Sanskrit & Trika Shaivism (Magyar-Főoldal)

JavaScript letiltva! Ellenőrizd ezt a linket!

 Śrīmadbhāgavatapurāṇa (Srimad Bhagavata Purana): Section 1 - Lesson 1 (Pure)

Skandha 1 - Adhyāya 1 - Pure Translation


This is the first Adhyāya (Lesson) belonging to the first Skandha (Section). It consists of 23 stanzas.

There will be no formal commentary, but into the explanatory notes I will insert, when necessary, fragments of the authoritative commentary of Śrīdhara Svāmī. There will be alternative translations too in order to enrich the meanings.

This is a "pure translation" document, that is, there will be no original Sanskrit, but sometimes there will be a minimal quantity of transliterated Sanskrit in the translations themselves of the stanzas. Of course, there will not be any word for word translation. Anyway, there will be very often transliterated Sanskrit in the explanatory notes. If you are a blind person using a screen reader and do not want to read the notes, or simply if you are not blind but want to skip the notes, click on the respective "Skip the notes" link to jump directly onto the next stanza.

Important: All that is in parentheses and italicized within the translation has been added by me in order to complete the sense of a particular phrase or sentence. In turn, all that is between double hyphen (--...--) constitutes clarifying further information also added by me.


 Stanzas 1-10

Next Adhyāya

Om̐, salutation to the Fortunate Vāsudeva1:

Let us always think of the Highest Truth, which is devoid of deception --i.e. Māyā or illusion--, (as staying) in His own Abode. (The Highest Truth is) the Self-ruler that knows the things by means of association or connection and also in the opposite way, (and) by whom the creation, etc. of this (universe is carried out. It was Him) who spoke the Vedic knowledge to the primordial sage --i.e. to Brahmā--2 by His Heart . The learned and wise men (who are conversant with) that (Vedic knowledge) become bewildered just as the water (may be erroneously seen) in the fire, (or) the earth in the water. (He is) certainly (the One) in whom the creations of the three Guṇa-s or qualities of Prakṛti3 (interact) reciprocally||1||
Skip the notes

1 "Vāsudeva" is an epithet of Lord Kṛṣṇa. It means "descendant of Vasudeva". Kṛṣṇa is one of the incarnations of Lord Viṣṇu. The father of Kṛṣṇa was Vasudeva. Hence the meaning of the epithet. There are more profound implications in the meaning of Vāsudeva, but this is enough for now.

2 The god Brahmā, in charge of the universal creation, is said to have been born in a lotus sprung from the navel of Nārāyaṇa (an epithet of Lord Viṣṇu).

3 The three Guṇa-s or qualities are: Sattva (goodness, light, knowledge and the like), Rajas (passion, action, pain and the like) and Tamas (darkness, dullness, laziness and the like). Prakṛti is the Primal Nature. Another name of Prakṛti is "Pradhāna". There are different viewpoints about the relationship of Prakṛti and the three Guṇa-s. According to the Sāṅkhya system, the latter constitute the former, while Viśiṣṭādvaita-vedānta states that the three Guṇa-s are the qualities of Prakṛti but not its constituents, and so on. Well, it is a complex subject as you can see. More information about it in First Steps (2) and First Steps (3).

 Here, in the venerable and beautiful Bhāgavatapurāṇa composed by the great sage --i.e. Vedavyāsa, or Vyāsa plainly--, the supreme Dharma1 that is without any deceit or fraud (is expounded. In turn,) the genuine Reality which gives welfare (and) uproots the three pains or afflictions is made known for the noble beings lacking envy or jealousy. (Therefore,) what is the use of other (scriptures)? In this world, the Lord is secluded in the heart2 at once, (to wit,) immediately, by the virtuous people who wish to hear (the Śrīmadbhāgavatapurāṇa)||2||
Skip the notes

 1 Although this word may be translated as "religion, duty, righteousness, etc.", no "single" word in English can translate it adequately in all contexts. That is why, I will not translate it in the text itself ever. Now an approximate translation: Dharma is "that which holds everything together", to wit, "it is the foundation on which all social, moral and religious order is built". Even by using long sentences, the meaning cannot rightly expressed, as you can see. Well, then Dharma is... Dharma. Remember what I said previously when you read this term again in the scripture.

