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 Learning Sanskrit - Verbs - 1 (English)

Verbs: Terminations


 Introduction

Hi, Gabriel Pradīpaka once again. This document is merely a compilation of sets of endings or terminations. The main purpose of it is to help you during your study of the Sanskrit verbs. Take this document as a useful tool and a complement to those documents dealing with Sanskrit verbs. It is also a useful document if you are studying Sanskrit translation and do not remember a particular termination. This is unforgivable, because there are only about 324 different terminations. How might you forget one termination when there is just a little handful of them to remember? What kind of translator are you with such a weak memory? Unforgivable!

Joking apart, also remember that the only two Tenses and two Moods affected by the 10 Gaṇa-s or Houses are Present and Imperfect Tenses, along with Imperative and Potential Moods. The rest of Tenses and Moods are not affected by that division into Gaṇa-s or Houses.

I will put "all" terminations in this document, that is, those taught by me to date and those that I have not taught you yet. I am doing that because I do not want you to think that I do not know the rest of terminations. Yes, I know them, be sure. Please, calm down and do not start counting the terminations. Yes, there are "too many"... but remember that you are studying the worst part of Sanskrit grammar: Sanskrit Verbs. Hey, smile and be happy, God loves you, haha. You may check the Aorist Tense if you like to go adventuring.

Ah!, the terminations of the Vedic Subjunctive Tense is not being included for the time being.

Finally, remember that this document is only exhibiting the sets of terminations. How these terminations are added to the root and so on, is explained in the respective Verbs documents. The only exception has been the Periphrastic Perfect Tense (included in the Perfect Tense), as I had to explain why it has no terminations of his own. The terminations now.

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 Present Tense (LAṬ)

  TERMINATIONS OF THE PRESENT TENSE ONLY FOR GAṆA-S 1, 4, 6 AND 10
PARASMAIPADA ĀTMANEPADA
Singular Dual Plural Singular Dual Plural
1st Person मि वस् - वः मस् - मः वहे महे
mi vas(ḥ)* mas(ḥ)* i vahe mahe
2nd Person सि थस् - थः से इथे ध्वे
si thas(ḥ)* tha se ithe dhve
3rd Person ति तस् - तः अन्ति ते इते अन्ते
ti tas(ḥ)* anti te ite ante
* (ḥ) is added for showing that Visarga must be substituted for "s" on certain occasions according to the rules of Visarga Sandhi
  TERMINATIONS OF THE PRESENT TENSE ONLY FOR GAṆA-S 2, 3, 5, 7, 8 AND 9
PARASMAIPADA ĀTMANEPADA
Singular Dual Plural Singular Dual Plural
1st Person मि वस् - वः मस् - मः वहे महे
mi vas(ḥ)* mas(ḥ)* e vahe mahe
2nd Person सि थस् - थः से आथे ध्वे
si thas(ḥ)* tha se āthe dhve
3rd Person ति तस् - तः अन्ति ते आते अते
ti tas(ḥ)* anti te āte ate
* (ḥ) is added for showing that Visarga must be substituted for "s" on certain occasions according to the rules of Visarga Sandhi

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 Imperfect Tense (LAṄ)

  TERMINATIONS OF THE IMPERFECT TENSE ONLY FOR GAṆA-S 1, 4, 6 AND 10
PARASMAIPADA ĀTMANEPADA
Singular Dual Plural Singular Dual Plural
1st Person अम् वहि महि
am va ma i vahi mahi
2nd Person स् - : तम् थास् - थाः इथाम् ध्वम्
s(ḥ)* tam ta thās(ḥ)* ithām dhvam
3rd Person त् ताम् अन् इताम् अन्त
t tām an ta itām anta
* (ḥ) is added for showing that Visarga must be substituted for "s" on certain occasions according to the rules of Visarga Sandhi
  TERMINATIONS OF THE IMPERFECT TENSE ONLY FOR GAṆA-S 2, 3, 5, 7, 8 AND 9
PARASMAIPADA ĀTMANEPADA
Singular Dual Plural Singular Dual Plural
1st Person अम् वहि महि
am va ma i vahi mahi
2nd Person स् - : तम् थास् - थाः आथाम् ध्वम्
s(ḥ)* tam ta thās(ḥ)* āthām dhvam
3rd Person त् ताम् अन् आताम् अत
t tām an ta ātām ata
* (ḥ) is added for showing that Visarga must be substituted for "s" on certain occasions according to the rules of Visarga Sandhi

