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 Pātañjalayogasūtra-s (Patanjali Yoga Sutras) Pure

The celebrated Yoga aphorisms by the sage Patañjali - Pure translation


Hi, Gabriel Pradīpaka again. This is the second document of, I hope, a very long series of documents dedicated to sacred scriptures in Sanskrit. In Pronunciation 6, 7, 8 and 9, I taught you how to pronounce the 195 aphorisms of Pātañjalayogasūtra-s (The Yoga aphorisms by the sage Patañjali). But I am giving the entire Pātañjalayogasūtra-s to you now in a uninterrupted way. No sounds at all, of course, just the translation. If you want to hear the aphorisms, go to Pronunciation 6, Pronunciation 7, Pronunciation 8 and Pronunciation 9. See you!

This is a "pure translation" document, that is, there will be no original Sanskrit, but sometimes there will be a minimal quantity of transliterated Sanskrit in the translations themselves of the stanzas. Of course, there will not be any word for word translation. Anyway, there will be very often transliterated Sanskrit in the explanatory notes. If you are a blind person using a screen reader and do not want to read the notes, or simply if you are not blind but want to skip the notes, click on the respective "Skip the notes" link to jump directly onto the next stanza.

Important: All that is in brackets and italicized within the translation has been added by me in order to complete the sense of a particular phrase or sentence. In turn, all that is between double hyphen (--...--) constitutes clarifying further information also added by me.


 First Section: On concentration

And now begins the instruction regarding Yoga||1||

Yoga is the suppression of the modifications of mind||2||

Then, there is an abiding in the essential nature of the Seer||3||

On other occasions, there is identity (between the Seer and) the modifications (of mind)||4||

The (mental) modifications, which form a group of 5, may be or may not be based upon Kleśa-s --afflictions--||5||

Correct knowledge, false knowledge, verbal knowledge about something that is nonexistent, (deep) sleep and recollection --smṛti-- (are the five modifications of mind)||6||

Direct perception, inference and testimony --āgama-- are the Pramāṇa-s||7||

Viparyaya is illusory knowledge based on mistaking a particular form for something completely different||8||

Vikalpa proceeds from a verbal cognition about something which is devoid of reality||9||

 The modification (known as) Nidrā (or deep sleep) is based upon the mental state of nonexistence||10||

Smṛti (or recollection) is the reproduction, without taking anything from any other sources, of the thing that was (previously) experienced||11||

There is suppression of that (i.e. "of the previous five mental modifications") by means of Abhyāsa --practice-- and Vairāgya --renunciation--||12||

Abhyāsa or practice is the effort to attain to that Sthiti or mental peace||13||

And that (practice), when endowed with a uninterrupted and true devotional attitude for a long time, (has) certainly firm foundations||14||

Vairāgya or Renunciation is known as the act of subjugating the desire for objects seen or repeatedly heard from the scriptures||15||

Indifference to the Guṇa-s, (the qualities of nature), because of a knowledge of Puruṣa is called the highest (Vairāgya or Renunciation)||16||

Samprajñātasamādhi (is achieved) by means of Vitarka, Vicāra, Ānanda and Asmitā||17||

(Asamprajñātasamādhi is the) other (type of Samādhi) that is preceded by the practice of stopping the mental fluctuations (which is the natural fruit of the highest Vairāgya or Renunciation, but that) it (still) contains a residue of latent impressions||18||

(There are two types of causes for Nirvījasamādhi --a Samādhi without an object to meditate on--: "upāyapratyaya" --the mental condition that is the outcome of a conscious effort by using a method-- and "bhavapratyaya" --the mental condition that is the outcome of latent impressions of ignorance--. The first type produces "Asamprajñātasamādhi", while the second one brings about a similar but not identical state).

(Thus, Nirvījasamādhi is caused by) the mental condition (that is the outcome) of latent impressions of ignorance in the case of both the Videha-s or (discarnate) Deva-s and the Prakṛtilaya-s or those who have dissolved themselves in the primeval constituent principle||19||

 (However,) in the case of those who tread the path of the conscious effort by using a method --upāya--, (Nirvījasamādhi --which is now "real Asamprajñātasamādhi"--) is preceded by faith, vigor, recollection, full concentration (and) true knowledge||20||

(That very Nirvījasamādhi is quickly) reached by those people having an intense desire of spiritual emancipation||21||

Because of (the methods or means) being mild --slow--, moderate --medium-- and excessive --"adhimātra" or speedy--, (there is) consequently difference(s) even (among those people who have an intense desire of spiritual emancipation)||22||

Or else (one can achieve Nirvījasamādhi) through profound devotion to Īśvara||23||