2 This means, metaphorically speaking, that the Lord, though completely free, is secluded in the heart of all virtuous people who desires to hear this scripture, which narrates mostly His pastimes and stories.

 Ah, men full of feeling1 who have a taste for the beautiful and poetical on the earth, drink constantly till dissolution2 the elixir or sap (called) Śrīmadbhāgavatapurāṇa, which consists of the nectarean fluid (that came out) from the mouth of Śuka --the son of Vyāsa-- (and is) the fruit fallen down from the wishing tree (known as) Nigama --i.e. the Veda-s--!||3||
Skip the notes

 1 According to Śrīdhara "rāsikāḥ" means "rāsikajñāḥ" or "knowers (jñāḥ) of the Rasa-s (rasa)". The term "Rasa" in turn means "flavor" in the sense of "sentiment". They are differently enumerated. One of the interpretations list the following: (1) śṛṅgāra (love), (2) vīra (heroism), (3) bībhatsa (disgust), (4) raudre (fury), (5) hāsya (mirth), (6) bhayānaka (terror), (7) karuṇa (pity), (8) adbhūta (wonder), (9) śānta (tranquility or contentment) and (10) vātsalya (paternal fondness). Another interpretation speaks of five Rasa-s in the sense of "degree-s of devotion to the Lord": (a) śānti (peace), (b) dāsya (servitude or service), (c) sākhya (friendship), (d) vātsalya (paternal fondness) and (e) mādhurya (conjugal love).

2 The term "ālayam" literally means "till (ā) dissolution (layam)". According to Śrīdhara: "... Ālayaṁ layo mokṣaḥ...", i.e. "... Ālayam (ālayam) (means: till) dissolution (layaḥ) (or) Liberation (moksaḥ)...". Liberation is Emancipation or Enlightenment.

 The Seers, beginning with Śaunaka, performed a great Soma sacrifice1 lasting a thousand years in the Naimiṣa woods --i.e. Naimiṣa forest--, a place (sacred to) Animiṣa --i.e. "the One who does not wink", an epithet of Viṣṇu--. (They did so) in order to attain the Celestial World2||4||
Skip the notes

1 Firstly, the real word is "sattra" [here it appears declined in Accusative case as "sattram" (see Declension)], and not "satra". The latter is an erroneous but common way to write "sattra". Secondly, a "sattra" is not any sacrifice but one in which Soma (the juice of the Soma plant) is offered in libations to the gods. Of course, this subject is much more complicated and cannot be fully explained in a mere note.

2 Śrīdhara gives an elaborate explanation of "svargāya lokāya":
"... Svaḥ svarge gīyata iti svargāyo hariḥ sa eva loko bhaktānāṁ nivāsasthānaṁ tasmai| Tatprāptaya ityarthaḥ|...", to wit, "Hari or Viṣṇu (hariḥ) (is named) Svargāya (svargāyaḥ), (because) He Himself (svaḥ) is praised by means of songs (gīyate) in Svarga or Heaven (svarge... iti). That (saḥ) very (eva) world or loka (lokaḥ), which is (also) the place (sthānam) of residence (nivāsa) of (His) devotees (bhaktānām), is intended for that (i.e. for praising Hari with songs) (tasmai). (The Ṛṣi-s or Seers look to) attain (prāptayaḥ) that (loka or world) (tad). This is the sense (iti arthaḥ)".

