse or urge (preraṇayā) of the rising (prasarat) goddess (devī) of effort (udyoga), with the other (itara) mental fluctuations (vṛtti) withdrawn (pravaṇī-kṛta) into himself (sva-ātma). In this manner (evam), even (api) in all other (anyāsu) similar --lit. such-- (evamprāyāsu) states (avasthāsu) (such as) the great (mahā) terror (trāsa) generated (janita) on seeing (avalokana) a lion (siṁha), a large boa (ajagara) and so on (ādi), the yogī (yogi-janaḥ) who (yaḥ) is constantly prepared (satatam udyuktaḥ) for discerning (viviktaye) the principle (tattva) of Spanda (spanda) 'goes to' --literally-- (gacchet), i.e. attains to (adhitiṣṭhet) a state (padam) in which --lit. that consists of-- (yad... ātmakam) there is dissolution (kṣaya) of (his) mental fluctuations (vṛtti). To him (tasya), there (tatra), viz. in the 'pada' (pade) (or) particular (viśeṣe) state (avasthā) where (his) mental fluctuations have come to an end (vṛtti-kṣaya-ātmake), Spanda (spandaḥ) is firmly established (pratiṣṭhitaḥ), (in other words,) the principle (tattvam) of Spanda (spanda) remains (tiṣṭhati) turned toward (abhimukhī-bhūtam) him (tasya) certainly (eva)3 |
Therefore (tasmāt), being aware of (sañcetya) the state (padam) where there is dissolution (kṣaya) of his (etad) mental fluctuations (vṛtti), instantly (jhaṭiti) extinguishing (praśamayya) the mental fluctuations (vṛttīḥ) (called) anger (krodha) (and) doubt (saṁśaya) by the device (yuktyā) of contracting (saṅkoca) the limbs --figuratively speaking-- (aṅga) like a turtle (kūrma), or (vā) fully unfolding (visphārya) the mental fluctuations (vṛttīḥ) relating to being exceedingly pleased/delighted (praharṣa), (or relating to) running (for one's life) (dhāvana), by means of the device (yuktyā) of penetrating (vyāpti) into the great (mahā) expansion (vikāsa), the yogī should become conscious of (vimarśavatā yoginā bhāvyam) his own (nija) power (śakti) of Spanda (spanda) which is (now) turned toward him (abhimukhī-bhūta)4 |
As (yathā) has been said (uktam) in venerable Vijñānabhairava (śrī-vijñāna-bhairave) in the case of (such a) yogī:
"(If the yogī) immobilizes (nistimitāṁ kṛtvā) his intellect (buddhim) when he is under the sway (gocare) of desire (kāma), anger (krodha), greed (lobha), infatuation (moha), arrogance (mada) or envy --and jealousy-- (mātsarya), that (tad) Principle (tattvam) (who is a Witness to the aforesaid mental states, alone) subsists (avaśiṣyate)"||
"When a great joy is obtained (ānande mahati prāpte) or (vā) when a kinsman, friend, etc. is seen (dṛṣṭe... bāndhave) after a long time (cirāt), after meditating (dhyātvā) on the joy (ānandam) that has arisen (udgatam), (there is) dissolution (layaḥ) in it --in that joy-- (tad) (and the meditator) becomes (bhavet) (fully) identified (tad-manā) (with it)"||
"At the beginning and end (ādi-ante) of sneeze (kṣut), in terror (bhaye), in grief (śoke), during a deep sigh (gahvare), while running away (drute) from an elephant (vāraṇa), while being extremely curious (kutūhale), at the beginning and end (ādi-ante) of hunger (kṣudh), the Reality (sattā) of Brahma (brahma) comes near (samīpagā... iti)"||
1 In order to realize the Highest Reality, the mind has to be arrested. Why? Because the Highest Reality is beyond the realm of vikalpa-s or thoughts. It does not matter how much you can hear about the Highest Reality, without a direct experience of It, you will never understand what the Highest Reality is. Broadly speaking, that is to say, without going into detail, Highest Reality has also many other names: Paramaśiva (Supreme Śiva), Svātantrya (Absolute Freedom), Spanda (Vibration), essential nature, the Lord, the Real 'I', etc. When you run into those words, remember that all of them refer to the Highest Reality in general. Yes, there are some technical details you can mention about each of them, but I did not want to go into detail, as I said before, because yes, the subtle differences across those terms are a complex topic.