Īśvara is a particular Puruṣa who is not affected by Kleśa-s --afflictions--, actions, fruit of the actions or the resulting latent impressions --āśaya--||24||

In Him, the Omniscient Seed (has attained to a state which) cannot be exceeded or surpassed||25||

(That Īśvara is) the Guru even of the former (guru-s), because He is not determined or limited by Time||26||

The word to (designate) Him is Praṇava or Om̐||27||

(Those who have finally understood the intrinsical relationship between Praṇava and Īśvara will perform) the muttering of that (Om̐ and) the contemplation on its meaning||28||

From that (practice of Īśvarapraṇidhāna or devotion to Īśvara --Lord-- also comes) the realization of one's own true Self as well as the removal of obstacles||29||

 Sickness, mental inefficiency, doubt, negligence, idleness, non-abstention --lack of control--, erroneous perception, the state of not attaining to any yogic stage (and) unsteadiness --anavasthitatva--. Those mental projections (are) the obstacles||30||

Pain, feeling of wretchedness and miserableness, shakiness or trembling of the body, inhalation (and) exhalation --praśvāsa-- appear or arise together with the (aforesaid) projections||31||

For keeping that back --i.e. for stopping those mental projections--, the practice of (concentration on) a single principle (is recommended)||32||

Peace of mind (is achieved) by (internally) contemplating on (the feelings) of friendship, compassion, sympathy in joy or indifference --upekṣā-- regarding (beings who are) happy, suffering pain or distress, virtuous (or) impure, (respectively)||33||

Or (that very peace of mind can also be achieved) by exhalation and retention --vidhāraṇa-- of Prāṇa --the vital energy contained in the breath--||34||

Or a higher perception relating to objects, (at the moment that) it emerges, causes calm of mind (too)||35||

Or (a higher perception) that is luminous and free from sorrow (can also brings about peace of mind)||36||

Or (the contemplation on) the mind belonging to a sage who is free from passions (can also produce tranquility of mind)||37||

Or the support of the knowledges --in the form of words and/or images-- (experienced) in dreams or in the state of dreamless sleep (can also bring peace and steadiness to the mind)||38||

Or by meditating on whatsoever suitable --from a yogic viewpoint, of course-- thing one may like (he can also attain to peace of mind)||39||

 (When the mind gets stabilized on different realities at will, from one as minute as) an atom --in the sense of the minutest conceivable particle which cannot be further divided-- up to (other that is) infinitely great, (then, complete) mastery or dominion over it (has been achieved)||40||

When a weakened fluctuation of mind (finally) arises consequently --that is, when the mental fluctuation is lastly weakened and the mind attains stability--, (this fluctuation behaves) like a (transparent) gem in respect of the knower, the instrument of knowledge and the knowables --grāhya-- --which are all objects of mental concentration--. (This, as it were,) act of assuming the color --nature-- of any near reality (by that gem-like weakened fluctuation of mind, is known as) Samāpatti or Engrossment||41||

Savitarkā Samāpatti (is that Engrossment which is) combined with ideas or thoughts of (sameness) between word, (its) meaning and (the resulting) knowledge||42||

When memory is completely purified, (and the intuitive cognition is), as it were, devoid of its own essential nature, (then) certainly (that Samāpatti or Engrossment) in which only the object (on which the mind is concentrated) shines forth (is called) Nirvitarkā||43||

By means of this --i.e. by the previous explanation-- (the Samāpatti-s or Engrossments known as) Savicārā and Nirvicārā, whose objects are subtle, are also explained||44||

And the character or condition of being a subtle object (regarding a previous one which is less subtle) ends or culminates in Aliṅga --the Unmanifested Prakṛti--||45||

Only those (four varieties of Samāpatti or Engrossment --Savitarkā, Nirvitarkā, Savicārā and Nirvicārā-- constitute) Savījasamādhi (or the perfect concentration in which one uses a gross/subtle object or "vīja" as a support for his mind to become one-pointed)||46||

On getting skill or proficiency in Nirvicārasamādhi --also known as Nirvicārā Samāpatti or Engrossment--, clearness or purity in the inner instruments of knowledge --specially Buddhi or Intellect-- (is developed as a result)||47||

The deep understanding or knowledge (obtained) in that (state of Nirvicārasamādhi or Nirvicārā Samāpatti is called) Ṛtambharā||48||

(And that Prajñā or deep knowledge gained in Nirvicārasamādhi) is different from knowledges gotten through oral transmission or inference, because it relates to the particular characteristics of objects --artha--||49||

The latent impression born of that (special Prajñā arisen in Nirvicārasamādhi) obstructs the other latent impressions||50||