Śrīdhara uses an acrostic interpretation of "Svargāya" as meaning an epithet of Hari: "One who is praised by songs (gāya) in Svar or Heaven (svar)" -Note that "Svar" and "Svarga" are synonymous-. Anyway, careful here because the word "svargāya" in the original Vyāsa's text is the Dative case of the noun "Svarga" (Heaven) and means "to attain Svarga". In turn, "Svargāya" such as explained by Śrīdhara is a noun in its crude form or Prātipadika (i.e. no declension) and means what I said before. That is why he had to decline it in Nominative case to include it in his sentence: "svargāyaḥ". On the other hand, "lokāya" means "to attain the World". So, the phrase "svargāya lokāya" literally means "to attain Svarga, to attain the World", and since Svarga is Heaven, a better English translation is "to attain the Celestial World". If Vyāsa had meant to say "to attain the world of Svargāya, i.e. the world of Hari", he would have joined both terms together: "svargāyalokāya" instead of "svargāya lokāya", but this is not the case as the words are separate in the stanza. Therefore, the interpretation of Śrīdhara is poetical and worthy to be heard but not one to be taken literally. The translation I have given is the right one in my opinion. Hopefully, you have fully understood what I meant. Oh yes, this is such a complex topic... but you are in the Sanskrit universe now, where nothing is really simple, hehe. Read the subsection "Declension" within the "Sanskrit" section if you want more information about declension.

Still, Śrīdhara shows clearly something: Svargaloka or the Celestial World referred to by Vyāsa is not the usual "Indra's heaven" in this context. Indra's heaven is a temporary world and those great Seers would never be desirous to reach such a miserable place. This should be clearly understood because the term "Svargaloka" is commonly interpreted as "Indra's heaven". And who is Indra?... Well, it is a long story I cannot tell you here.

 However, on a certain time, those sages offering oblations to the sacrificial fire in the early morning, after having honored Sūta, who was sitting (there as well), asked (him) respectfully about this||5||

The Seers said :

Oh faultless one, those dharmic1 scriptures (such as) Purāṇa-s --ancient stories-- and Itihāsa2 have been explained as well as studied by you indeed!||6||
Skip the notes

1 "Dharmic" means "related or based on Dharma". See Note 1 under stanza 2 for more information about Dharma Go to note 1 under stanza 2 

2 Itihāsa are the historical accounts such as Mahābhārata and Rāmāyaṇa.

 Oh Sūta, glorious Bādarāyaṇa --i.e. Vyāsa--, the best among the knowers of the Veda-s, and other sages seeing --lit. knowing-- both distant and near --or also, past and future--1, knew them --i.e. those aforesaid dharmic scriptures-- (too)||7||
Skip the notes

1 Śrīdhara interprets "para-avara" as "saguṇa-nirguṇa" such as he puts it in his commentary:
"Parāvare saguṇanirguṇe brahmaṇī vidantīti tathā", i.e., "Those who know (vidanti) para-avara (para-avare), i.e. saguṇa --that which is endowed with attributes-- and nirguṇa --that which has no attributes-- (saguṇa-nirguṇe), also (iti tathā) know (vidanti) those two (areas of the) Vedic knowledge --viz. Purāṇa-s and Itihāsa-- (brahmaṇī)".
Saguṇa and nirguṇa ultimately mean "that which is manifest" and "that which is not manifest". Then, those other sages are able to see or know both that which is manifest and that which is not manifest according to Śrīdhara.

 Oh excellent man!, you truly know all that due to their Grace1. The guru-s2 doubtless3 speak to a gentle4 disciple about that which is secret and mysterious||8||
Skip the notes

1 Due to the Grace of Vyāsa and those other sages.

2 The term "guru" is generally translated as "spiritual preceptor", but, in the highest sense, a guru is the embodiment of divine Grace. Hence, I always prefer to leave the word "guru" untranslated.

3 Here "api" (even, also, etc.) strengthens the Potential Mood, i.e. it strengthens "brūyuḥ" (lit. "they would speak") derived from the root "brū" (to speak). Also, in this case the Potential Mood has force of Present Tense and it must be translated as "they speak" and not "they would speak". Oh well, some grammatical explanations to make the things any more interesting.

4 "Snigdhasya" comes from "snigdha". Śrīdhara interprets "snigdha" as "premavat" or "full of love".