Now, to attain that state devoid of thoughts (except for the thought about Spanda, obviously), you have two options: (1) To make efforts through different meditation techniques during a long time, or (2) To be attentive when special life situations automatically remove the thoughts. This aphorism 22 will explain the second option to you. Of course, these special life situations are 'niyata' or limited in number as the commentator pointed out. So, the treasure of Spanda, the treasure of the Highest Reality, the treasure of your own essential nature, remains unsealed and favorable (i.e. open for you) at those particular moments. But obviously, in order to get the most of it, you need to be a yogī who is attentive on the Spanda, or you will simply be excessively angry, pleased, delighted, etc. like any other common person. And at the end, the commentator remarks that 'at first' those various states in special life situations constitute the sphere of effort of such a yogī. Why? Because it is faster when life stops your mind than when you can stop it after myriads of hours meditating. Simple to understand then!
2 I explained this before, in the note 1, but let me add this in the case of the non-yogī-s: 'They remain stupefied'. Stupefaction is an attribute of tamoguṇa, and therefore it is heavily loaded with darkness and ignorance. But what is the meaning of 'stupefied' in this context? For example: When you are extremely angry, during this state you feel yourself completely mad. It is temporary madness and if you have the treasure of attention, you will verify that I am being truthful and exact in my description of anger. Anyway, you cannot stop... this is stupefaction. Or more clearly, when you are running for your life because a big hurricane has arrived at your home town, you are stupefied too, because you are covered with ignorance, without any possibility to do something different. In other words, completely taken by a external factor and with a mind which is absolutely incapable of reacting in a different way. Total panic accompanied by a state of total defenseless inside. This is stupefaction here too.
When you are excessively angry, the group of powers whose aspect is that of rays of light, become introverted by force of the deity named 'wish to completely destroy'. And I say always 'power' (śakti) and not energy, because an energy can be without any intelligence of its own, e.g. electricity. But on the contrary, every power is 'intelligent' of its own. So, you could arrive at the conclusion that a power is an intelligent energy, and this is right. In Trika, all these intelligent energies (powers) in a person are described like deities or goddesses. In this case, the name of the goddess is 'wish to completely destroy'. Except for you have been living in a limbo all your life, you know what anger is and also that that name for the power moving at that time in you is absolutely correct. Kṣemarāja gives two examples about the emergence of extreme wrath after seeing an enemy who has inflicted a terrible wound to you shortly before and after hearing words of the enemy which stung you into attacking him with fury. OK, this is very clear, isn't it?
When you are exceedingly delighted, for example, after seeing the stunning face of your beloved one after a long time without her (remember that the commentator is a man, please); under these circumstances, you are overpowered by the goddess known as 'full longing for'. If you are conscious of Spanda as the Perceiver at that time, you can merge into your own essential nature which is just Consciousness and Bliss.
When you are full of uncertainty, not knowing which way to go, which action to do next and so on, e.g. when you are surrounded by assassins and there is no visible way out for you; at that time you are fully established in Spanda. Or else, in another situation, when you are running for your life, e.g. while you are being pursued by an elephant in rut, and you run so fast impulsed by the goddess of effort, with your mind completely arrested. At that time too, the principle of Spanda is strong in you. Kṣemarāja gives more examples with terrifying situations where your thoughts are forced to withdraw. All this, as I pointed out before, it is very easy to understand.
By the first device or technique, you contract yourself, just like a turtle contracts its limbs into the shell. In other words, you thoroughly finish removing the last traces of mental activity (which was mostly removed by a shocking external factor at first). Kṣemarāja recommends this approach in the cases when you are extremely angry or exceedingly doubtful.
And by the second device or technique, you expand yourself, just like an eagle extending its wings before attacking. In a nutshell, you increase the state you are already in, you increase the activity of your mind working at that time. Kṣemarāja recommends this in the cases when you are exceedingly pleased/delighted or when you are running for your life. To make it more simple for you. If you are very delighted by something, you become even more delighted than before (you increase your state of delight by force), or if you run fast and fear a lot while escaping from some sudden danger (e.g. a building about to collapse due to an earthquake), then you force yourself to run faster and fear even more.
By means of any of these devices or techniques you can escape Saṁsāra and enter the realm of Spanda (Consciousness and Bliss replete with Freedom) provided you are constantly prepared for discerning the principle of Spanda at that time. All in all, provided you are a serious yogī constantly on the alert for detecting those moments when Spanda is turned toward you, i.e. when Spanda is fully available for you. If you are not that kind of yogī, the special situation will only be experienced in the same way a common person experiences it, e.g. delighted, scared, etc. So, the difference between yogī-s and common people is that the former are attentive on the principle of Spanda during the time when it reveals itself to them, while the latter just experience all that as a mere external factor sometimes pleasant and sometimes unpleasant. There is an abyss between these two types of beings: yogī and common person.