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 Imperative Mood (LOṬ)

  TERMINATIONS OF THE IMPERATIVE MOOD ONLY FOR GAṆA-S 1, 4, 6 AND 10
PARASMAIPADA ĀTMANEPADA
Singular Dual Plural Singular Dual Plural
1st Person आनि आव आम आवहै आमहै
āni āva āma ai āvahai āmahai
2nd Person nothing or तात् तम् स्व इथाम् ध्वम्
nothing or "tāt"1 tam ta sva ithām dhvam
3rd Person तु or तात् ताम् अन्तु ताम् इताम् अन्ताम्
tu or "tāt"1 tām antu tām itām antām
1 The termination "tāt" is "optionally" used when you want to express a blessing
  TERMINATIONS OF THE IMPERATIVE MOOD ONLY FOR GAṆA-S 2, 3, 5, 7, 8 AND 9
PARASMAIPADA ĀTMANEPADA
Singular Dual Plural Singular Dual Plural
1st Person आनि आव आम आवहै आमहै
āni āva āma ai āvahai āmahai
2nd Person हि तम् स्व आथाम् ध्वम्
hi tam ta sva āthām dhvam
3rd Person तु ताम् अन्तु ताम् आताम् अताम्
tu tām antu tām ātām atām

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 Potential Mood (VIDHILIṄ)

  TERMINATIONS OF THE POTENTIAL MOOD ONLY FOR GAṆA-S 1, 4, 6 AND 10
PARASMAIPADA ĀTMANEPADA
Singular Dual Plural Singular Dual Plural
1st Person ईयम् ईव ईम ईय ईवहि ईमहि
īyam īva īma īya īvahi īmahi
2nd Person ईः ईतम् ईत ईथाः ईयाथाम् ईध्वम्
īḥ ītam īta īthāḥ īyāthām īdhvam
3rd Person ईत् ईताम् ईयुः ईत ईयाताम् ईरन्
īt ītām īyuḥ īta īyātām īran
  TERMINATIONS OF THE POTENTIAL MOOD ONLY FOR GAṆA-S 2, 3, 5, 7, 8 AND 9
PARASMAIPADA ĀTMANEPADA
Singular Dual Plural Singular Dual Plural
1st Person याम् याव याम ईय ईवहि ईमहि
yām yāva yāma īya īvahi īmahi
2nd Person यास् - याः यातम् यात ईथाः ईयाथाम् ईध्वम्
yās(ḥ)* yātam yāta īthāḥ īyāthām īdhvam
3rd Person यात् याताम् युस् ईत ईयाताम् ईरन्
yāt yātām yus īta īyātām īran
* (ḥ) is added for showing that Visarga must be substituted for "s" on certain occasions according to the rules of Visarga Sandhi

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 Periphrastic Future Tense (LUṬ)

  TERMINATIONS OF THE PERIPHRASTIC FUTURE TENSE
PARASMAIPADA ĀTMANEPADA
Singular Dual Plural Singular Dual Plural
1st Person तास्मि तास्वः तास्मः ताहे तास्वहे तास्महे
tāsmi tāsvaḥ tāsmaḥ tāhe tāsvahe tāsmahe
2nd Person तासि तास्थः तास्थ तासे तासाथे ताध्वे
tāsi tāsthaḥ tāstha tāse tāsāthe tādhve
3rd Person ता तारौ तारः ता तारौ तारः
tārau tāraḥ tārau tāraḥ

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 Simple Future Tense (ḶṬ)