On the cessation of that --i.e. of the latent impression born of the aforesaid Prajñā-- too, there is Nirvījasamādhi --or the perfect concentration which is objectless or "nirvīja", i.e. no object or "vīja" is utilized as a support for one's own mind to become one-pointed-- through the suppression of all (mental modifications or fluctuations)||51||

Here concludes the First Section dealing with concentration


 Second Section: On practice

Austerity or Penance, Study of scriptures and Chanting of mantra-s (and) Devotion --praṇidhāna-- to the (Supreme) Lord (are) Kriyāyoga||1||

(Kriyāyoga should be practiced) for producing Samādhi or Perfect Concentration and attenuating the Kleśa-s||2||

Ignorance (in the form of a misapprehension about Reality), egoism (in the form of an erroneous identification of the Self with the intellect), attachment, aversion and fear of death (which is derived from clinging ignorantly to life) --abhiniveśa-- are the five Kleśa-s or Afflictions||3||

Ignorance (in the form of a misapprehension about Reality) is the (breeding) field or ground for the subsequent (four Kleśa-s whether they be) dormant, attenuated, interrupted or active --udāra--||4||

Ignorance is to consider as everlasting what is not everlasting, as pure what is not pure, as pleasure (or "pleasant") what is pain (or "unpleasant") and as the Self what is the not-Self --anātma--||5||

Egoism is tantamount to the identification of the Cognizant or Knowing Power --śakteḥ or śaktyāḥ--1 --i.e. "Puruṣa or the Absolute Consciousness"-- with the cognitive power --śakteḥ or śaktyāḥ--2 --i.e. "Buddhi or intellect"--||6||
Skip the notes

1 "śaktyoḥ" means really "of the two powers" (Genitive Dual of "śakti" --power--). However, I had to translate it in singular for the sake of convenience. Nevertheless, I have also given the respective forms for the Genitive Singular of "śakti", that is, "śakteḥ or śaktyāḥ" --of the power--, for the sake of clarification.
2 Idem

 Attachment is that which results from pleasure; --i.e. "Attachment is the modification that is forged by the remembrance of enjoyed pleasure"--||7||

Aversion is that which results from pain or sorrow; --i.e. "Aversion is the modification that is forged by the experience of misery"--||8||

The inborn fear of death is established in like manner (in everyone), even in the wise; --i.e. "Fear of death may be found in the ignorant as well as in the learned people"--||9||

Those subtle (Kleśa-s or Afflictions) are to be abandoned or forsaken by means of the cessation of (mental) production||10||

The (afflictive) modifications of that --i.e. "of the abovementioned Kleśa-s or Afflictions"-- are to be abandoned or forsaken through meditation||11||

 Latent impression of action, which is based upon Kleśa-s or Afflictions, becomes manifest in the present life or in a future life||12||

As long as that --i.e. "Kleśa-s or Afflictions"-- remains at the root, the consequence or result of it is birth, span of life and experience --bhoga--||13||

On account of virtue and vice, those --i.e. "birth, span of life and experience"-- (appear as) the fruits of pleasure or pain, (respectively)||14||

For discerning people, everything is indeed (considered to be) painful because of the sufferings (derived from) the results or consequences (of one's own actions, from) the sorrowful experiences (and from) the latent impressions, and also due to the (mutual) opposition of the modifications of the Guṇa-s (or qualities of Pradhāna1)||15||
Skip the notes

1 "Pradhāna" is Prakṛti.

 Future pain is to be abandoned or forsaken||16||

The union of the "Seer" --i.e. "of the Subject"-- with the "seen" (or knowable) --i.e. "with the animate or inanimate object" or "dṛśya"-- is the cause of that which is to be abandoned or forsaken||17||

The "knowable" --i.e. "the object"-- is by nature sentient, mutable and inert. (Secondly,) it consists of (subtle and gross) elements (and) Indriya-s --i.e. "Powers of perceiving (Jñānendriya-s)" along with "Powers of action (Karmendriya-s)"--. (Lastly,) it is for the sake of experience and Liberation||18||

The states of mutation of the Guṇa-s (or qualities of Pradhāna1 are): "diversified", "undiversified", "indicator-only" and "one which is with no indication or mark" --aliṅga--||19||
Skip the notes

1 "Pradhāna" is a synonymous with Prakṛti.