एवमेतास्ववस्थासूक्तयुक्त्या प्रथमं स्पन्दशक्तिं परिशील्य तदनु तामेवानुसन्दधत्सर्वास्ववस्थासु तद्दार्ढ्यानुप्रवेशमयीं जीवन्मुक्ततामाहरेत्सततोद्युक्त इत्युपदिशति
यामवस्थां समालम्ब्य यदयं मम वक्ष्यति।
तदवश्यं करिष्येऽहमिति सङ्कल्प्य तिष्ठति॥२३॥
सौषुम्नेऽध्वन्यस्तमितो हित्वा ब्रह्माण्डगोचरम्॥२४॥
तदा तस्मिन्महाव्योम्नि प्रलीनशशिभास्करे।
सौषुप्तपदवन्मूढः प्रबुद्धः स्यादनावृतः॥२५॥
अयं शङ्करात्मा स्वभावो यन्मम वक्ष्यत्यभिव्यक्तं सद् यच्चिदानन्दघनमनुभूतपूर्वं स्वरूपं मां विमर्शयिष्यति तदवश्यमहं करिष्ये बहिर्मुखतां हित्वा तत्प्रवण एव भविष्यामीति सङ्कल्प्य निश्चित्य यामतिक्रोधाद्यवस्थास्वनुभूतचरीं चिदानन्दघनां स्पन्दात्मिकामवस्थामवलम्ब्य प्राप्यत्वेनाभिसन्धाय तिष्ठति शमितविकल्पगतिमविकल्पामवस्थामविचलत्वेन भजते यो योगी तदीयां तामवस्थां समाश्रित्य चन्द्रसूर्यावपानः प्राणश्चोभावपि हृदयभूमौ मिलित्वा युगपदेव सौषुम्नेऽध्वनि ब्रह्मनाड्यामूर्ध्वमार्गेणोदानपथेनास्तमितः शाम्यतः कथं ब्रह्माण्डलक्षणं गोचरं हित्वा ब्रह्मबिलाधिष्ठातृब्रह्माधिष्ठितमण्डं मुक्त्वोर्ध्वकवाटान्तां देहव्याप्तिं त्यक्त्वा तदा चोल्लङ्घितदेहव्याप्तिकेऽत एव प्रकर्षेण लीनावुक्तरूपौ शशिभास्करौ यत्र तस्मिन्महाव्योम्नि निःशेषवेद्योपशमरूपे परमाकाशे प्राप्तेऽपि यः शिथिलप्रयत्नतया खेचर्याद्यात्मना गुणादिस्पन्दनिःष्यन्देन व्यामोहितत्वात्सौषुप्तपदवद्भवति सौषुप्तेन च सुप्तमप्युपलक्षितं तेन च स्वप्नसुषुप्तवद् यः शून्यादिभूमिमेवाधितिष्ठति स योगी सम्यगनभिव्यक्तस्वस्वभावो मूढ इत्युच्यते। यथोक्तं श्रीभट्टकल्लटेन
इति योगिनः। इति च
यस्य स्वस्वभावाभिव्यक्तिर्न सम्यग्वृत्ता स स्वप्नादिना मुह्यमानोऽप्रबुद्धो निरुद्धः स्यात्।
इति। यस्तु तत्रापि प्रयत्नपाटवादुद्यन्तृताबलात्क्षणमपि न शिथिलीभवति स तमसानभिभूतत्वाच्चिदाकाशमयत्वेनैवावस्थितः प्रबुद्ध उच्यतेऽत एव सततोद्योगवतैव योगिना भवितव्यम्— इत्यादिष्टं गुरुभिरिति शिवम्॥२५॥
इति श्रीमहामाहेश्वराचार्यक्षेमराजानकनिर्मिते स्पन्दनिर्णये स्वरूपस्पन्दः प्रथमो निःष्यन्दः॥१॥
Evametāsvavasthāsūktayuktyā prathamaṁ spandaśaktiṁ pariśīlya tadanu tāmevānusandadhatsarvāsvavasthāsu taddārḍhyānupraveśamayīṁ jīvanmuktatāmāharetsatatodyukta ityupadiśati
Yāmavasthāṁ samālambya yadayaṁ mama vakṣyati|
Tadavaśyaṁ kariṣye'hamiti saṅkalpya tiṣṭhati||23||
Sauṣumne'dhvanyastamito hitvā brahmāṇḍagocaram||24||
Tadā tasminmahāvyomni pralīnaśaśibhāskare|
Sauṣuptapadavanmūḍhaḥ prabuddhaḥ syādanāvṛtaḥ||25||
Ayaṁ śaṅkarātmā svabhāvo yanmama vakṣyatyabhivyaktaṁ sad yaccidānandaghanamanubhūtapūrvaṁ svarūpaṁ māṁ vimarśayiṣyati tadavaśyamahaṁ kariṣye bahirmukhatāṁ hitvā tatpravaṇa eva bhaviṣyāmīti saṅkalpya niścitya yāmatikrodhādyavasthāsvanubhūtacarīṁ cidānandaghanāṁ spandātmikāmavasthāmavalambya prāpyatvenābhisandhāya tiṣṭhati śamitavikalpagatimavikalpāmavasthāmavicalatvena bhajate yo yogī tadīyāṁ tāmavasthāṁ samāśritya candrasūryāvapānaḥ prāṇaścobhāvapi hṛdayabhūmau militvā yugapadeva sauṣumne'dhvani brahmanāḍyāmūrdhvamārgeṇodānapathenāstamitaḥ śāmyataḥ kathaṁ brahmāṇḍalakṣaṇaṁ gocaraṁ hitvā brahmabilādhiṣṭhātṛbrahmādhiṣṭhitamaṇḍaṁ muktvordhvakavāṭāntāṁ dehavyāptiṁ tyaktvā tadā collaṅghitadehavyāptike'ta eva prakarṣeṇa līnāvuktarūpau śaśibhāskarau yatra tasminmahāvyomni niḥśeṣavedyopaśamarūpe paramākāśe prāpte'pi yaḥ śithilaprayatnatayā khecaryādyātmanā guṇādispandaniḥṣyandena vyāmohitatvātsauṣuptapadavadbhavati sauṣuptena ca suptamapyupalakṣitaṁ tena ca svapnasuṣuptavad yaḥ śūnyādibhūmimevādhitiṣṭhati sa yogī samyaganabhivyaktasvasvabhāvo mūḍha ityucyate| Yathoktaṁ śrībhaṭṭakallaṭena
iti yoginaḥ| Iti ca
Yasya svasvabhāvābhivyaktirna samyagvṛttā sa svapnādinā muhyamāno'prabuddho niruddhaḥ syāt|
iti| Yastu tatrāpi prayatnapāṭavādudyantṛtābalātkṣaṇamapi na śithilībhavati sa tamasānabhibhūtatvāccidākāśamayatvenaivāvasthitaḥ prabuddha ucyate'ta eva satatodyogavataiva yoginā bhavitavyam— Ityādiṣṭaṁ gurubhiriti śivam||25||