  TERMINATIONS OF THE SIMPLE FUTURE TENSE
PARASMAIPADA ĀTMANEPADA
Singular Dual Plural Singular Dual Plural
1st Person स्यामि स्यावः स्यामः स्ये स्यावहे स्यामहे
syāmi syāvaḥ syāmaḥ sye syāvahe syāmahe
2nd Person स्यसि स्यथः स्यथ स्यसे स्येथे स्यध्वे
syasi syathaḥ syatha syase syethe syadhve
3rd Person स्यति स्यतः स्यन्ति स्यते स्येते स्यन्ते
syati syataḥ syanti syate syete syante

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 Conditional Mood (ḶṄ)

  TERMINATIONS OF THE CONDITIONAL MOOD
PARASMAIPADA ĀTMANEPADA
Singular Dual Plural Singular Dual Plural
1st Person स्यम् स्याव स्याम स्ये स्यावहि स्यामहि
syam syāva syāma sye syāvahi syāmahi
2nd Person स्यः स्यतम् स्यत स्यथाः स्येथाम् स्यध्वम्
syaḥ syatam syata syathāḥ syethām syadhvam
3rd Person स्यत् स्यताम् स्यन् स्यत स्येताम् स्यन्त
syat syatām syan syata syetām syanta

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 Perfect Tense (LIṬ)

  TERMINATIONS OF THE REDUPLICATIVE PERFECT TENSE
PARASMAIPADA ĀTMANEPADA
Singular Dual Plural Singular Dual Plural
1st Person वहे महे
a va ma e vahe mahe
2nd Person अथुस् - अथुः से आथे ध्वे
tha athus(ḥ)* a se āthe dhve
3rd Person अतुस् - अतुः उस् - उः आते इरे
a atus(ḥ)* us(ḥ)* e āte ire
* (ḥ) is added for showing that Visarga must be substituted for "s" on certain occasions according to the rules of Visarga Sandhi
No formal terminations TERMINATIONS OF THE PERIPHRASTIC PERFECT TENSE
Periphrastic Perfect Tense does not have its own terminations, but it is formed from the particle "ām" (optionally changed to "āñ" before "c") plus the reduplicated Perfect of the roots "kṛ" (to do), "bhū" (to become) or "as" (to be). For example: the reduplicated Perfect of "kṛ" (3rd person singular, Parasmaipada) is "cakāra". Now add "ām" to it: ām + cakāra = āṁcakāra or āñcakāra (this must be added to the root, which in turn undergoes some changes I explain to you in the respective document dealing with Periphrastic Perfect Tense). In Ātmanepada, the result would have been: "āṁcakre" or "āñcakre".

If I were to use the reduplicated Perfect of "bhū" and "as" instead, the result would be: "āmbabhūva" and "āmāsa" respectively. Since the root "bhū" is Parasmaipadī (rarely Ātmanepadī) and "as" is Ātmanepadī, there is only one set of terminations to be used in all situations. Thus, to form the Periphrastic Perfect Tense of any root taking either Parasmaipada (i.e. Parasmaipadī root) or Ātmanepada (i.e. Ātmanepadī root) or both, you have only one option if you use these roots.

On the contrary, the root "kṛ" accepts both Parasmaipada and Ātmanepada. So, if you use this root to form the Periphrastic Perfect Tense of any root, you must apply the corresponding Parasmaipadī or Ātmanepadī forms according to the situation. For instance, if the root is only Parasmaipadī, you only use the Parasmaipadī form of "kṛ". In turn, if it is only Ātmanepadī, you only use the Ātmanepadī form of "kṛ". And if it accepts both Parasmaipada and Ātmanepada, you must use the Parasmaipadī form of "kṛ" in Parasmaipada, and the Ātmanepadī form of "kṛ" in Ātmanepada. This is obvious and completely coherent, isn't it? Anything but simple... what a sick fellow I am!