 The Seer is only a Witness --i.e. "He is an absolute Knower and completely devoid of Guṇa-s and subsequent mutation"-- who although pure, beholds the mental modifications||20||

The nature of the knowable is really (to be) the object (of perception) of That --i.e. "of Puruṣa, the Absolute Knower"--||21||

Even though disappeared with regard to one (Puruṣa) who has accomplished his purpose (with it), that --i.e. "the object or knowable"-- does not (really) disappear because of being common to others (too) --i.e. "other Puruṣa-s also might use it even after its having been utilized by one of them previously"--||22||

 Union or alliance is the cause for realizing the true nature of the two powers (called) "object --as property--" (and) "subject --as owner--"||23||

Ignorance is the cause of that (union or alliance)||24||

The absence of union or alliance arising from the absence of that --i.e. "of Adarśana or lack of discriminative knowledge or real discernment about Reality"-- is Kaivalya or the state of Emancipation of that (absolute) Knower (known as Puruṣa)||25||

The means of Liberation is discriminative knowledge which is completely devoid of confusion or disorder||26||

A seven-fold (and) ultimate deep understanding (comes) to that (Yogī who has attained discriminative knowledge)||27||

On the destruction of impurity through the practice of the limbs of Yoga, (there emerges) the Light of Knowledge culminating in discriminative knowledge||28||

Yama, Niyama, Āsana, Prāṇāyāma, Pratyāhāra, Dhāraṇā, Dhyāna (and) Samādhi --samādhi-- (are) the eight limbs --aṅga-- (of Yoga) --after this statement, Patañjali will describe each of them in detail--||29||

Non-injury --harmlessness--, Veracity --truthfulness--, Abstention from stealing, Continence --dwelling in Brahma-- and Non-possession --abstinence from avariciousness/covetousness; aparigraha-- (are the five) Yama-s or Restraints||30||

(Those Yama-s or Restraints turn into) a great vow (when they become) universal and unrestricted by (any consideration of) class, place, time or customary duty --"established custom and conventional rule or usage" are also valid translations for "samaya"--||31||

Cleanliness, Contentment, Austerity or Penance, Study and Recitation of Sacred Scriptures, and Devotion --praṇidhāna-- to the (Supreme) Lord (are the five) Niyama-s or Observances||32||

On the inhibition (of those Yama-s and Niyama-s) by (erroneous) ways of thinking and feeling, (a Yogī should cultivate) contemplation on the opposites||33||

 (Such actions as) injury, etc. proceeding from (erroneous) ways of thinking and feeling (are as follows): (I) those which are performed by oneself, got done by another or approved --anumodita--; (II) those which are preceded (either) by covetousness, wrath, or delusion. (Moreover, the aforesaid actions can be either) mild, moderate or intense --adhimātra--. "(They are) the unending fruits or consequences (resulting from) pain (and) ignorance" --"iti" stands for inverted commas-- is the opposite thought||34||

On the establishment of Ahiṁsā or Non-injury (in a Yogī, there is) cessation of hostility (in one) coming close to him||35||

On the establishment of Satya or Truthfulness (in the Yogī), a state of connection between (his) actions --as the general idea expressed by any verb-- and the (resulting) fruits or consequences (arises) --i.e. "all that the abovementioned Yogī says will come true in the long run"--||36||

On the establishment of Asteya or Non-stealing (in the Yogī), all jewels stand near in order to serve (him)||37||

On the establishment of Brahmacarya or Continence (in that Yogī, there is) acquisition of Vīrya --lit. "energy, vigor, stamina, strength, etc."--||38||

When (that very Yogī) stands firmly in Aparigraha or Non-possession, full knowledge of "the how, the what state?" about (his past, present and future) existences (arises)||39||

From Śauca or Cleanliness, dislike toward one's own body (arises, and consequently) unconcernedness to contact with other (bodies is also developed)||40||

(Besides, from Śauca or Cleanliness,) purity of nature or disposition, satisfaction of mind, one-pointedness, conquest of the Indriya-s --5 Jñānendriya-s or powers of perception, and 5 Karmendriya-s or powers of action-- (and) fitness or ability --yogyatva-- for perceiving the Self, (are) also (developed)||41||

From Santoṣa or Contentment; (there is) acquisition of unsurpassed happiness||42||

Perfection of body and Indriya-s --5 Jñānendriya-s or powers of perception, and 5 Karmendriya-s or powers of action-- (is acquired) through Tapas or Austerity, which brings about destruction of impurities||43||

Union or communion with the desired or chosen deity (is obtained) from Svādhyāya or Study and Recitation of Sacred Scriptures||44||

 Perfection or complete attainment of Samādhi or Perfect Concentration (is achieved) through devotion to the Lord||45||

Posture (should be) firm and agreeable --pleasant--||46||

By means of relaxation of effort and absorption --samāpatti-- in the infinite --i.e. "in the infinite space around"-- (Āsana or Posture is perfected)||47||

From that, (there is) immunity with regard to the pairs of opposites||48||

Once that (Āsana or Posture) has been (perfected), Prāṇāyāma, (which) is the suspension of the flow of inhalation and exhalation --praśvāsa--, (should be developed)||49||