 Therefore, oh long-lived one!, whatever you --bhavān-- has ascertained straightforwardly --also, "frankly, honestly"-- regarding that (secret and mysterious knowledge), please, tell us about that, (because it is) invariably auspicious and conducive to welfare1 of men2||9||
Skip the notes

1 On one hand, Śrīdhara interprets the "avyaya" or indeclinable term "ekāntatas" as "avyabhicāri" (permanent, invariable) in the sense that that secret and mysterious knowledge is imperishable. On the other hand, "śreyas" is the same as "sādhana" (effective, efficient, leading straight to a goal) to him.

2 The word "puṁsām" derives from "puṁs" (man). The word "puṁs" may also be interpreted as "servant or attendant", but only in this Purāṇa (i.e. in the Śrīmadbhāgavatapurāṇa). Of course, by "men" the author is including "women" as well. That is why, another meaning of "puṁs" is "human being". Anyway, I stuck to the literal translation of the term, i.e. "man". Remember this when you see this word again later on, please.

 Oh refined one --i.e. of honorable parentage--1!, people in this Kaliyuga2 (are) mostly short-lived, lazy, very slow-witted, unfortunate (and) undoubtedly oppressed3||10||
Skip the notes

1 According to Śrīdhara "sabhya" means "sādho" (Oh holy one!).

2 Kaliyuga is the age of quarrel or discord. Read the introduction to Śrīmadbhāgavatapurāṇa (approximately in the middle of the text).

3 Śrīdhara adds "... upadrutā rogādibhiḥ", i.e. "... oppressed (upadrutāḥ) by disease (roga), etc. (ādibhiḥ)".


 Stanzas 11-23

 (There are) many (scriptures)1 (and) a lot of special duties2 to be heard (in those scriptures) separately --i.e. according to different divisions--. For this reason, here, oh holy one!, by extracting their --i.e. of such scriptures-- essence through (your) wisdom and reflection, speak for the benefit of the living beings. By that (act, one's own) self becomes extremely pleased3||11||
Skip the notes

1 According to Śrīdhara "bhūrīṇi" means "bahuśāstra..." or "many (bahu) scriptures (śāstra)...".

2 The term "karmāṇi" is generally translated as "actions", but in this context I prefer to interpret it as "special duties" by following the Śrīdhara's concept: "Bhūrīṇi karmāṇyanuṣṭheyāni yeṣu tāni", in other words, "('Bhūrikarmāṇi' in the stanza means) those (tāni) many (bhūrīṇi) duties (karmāṇi) to be observed (anuṣṭheyāni) (occurring) in which --i.e. in those many scriptures previously described-- (yeṣu)".

3 Śrīdhara makes the meaning of this last sentence clear: "Yenoddhṛtavacanenātmā buddhiḥ samprasīdati samyagupaśāmyati", i.e. "By means of those (yena) extracted (uddhṛta) words (vacanena), (i.e. by means of the essence of such scriptures), one's own self (ātmā), (to wit,) buddhi or intellect (buddhiḥ) becomes pleased (samprasīdati). (In short,) it becomes completely calm (samyak upaśāmyati)".

 Prosperity to you1, oh Sūta! You know with which intention2 the Fortunate One --i.e. Kṛṣṇa--, who is the Lord or Protector of (His) followers, was born (as the son) of Vasudeva by Devakī||12||
Skip the notes

1 Something like "God bless you!".

2 Śrīdhara explains this clearly: "Yasyārthaviśeṣasya cikīrṣayā vasudevasya bhāryāyāṁ devakyāṁ jātaḥ", that is, "(Sūta knew) with which intention (yasya... cikīrsayā), i.e. the special (viśeṣasya) goal (artha) of Him --Kṛṣṇa-- (yasya) who had been born (jātaḥ) (as the son) of Vasudeva (vasudevasya) by (his) wife (bhāryāyām) Devakī (devakyām)".