Iti śrīmahāmāheśvarācāryakṣemarājānakanirmite spandanirṇaye svarūpaspandaḥ prathamo niḥṣyandaḥ||1||
In this way (evam), (now) the author --Vasugupta-- teaches that (iti upadiśati), by firstly contemplating (prathamam... pariśīlya) the power (śaktim) of Spanda (spanda) in these states (etāsu avasthāsu) by the aforesaid device --technique-- (ukta-yuktyā), (and) afterward (tadanu), by means of constant awareness of (anusandadhat) That --of Spanda-- (tām eva) in all the states (sarvāsu avasthāsu), the person who is constantly prepared (for discerning the principle of Spanda) (satata udyuktaḥ) gets (āharet) the state of liberated while living (jīvat-muktatām), which consists of (mayīm) a penetration (anupraveśa) into Its firmness --into firmness of Spanda-- (tad-dārḍhya), (that is to say, he experiences that the state of Spanda is constantly firm and pervading everything)1 :
Having taken hold (samālambya) of that (yām) (supreme) state (of Spanda) (avasthām), (a great Yogī) remains firm (tiṣṭhati) by resolving (saṅkalpya) "Whatever (yad) this (Self) (ayam) will tell (vakṣyati) me (mama), that (tad) I (aham) will do (kariṣye), certainly (avaśyam... iti)"||23||
By taking refuge (āśritya) in that (supreme state of Spanda) (tām), both (ubhau) moon --i.e. apāna-- (candra) (and) sun --i.e. prāṇa-- (sūryau api) (meet together) in the course or way (adhvani) of Suṣumnā (sauṣumne), (and by rising up) through the upward (ūrdhva) path (mārgeṇa), (and) by (even) abandoning (hitvā) the sphere (gocaram) of the Brahmā's egg (brahmāṇḍa), they both get (finally) dissolved --they come to an end-- (astam itaḥ)||24||
Then (tadā), moon --i.e. apāna-- (śaśi) (and) sun --i.e. prāṇa-- (bhāskare) get reabsorbed (pralīna) in that (tasmin) Great (mahā) Ether (vyomni). (To the partially awakened one, that condition is) like (vat) the state (pada) of deep sleep (sauṣupta), (and thus) he remains (syāt) stupefied (mūḍhaḥ). (However, a Yogī who) is not covered (by the darkness of ignorance) (anāvṛtaḥ) remains (syāt) awakened and enlightened (prabuddhaḥ) (in that very condition)||25||
Having taken hold (avalambya) of that (yām) (supreme) state (avasthām) of Spanda (spanda-ātmikām) which was formerly experienced (anubhūta-carīm) (like) a mass (ghanām) of Consciousness (cid) (and) Bliss (ānanda) during the states (avasthāsu) of excessive anger (atikrodha), etc. (ādi) —(or also,) having agreed that (abhisandhāya) (that state of Spanda which was formerly experienced, etc.) is something which is worth attaining (prāpyatvena)—, such (Great) Yogī (yaḥ yogī) remains firm (tiṣṭhati) —viz. he firmly resorts to (avicalatvena bhajate) a state (avasthām) without thoughts (avikalpām), i.e. (to a state) where the movement (gatim) of thoughts (vikalpa) has been allayed (śamita)— by resolving that (iti saṅkalpya) —i.e. by deciding that (iti niścitya)— whatever (yad) this (Self) (ayam), who is the essential nature (sva-bhāvaḥ) —which is Śaṅkara --an epithet for Śiva-- (śaṅkara-ātmā)—, will tell (vakṣyat) me (mama) —(in other words,) whatever (yad) the previously experienced (anubhūta-pūrvam) essential nature (sva-rūpam), which is (now) (sat) revealed or manifested (abhivyaktam) (like) a mass (ghanam) of Consciousness (cid) (and) Bliss (ānanda), will make me aware of (mām vimarśayiṣyati)—, that (tad) I (aham) will do (kariṣye), certainly (avaśyam) —i.e. by abandoning (hitvā) extroversion (bahirmukhatām), I will devote myself (pravaṇaḥ eva bhaviṣyāmi) to that (tad)—2 . By taking refuge (samāśritya) in that (tām) (supreme) state (of Spanda) (avasthām) of his --of the aforesaid sublime Yogī-- (tadīyām), moon