(Prāṇāyāma) has (three) Operation(s): (1) External, (2) Internal and (3) Suppression. (And when Prāṇāyāma is) observed according to space, time and number --saṅkhyā--, it becomes long and subtle||50||

The fourth (kind of Prāṇāyāma) transcends or excels the sphere of influence of External and Internal (Operations)||51||

Through that, the veil over Prakāśa --i.e. "over the revelation of true knowledge"-- is attenuated||52||

Mental fitness or aptitude for the dhāraṇā-s or concentration practices (is) also (developed)||53||

Pratyāhāra or the Withdrawal of Indriya-s --5 Jñānendriya-s or powers of perception, and 5 Karmendriya-s or powers of action-- (is), as it were, a following the essential nature of mind (by those very Indriya-s), when separated from their (corresponding) objects||54||

From that (Pratyāhāra or Withdrawal), supreme mastery or control of the Indriya-s --5 Jñānendriya-s or powers of perception, and 5 Karmendriya-s or powers of action-- (arises)||55||

Here concludes the Second Section dealing with practice


 Third Section: supernatural powers

Concentration is the mind's fixation on one point||1||

In that --in Dhāraṇā--, the continuous flow of similar mental modifications is Meditation||2||

Perfect Concentration is just that (condition) in which only the object (of concentration) shines forth, and the self is absent, as it were||3||

The (abovementioned) triad --i.e. Dhāraṇā, Dhyāna and Samādhi-- on a single object is Saṁyama||4||

Through the conquest of that --i.e. Saṁyama--, the Light of Wisdom (dawns)||5||

(There must be) application of that to the stages (of the practice)||6||

The triad (of Dhāraṇā, Dhyāna and Samādhi are more) internal (practices) than the previous ones --i.e. Yama, Niyama, Āsana, Prāṇāyāma and Pratyāhāra-- (within the framework of Samprajñātayoga)||7||

(In turn,) that very triad is external in respect of Nirvīja or seedless concentration --i.e. Asamprajñātayoga--||8||

The subjugation of the latent impression(s) --saṁskāra-- of the manifest state --i.e. "Vyutthāna" or the ordinary state of consciousness in which there is mental fluctuation-- and the appearance --prādurbhāva-- of the latenci(es) --saṁskāra-- of the arrested state of mind (is) the mutation of (that very) arrested state of mind. (This mutation) is linked to the mind at (every) moment of that arrested state of mind||9||
Skip the notes

Note that "saṁskārayoḥ" literally means "of both of latent impressions" (i.e. "of those of Vyutthāna --manifest state-- and Nirodha --arrested state of mind--). In turn, "abhibhavaprādurbhāvau" literally means "the subjugation (abhibhava) and appearance (prādurbhāva)". I had to adapt the translation so that the purport of the aphorism may be understood properly.

 Through the latent impression(s) of that (arrested state of mind), a continuous undisturbed state of mental tranquility (is brought about and kept)||10||

Diminution of attention to all (objects) and the emergence/development --udaya-- of one-pointedness --ekāgratā-- (is) the mutation of Samādhi --perfect concentration or absorption-- of mind||11||
Skip the notes

Note that "sarvārthataikāgratayoḥ" literally means "of both attention to all objects (sarva-arthatā) and one-pointedness (ekāgratā)". In turn, "kṣayodayau" literally means "on the diminution (kṣaya) and emergence/development (udaya)". I had to adapt the translation so that the purport of the aphorism may be understood properly.

  There again --i.e. "during Samādhi"--, the past modification --pratyaya-- being the same as the present --údita-- one --i.e. pratyaya--, (occurs) the mutation of the one-pointed state of the mind||12||
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Note that "śāntoditau" literally means "a past --pratyaya or mental modification-- (śānta) and a present one (udita)". In turn, "tulyapratyayau" literally means "two mental modifications or pratyaya-s (pratyayau) being the same (tulya)". I had to adapt the translation so that the purport of the aphorism may be understood properly.

 By means of this --i.e. "through the previous exposition about the three mutations mentioned in the 9th, 11th and 12th aphorisms"--, the mutations of essential attribute, temporal character (and) state as old and new in the gross elements and Indriya-s --i.e. Powers of perception and action-- (are) explained in detail||13||

The characterized object is (that which) continues to exist through (the following three) characteristics: appeased --i.e. past--, risen --i.e. present-- and indefinable --i.e. future--||14||

Difference in the sequence or succession (is) the cause in respect of the mutative difference||15||

Knowledge of past (and) future (is achieved) through Saṁyama on the three mutations --i.e. the mutations of essential attribute, temporal character and state as old and new--||16||