 Please1, deign to describe that for us, who are desirous to hear (you, since) His Avatāra or Incarnation (is always) for the welfare and prosperity of the living beings2||13||
Skip the notes

1 According to Śrīdhara, "aṅga" means in this context "he sūta" (oh Sūta!).

2 This is made clear by Śrīdhara: "Sāmānyatastāvadyasyāvatāro bhūtānāṁ kṣemāya pālanāya| Bhavāya samṛddhaye", i.e. "His (yasya) Avatāra or Incarnation (avatāraḥ) is in general (sāmānyatas) really (tāvad) for the welfare (ksemāya) of the living beings (bhūtānām), (that is, such an Incarnation is) for protecting (them) (pālanāya). (The word) 'bhavāya' (bhayāya) (means) 'samṛddhaye' - 'for samṛddhi or great prosperity and success' (samṛddhaye)".
Of course, the term "Avatāra", despite it is in singular number, it refers to "all" Viṣṇu's Avatāra-s or Incarnations.

 The one who, having entered into the terrible Saṁsāra or Transmigration1, pronounces His Name, (even) devoid of will (to do so), he is at once completely liberated of that (Saṁsāra. In fact,) fear itself is afraid of that (Name)||14||
Skip the notes

 1 Saṁsāra or Transmigration is the eternally turning round wheel in which one is born to die and die to be reborn.

 Oh Sūta, the pacific --lit. "walking in tranquility"-- sages who have gone for refuge and protection to His feet, purify at once the ones who are touched or(, figuratively,) bathed (by them, just as) the waters of Gaṅgā --i.e. the river Ganges-- (purify) when frequently visited --in other words, those sages purify immediately, while the waters of Ganges need to be visited frequently to do so--1||15||
Skip the notes

1 My explanation occurring between double hyphens is confirmed by Śrīdhara: "Svardhunī gaṅgā tasyā āpastu... anusevayā punanti na tu sadya...", i.e. "But (tu) its (tasyāḥ) waters (āpas), (in short, the waters) of Ganges (gaṅgā), (which is also known as) Svardhunī --lit. 'river of heaven'-- (svardhunī)... purify (punanti) when frequently visited (anusevayā) but (na) not (na) immediately (sadyaḥ)...".

 Who possibly, if he desires (to attain) purification, would not listen to the glory --also, "fame"--, which removes the impurity (called) Kaliyuga --the age of quarrel or discord--, of that Fortunate One whose actions must be praised by auspicious stanzas1?||16||
Skip the notes

1 The Śrīdhara's commentary deserves to be quoted in its entirety: "Puṇyaślokairīḍyāni stavyāni karmāṇi yasya tasya yaśaḥ| Kalimalāpahaṁ saṁsāraduḥkhopaśamanam||16||", in short, "(The first part of his commentary specially indicates the purport of 'puṇyaślokeḍyakarmaṇaḥ':) To the glory --also, "fame"-- (yaśas) of that (Fortunate One) (tasya) whose (yasya) actions (karmāṇi) (are) praiseworthy (stavyāni), i.e. (whose actions) must be praised (īdyāni) by auspicious (puṇya) stanzas (ślokaiḥ). (And the last part specifies that the phrase) 'Kalimalāpaham' (kali-mala-āpaham) (means) 'to that which mitigates or appeases (upaśamanam) the pain (duḥkha) of Saṁsāra or Transmigration (saṁsāra)'||16||".

Thus, Śrīdhara makes clear that "īḍya" (must be praised) in the stanza means "stavya" (praiseworthy). In his commentary, the whole thing is in plural (neuter gender), i.e. "īḍyāni" and "stavyāni" because they refers to "karmāṇi" (actions), which is the plural number of "karman" (action), a neuter noun ending in "n". And of course, "Saṁsāra" or "Transmigration" means to be born to die and to die to be reborn, over and over again. In other words, bondage. And I would add the following: "Saṁsāra" does not just refers to the body but mind too. When the mind changes, one dies and is born again, i.e. at this moment one thinks like this, but the next moment he thinks like that, and so on. From this last viewpoint, one is being born, dying and being reborn at every moment. This is not a desirable state, obviously. The Highest Reality is without Saṁsāra, that is, It does not change and consequently It is beyond suffering. Therefore, the goal of life is to attain that immutable condition in order to extinguishes the eternal pain known as Saṁsāra.