and sun (candra-sūryau) —both (ubhau api) apāna (apānaḥ) and (ca) prāṇa (prāṇaḥ)—, meeting together (militvā) at the stage (bhūmau) of the heart (hṛdaya), viz. (joining together) simultaneously (yugapad eva) in the course or way (adhvani) of Suṣumnā (sauṣumne) —in Brahmanāḍī (brahma-nāḍyām)—, (and afterwards, by rising up) through the upward (ūrdhva) path (mārgeṇa) —through the udāna path (udāna-pathena)—, they both get (finally) dissolved (astam itaḥ), (in a nutshell,) they both come to an end (śāmyataḥ). How (do they both come to an end) (katham)? By abandoning (hitvā) the sphere (gocaram) of the Brahmā's egg (brahma-aṇḍa); (that is,) by leaving (muktvā) the egg --the physical body, in this context-- (aṇḍam) presided over (adhiṣṭhitam) by Brahmā (brahma), who is (also) the presiding deity (adhiṣṭhātṛ) of Brahmabila (or Brahmarandhra) --lit. the bila/randhra (hole) of Brahmā, located at the top of the crown of the head-- (brahma-bila); (or in other words,) by stopping (tyaktvā) to pervade (vyāptim) the physical body (deha) up to (antam) the higher doorway --a.k.a. Brahmarandhra-- (ūrdhva-kavāṭa)3 . And (ca) then (tadā), because of this (atas eva), moon and sun (śaśi-bhāskarau), whose forms or natures (rūpau) have already been mentioned (ukta) --i.e. apāna and prāṇa--, get completely reabsorbed (prakarṣeṇa līnau) in that (tasmin) Great Ether (mahā-vyomni) which (yatra) transcends --lit. which penetrates beyond-- (ullaṅghita... vyāptike) the body (deha). When the Supreme Ether in which all the knowables cease is attained (niḥśeṣa-vedya-upaśama-rūpe parama-ākāśe prāpte api), that yogī (saḥ yogī) —whose essential nature (sva-sva-bhāvaḥ) does not fully manifest itself (samyak-anabhivyakta)— is said to be (ucyate) 'stupefied or deluded' (mūḍhaḥ), who (yaḥ), having relaxed his efforts (śithila-prayatnatayā), remains (bhavati) like (vat) in the state (pada) of deep sleep (sauṣupta) as he is infuated/bewildered (vyāmohitatvāt) by the emanation(s) (niḥṣyandena) of Spanda (spanda) such as qualities of Prakṛti (guṇa), etc. (ādi) whose essence --of the emanations-- (ātmanā) is Khecarī (khecarī), etc. (ādi). And (ca) by the word 'sauṣupta' (sauṣuptena), (the meaning) 'supta' or 'sleep' --dreaming state-- (suptam) (is) also (api) included (upalakṣitam). For that reason (tena ca), (such a stupefied yogī) who (yaḥ) (remains) like (vat) in dream (svapna) (or) deep sleep (suṣupta) (actually) arrives at (adhitiṣṭhati) the stage (bhūmim) of void (śūnya), etc. (ādi)4 |
As (yathā) has been said (uktam) by most venerable Kallaṭa (śrī-bhaṭṭa-kallaṭena) in the case of the (Great) Yogī (yoginaḥ):
"Having taked hold (avalambya) of that (yām) state (avasthām) of Spanda (spanda-ātmikām... iti)"||
And also (ca) (in the case of the partially awakened yogī):
"(In that Great Ether where moon and sun cease,) the unawakened one (aprabuddhaḥ) whose (yasya) manifestation/revelation (abhivyaktiḥ) of his own (sva) essential nature (sva-bhāva) has not thoroughly occurred (na samyak vṛttā), being bewildered/deluded (muhyamānaḥ) by sleep, etc. (svapna-ādinā), remains (syāt) restrained (niruddhaḥ... iti) (as regards entering the aforesaid Great Ether)5 "||
However (tu), he (saḥ) who (yaḥ), due to the intensity (pāṭavāt) of effort (prayatna) (and) the force (balāt) of elevation (udyantṛtā), does not even relax (api na śithilī-bhavati) for a moment (kṣaṇam), is said to be (ucyate) prabuddha --viz. suprabuddha, in this context, or perfectly awakened-- (prabuddhaḥ); (and) since he is not defeated (anabhibhūtatvāt) by the darkness of ignorance (tamasā), he abides (avasthitaḥ) as identical (mayatvena eva) with the (Great) Ether (ākāśa) of Consciousness (cit). For this reason (atas eva), it has been strongly recommended (ādiṣṭam) by the Guru --i.e. Vasugupta, the author of Spandakārikā-s-- (gurubhiḥ) that the yogī should constantly make efforts (satata-udyogavatā eva yoginā bhavitavyam iti). May there be welfare for everybody (iti śivam)!6 ||25||