Through the reciprocal imposition of word, meaning (and) idea --pratyaya--, an intermixture appearing in the form of a unified impression (is brought about). By means of Saṁyama on that (intermixture), but in a separate way, knowledge of (the meaning hidden in) the sounds (emitted by) all beings (is acquired)||17||

Knowledge of previous births (is attained) through the realization of latent impressions||18||

Knowledge of the others' minds (is achieved by practicing Saṁyama) on the notions||19||

(However,) the basis or support of that --i.e. "of the aforesaid notions"-- certainly does not (come to get known by the Yogī practicing Saṁyama on the notions) because it is out of reach of him --i.e. it is not a perceivable object for that Yogī--||20||

On the suppression of the property of perceptibility pertaining to that --i.e. to the body-- through Saṁyama on the (visible) form of (that very) body, when the Yogī has (thus) gone beyond the range of the eyes, (there is) invisibility||21||

Karma --i.e. action and its inherent latent impressions-- (is of two kinds:) Sopakrama --i.e. fast in fructifying-- and Nirupakrama --i.e. slow in fructifying--. By means of Saṁyama on that (karma) or through the signs of approaching death, knowledge of the latter end --i.e. "death"-- (is achieved)||22||

 (Through Saṁyama) on friendship and so on, (different kinds of) strengths (are acquired)||23||

(Through Saṁyama) on (various) strengths, the strength of an elephant, etc. (may be attained)||24||

By applying the light of the supersensory perception, knowledge of subtle (things, objects which are) obstructed from view (or) remote, (is obtained)||25||

Through Saṁyama on the Sun --i.e. the solar entrance in the body--, knowledge of the worlds (is achieved)||26||

(Through Saṁyama) on the moon --i.e. the lunar entrance in the body--, knowledge of the arrangements of stars (is acquired)||27||

(Through Saṁyama) on the pole star, knowledge of the movement of that --i.e. "of the stars"-- (is got or gotten)||28||

(Through Saṁyama) on the navel-cakra --i.e. "Maṇipūra"--, knowledge of the structure and disposition of the body (is obtained)||29||

(Through Saṁyama) on the cavity of the throat, (there is) cessation of hunger (and) thirst||30||

(Through Saṁyama) on the bronchial tube, calmness and firmness (are achieved)||31||

(Through Saṁyama) on the coronal light, (there is) perception or vision of the Siddha-s --i.e. not the Perfected Beings but a kind of demigods--||32||

Or through Prātibha --i.e. knowledge which comes to a Yogī before the attainment of discriminative knowledge--, everything (becomes known)||33||

 (Through Saṁyama) on the heart, knowledge of mind (is attained)||34||

Experience of pleasure or pain (based on) a conception which does not distinguish (between such) completely different (entities as) Buddhisattva --i.e. Buddhi or intellect having abandoned all traces of Rajas and Tamas, that is, Buddhisattva is simply a sattvic Buddhi-- (and) Puruṣa --i.e. the real Self or Knower--, exists for another --i.e. for Puruṣa--. Through Saṁyama on (this) Puruṣa --i.e. one's own Self--, knowledge of Puruṣa (is thus obtained)||35||

From that (Saṁyama on Puruṣa), Prātibha --a kind of intuitive knowledge--, Śrāvaṇa --i.e. supernatural power of hearing--, Vedana --i.e. supernormal power of touch--, the Ādarśa-s --i.e. the supernatural powers of seeing--, Āsvāda --i.e. supernormal power of tasting-- (and) Vārtā --i.e. supernatural power of smelling-- arise||36||

Those (supernormal powers) are obstacles or hindrances in Samādhi, (but) accomplishments in Vyutthāna --i.e. the ordinary state of consciousness in which the mind fluctuates--||37||

Through the weakening of the cause of bondage and complete knowledge/understanding of the roaming of mind, (mental) penetration into the body of another (is possible then)||38||

By conquering Udāna --i.e. one of the five main vital energies--, (there is) movement without obstacle in water, mud, thorns, etc. and exit from the body (at will) at the time of death||39||

By conquering Samāna --i.e. one of the five main vital energies--, effulgence (is achieved)||40||

Through Saṁyama on the relationship between the (ordinary) power of hearing --i.e. Śrotendriya-- (and) the space --i.e. ākāśa--, divine Power of Hearing (is developed)||41||

By means of Saṁyama on the relationship between the physical body (and) the space --i.e. ākāśa--; and also by absorption --i.e. identification with-- into the light cotton, movement through the space (is obtained) --i.e. the Yogī can fly with the help of this kind of Saṁyama--||42||

A unimagined conception (which is held) outside, (is known as) the great discarnate. From that --i.e. from Mahāvidehā or the great discarnate--, (there is) removal of the veil over the Light --i.e. over Buddhisattva--||43||