 His actions are exalted. (They are) sung by wise and learned beings. Speak to us (all) who have faith about the Kalā-s --i.e. primary forms-- (emanated) from the Creator or Generator for (His) mere diversion --also, "like a play or pastime"--1||17||
Skip the notes

1 Śrīdhara specifies the following: "... Udārāṇi mahānti viśvasṛṣṭyādīni| Sūribhirnāradādibhiḥ| Kalā brahmarudrādimūrtīḥ||17||", that is, "(His actions) are exalted (udārāṇi), (i.e. they are) great (mahānti) (acts such as) the universal (viśva) emanations (sṛṣṭi), etc. (ādini). (By the word 'sūribhiḥ', the author means to say) by (wise and learned beings such as) Nārada --the Vyāsa's guru-- (nārada), etc. (ādibhiḥ). (The term) 'kalāḥ' (kalāḥ) (means) 'of the forms (mūrtīḥ) (such as the gods) Brahmā (brahma), Rudra (rudra), etc (ādi)'||17||".

Kalā, Sarga, Avatāra, etc. are of course lastly "incarnations" of Lord Kṛṣṇa, but one should translate the terms properly in every case: Kalā (primary form), Sarga (creation), Avatāra (incarnation), etc. My translation of Kalā as "primary form" (the gods Brahmā, Rudra, etc. according to Śrīdhara) is very likely imperfect, but I could not find a better one. I think that to translate it as "incarnation" or "creation" is even worse, because Kalā might be mistaken for Sarga or Avatāra, respectively.

 Now, oh wise one, tell (us) about the splendid stories related to the incarnations of Hari --Viṣṇu--. (Those) Plays or Pastimes of the Doer (are produced) by the essential Māyā --i.e. Power-- of the Lord according to (His) own Will1||18||
Skip the notes

1 Śrīdhara adds the following: "... Avatārakathāḥ sthityarthameva tattadavasare ye matsyādyavatārāstadīyāḥ kathāḥ svairaṁ līlāḥ kurvataḥ...", to wit, "(The term 'avatārakathāḥ' means) stories (kathāḥ) (narrating) the Līlā-s or Pastimes (līlāḥ) of the Doer (kurvataḥ), (which He displays) according to (His) own Will (svairam). (Such stories) are related to them (tadīyāḥ), i.e. to the various (tad tad) Incarnations (avatārāḥ) such as Matsya --Fish-- (matsya), etc. (ādi) that (ye) (appear) at the right moment (avasare) for the sake of (artham) Sthiti --maintenance of the world, Dharma, etc.-- (sthiti)".

As plain as the nose on your face, hehe.

 Certainly, we do not (ever) become satiated with the "goings" of the Highly Renowned One1. (Such goings are) extremely sweet for (those) knowers of the Rasa-s or divine Tastes2 who hear them at every moment3||19||
Skip the notes

1 Here Śrīdhara explains the profound meaning of "uttama-śloka". Besides, according to Śrīdhara, the word "tu" is really "viśeṣeṇa" or "specially": "... Udgacchati tamo yasmātsa uttamāstathābhūtaḥ śloko yasya tasya vikrame tu viśeṣeṇa na tṛpyāmo'lamiti na manyāmahe...", in other words, "We do not (ever) (na) become satiated (tṛpyāmaḥ), i.e. we do not (na) think (manyāmahe) 'Enough of this!' (alam iti), specially (tu viśeseṇa) regarding the "goings" (or adventures) (vikrame) of that One (tasya) (known as Uttamaśloka --an epithet of Viṣṇu--). That (saḥ) (is called) 'uttama' (uttamāḥ) (because) through which (tasmāt) the darkness (of ignorance) (tamas) disappears (udgacchati). (As) the stanza(s) (ślokaḥ) addressed to Him (yasya) are of such kind --i.e. uttama-- (tathā-bhūtaḥ), (He is named 'Uttamaśloka')".