Here ends (iti) the first (prathamaḥ) section (niḥṣyandaḥ) (called) Spanda (spandaḥ) as one's own nature (sva-rūpa), in the Spandanirṇaya (spanda-nirṇaye) composed (nirmite) by eminent (śrī) Kṣemarājānaka --Kṣemarāja-- (kṣema-rājānaka), spiritual preceptor (ācārya) (and) great (mahā) devotee of Maheśvara, the Great Lord --epithet of Śiva-- (māheśvara)||1||
1 Now the author of Spandakārikā-s is about to explain what happens to the yogī who, being constantly ready for discerning the principle of Spanda, finally succeeds in entering the realm of higher Consciousness. By firstly becoming aware of Spanda in the above-mentioned special situations, that yogī next persists in his holding of Spanda in all the states (not only in the ones during those special life situations). Finally, when he fully realizes that this very Spanda is permanently firm across all the states, he gets Liberation and becomes a jīvanmukta or liberated while living.
2 At first, Kṣemarāja comments on the aphorism 23. After this Great Yogī has taken hold of the state of Spanda which was previously experienced as a mass of Consciousness and Bliss (i.e. Freedom) at the time when he was exceedingly angry, delighted, etc., and after he has arrived at the conclusion (due to the experience of Freedom) that Spanda is worth attaining, he stays in thoughtlessness (in Śāmbhavopāya) by resolving that he will do whatever this Supreme Self will say to him, i.e. whatever his own essential nature replete with Freedom will command him to do, he will do. At that time, the Self of all (Paramaśiva, his essential nature), makes him conscious of something he had never noticed before, and the Great Yogī, with all his vigor, applies himself to the fulfillment of His desire. He does so by abandoning all extroversion (bahirmukhatā), that is, he removes all interest in external things and devotes himself to only the satisfaction of the Highest Self.
3 Now, Kṣemarāja comments on the aphorism 24, i.e. on the process experienced by the Great Yogī once he has entered thoughtlessness. This process can take seconds or days or weeks or months. It all depends on His Will to accelerate or slow down the process. So, when the Great Yogī penetrates into thoughtlessness (into the kingdom of Śāmbhavopāya), his apāna (vital energy entering the system with every inhalation) and prāṇa (vital energy leaving the system with every exhalation), by resorting to the supreme state of Spanda present in this very special person, meet together at the stage of the heart. The heart here is not Anāhatacakra, let alone the physical heart. No, the word hṛdaya (heart) means here 'the center'. And Suṣumnā, the subtle channel running from Mūlādhāracakra (at the root of the spinal column) up to Brahmarandhra in Sahasrāracakra (in the crown of the head), is the real center in this context, because the crucial spiritual processes for the development of the state of liberated while living take place in Suṣumnā. But Suṣumnā consists of three concentric tubes: (1) Tāmasasuṣumnā, (2) Vajra or Vajriṇī, and (3) Brahmanāḍī. The first tube is red, the second one golden and the third one white. Kṣemarāja specifies that encounter of apāna and prāṇa occurs in the innermost tube, viz. Brahmanāḍī.