Through Saṁyama on the grossness, essential nature, subtlety, inherence --i.e. inherent quality-- (and) objectiveness (of the Bhūta-s or Elements), victory over (those very) Bhūta-s or Elements (is secured)||44||

 From that (aforesaid Saṁyama, there is) manifestation of Aṇimā --i.e. the supernormal power of minimization--, etc., bodily perfection and non-obstruction in respect of the characteristics of that (very body)||45||

Bodily perfection (consists of) beauty, charm, strength (and) adamantine solidity --saṁhananatva--||46||

Through Saṁyama on receptivity, essential nature, I-sense, inherence (and) objectiveness (of the Indriya-s --i.e. powers of perception and action--), victory over (those very) Indriya-s (is obtained)||47||

From that (aforesaid Saṁyama), swiftness (as) of mind, a state in which the organs of sense act independently of the body, and victory over Pradhāna --i.e. Prakṛti, the original source of the material universe-- (are secured)||48||

To one established in (discriminative) knowledge of the difference between Buddhisattva --i.e. sattvic Buddhi full of discriminative knowledge-- (and) Puruṣa (comes) supremacy over all beings and omniscience||49||

By renunciation even of that --i.e. of Vivekakhyāti or discriminative knowledge--, when there is destruction of the seeds of evil, Kaivalya or complete Emancipation (is experienced)||50||

When invited by beings occupying a high position --i.e. celestial beings--, (that invitation) should not be accepted nor should it cause conceit, since it involves the possibility of undesirable results||51||

Through Saṁyama on moment (and) its sequence or succession --i.e. krama--, a knowledge which arises from (that) discernment or discrimination (is acquired)||52||

Through that (knowledge), there is clear perception (of the difference) between two things looking alike since difference is indiscernible by means of class or species, temporal character (and) position --i.e. deśa--||53||
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In other words, even though two things look alike because the difference is indiscernible via class or species, temporal character and position, the Yogī can perceive the difference through that knowledge obtained by practicing Saṁyama on moment and its sequence.

 Knowledge which arises from discernment or discrimination is "Tāraka or intuitive knowledge. (It is) comprehensive of all things appearing at all times and has no sequence"||54||
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Note that "iti" stands for inverted commas.

 When there is equality of purity between Buddhisattva --i.e. sattvic Buddhi-- (and) Puruṣa, "the state of complete Emancipation" (dawns)||55||
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Note that "iti" now indicates the end of the section.

 Here concludes the Third Section dealing with supernatural powers


 Fourth Section: On Liberation

The Siddhi-s or Supernatural Powers come with birth, (or they are achieved by means of) herbs, mantra-s, austerities (or) perfect concentration||1||

The transformation into other species (is accomplished) through the filling in of their essential nature1||2||
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1 In other words, the mould of the new species into which one wants to be transformed "fills in" (or permeate) the essential nature of the new body and organs and shapes them according to the respective parameters. It is as if one were to exert pressure on a pile of wet sand with a recipient. The wet sand will assume the form of that recipient, no doubt. The process of transformation from one species into another proceeds in a similar way.

 Cause (does not set) the essential natures into motion but it breaks down the barrier (or mound). For that reason, it is like the farmer (who breaks down a barrier or mound so that the water may flow into his field)||3||

The created minds are (produced) from the pure I-sense||4||

(Only) one mind (sets) the many (created minds) into motion during their various activities||5||

Of these (created minds, those) brought about through meditation are without any latent impressions||6||

 The action of a Yogī is neither white nor black, (while) those of others are of three kinds||7||

From that --i.e. from those three aforesaid kinds of action--, (there is) certainly manifestation of Vāsanā-s1 suitable --anuguṇa-- to the consequences or results of that --i.e. of the three abovementioned types of action--||8||
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1 Careful here with the technical terms: Vāsanā-s are latent impressions of "feelings" produced by birth, life-span and experience of pleasure and pain. Also note that Vāsanā is not synonymous with Karmāśaya, despite both of them being latent impressions, since the latter arises out of "actions" or karma and not out of feelings like the former. There is a big difference between those two kinds of latent impressions. In turn, the word "saṁskāra" is commonly used to designate "latent impressions" in general. Use these terms properly, please.