So, for Śrīdhara "uttama" (lit. highest, best, etc.) is an abbreviation of "udgacchati tamas" or "the darkness of ignorance disappears". And "śloka" means, of course, "stanza". Therefore, a stanza is "uttama" if it produces the disappearance of Tamas (darkness of ignorance). Lord Viṣṇu is praised by means of such stanzas and consequently He is known as Uttamaśloka. It is that simple... oh my God!

2 See note 1 under the third stanza Go to note 1 under stanza 3 

3 Śrīdhara explains "pade pade" and "svādu svādu" as follows: "Pade pade pratikṣaṇaṁ svāduto'pi svādu", that is, "'Pade pade' (pade pade) (means) 'at every (prati) moment (ksaṇam)', (while 'svādu svādu' means) 'even (api) sweet(er) (svādu) than the sweet(est) (svādutaḥ)', or also 'even (api) sweet(er) (svādu) than sweetness (svādutaḥ)'".

 The Fortunate One, (also known as) Keśava --one having long or much or handsome hair--, deceitfully disguised as a human being, has done superhuman actions1 along with Balarāma2||20||
Skip the notes

1 Śrīdhara explains: "Atimartyāni martyānatikrāntāni govardhanoddharaṇādīni", or "(The term 'atimartyāni' means actions) surpassing (atikrāntāni) (those done by mere) mortals (martyān), (such as) the act of lifting up (uddharaṇa) the Govardhana hill (govardhana), etc. (ādīni)".

That hill located in Vṛndāvana was lifted up and supported by Lord Kṛṣṇa upon one finger for seven days, as if it were a big umbrella, to protect the cowherds from a storm of rain sent by Indra himself. Kṛṣṇa did many other superhuman acts too, of course.

2 The number 3 is sometimes named "Rāma". Why? Because there are three famous Rāma-s: Rāmacandra (the one who is commonly called "Rāma" plainly), Paraśurāma ("Rāma with the axe"; this is the name of the terrifying warrior also known as Bhṛgu) and Balarāma ("Rāma of the force or strength", who is the elder brother of Lord Kṛṣṇa). Obviously, now Vyāsa is speaking of the third Rāma or Balarāma.

 Noticing that the Kaliyuga --the age of quarrel or discord-- has arrived, we, who have leisure1 for (listening to) the story of Hari --i.e. Viṣṇu--, are sitting in this place sacred to Lord Viṣṇu for (the purpose of performing) a long sacrifice||21||
Skip the notes

1 Śrīdhara explains the term "sakṣaṇāḥ" as meaning "labdhāvasarāḥ". Listen up: "... Hareḥ kathāyāṁ sakṣaṇā labdhāvasarāḥ", that is, "(We,) who have leisure (sa-ksanāḥ), i.e. '(We,) who have found an opportunity or obtained leisure (labdha-avasarāḥ)', for (listening to) the story (kathāyām) of Hari (hareḥ)".

 Due to (divine) providence, you, the helmsman, as it were, has appeared before us who are desirous to cross the unconquerable ocean (called) Kaliyuga --the age of quarrel or discord--, which destroys the quality of goodness in the people1||22||
Skip the notes

1 The complete Śrīdhara's commentary on this stanza will elucidate several obscure points: "Asmiṁśca samaye tvaddarśanamīśvareṇaiva sampāditamityabhinandanti - Tvamiti| Kaliṁ saṁsāraṁ nistartumicchatām| Arṇavaṁ titīrṣatāṁ karṇadhāro nāvika iva||22||", to wit, "(The sages) rejoice (abhinandanti) (at the following:) 'And (ca) at this (asmin) time (samaye), your (tvat) darśana or presence (here) (darśanam) has been brought about (sampāditam) by the Lord (īśvareṇa) indeed (eva... iti)!' - (This is what) 'You' (tvam iti) (implies). For those who wish (icchatām) to cross (nistartum) Kaliyuga (kalim), i.e. Saṁsāra or Transmigration (saṁsāram), (in other words,) for those who are desirous to cross (titīrṣatām) (such an) ocean (arṇavam), (you are) like (iva) a helmsman (karṇadharaḥ) (or) pilot (nāvikaḥ)||22||".