Later, these two vital energies ascend through the upward path, i.e. the udāna path. There are five main vital energies: prāṇa (reddish orange), apāna (yellow), samāna (green), udāna (purplish blue) and vyāna (pink). In general, there is transformation of prāṇa and apāna into samāna at the stage of the navel, and next of samāna into udāna while ascending beyond the navel, and finally of udāna into vyāna on reaching Brahmarandhra. Anyway, neither Vasugupta nor Kṣemarāja are going into detail about such a transformation evidently. Instead, they directly or indirectly say that it is apāna and prāṇa which travel the whole way through Brahmanāḍī up to Brahmarandhra, and at the end, after even leaving Brahmarandhra (and the physical body, obviously), they get dissolved (come to an end) in the Great Ether... well, Vasugupta could not say this about the Great Ether in the aphorism 24, because the meter did not allow him to continue there (no more space available). He will complete the meaning in the aphorism 25 then. Anyway, with the mention of udāna on the part of Kṣemarāja, he slightly hints at the transformation I was talking about.
Brahmarandhra or Brahmabila is a hole (randhra or bila) located at the very center of Sahasrāracakra in the crown of the head. Many mysterious processes happen there and finally both vital energies move beyond the sphere of the body into the Great Ether. The Great Ether (Mahāvyoma or Mahākāśa) is situated at twelve fingers from the space between the eyebrows, floating over the head. When those vital energies touch the Great Ether, the state of Turyātīta (the state beyond the Fourth one) is unleashed. And with the arrival of Turyātīta, Liberation comes too. During Liberation, the Great Yogī dwells in the infinite expanse of Highest Consciousness, completely alone in His Glory. This state is called too the state of Parāvāk (the Supreme Speech). Before Liberation, the universe looked multifaceted and full of beings, but during Liberation the universe disappears and the Great Yogī discovers that he is totally alone. After this state of the Great Ether, the state of Turyātīta withdraws and is replaced by the state of Turya. While the Yogī moves to Turya (the Fourth state of consciousness, where the Subject is completely unfolded and realized even in the middle of wakefulness, dreaming and deep sleep), the universe starts to appear like a mass of Freedom, and not any more like an external reality replete with different realities. It is impossible to put this experience into words. According to the traditional teaching, the Yogī will remain liberated in Turya till the arrival of Turyātīta again, when his body falls (when it dies). Why can he not experience Turyātīta during the remaining portion of his life after Liberation? Simply because Turyātīta is so colossal that it will scorched his physical body if it lasts longer than a few seconds at the most. It is the 'All' being placed on the poor physical body that struggles to survive during the process.
On the contrary, though the state of Turya is very strong, it is tolerable without having to abandon the body because it just gave up in its fight for survival. The physical body has always a very strong grip on 'life', but when it faces Turyātīta, this grip is just never enough due to the huge difference in magnitude.
4 Now Kṣemarāja comments on the aphorism 25. In this aphorism, it is said that apāna and prāṇa finally enter the Great Ether, and that this condition is like the state of deep sleep to the partially awakened one (the prabuddha) but that the suprabuddha or perfectly awakened (called prabuddha here by Vasugupta... which generates confusion, of course) does not experience deep sleep. Instead, the suprabuddha remains awakened and enlightened. What is all this? I will explain it to you now:
He mentioned the prabuddha or partially awakened as a yogī who had his apāna and prāṇa getting reabsorbed in the Great Ether, but he relaxed his efforts. Consequently, because he did not persist in his striving for the Highest Goal, he is denied access to the Kingdom of Light, and as a result of this denial, he enters into the void of deep sleep. Kṣemarāja explains the same thing but he uses the expression 'that yogī whose essential nature does not fully manifest itself' instead of 'he is denied access to the Kingdom of Light'. And because he cannot enter Supreme Light (Spanda), he falls into the dark void of ignorance (Māyā). Another way to explain this process of 'denial' is with an analogy using fuses. When the voltage is very high, the fuses will go and the entire house will be in darkness.
And this prabuddhayogī is also called 'stupefied or deluded' (mūḍhaḥ - from the root 'muh' - to be deluded, bewildered, infatuated, etc.). Deluded by what? By 'Moha' (delusion). And what is Moha? It is another name for Māyā. Ah, now it is clear, right? Good.