 Because of similarity between memory (and) latent impressions --saṁskāra--, (there is) immediate (emergence of Vāsanā-s) even though separated --vyavahita-- by birth, space or position (and) time||9||

Seeing that the desire for self-welfare --āśīs-- is eternal --nitya--, those (Vāsanā-s) --tās-- (from which it emerges are) also beginningless||10||

Since (Vāsanā) is held together by cause, fruit or result, refuge (and) support --i.e. "ālambana" or the supporting object which attracts Vāsanā--, in the absence of these --i.e. cause, fruit or result, refuge and support--, (there is also) absence of that (Vāsanā)||11||

Past (and) future exist in their essential forms. (The difference is only) in the characteristics (of the forms) at different times or phases --i.e. past, present and future--||12||

Those (characteristics) are manifest (and) subtle --sūkṣma-- (and) consist of the (three) Guṇa-s||13||

 Due to the coordinated or coincidental mutation (of the three Guṇa-s), an object appears to be something real||14||

Despite sameness of objects, there is a different way or path to them both --i.e. object and its inherent knowledge-- since there are different minds||15||

The object certainly is not dependent on only one mind, (because if so,) what would happen when (the object) is not experienced or cognized by that (mind) then?||16||

The object is known (or) unknown to the mind according to how it colors that (very mind)||17||

To the Lord or Master --i.e. Puruṣa-- of that --i.e. of mind--, the mental modifications (are) always known because of the immutability of (that very) Puruṣa||18||

That (mind) is not self-illuminating since it is a knowable object||19||

And there is no cognizance of them both --i.e. mind and knowable objects-- simultaneously||20||

 (If one's own mind were to be) a knowable object to another mind, (then there would be) a undue extension of Buddhi(s) of Buddhi-s and intermixture of memories||21||

When Citi or Consciousness, though untransmissible--apratisaṅkramā--, takes on --āpatti-- the form of that --i.e. of Buddhi--, (it becomes) the consciousness or intelligence of one's own Buddhi||22||

Mind, being affected by (both) the seer and the seen, (is) all-comprehensive||23||

That (mind), although variegated by innumerable Vāsanā-s --i.e. latencies resulting from feelings, not actions--, (exists) for another --i.e. Puruṣa-- inasmuch as (its constituents) act conjointly||24||

To one who knows the special distinction --i.e. to one who has realized Puruṣa or the Self--, there is cessation of the practice of pondering over the nature of his (own) Self||25||

Then, the mind inclines toward discriminative (knowledge and) is directed toward complete Liberation||26||

In the holes --i.e. in the breaches-- of that (discriminative knowledge), other mental modifications (emerge) because of (residual) latencies||27||

 It is said (that) the removal of these --i.e. of the mental modifications mentioned in the previous aphorism-- is as (that of) the Kleśa-s or Afflictions||28||

One who, having attained discriminative knowledge in the highest degree and at all times, does not take an interest even in (that) omniscience resulting from "Vivekajaṁ jñānam" or "Knowledge arising from discernment" --See III 54--, (experiences a type of) Samādhi or Perfect Concentration (known as) Dharmamegha --i.e. Cloud of Virtue--||29||

From that --i.e. from Dharmamegha--, there is cessation of Afflictions (and) actions||30||

Then, due to the infinity of knowledge free --apeta-- from all veiling impurities, the knowable(s) (appear to be) few||31||

From that (Dharmamegha or Cloud of Virtue), when the Guṇa-s --i.e. "qualities of Prakṛti"-- have accomplished their purpose, there is cessation of the mutative sequence (of those very Guṇa-s)||32||

Sequence is correlated to the moments (and) is perceivable or noticeable on the termination of the mutations||33||

Complete Liberation or the Power of Consciousness established in her own nature (occurs when) the Guṇa-s --i.e. "qualities of Prakṛti"-- return to their original source --i.e. Prakṛti--, as they have no (further) purpose to fulfill for Puruṣa --final "iti" indicates the end of this scripture--||34||

Here concludes the Fourth Section dealing with Liberation, and also the scripture itself.


 Concluding remarks

The amount of time I have had to spend to complete this translation is really insane. Firstly, a handwritten translation in English, after hours of consulting dictionaries, books on Sanskrit grammar and other authoritative translations in order not to make any terrible mistake. Afterward, the process of analyzing every technical term and the corresponding context in which each of them was being used, which was tantamount to hours and hours of pondering over the proper purport of every sūtra. Then, the work to adapt it to the Web format along with the respective translation into my native language (Spanish). Well, I hope you enjoy the fruit of my effort. Pātañjalayogasūtra-s is the most important scripture on Yoga science, and it deserved to be translated and uploaded to the website, no doubt. This scripture is a rare gem cut from the sacred rock of divine knowledge. Ponder over its crucial teachings and attain to Kaivalya or Final Emancipation. See you.


 Further Information

Gabriel Pradīpaka

This document was conceived by Gabriel Pradīpaka, one of the two founders of this site, and spiritual guru conversant with Sanskrit language and Trika philosophy.

For further information about Sanskrit, Yoga and Indian Philosophy; or if you simply want to comment, ask a question or correct a mistake, feel free to contact us: This is our e-mail address.