Here Śrīdhara makes clear several things: (1) the word "dhātrā" (due to divine providence) means "brought about by the Lord" (it refers to "darśana" or presence of Sūta amont such sages). (2) "Nistitīrṣatām" is tantamount to both "nistartumicchatām" and "titīrṣatām", which lastly mean "for those who are desirous to cross", i.e. for the sages themselves. Note that "nistartum" is the Infinitive Mood of the root "nistṝ" (to cross). In turn, "icchatām" is the Genitive case, plural number, of the present participle "icchat" (one who desires) derived from the root "iṣ" (to desire)... these minor details may make a translator confused sometimes. (3) Kaliyuga is identical with Saṁsāra or Transmigration Go to note 1 under stanza 14  in this context, according to Śrīdhara. (4) Finally, the term "karṇadhara" (helmsman) is synonymous with "nāvika" (pilot) such as is pointed out by Śrīdhara Svāmī.

 (When) Kṛṣṇa, the pious1 Lord of Yoga, who is like an armour for Dharma2, (has) now entered into His own Abode, tell (us the following:) Which refuge (has) Dharma gone to? --i.e. where has Dharma gone for refuge?--3||23||
Skip the notes

1 This word also means "related to sacred knowledge".

2 The meaning of Dharma may be found by clicking on the arrow Go to note 1 under stanza 2 .

3 A fragment of the Śrīdhara's commentary will help you to understand the inner purport of such a crucial question asked by the sages headed by Śaunaka: "... Dharmasya varmaṇi kavacavadrakṣake| Svāṁ kāṣṭhāṁ maryādām| Svasvarūpamityarthaḥ| Asya cottaraṁ kṛṣṇe svadhāmopagate dharmajñānādibhiḥ saha ityayaṁ ślokaḥ", to wit, "(The phrase) 'dharmavarmaṇi' (in the stanza) (dharmasya varmaṇi) (means) 'dharmasya... kavacavadrakṣake' (dharmasya... kavacavat raksake), i.e. '(when) the protector (raksake), who is like (vat) an armour (kavaca) for Dharma (dharmasya)'. (The phrase) 'svām kaṣṭhām' (in the stanza) (svām kaṣṭhām) (means) 'maryādām' or '(into His) goal' (i.e. into His final Dwelling-place) (māryādām). (In sum, He entered into His) own (sva) Essential Nature (sva-rūpam). This is the sense (iti arthaḥ). And (ca) the (final) conclusion (uttaram) of (all) this (asya) (is), according to this (iti ayam) stanza (ślokaḥ): '(When) Kṛṣṇa (kṛsne) has gone (upagate) to His own (sva) Abode (dhāma) together (saha) with Dharma (dharma), Knowledge (jñāna), etc. (ādibhiḥ)'" - Note that "dharmajñānādibhiḥ" in the Śrīdhara's commentary may also be translated as "with dharmic knowledges (dharma-jñāna), etc. (ādibhiḥ).

 Thus ends the first Lesson within the first Section (known as "Naimiṣeyopākhyāna" or) "The account --upākhyāna-- related to the Naimiṣa woods", belonging to the Śrīmadbhāgavata, the great Purāṇa||1||

Next Adhyāya


 Further Information

Gabriel Pradīpaka

Ezt a dokumentumot Gabriel Pradīpaka, a website egyik társalapítója készítette, aki spirituális guru és aki a Szanszkrit nyelv és a Trika filozófiai rendszerben jártas.

Szanszkrit, Yoga és indiai filozófiával kapcsolatosan, vagy ha csupán hozzászólni, kérdezni szeretnél, esetleg hibára felhívni a figyelmet, bátran lépj kapcsolatba velünk: Ez az e-mail címünk.