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 Aorist Tense (LUṄ)

1st variety TERMINATIONS OF THE AORIST TENSE
Exclusively PARASMAIPADA
Singular Dual Plural
1st Person अम्
am va ma
2nd Person स् - : तम्
s(ḥ)* tam ta
3rd Person त् ताम् अस् - अः
t tām as(ḥ)*
* (ḥ) is added for showing that Visarga must be substituted for "s" on certain occasions according to the rules of Visarga Sandhi
2nd variety TERMINATIONS OF THE AORIST TENSE
PARASMAIPADA ĀTMANEPADA
Singular Dual Plural Singular Dual Plural
1st Person अम् वहि महि
am va ma i vahi mahi
2nd Person स् - : तम् थास् - थाः इथाम् ध्वम्
s(ḥ)* tam ta thās(ḥ)* ithām dhvam
3rd Person त् ताम् अन् इताम् अन्त
t tām an ta itām anta
* (ḥ) is added for showing that Visarga must be substituted for "s" on certain occasions according to the rules of Visarga Sandhi
3rd variety TERMINATIONS OF THE AORIST TENSE
PARASMAIPADA ĀTMANEPADA
Singular Dual Plural Singular Dual Plural
1st Person The same terminations as those belonging to the 2nd variety, thank God!
2nd Person
3rd Person
4th variety TERMINATIONS OF THE AORIST TENSE
PARASMAIPADA ĀTMANEPADA
Singular Dual Plural Singular Dual Plural
1st Person सम् स्व स्म सि स्वहि स्महि
sam sva sma si svahi smahi
2nd Person सीः स्तम् स्त स्थाः साथाम् ध्वम्
sīḥ stam sta sthāḥ sāthām dhvam
3rd Person सीत् स्ताम् सुः स्त साताम् सत
sīt stām suḥ sta sātām sata
5th variety TERMINATIONS OF THE AORIST TENSE
PARASMAIPADA ĀTMANEPADA
Singular Dual Plural Singular Dual Plural
1st Person इषम् इष्व इष्म इषि इष्वहि इष्महि
iṣam iṣva iṣma iṣi iṣvahi iṣmahi
2nd Person ईः इष्टम् इष्ट इष्ठाः इषाथाम् इध्वम्
īḥ iṣṭam iṣṭa iṣṭhāḥ iṣāthām idhvam
3rd Person ईत् इष्टाम् इषुः इष्ट इषाताम् इषत
īt iṣṭām iṣuḥ iṣṭa iṣātām iṣata
6th variety TERMINATIONS OF THE AORIST TENSE
Exclusively PARASMAIPADA
Singular Dual Plural
1st Person सिषम् सिष्व सिष्म
siṣam siṣva siṣma
2nd Person सीः सिष्टम् सिष्ट
sīḥ siṣṭam siṣṭa
3rd Person सीत् सिष्टाम् सिषुः
sīt siṣṭām siṣuḥ
7th variety TERMINATIONS OF THE AORIST TENSE
PARASMAIPADA ĀTMANEPADA
Singular Dual Plural Singular Dual Plural
1st Person सम् साव साम सि सावहि सामहि
sam sāva sāma si sāvahi sāmahi
2nd Person सः सतम् सत सथाः साथाम् सध्वम्
saḥ satam sata sathāḥ sāthām sadhvam
3rd Person सत् सताम् सन् सत साताम् सन्त
sat satām san sata sātām santa

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 Benedictive Mood (ĀŚIRLIṄ)

  TERMINATIONS OF THE BENEDICTIVE MOOD
PARASMAIPADA ĀTMANEPADA
Singular Dual Plural Singular Dual Plural
1st Person यासम् यास्व यास्म सीय सीवहि सीमहि
yāsam yāsva yāsma sīya sīvahi sīmahi
2nd Person याः यास्तम् यास्त सीष्ठाः सीयास्थाम् सीध्वम्
yāḥ yāstam yāsta sīṣṭhāḥ sīyāsthām sīdhvam
3rd Person यात् यास्ताम् यासुः सीष्ट सीयास्ताम् सीरन्
yāt yāstām yāsuḥ sīṣṭa sīyāstām sīran

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 Further Information

Gabriel Pradīpaka

This document was conceived by Gabriel Pradīpaka, one of the two founders of this site, and spiritual guru conversant with Sanskrit language and Trika philosophy.

For further information about Sanskrit, Yoga and Indian Philosophy; or if you simply want to comment, ask a question or correct a mistake, feel free to contact us: This is our e-mail address.