And Māyā has in her bosom all the tattva-s from the 7th one down to the 36th one. So, this unlucky prabuddhayogī, because of relaxing his efforts, is bewildered by the emanations of Spanda which reside in the realm of Māyā (e.g. qualities of Prakṛti such as sattva, rajas and tamas). And the essence of these cheating emanations are the well-known goddesses Khecarī, Gocarī, Dikcarī and Bhūcarī, which I explained in detail in the note 3 under the aphorism 20. Kṣemarāja adds that 'deep sleep' (dreamless sleep) also includes common sleep in which there are dreams. But beyond all these subtleties, the final purport is that this prabuddha or partially awakened one will remain in a state of void, unable to enjoy the Nectar of his own essential nature. He will have to continue striving later (after leaving his current state of void) for attaining the Highest Reality then, i.e. he will have to keep making efforts for becoming a suprabuddha or perfectly awakened. Kṣemarāja does not explain what happens with a suprabuddha in this part of the text (he will do it at the end of his commentary on this set of three aphorisms).
5 Kṣemarāja quotes two fragments by sage Kallaṭa (the main disciple of Vasugupta and author of the famous Vṛtti or Commentary on the Spandakārikā-s of his Guru) in order to show that his commentary is right. In the second quote I added in parentheses at the beginning: 'In that Great Ether where moon and sun cease'. Why? Because it is what Kallaṭa wrote in his commentary but Kṣemarāja does not mention. The entire sentence by Kallaṭa then, so you can understand me better:
तस्मिन्महाव्योम्नि प्रत्यस्तमितशशिभास्करे यस्य स्वस्वभावाभिव्यक्तिर्न सम्यग्वृत्ता स स्वप्नादिना मुह्यमानोऽप्रबुद्धो निरुद्धः स्यात्। - "Tasminmahāvyomni pratyastamitaśaśibhāskare yasya svasvabhāvābhivyaktirna samyagvṛttā sa svapnādinā muhyamāno'prabuddho niruddhaḥ syāt|" - "In that Great Ether (tasmin mahā-vyomni) where moon and sun cease (pratyastamita-śaśi-bhāskare), the unawakened one (aprabuddhaḥ) whose (yasya) manifestation/revelation (abhivyaktiḥ) of his own (sva) essential nature (sva-bhāva) has not thoroughly occurred (na samyak-vṛttā), being bewildered/deluded (muhyamānaḥ) by sleep, etc. (svapna-ādinā), remains (syāt) restrained (niruddhaḥ... iti) (as regards entering the aforesaid Great Ether)".
6 Finally, Kṣemarāja explains the last part of the aphorism 25. He says that the suprabuddha (perfectly awakened) is simply a prabuddha (partially awakened) who is never relaxing even for a moment as he fights his way to Liberation. As I said before, Vasugupta calls suprabuddha prabuddha in this context, surely for the sake of meeting the meter. Unfortunately, in doing so, he added extra confusion for the readers endowed with tender intellects still not forged by the fires of Tantra-s. So, you should keep this in mind, that 'prabuddha' in this aphorism means 'suprabuddha' really. According to venerable Mālinīvijayatantra, the list goes like this:
(1) Abuddha (unawakened), (2) Buddha (awakened), (3) Prabuddha (well awakened) and (4) Suprabuddha (perfectly well awakened).
But while I am following the list in Sanskrit during my translation and explanations, I do not follow the translation into English for the last two kinds of yogī-s. Instead, I use 'partially awakened' for the 'well awakened', and 'perfectly awakened' for the 'perfectly well awakened'. Oh, what a mess! Nice!
All in all, the suprabuddha is not overcome by the darkness of ignorance (by Moha or Māyā) and never falls into any void as the prabuddha. And because he remains awakened and enlightened even in the condition where the other inferior yogī-s just fall into the darkness of Māyā, he is said to be identical with that Great Ether of Consciousness which is the Great Lord (Paramaśiva). This is Liberation from miserable bondage full of never-ending pain.
Kṣemarāja says at the end of his commentary, that Vasugupta strongly recommends all spiritual aspirants to make efforts for the attainment of such divine state which is one's own essential nature. Any relaxation in your efforts in the last stages and you will easily enter into the darkness of Moha as your essential nature which is Light is denied. OK, this is very easy to understand now with all my long explanation. The rest will be understood by direct experience.
Este documento foi concebido por Gabriel Pradīpaka, um dos dois fundadores deste site, e guru espiritual versado em idioma Sânscrito e filosofia Trika.
Para maior informação sobre Sânscrito, Yoga e Filosofia Indiana; ou se você quiser fazer um comentário, perguntar algo ou corrigir algum erro, sinta-se à vontade para enviar um e-mail: Este é nosso endereço de e-mail.
|Voltar a I. 17-21||Continuar lendo II. 1-7|